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West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 4-8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341865


ABSTRACT Background: The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is relatively high in Guyana. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reporting allows for early-stage CKD identification when therapeutic interventions can prevent CKD progression. Accurate creatinine measurements are essential for valid eGFR calculations. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of creatinine measurements in Guyana prior to implementing routine eGFR reporting. Methods: Sixteen Guyanese laboratories participated in this study. Each laboratory received a common set of blinded human serum samples (n = 3) containing clinically relevant creatinine concentrations, assigned by an international reference method (ID-GCMS). Laboratories performed repeated measurements of creatinine in each sample. These data were used to calculate bias, precision and total error (TE) for each creatinine method. Linear regression was used to compare measured creatinine results to assigned reference sample values and to post-analytically correct calibration bias, a priori, for recent patient results from each laboratory. Patient eGFR profiles were compared before and after bias correction. Results: The mean across samples CV and bias for all labs were 9% (range 2.5%-39.3%) and 11% positive (range 0.4%-29.1%), respectively. The mean TE was 28.6%. If the mean TE from a subset of the better performing laboratories (CV < 7%) was to apply nationally, an 'all stage' eGFR misclassification rate of 36% would result. Conclusion: There is a pressing need to improve the accuracy of creatinine measurements in Guyana as, at this time, routine reporting of eGFR by Guyanese laboratories cannot be recommended based on the accuracy data presented in this study.

Humans , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Data Accuracy , Laboratories, Clinical , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Guyana
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 519-525, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249961


Resumen Introducción: La relación entre 25-OH-vitamina D y el sistema inmune en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica es objeto de atención. Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina D en pacientes en hemodiálisis e investigar la asociación entre la vitamina D y proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus), índice neutrófilo/linfocito (INL) e índice plaqueta/linfocito (IPL). Método: Estudio transversal de 80 pacientes en hemodiálisis, divididos en dos grupos: un nivel sérico de 25-OH-vitamina D < 20 ng/mL se consideró como deficiencia de vitamina D y ≥ 20 ng/mL, como normal. Con el análisis de correlación de Spearman se definió la relación entre los parámetros. Resultados: 40 % de los pacientes presentó deficiencia de vitamina D. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en PCRus (p = 0.047), INL (p = 0.039), IPL (p = 0.042) y tratamiento con análogos de vitamina D (p = 0.022). La vitamina D tuvo una correlación negativa significativa con PCRus (p = 0.026), INL (p = 0.013) e IPL (p = 0.022). Conclusiones: La deficiencia de vitamina D fue de 40 %. Los niveles de PCRus, INL e IPL fueron significativamente más altos ante deficiencia de vitamina D. Se encontró correlación inversa significativa entre vitamina D y PCRus, INL e IPL.

Abstract Introduction: The relationship between 25-OH-vitamin D and the immune system in patients with chronic kidney disease is a subject of attention. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients on hemodialysis and to investigate the association between vitamin D, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (US-CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR). Method: Cross-sectional study of 80 patients on hemodialysis, divided into two groups: a serum 25-OH-vitamin D level < 20 ng/mL was considered to be vitamin D deficiency and a serum level ≥ 20 ng/mL was regarded as normal. The relationship between the parameters was defined with Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results: 40 % of the patients had vitamin D deficiency. There were significant differences between groups in US-CRP (p = 0.047), NLR (p = 0.039), PLR (p = 0.042) and treatment with vitamin D analogues (p = 0.022). Vitamin D had a significant negative correlation with US-CRP (p = 0.026), NLR (p = 0.013) and PLR (p = 0.022). Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 40 %. The values of US-CRP, NLR and PLR were significantly higher in the presence of vitamin D deficiency. A significant inverse correlation was found between vitamin D levels and US-CRP, NLR and PLR.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Blood Platelets/cytology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Lymphocytes/cytology , Biomarkers/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Neutrophils/cytology
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 8-17, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098345


