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Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 54-56, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984257


@#Uncorrected or unaddressed refractive error (URE) is the leading cause of treatable visual impairment (VI) globally. A significant factor is the prohibitive costs of corrective options. The World Health Organization recently recommended the use of effective refractive error coverage (eREC) to determine the burden and management of URE. To increase eREC, spectacles should be made available and affordable. Most developing countries use ready-made glasses produced in bulk to address presbyopia. Timor-Leste employed a tiered- pricing for these ready-made spectacles which were found to be effective. The Philippines can adopt similar initiatives considering that prescription spectacles are not covered by its national health insurance. Prescription spectacles should also receive coverage from the national insurance. Policies should also be created that will set-up optical units inside government hospitals and primary health care units that can dispense low cost or free prescription spectacles. Dedicated government posts for optometrists should be created to man the said units. Existing colleges of optometry can partner with nearby public health facilities to man their optical units similar to partnerships made for other health professions. State universities can also consider opening colleges of optometry where they can tie up return services conditions or follow ladderized programs based on community demands similar to existing ones for other health professions

Refractive Errors , Eyeglasses , Costs and Cost Analysis
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 806-814, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980728


Myopia has emerged as a public health issue with the increasing prevalence of myopia in children and adolescents in China. In the clinical diagnosis and treatment of myopia, there are clinical stages and classifications, but they are not suitable for the prevention and control of myopia at the public health level. At the public health level, because there is no staging standard for myopia, there is a lack of staging prevention and control guidance for different refractive errors. Therefore, the Public Health Ophthalmology Branch of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association organized domestic experts in relevant fields to conduct literature searches and discuss based on the research data on myopia at home and abroad, put forward the stages of public health strategies for myopia prevention and control and corresponding group prevention and control measures for each stage to reached this experts consensus. This consensus first proposes a method for assessing myopia risk, in order to predict the occurrence and development of myopia in children and adolescents; From the perspective of public health, myopia prevention and control is further divided into four stages: myopia prodromal stage, myopia development stage, high myopia stage, and pathological myopia stage. According to this consensus, myopia prevention and control technology is targeted and implemented in different stages to provide guidance for myopia prevention and control from the perspective of public health.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Public Health , Consensus , Myopia/epidemiology , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Asian People , China/epidemiology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0043, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507881


ABSTRACT LASIK is a refractive surgical procedure in which a corneal flap is created to expose the corneal stromal bed. Preoperative estimation of corneal flap thickness is necessary to calculate the percentage tissue altered in LASIK, an important quantitative risk factor for ectasia. The objective of this study was to assess flap thickness and calculate percentage tissue altered to check if unexpectedly thicker flaps and higher percentage tissue altered could pose as risk factors of ectasia. Four subjects (eight eyes) were submitted to mechanical LASIK in 2009 and 2010. Pre and postoperative clinical and tomographic data were reviewed. Mean preoperative estimated percentage tissue altered was 39.18±1.31%, which was borderline for increased ectasia risk when considering the limit of 40%. However, when considering the postoperatively measured flap thickness, the actual mean percentage tissue altered turned out to be 45.17 ± 4.13%, which was significantly higher than predicted preoperatively (p=0.002). Unexpectedly higher postoperative percentage tissue altered may be responsible for corneal ectasia after mechanical LASIK.

RESUMO A LASIK é um procedimento cirúrgico refrativo, no qual um retalho corneano é criado para expor o leito estromal corneano. A estimativa pré-operatória da espessura do retalho corneano é necessária para calcular o percentual de tecido alterado no LASIK, um importante fator de risco quantitativo para ectasia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a espessura do retalho e calcular o percentual de tecido alterado para verificar se retalhos inesperadamente mais espessos e percentuais de tecido alterado mais altos poderiam representar fatores de risco de ectasia. Quatro indivíduos (oito olhos) foram submetidos à LASIK mecânica em 2009 e 2010. Dados clínicos e tomográficos pré e pós-operatórios foram revisados. A média de percentual de tecido alterado pré-operatória estimada foi de 39,18±1,31%, limítrofe para risco aumentado de ectasia quando considerado o limite de 40%. No entanto, ao considerar a espessura do retalho medida no pós-operatório, o percentual de tecido alterado médio real foi de 45,17±4,13%, ou seja, significativamente maior do que o previsto no pré-operatório (p=0,002). O percentual de tecido alterado pós-operatóriao inesperadamente mais alto pode ser responsável pela ectasia da córnea após LASIK mecânico.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Flaps/pathology , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/methods , Dilatation, Pathologic/etiology , Lasers, Excimer/adverse effects , Refractive Errors , Cornea/surgery , Cornea/pathology , Corneal Topography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnosis , Refractive Surgical Procedures/methods , Lasers, Excimer/therapeutic use
Malawi med. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 214-219, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532158


Aim The study aimed to determine the epidemiology and evaluate the trends in the uptake of refractive error services in Harare. Methods A clinic-based retrospective study at the Greenwood Park Eye Centre and its three subsidiaries was conducted from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2020. Results 12,216 patients' records were retrieved, out of which 1074 (8.79%) had refractive error cases. The prevalence of visual impairment at presentation was 5.80% [95% CI: 5.39 ­ 6.23]. Among those with refractive error, the sample prevalence of visual impairment before correction was 41.30% [CI: 38.3 ­ 44.3, 95%], and 2.20% [95% CI: 1.4 ­ 3.3] after correction. There was inconsistency in the percentage utilization of refractive error services, with the highest being 42.60% in 2015. Refractive error types were related to age, employment position, and type of visual impairment prior to refractive error treatment. Conclusion There was a low percentage of refractive error services uptake in urban Zimbabwe.

Humans , Male , Female , Refractive Errors , Therapeutics
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(9): 437-440, 20220000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413425


Los errores de refracción contribuyen como un gran problema de salud pública. Las crecientes tasas de prevalencia de la miopía han alcanzado los niveles de epidemia en varias áreas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las tasas de prevalencia de errores de refracción en los estudiantes de medicina. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el Departamento de Oftalmología, durante un período de un año desde enero de 2020 hasta diciembre de 2020. Los estudiantes de medicina fueron seleccionados al azar, como un total de 250 sujetos. Todos se sometieron a un examen oftálmico. De 250 estudiantes, se documentaron 148 (59.2%) casos de RE. La mayoría de los casos comunes eran mujeres (89, 60.1%), mientras que los hombres eran (59, 39.9%). De estos, 98 estudiantes tienen miopía (66.2%), 42 casos tienen astigmatismo (28.4%) y 8 casos tienen hipermetropía (5.4%). La etapa tardía de las clases (sexto) tiene los casos RE más frecuentes. La miopía fue la RE predominante entre los estudiantes de medicina. La clase anticipada y la mujer son factores predisponentes.

Refractive errors are contributing as a major public health problem. The increasing prevalence rates of myopia have reaching to epidemic levels in several areas. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence rates of refractive errors in medical students. A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, over a period of one year from Jan 2020 to Dec 2020. Medical students were randomly selected, as a total of 250 subjects. All were undergoing an ophthalmic examination. Of 250 students, 148(59.2%) cases of RE were documented. Most common cases were female (89, 60.1%), whereas male was (59, 39.9%). Of these, 98 students have myopia (66.2%), 42 cases have astigmatism (28.4%) and 8 cases have hypermetropia (5.4%). The late stage of classes (6th) has the most frequent RE cases. Myopia was the predominant RE among the medical students. Advance class and female are predisposing factors

Humans , Adult , Refractive Errors/pathology , Astigmatism/diagnosis , Students, Medical , Prevalence , Myopia/diagnosis
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(7): 377-383, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1400170


Determinar la prevalencia del error de refracción (RE) como causa en los ojos en los niños en niños de esta edad (6-12 años) en la ciudad de Sulaimania. El estudio de tasa de prevalencia entre los pacientes que asisten al Shahed Dr. Aso Eye Hospital para el período del 1 de octubre de 2008 al 1 de junio de 2009. Un total de 116 niños (6-12 años) asisten al departamento de entrecerrares durante aproximadamente 8 meses. El estudio incluyó ambos sexos, eran niños de 55 años y niñas 61. Se sometieron a un examen ocular completo. Encontramos que (72) pacientes (62.02 %) tenían un error de refracción, incluyen: 33 pacientes (45.9 %) = hipermetropia (H); 22 pacientes (29.16%) = miopía [m]; 18 pacientes (24.3%) astigmatismo (AST.); 4 mixtos; 6 h-as. y 8 m-as. En conclusiones, la causa más frecuente del entrecerrar de la infancia a este ancho [6-12 años) es el error refractivo, mientras que las otras causas en su conjunto constituyen solo 1/3 de las causas, y el error de refracción más común es la hipermetropía

To determine the prevalence of refractive error (RE) as a cause in squinted in children in this aged (6-12 years) in Sulaimania city. The prevalence rate study among patient attending Shahed Dr. Aso eye hospital for the period from 1st October 2008 - 1st June 2009. A total of 116 children ( 6-12 years) attending squint department for about 8 months. The study included both sexes, were boys 55 and girls 61. Underwent full ocular examination. We found that (72) patients (62.02%) had refractive error, include: 33 patients (45.9 %) = Hypermetropia (H); 22 patients (29.16%) = Myopia [M]; 18 patients (24.3%) Astigmatism (Ast.); 4 mixed; 6 H-Ast. and 8 M-Ast. In conclusions, the most prevalent cause of childhood squint at this aged [6-12 years) is refractive error while the other causes as a whole constitute only 1/3 of the causes, and most common refractive error is hypermetropia