ABSTRACT Introduction: Digital radiography (DRx) may provide a suitable alternative to investigate mineral and bone disorder (MBD) and loss of bone density (BD) in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study was to use DRx to evaluate BD in CKD rats, and to evaluate the correlation between DRx findings and serum MBD markers and bone histomorphometry. Methods: Uremia was induced by feeding Wistar rats an adenine-enriched diet (0.75% for 4 weeks/0.10% for 3 weeks); outcomes were compared to a control group at experimental weeks 3, 4, and 7. The following biochemical markers were measured: creatinine clearance (CrC), phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), fractional excretion of P (FeP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH). DRx imaging was performed and histomorphometry analysis was conducted using the left femur. Results: As expected, at week 7, uremic rats presented with reduced CrC and higher levels of P, FeP, and ALP compared to controls. DRx confirmed the lower BD in uremic animals (0.57±0.07 vs. 0.68 ± 0.06 a.u.; p = 0.016) compared to controls at the end of week 7, when MBD was more prominent. A severe form of high-turnover bone disease accompanied these biochemical changes. BD measured on DRx correlated to P (r=-0.81; p = 0.002), ALP (r = -0.69, p = 0.01), PTH (r = -0.83, p = 0.01), OS/BS (r = -0.70; p = 0.02), and ObS/BS (r = -0.70; p = 0.02). Conclusion: BD quantified by DRx was associated with the typical complications of MBD in CKD and showed to be viable in the evaluation of bone alterations in CKD.

RESUMO Introdução: A radiografia digital (RxD) pode representar uma alternativa adequada para investigar o distúrbio mineral e ósseo (DMO) e a perda de densidade óssea (DO) em modelos de roedores da doença renal crônica (DRC). O objetivo deste estudo foi utilizar a RxD para avaliar a DO em ratos com DRC, e avaliar a correlação entre os achados da RxD e marcadores séricos de DMO e histomorfometria óssea. Métodos: A uremia foi induzida pela alimentação de ratos Wistar com dieta enriquecida com adenina (0,75% por 4 semanas/0,10% por 3 semanas); os resultados foram comparados com um grupo controle nas semanas experimentais 3, 4 e 7. Os seguintes marcadores bioquímicos foram medidos: clearance de creatinina (CCr), fosfato (P), cálcio (Ca), fração excretada de P (FeP), fosfatase alcalina (ALP), fator de crescimento de fibroblastos-23 (FGF-23) e paratormônio (PTH). A imagem da RxD foi obtida e a análise histomorfométrica foi realizada com o fêmur esquerdo. Resultados: como esperado, na semana 7, os ratos urêmicos apresentaram redução do CCr e níveis mais altos de P, FeP e ALP em comparação aos controles. A RxD confirmou a menor DO em animais urêmicos (0,57 ± 0,07 vs. 0,68 ± 0,06 u.a.; p = 0,016) em comparação aos controles no final da semana 7, quando a DMO foi mais proeminente. Uma forma grave de doença óssea de alta renovação celular acompanhou essas mudanças bioquímicas. A DO, medida na RxD foi correlacionada a P (r = -0,81; p = 0,002), ALP (r = -0,69, p = 0,01), PTH (r = -0,83, p = 0,01), OS/BS (r = -0,70 p = 0,02) e Ob.S/BS (r = -0,70; p = 0,02). Conclusão: A DO quantificada por RxD esteve associada às complicações típicas da DMO na DRC e mostrou-se viável na avaliação de alterações ósseas na DRC.