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Refractive Errors/pathology , Astigmatism/pathology , Hyperopia/pathology , Myopia/pathology
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441720


Objetivo: Caracterizar las enfermedades oftalmológicas que causan diversidad funcional visual en los estudiantes del Centro de Recursos y Apoyo "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado". Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal realizado en enero, 2017. Las variables investigadas fueron: edad, sexo, grado de escolaridad, antecedentes prenatales, diagnóstico oftalmológico principal, enfermedades asociadas, síndromes oftalmológicos, agudeza visual mejor corregida, defecto refractivo, ayudas ópticas y no ópticas utilizadas. Resultados: La muestra quedó conformada por 66 estudiantes (95,6 por ciento de los matriculados), predominaron las edades entre 10-14 años, para ambos sexos. De ellos, 24 estudiantes eran ciegos totales (36,4 por ciento). El astigmatismo hipermetrópico compuesto fue la ametropía primaria más frecuente. Las ayudas ópticas y no ópticas son utilizadas por la mayoría de los alumnos. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades oculares más frecuentes causantes de baja visión fueron la catarata congénita y la atrofia del nervio óptico. Las ayudas ópticas y no ópticas son empleadas con la colaboración de la rehabilitadora y los maestros(AU)

Objective: To characterize the ophthalmologic diseases that cause visual functional diversity in students of the "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" Resource and Support Center. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in January, 2017. The variables investigated were: age, gender, school grade, prenatal history, main ophthalmologic diagnosis, associated diseases, ophthalmologic syndromes, best corrected visual acuity, refractive defect, optical and non-optical aids used. Results: The sample consisted of 66 students (95.6 percent of those enrolled), predominantly aged 10-14 years, for both genders. Out of these, 24 students were totally blind (36.4 percent). Compound hyperopic astigmatism was the most frequent primary ametropia. Optical and non-optical aids were used by most of the students. Conclusions: The most frequent ocular diseases causing low vision were congenital cataract and optic nerve atrophy. Optical and non-optical aids are used with the collaboration of the rehabilitator and teachers(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vision, Low , Refractive Errors , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 35(1): e1195, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409028


Objetivo: Relacionar el tipo y profundidad de la ambliopía con el tipo y magnitud del defecto refractivo. Métodos: Estudio transversal en 27 pacientes entre cinco y 18 años con ambliopía refractiva atendidos por vez primera en la consulta de Oftalmología Pediátrica y Estrabismo del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología Ramón Pando Ferrer. Resultados: La edad en que fueron examinados por primera vez fue similar en ambos tipos de ambliopía, pero ligeramente mayor en la ambliopía anisometrópica (media ocho años). Se halló una correlación significativa entre el nivel de profundidad de la ambliopía y la magnitud del defecto refractivo, en el ojo derecho (p = 0,001), no siendo así en el ojo izquierdo (p = 0 ,304). Conclusiones: En el grupo de estudio la edad en que son examinados se considera tardía y no existen diferencias en cuanto a género y color de piel. Existe un ligero predominio de la ambliopía isoametrópica sobre la anisometrópica, predominando el ojo izquierdo en la ambliopía anisometrópica. El defecto refractivo que se asocia con más frecuencia a la ambliopía refractiva es el astigmatismo en contra de la regla. A medida que aumenta la magnitud del defecto refractivo aumenta la profundidad de la ambliopía en el ojo derecho, no siendo así en el ojo izquierdo(AU)

Objective: To relate the type and depth of amblyopia with the type and magnitude of refractive error. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in 27 patients aged 5-18 years with refractive amblyopia first treated in the pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus consultation of Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. Results: The age at which the patients were first examined was similar in both types of amblyopia, but slightly higher in anisometropic amblyopia (mean of 8 years). A significant correlation was found between the depth of amblyopia and the magnitude of the refractive error in the right eye (P=0.001), not being so in the left eye (P=0.304). Conclusions: In the study group, the age at which they are examined is considered late and there are no differences in gender or skin color. There is a slight predominance of isometropic amblyopia over anisometropic amblyopia, with a predominance of the left eye in anisometropic amblyopia. The refractive error most frequently associated with refractive amblyopia is against-the-rule astigmatism. As the magnitude of the refractive error increases, the depth of amblyopia increases in the right eye, but not in the left eye(AU)

Humans , Refractive Errors , Astigmatism , Amblyopia , Cross-Sectional Studies
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 355-359, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984127


OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the Nogo-P3 component of event-related potential (ERP) in the process of visual acuity processing, to provide electrophysiological evidence for objective evaluation of visual acuity.@*METHODS@#Twenty-six subjects with no other ocular diseases except for ametropia were recruited, and all subjects had uncorrected visual acuity both eyes 1/10 (evaluated using Monoyer chart). Block letter E with different visual angles and directions were used as graphic stimuli. The Go/Nogo paradigm was used for ERP studies. The visual angle of Go stimulation angle was 1°15', Nogo stimuli were 1°15', 55', 24' and 15'. The visual acuity test was performed on each of the two naked eyes separately in all subjects, and the characteristics of the Nogo-P3 component were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The latency of Nogo-P3 showed no difference between the stimuli of 1°15' and 55', and between Nogo stimulation angle 24' and 15'. There was significant difference between Nogo stimulation angle 1°15' and 24', and between Nogo stimulation angle 1°15' and 15' (P<0.05). There was significant difference between Nogo stimulation angle 55' and 24', and between Nogo stimulation angle 55' and 15' (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the Nogo-P3 amplitude among Nogo stimulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the Go/Nogo paradigm, Nogo-P3 can reflect the cognitive response of subjects to Nogo stimulation, which can be used for objective evaluation of visual acuity.

Humans , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Photic Stimulation , Reaction Time/physiology , Refractive Errors , Visual Acuity
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0004, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357124


RESUMO A acurácia do cálculo da lente intraocular não é perfeita, podendo ser comuns erros refrativos pós-operatórios, especialmente em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia refrativa prévia ou na presença de córneas assimétricas. O poder corneano após cirurgia refrativa pode ser medido com maior acurácia utilizando o mapa de poder óptico total na zona central de 4mm, com Orbscan II ou pelo mapa equivalent keratometric reading disponível no pentacam, com medidas centrais de 1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,5mm. O objetivo desta série de casos é demonstrar a abordagem de quatro olhos em condições especiais corneanas, por meio do equivalent keratometric reading do pentacam para mensuração do poder corneano e o utilizando na biometria, em comparação com possíveis resultados obtidos com outras estratégias. Os quatro olhos foram submetidos a procedimentos refrativos prévios, e a lente intraocular escolhida a partir do uso do poder corneano calculado pelo equivalent keratometric reading mostrou excelentes resultados pós-operatórios.

ABSTRACT The accuracy of the intraocular lens calculation is not perfect, and postoperative refractive errors are common, especially in patients who have undergone previous refractive surgery or in presence of asymmetric corneas. Corneal power after refractive surgery can be more accurately measured using the total optical power map in the 4-mm central zone, by means of Orbscan II or equivalent keratometric reading map available on pentacam, with central measurements of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.5 mm. The purpose of this case series is to demonstrate four approaches performed in special corneal conditions, using pentacam equivalent keratometric reading to measure corneal power and biometrics, and comparing with possible results obtained with other strategies. The four eyes were submitted to previous refractive procedures, and the intraocular lens chosen from the use of the corneal power calculated by equivalent keratometric reading showed excellent postoperative results.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Biometry/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Cataract/diagnosis , Visual Acuity , Corneal Topography , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Lenses, Intraocular
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0058, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394861


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze and describe the coefficients found on maximum Ambrósio Relational Thickness-Maximum (ART-Max) and Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display total deviation (BAD-D) in eyes with normal corneal topography subjected to cataract surgery with premium intraocular lens implantation and correlated these data with final visual acuity. Methods ART-Max and BAD-D data from 103 eyes of patients subjected to implantation of diffractive bifocal intraocular lens, with normal corneal topography who achieved visual acuity of 20/20 or 20/25 without correction after cataract surgery were analyzed. The groups with normal and abnormal values were compared using the chi-square test. Results Thirty-two (31.1%) and 71 (68.9%) eyes presented normal and abnormal ART-Max values, respectively. The difference between these groups was significant (p=0.0002). Fifty-five (53.4%) and 48 (46.6%) eyes had normal and abnormal BAD-D, respectively, and intergroup difference was not significant (p=0.9576). Conclusion Among patients with normal corneal topography who underwent premium intraocular and had good final visual acuity of 20/20 or 20/25, suspicious or abnormal indices of ART-Max and BAD-D were frequent, providing evidence that it possibly should not be a contraindication.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar e descrever os coeficientes numéricos encontrados nos exames Ambrósio Relational Thickness-Maximum (ART-Max) e desvio total do Belin/Ambrósio Enhanced Ectasia Display (BAD-D) em olhos com topografia normal submetidos ao implante de lente intraocular premium na cirurgia de catarata, correlacionando-os com a acuidade visual final pós-operatória. Métodos Foram analisados os resultados de ART-Max e BAD-D de 103 olhos de pacientes submetidos ao implante de lentes bifocais difrativas, que apresentavam exame topográficos normal e alcançaram acuidade visual 20/20 ou 20/25 sem correção visual no pós-operatório final. Para a análise estatística entre os grupos normais e anormais ou suspeitos, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados Foram encontrados 32 (31,1%) olhos com ART-Max normal e 71 (68,9%) com ART-Max suspeito/anormal. A diferença entre os grupos foi significativa (p=0,0002). Quanto ao BAD-D, foram encontrados 55 (53,4%) olhos com resultados normais e 48 (46,6%) com resultados suspeitos/anormais. A diferença entre os grupos não foi significativa (p=0,9576). Conclusão Entre os pacientes com topografia normal submetidos ao implante de lentes premium e que alcançaram acuidade visual 20/20 ou 20/25, os índices suspeitos ou anormais de ART-Max e BAD-D eram frequentes, não se configurando em contraindicação para a realização do implante.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Refractive Errors/prevention & control , Visual Acuity/physiology , Cornea/pathology , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Topography/methods , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Corneal Pachymetry/methods
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 599-606, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398797


Los defectos refractivos son considerados la segunda causa de discapacidad visual a nivel mundial. Los trastornos de la visión como la miopía se pueden corregir mediante cirugía refractiva, anteojos o lentes de contacto. Se plantea que los cambios en el microbioma ocular provocados por el uso de lentes de contacto están relacionados con el desarrollo de complicaciones e infecciónes. La microbiota ocular puede variar según las condiciones estacionales, la temperatura, la edad, sexo y la exposición ambiental. Se expone el presente estudio para evaluar si la microbiota de los usuarios de lentes de contacto difería de la de quienes no los usaban, según diversos factores. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, no experimental, transversal, en Ambato, Ecuador. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por participantes con edades entre 18 y 59 años. Se cuantificó la diversidad bacteriana por medio de la amplificación del genoma completo, del cual se secuenció la región V3 del gen 16S rRNA de 40 muestras en la plataforma secuenciadora. Se descubrió que el microbioma conjuntival de los usuarios de lentes de contacto no era significativamente diferente del de los NULC y no detectó un aumento significativo de microorganismos patógenos. Los principales taxones bacterianos fueron similares entre los grupos, aunque la abundancia de cada taxón varió dentro de cada grupo. Este tipo de estudios es fundamental para el éxito de la terapia ocular y el manejo de los microorganismos diana de la terapia antimicrobiana(AU)

Refractive errors are considered the second cause of visual impairment worldwide. Vision disorders such as nearsightedness can be corrected by refractive surgery, glasses, or contact lenses. It is proposed that the changes in the ocular microbiome caused by the use of contact lenses are related to the development of complications and infections. The ocular microbiota can vary according to seasonal conditions, temperature, age, gender and environmental exposure. The present study is set out to assess whether the microbiota of contact lens wearers differed from that of non-wearers, based on various factors. A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2021 to March 2022 in Ambato, Ecuador. The study population consisted of participants aged between 18 and 59 years. Bacterial diversity was quantified by amplification of the complete genome, from which the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene of 40 samples was sequenced on the sequencing platform. The conjunctival microbiome of contact lens wearers was found to be not significantly different from the ones of NULCs and did not detect a significant increase in pathogenic microorganisms. The main bacterial taxa were similar between groups although the abundance of each taxon varied within each group. This type of study is essential for the success of ocular therapy and the management of the target microorganisms of antimicrobial therapy(AU)

Refractive Errors , Ecosystem , Conjunctiva , Microbiota , Ophthalmology , Contact Lenses , Refractive Surgical Procedures
Kisangani méd. (En ligne) ; 12(2): 556-563, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426082


Introduction : Les amétropies sont des troubles de la vision dus à un fonctionnement défectueux du système optique formé par la succession la cornée, le cristallin et la rétine. Les vices de réfraction (myopie, hypermétropie, astigmatisme, presbytie) donnent des images floues sur la rétine. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) estime à 153 millions le nombre des personnes souffrant de la déficience visuelle due à des vices de réfraction non corrigés. Le présent travail a pour objectif de déterminer la fréquence et le profil des patients avec amétropies aux Cliniques universitaires de Graben. Méthodes : Notre étude était du type descriptif transversale ayant couvert une période allant du 01 Janvier au 31 Décembre 2020. Notre échantillon a été exhaustif, c'est-à-dire il a été constitué de toute la population d'étude. Résultats : La fréquence des amétropies a été de 11,47%. L'astigmatisme était l'amétropie la plus représentée avec 47,86 %suivi de la myopie avec 38,90% et de l'hypermétropie avec 13,24%. La tranche d'âge la plus touchée est celle des adultes, âge (21-60 ans) avec 73,9% et la moins touchée est de 0-10 ans avec 0,8%. Le taux des déficiences visuelles a diminué après la correction optique et les cas de bonne vision sont passés de 81,1% à 99,4% de bonne acuité visuelle. Conclusion. Les amétropies constituent un réel problème de santé publique. De ce fait, nous encourageons le check up volontaire, comme les amétropies sont souvent méconnues et indolores, pourtant une cause non négligeable de déficience visuelle facilement évitable.