Animals , Male , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/complications , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Uremia/complications , Radiographic Image Enhancement/methods , Bone Density , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnostic imaging , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphates/blood , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/blood , Uremia/chemically induced , Uremia/blood , Adenine/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098337


ABSTRACT Background: Renal replacement therapy continues to be related to high hospitalization rates and poor quality of life. All-cause morbidity and mortality in renal replacement therapy in greater than 20% per year, being 44 times greater when diabetes is present, and over 10 times that of the general population. Regardless of treatment, the 5-year survival is 40%, surpassing many types of cancers. Irisin is a hormone that converts white adipose tissue into beige adipose tissue, aggregating positive effects like fat mass control, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, prevention of muscle loss, and reduction in systemic inflammation. Objectives: To determine the serum levels of troponin I in hemodialysis patients submitted to remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) associated with irisin expression. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial with patients with chronic kidney disease submitted to hemodialysis for a 6-month period. Troponin I, IL-6, urea, TNF-α, and creatinine levels were determined from blood samples. The expressions of irisin, thioredoxin, Nf-kb, GPX4, selenoprotein and GADPH were also evaluated by RT-PCR. Results: Samples from 14 hypertensive patients were analyzed, 9 (64.3%) of whom were type 2 diabetics, aged 44-64 years, and 50% of each sex. The difference between pre- and post-intervention levels of troponin I was not significant. No differences were verified between the RIPC and control groups, except for IL-6, although a significant correlation was observed between irisin and troponin I. Conclusion: Remote ischemic preconditioning did not modify irisin or troponin I expression, independent of the time of collection.

RESUMO Introdução: A terapia de substituição renal continua associada a altas taxas de hospitalização e baixa qualidade de vida. A morbimortalidade por todas as causas na terapia de substituição renal é superior a 20% ao ano, sendo 44 vezes maior quando a diabetes está presente e mais de 10 vezes a da população em geral. Independentemente do tratamento, a sobrevida em 5 anos é de 40%, superando muitos tipos de câncer. A irisina é um hormônio que converte tecido adiposo branco em tecido adiposo bege, agregando efeitos positivos como o controle de massa gorda, tolerância à glicose, resistência à insulina, prevenção de perda muscular e redução da inflamação sistêmica. Objetivos: Determinar os níveis séricos de troponina I em pacientes em hemodiálise submetidos ao pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto (PCIR) associado à expressão da irisina. Métodos: Estudo clínico prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-cego, com pacientes com doença renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise por um período de 6 meses. Os níveis de troponina I, IL-6, uréia, TNF-α e creatinina foram determinados a partir de amostras de sangue. As expressões de irisina, tioredoxina, Nf-kb, GPX4, selenoproteína e GADPH foram também avaliadas por RT-PCR. Resultados: Foram analisadas amostras de 14 pacientes hipertensos, 9 (64,3%) dos quais eram diabéticos tipo 2, com idades entre 44 e 64 anos e 50% de cada gênero. A diferença entre os níveis pré e pós-intervenção de troponina I não foi significativa. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos PCIR e controle, exceto pela IL-6, embora tenha sido observada correlação significativa entre irisina e troponina I. Conclusão: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico remoto não modificou a expressão de irisina ou troponina I, independentemente do tempo de coleta.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Fibronectins/blood , Troponin I/blood , Ischemic Preconditioning/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Biomarkers/blood , Pilot Projects , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 113-120, Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098439


Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have paradoxical hemostatic potential because they have bleeding episodes but are also prone to thrombosis. Few studies have evaluated blood viscoelastic properties in dogs with kidney disease; on the other hand, hypercoagulability has been observed in these patients. It is also emphasized that the platelet function and its participation in this process have not yet been fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the Thrombin Generation Test (TGT) and also viscoelastic properties of the blood measured by thromboelastometry (TEM) in dogs with proteinuria in CKD. Twenty healthy dogs (Control Group) and 19 dogs with CKD in stage III or IV, classified according to International Renal Interest Society - IRIS, were selected, and the reference test of urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR) should be greater than one (CKD group). Blood samples for TEM, thrombin generation, Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), and fibrinogen concentration was collected at a single time for both groups after inclusion criteria being confirmed. Statistical analysis was performed according to the distribution of variables at 5% significance level. Differences were observed between healthy dogs and those with proteinuria in CKD noted in TEM. The TGT was unable to differentiate between sick and healthy groups. However, when the nephropathy was stratified, increases in TTP and peak thrombin concentration by TGT were observed in females and dogs over 30 days of diagnosis of CKD. Both tests signaled a discrete state of hypercoagulability. In fact, TEM is more sensitive to detect hypercoagulability in dogs with CKD. However, the TGT has potential clinical application by allowing long-term sample storage.(AU)