Introduction: : Ametropia are vision disorders due to damage to the visual system caused by a various abnormality in the cornea, lens and retina. The refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia) cause a very weak capacity for the eye retina to properly watch images. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 153 million of people could be suffering from visual issues due to untreated refractive deficiencies. This study aimed to determine the frequency et profil of patients with ametropia. Methods: Our study was of a kind of crosssectional descriptive which covered a time interval from January 01 to December 31, 2020. Our sample was comprehensive and was based on several cases. Results: The frequency of ametropia was 11.47%. Astigmatism was the most prevalent ametropia with 47.86% followed by myopia with 38.90% and hyperopia with 13.24%.The most affected people are adults aged from 21 and 60 years with 73.9% and the least affected are children aged from 0 to 10 years with 0.8%.However, the rate of eyes abnormalities started decreasing after optical treatment and consequently the cases of eyes issues recoveries was about from 81.1% to 99.4% of sight improvement acuity. Conclusion: Ametropia is a real public health problem. As a result, we encourage voluntary check-ups, as ametropia is often unrecognized and painless, yet a significant cause of easily avoidable visual impairment.

Humans , Male , Female , Presbyopia , Refractive Errors , Therapeutics , Vision Disorders , Optical Devices , Hyperopia , Myopia , Astigmatism
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1071, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352029


Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de dos concentraciones de mitomicina C para la prevención del haze en la queratectomía fotorrefractiva. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental aleatorizado en 26 ojos de 17 pacientes con defectos miópicos. Los pacientes fueron asignados a dos grupos según las dosis de mitomicina C (0,02 por ciento grupo 1 y 0,002 por ciento grupo 2). La variable de respuesta principal fue la presencia de haze. Se buscó correlación entre la magnitud del haze con grado de ametropía tratada, profundidad de ablación, microscopia endotelial y resultados visuales y refractivos. Resultados: A los 6 meses la mayoría de los pacientes del grupo 1 no presentó haze (ocho ojos / 57 por ciento), y del grupo 2 mantuvieron haze 0,5 (6 ojos / 50 por ciento). En la ametropía severa el haze en el grupo 2 fue mayor que en el grupo 1 durante todo el posoperatorio, y se observó la mayor diferencia al sexto mes con 0,5 ± 0,4 vs. 1,5 ± 0,32. En ablaciones > 75 micras el grupo dos terminó con más haze que el uno, con 0,5 ± 0,44 vs. 1,75 ± 0,76. La agudeza visual sin corrección se vio más afectada en el grupo 2. No hubo daño endotelial en ningún grupo. Conclusión: La presencia de haze predomina en los casos tratados con dosis 0,002 por ciento de mitomicina C, comparada con la dosis 0,02 por ciento, aunque en este caso ambos grupos mantuvieron un resultado visual y refractivo adecuado y baja toxicidad endotelial.

Objective: Evaluate the usefulness of two concentrations of mitomycin C for haze prevention in photorefractive keratectomy. Methods: An experimental randomized study was conducted of 26 eyes of 17 patients with myopic defects. The patients were divided into two groups according to their mitomycin C doses (Group 1: 0.02 percent and Group 2: 0.002 percent). The main response variable was the presence of haze. Verification was performed of the correlation between haze magnitude and the degree of the ametropia treated, ablation depth, endothelial microscopy, and visual and refractive results. Results: At six months most patients in Group 1 did not have any haze (eight eyes / 57 percent), whereas 0.5 (6 eyes / 50 percent) in Group 2 still had haze. In severe ametropia, haze was larger in Group 2 than in Group 1 throughout the postoperative period, the greatest difference being observed in the sixth month with 0.5 ± 0.4 vs 1.5 ± 0.32. In ablations > 75 microns, Group 2 ended with more haze than Group 1, with 0.5 ± 0.44 vs 1.75 ± 0.76. Uncorrected visual acuity was more affected in Group 2. No endothelial damage occurred in either group. Conclusion: The presence of haze prevails in cases treated with 0.002 percent doses of mitomycin C, as compared with 0.02 percent doses, though in this case both groups maintained an appropriate visual and refractive result and low endothelial toxicity(AU)

Humans , Refractive Errors/etiology , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Photorefractive Keratectomy/methods
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 27-32, jan.-fev. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251323


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia da refratometria obtida através do aparelho photoscreener 2WIN® como método de rastreio de ametropias com indicação de prescrição de óculos pelos critérios da Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmopediatria em crianças assintomáticas, de origem extra-hospitalar, de 6 a 36 meses de idade, e determinar se a cicloplegia influencia a capacidade de rastreio do aparelho. Métodos: Cento e setenta e oito (178) de crianças com idades entre 6 e 36 meses tiveram sua refratometria mensurada pelo método padrão-ouro, a retinoscopia manual sob cicloplegia, e pelo método em teste, o photoscreener 2WIN®, antes e após a cicloplegia. Resultados: O photoscreener 2WIN® é capaz de identificar aqueles pacientes que deveriam receber prescrição de óculos pelos critérios da Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmopediatria com sensibilidade de 100%, especificidade de 93,18% e acurácia de 93,26%, quando comparado a retinoscopia estática. Sob cicloplegia, o 2WIN® mantém sensibilidade de 100%, porém aumenta sua especificidade para 96,59% e a acurácia para 96,63%. Conclusão: O photoscreener 2WIN® se mostrou altamente sensível, específico e acurado para uso como equipamento de triagem daqueles pacientes de 6 a 36 meses que se beneficiariam do uso de óculos pelos critérios da Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmopediatria, com discreto aumento da especificidade e acurácia quando aplicado em pacientes cicloplegiados.

ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the sensitivity, specificity e accuracy of the ocular refraction measured by the 2WIN® photoscreener as a screening method to identify children in need of spectacles prescription according to the criteria published by the Brazilian Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology (BSPO) in asymptomatic children, 6 to 36 months old, and determine the impact of cycloplegia in the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this method. Methods: One hundred seventy-eight (178) eyes of asymptomatic children between the ages of 6 and 36 months have been submitted to ocular refraction measurements by the gold-standard method, the manual retinoscopy under cycloplegia, and the method been tested, the 2WIN® photoscreening, both before and under cycloplegia. Results: The 2WIN® photoscreener before cycloplegia was able to identify those patients in need of spectacles prescription according to the criteria published by the BSPO with 100% sensitivity, 93.18% specificity and 93.26% accuracy, when compared to the manual retinoscopy under cycloplegia. The 2WIN® photoscreener under cycloplegia maintained a sensitivity of 100%, but increased specificity to 96.59% and accuracy to 96.63%. Conclusion: The 2WIN® photoscreener before cycloplegia showed high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in detection of patients in need of spectacles prescription according to the criteria published by the BSPO in the tested population, with minor increase in specificity and accuracy when the measurements were performed under cycloplegia.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Refraction, Ocular , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Refractometry/methods , Retinoscopy/methods , Eyeglasses , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Observational Study , Data Accuracy
Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 54-63, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987688


Background and Objectives@#The study determined the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness and visual impairment (VI) in the hospital and determined the association between risk factors and dimensions affecting eye care utilization and VI severity. @*Methodology@#This is a retrospective cross-sectional study which included 318 records of pediatric patients who consulted at the Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center (BGHMC) in 2018. @*@#@*@#

Vision Disorders , Blindness , Cataract , Refractive Errors
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0039, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347255


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a prevalência e as principais causas de baixa acuidade visual encontradas em estudantes; resolver as alterações refracionais por meio de correção óptica e estabelecer uma relação entre visão e desempenho escolar. Métodos Estudo transversal, quantitativo, de ação social realizada em uma escola pública de ensino fundamental e médio de Araçatuba (SP). A avaliação especializada foi indicada aos estudantes que, em triagem visual, apresentaram acuidade visual ≤0,7 em um ou em ambos os olhos, com ou sem correção óptica prévia. Foram entregues óculos a todos que necessitavam, para melhorar visão. Foi realizada análise pela ficha de atendimento e pela nota escolar dos alunos, pelos programas Excel e BioEstat. Resultados Dos 503 alunos triados, 75 (15%) apresentaram baixa de acuidade visual. Compareceram à consulta agendada 66 (88%), e 50 (80,65%) receberam óculos prontos. A média de idade foi de 152 anos, e houve predominância do sexo feminino (64,5%). As alterações refracionais foram a principal causa da baixa visual (90,3%), e miopia, associada ou não a astigmatismo, foi a mais prevalente (63%). Dentre os casos, 13 (21%) tinham anisometropia. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p=0,5479) entre as médias anuais dos alunos com baixa de acuidade visual e aqueles com visão normal. Conclusão Projetos sociais de triagem visual são facilmente executáveis, têm baixo custo e alta resolutividade, uma vez que os transtornos refracionais são a principal causa e facilmente corrigidos com óculos. A baixa de acuidade visual detectada nos alunos não interferiu no desempenho escolar.