Os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) apresentam um potencial hemostático paradoxal, pois apresentam episódios de sangramento, mas também são propensos à trombose. Poucos estudos avaliaram as propriedades viscoelásticas sanguíneas em cães com doenças renais, entretanto, a hipercoagulabilidade já foi observada nestes pacientes. Ressalta-se ainda que a função plaquetária e sua participação neste processo ainda não foram totalmente esclarecidas. O objetivo foi avaliar e comparar o teste de geração de trombina (TGT) e as propriedades viscoelásticas sanguíneas medidas pela tromboelastometria (TEM) em cães com DRC proteinúrica. Foram selecionados 20 cães saudáveis (grupo controle) e 19 cães com DRC em estágios III ou IV classificados segundo o IRIS e a relação proteína/creatinina urinária maior que um (grupo DRC). As amostras de sangue para a realização da tromboelastometria (TEM), geração de trombina, tempo de protrombina (TP), tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) e concentração de fibrinogênio foram colhidas em momento único para ambos os grupos após os critérios de inclusão confirmados. A análise estatística foi realizada de acordo com a distribuição das variáveis, ao nível de 5% de significância. Foi observada diferença entre os cães saudáveis e os com DRC proteinúrica observados na TEM. O teste de geração de trombina não foi capaz de diferenciar os grupos doente e saudável. Entretanto, quando os nefropatas foram analisados de forma estratificada, foram observados aumentos do ETP e da concentração máxima de trombina (peak) pelo TGT em fêmeas e em cães com mais de 30 dias de diagnóstico da DRC. Ambos os testes sinalizando para um discreto estado de hipercoagulabiliade. A tromboelastometria é mais sensível para detectar a hipercoagulabilidade em cães com DRC. Entretanto, o teste de geração de trombina tem melhor aplicabilidade por permitir o armazenamento da amostra em longo prazo.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/veterinary , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/veterinary , Hemostasis , Proteinuria/veterinary , Thrombelastography/veterinary
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132264


Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important health problem across the world affecting the adult population with an enormous social and economic burden. Calcium regulation is also affected in patients with CKD, and related to several disorders including vascular calcifications, mineral bone disorders, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix (UCMA) is vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) and acts as a calcification inhibitor in the cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanism of UCMA action remains unclear in CKD. In the current study, we aimed to investigate serum total UCMA levels and its association with calcium metabolism parameters in CKD patients including hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-seven patients with CKD stage 3-5, 41 HD patients, and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum UCMA and calcification related protein levels (Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), Osteocalcin (OC), and Fetuin-A) were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Calcium mineral disorder parameters (Serum Ca, P, iPTH) were quantified with routine techniques. We, for the first time, report the potential biomarker role of UCMA in CKD including HD. Serum total UCMA levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD including HD patients than the healthy controls. Also, serum UCMA levels showed negative correlations with serum calcium, and eGFR, while showed positive relationships with P, iPTH, MGP, OC. Increased total UCMA levels may have a role in the Ca metabolism disorder and related to the pathogenesis of Vascular Calcification in patients with CKD.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteocalcin/blood , Calcium/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Matrilin Proteins/blood , Growth Plate/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s31-s36, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057105


SUMMARY Hyperkalemia is a frequent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This increase in serum potassium levels is associated with decreased renal ion excretion, as well as the use of medications to reduce the progression of CKD or to control associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Hyperkalemia increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia episodes and sudden death. Thus, the control of potassium elevation is essential for reducing the mortality rate in this population. Initially, the management of hyperkalemia includes orientation of low potassium diets and monitoring of patients' adherence to this procedure. It is also important to know the medications in use and the presence of comorbidities to guide dose reduction or even temporary withdrawal of any of the potassium retention-related drugs. And finally, the use of potassium binders is indicated in both acute episodes and chronic hyperkalemia.