ABSTRACT Objective To verify the prevalence and the main causes of low visual acuity among students, to correct refractive errors with eyewear, and to establish a relation between vision and school performance. Methods This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study of a social action carried out in a public elementary and high school in the city of Araçatuba (SP). Specialized evaluation was indicated to students who presented visual acuity ≤0.7 in one or both eyes, with or without prior optical correction, upon triage. Glasses were delivered to everyone who needed better vision. The analysis was performed based on screening record and student's school grade, using Excel and BioEstat software. Results Out of 503 students screened, 75 (15%) presented low visual acuity. Sixty-six (88%) attended the scheduled visit and 50 (80.65%) received ready-made glasses. The mean age was 15±2 years, and there was a predominance of females (64.5%). Refractive errors were the main cause of visual impairment (90.3%) and myopia, associated or not to astigmatism, was the most prevalent condition (63%). Thirteen (21%) students had anisometropia. There was no statistically significant difference (p=0.5479) in annual average grade of students with low visual acuity and those with normal vision. Conclusion Social projects for visual triage are carried out without effort, have a low cost and high problem-solving capacity, since refractive errors are the most frequent diagnoses and easily corrected with glasses. The low visual acuity detected in students did not interfere in their school performance.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Refractive Errors/complications , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , School Health Services , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Visual Acuity , Eye Health , Vision Disorders/rehabilitation , Vision Tests , Vision Screening , Student Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Diagnosis , Eyeglasses , Observational Study
Clinics ; 76: e3062, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339717


OBJECTIVES: Uncorrected refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment in children. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, we analyzed a social visual screening program for school children in São Paulo, Brazil, evaluated its impact on the prevention and treatment of children's visual disabilities, and assessed its epidemiological outcomes to outline suggestions for its improvement. METHODS: First-grade children from public schools were submitted to prior visual screening by their teachers. Selected children were forwarded to the hospital's campaigns for a second screening by ophthalmologists and treatment if needed. Data were analyzed for age, sex, visual acuity, biomicroscopy, refractive errors, ocular movement disorders, amblyopia, number of donated spectacles, and number of children forwarded to specialized care. RESULTS: A total of 1080 children were included with mean age of 6.24±0.45 years. Children with normal ophthalmological exam, 591 (54.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 51.7%-57.7%) were dismissed and considered false-positives. Myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism components were found in 164 (15.2%; CI: 13.1%-17.4%), 190 (17.6%; CI: 15.3%-20.0%), and 330 (30.5%; CI: 27.8%-33.4%) children, respectively. Amblyopia was diagnosed in 54 (5%; CI: 3.5%-6.4%) children, and 117 (10.8%; CI: 9.8%-12.8%) presented ocular movement disorders. A total of 420 glasses were donated. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological findings for amblyopia and refractive errors are consistent with those of similar studies. The expressive number of diagnoses performed and number of glasses donated to underprivileged children depict the importance of such projects. New guidelines to improve their cost-effectiveness, such as professional training and community sensitization, are imperative.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Refractive Errors/diagnosis , Refractive Errors/therapy , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , Schools , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/prevention & control , Vision Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(3): e863,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139096


RESUMEN Los errores refractivos altos son difíciles de corregir óptica y quirúrgicamente. Los pacientes que los padecen se encuentran incómodos con las gafas, ya que la calidad de su visión es deficitaria. Las lentes de contacto proporcionan mejor agudeza visual; sin embargo, en ocasiones requieren diseños especiales para ser adaptadas y pueden asociarse a complicaciones severas. La cirugía refractiva como subespecialidad busca mejorar la agudeza visual no corregida y disminuir la dependencia a gafas o lentes de contacto. Las opciones van desde los procedimientos queratorrefractivos hasta el implante de una lente intraocular, ya sea con la extracción del cristalino transparente o en un ojo fáquico. Este último ofrece ventajas al mantener la acomodación, obtener una mejor calidad óptica y cierta reversibilidad. En el mundo se han realizado múltiples trabajos en pacientes con lentes fáquicos de diferentes modelos y estos han demostrado que son seguros y confiables, aunque no son muchos los estudios sobre la calidad de vida a largo plazo; de ahí la motivación para realizar una búsqueda actualizada de diversos artículos publicados, con el objetivo de describir los resultados visuales y la calidad de vida en pacientes con implante de lentes fáquicos. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, con todos sus buscadores(AU)

ABSTRACT High refractive errors are difficult to correct both optically and surgically. Patients suffering from them feel uncomfortable with their eyeglasses, since their visual quality is poor. Contact lenses provide better visual acuity, but they sometimes require special designs to be adjusted and may be associated to severe complications. The subspecialty of refractive surgery seeks to improve uncorrected visual acuity and reduce dependence on eyeglasses or contact lenses. Options range from keratorefractive procedures to intraocular lens implantation, be it with removal of the transparent crystalline lens or in phakic eyes. The latter provides the advantages of maintaining accommodation, obtaining better visual quality and affording a certain degree of reversibility. A great many studies have been conducted worldwide of patients with phakic lenses of various models, and these have proved to be safe and reliable. However, not many studies are available about long-term quality of life. Hence the motivation to perform an updated search for published papers about the subject, with the purpose of describing the visual results and quality of life of patients with phakic lens implants. Use was made of the Infomed platform, particularly the Virtual Health Library with all its search engines(AU)

Humans , Quality of Life , Refractive Errors/etiology , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Refractive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Stress, Psychological , Eyeglasses/adverse effects