RESUMO A hiperpotassemia é um achado frequente em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Esta elevação do nível sérico de potássio está associada à diminuição da excreção renal do íon, assim como ao uso de medicações para retardar a progressão da DRC ou para controlar doenças associadas, como diabetes mellitus e insuficiência cardíaca. A hiperpotassemia aumenta o risco de episódios de arritmia cardíaca e morte súbita. Assim, o controle da elevação de potássio é essencial para a diminuição da taxa de mortalidade nessa população. O manejo da hiperpotassemia inclui, inicialmente, orientação de dietas com baixo teor de potássio e acompanhamento da aderência dos pacientes a esse procedimento. Também é importante conhecer as medicações em uso e a presença de comorbidades, a fim de orientar a redução de doses ou até mesmo a suspensão temporária de alguma das drogas relacionadas à retenção de potássio. E, finalmente, o uso de quelantes de potássio é indicado tanto em episódios agudos como nos casos de hiperpotassemia crônica.

Humans , Potassium/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Polystyrenes/therapeutic use , Potassium/blood , Comorbidity , Silicates/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Hyperkalemia/drug therapy , Hyperkalemia/blood
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 523-529, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094520


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Findings regarding the effects of hyperuricemia on renal function and mortality have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of hyperuricemia on incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with CKD in stages 3-5, without histories of renal replacement therapy, were consecutively recruited from 2007 to 2013. Their medical history, laboratory and medication data were collected from hospital records. The mean uric acid level in the first year of follow-up was used for analyses. Hyperuricemia was defined as mean uric acid level ≥ 7.0 mg/dl in men or ≥ 6.0 mg/dl in women. The primary outcomes were incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality, and these data were retrospectively collected from hospital records until the end of 2015. RESULTS: A total of 4,381 patients were analyzed (mean age 71.0 ± 14.8 years; males 62.7%), and the median follow-up period was 2.5 years. Patients with hyperuricemia were at increased risk of incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality, especially those with CKD in stages 4 or 5. Compared with patients with CKD in stage 3 and normouricemia, patients with CKD in stages 4 or 5 presented significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality only if they had hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CKD in stages 3-5, hyperuricemia was associated with higher risk of incident renal replacement therapy and all-cause mortality. Whether treatment with uric acid-lowering drugs in these patients would improve their outcomes merits further investigation.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Replacement Therapy , Hyperuricemia/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Uric Acid/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperuricemia/complications , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Hyperuricemia/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Glomerular Filtration Rate
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 501-508, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056603


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing acute hemodialysis. Methods: We carried out a retrospective cohort study on adult patients undergoing acute hemodialysis with AKI or CKD diagnosis at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Dysnatremias were categorized as hyponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) or hypernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), and dyschloremias were defined as hypochloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) or hyperchloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). The outcome of interest was mortality during hospitalization. We performed generalized lineal Poisson family models with bias-corrected and accelerated non-parametric bootstrap to estimate the risk ratios at crude (RR) and adjusted analysis (aRR) by gender, age, HCO3 (for all patients) and Liaño score (only for AKI) with CI95%. Results: We included 263 patients (mean age: 54.3 years, females: 43%): 191 with CKD and 72 with AKI. Mortality was higher in patients with AKI (59.7%) than in patients with CKD (14.1%). In overall, patients with hypernatremia had a higher mortality during hospitalization compared to those who had normal sodium values (aRR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17-2.83); patients with hyponatremia did not have different mortality (aRR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69-2.04). We also found that hyperchloremia (aRR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.83-2.18) or hypochloremia (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.30-14.78) did not increase mortality in comparison to normal chloride values. No association between dysnatremias or dyschloremias and mortality during hospitalization was found in CKD and AKI subgroups. Conclusions: In our exploratory analysis, only hypernatremia was associated with mortality during hospitalization among patients with AKI or CKD undergoing acute hemodialysis.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar de pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) ou doença renal crônica (DRC) submetidos a hemodiálise aguda. Métodos: O presente estudo de coorte retrospectiva incluiu pacientes adultos submetidos a hemodiálise aguda com diagnóstico de IRA ou DRC em um hospital público de Lima, Peru. Os distúrbios do sódio foram classificados como hiponatremia (Na < 135mmol/L) ou hipernatremia (Na > 145mmol/L), enquanto os distúrbios do cloro foram classificados como hipocloremia (Cl < 98 mmol/L) ou hipercloremia (Cl > 109mmol/L). O desfecho de interesse foi mortalidade hospitalar. Utilizamos modelos de Poisson da família de modelos lineares generalizados com bootstrap não-paramétrico e correção de viés acelerado para estimar os riscos relativos na análise bruta (RR) e ajustada (RRa) para sexo, idade, HCO3 (para todos os pacientes) e escore de Liaño (apenas para IRA) com IC 95%. Resultados: Foram incluídos 263 pacientes (idade média 54,3 anos; 43% do sexo feminino), 191 com DRC e 72 com IRA. A mortalidade foi mais elevada nos pacientes com IRA (59,7%) do que nos indivíduos com DRC (14,1%). No geral, os pacientes com hipernatremia tiveram mortalidade hospitalar mais elevada do que os indivíduos com valores normais de sódio (RRa: 1,82; IC 95%: 1,17-2,83). Os pacientes com hiponatremia não apresentaram mortalidade diferente (RRa: 0,19; IC 95%: 0,69-2,04). Também identificamos que hipercloremia (RRa: 1,35; IC 95%: 0,83-2,18) e hipocloremia (RRa: 0,66; IC 95%: 0,30-14,78) não elevaram a mortalidade em comparação a indivíduos com níveis normais de cloro. Não foi encontrada associação entre distúrbios do sódio ou do cloro e mortalidade hospitalar nos subgrupos com DRC e IRA. Conclusões: Em nossa análise exploratória, apenas hipernatremia apresentou associação com mortalidade hospitalar em pacientes com IRA ou DRC submetidos a hemodiálise aguda.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sodium/blood , Chlorides/blood , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Peru/epidemiology , Bicarbonates/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypernatremia/complications , Hypernatremia/mortality , Hyponatremia/complications , Hyponatremia/mortality
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 288-292, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040239


ABSTRACT Introduction: Mineral and bone metabolism disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) constitute a syndrome defined by changes in calcium, phosphorus (P), vitamin D and parathormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and its specific cofactor, Klotho. CKD-MBD, as well as smoking, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not known whether or not smoking impacts the cardiovascular risk in CKD- MBD. Objective: To analyze the relationship between smoking and CKD-MBD markers. Methods: We evaluated 92 patients divided into: 1) Control Group: non-smokers without CKD; 2) CKD group in stages III and IV under conservative treatment (20 non-smokers and 17 smokers); 3) CKD group on dialysis (21 non-smokers and 19 smokers). Clinical, demographic, and biochemical markers were compared between the groups. Results: FGF-23 and Klotho levels were not different between smokers and non-smokers. Patients in the CKD group on conservative treatment had higher serum P than non-smokers (p = 0.026) even after adjusted for renal function (p = 0.079), gender (p = 0.145) and age (p = 0.986). Conclusion: Smoking confers a higher cardiovascular risk to CKD patients under conservative treatment as it is associated with higher levels of P. Further studies are needed to confirm and better elucidate this finding.

RESUMO Introdução: Os distúrbios do metabolismo mineral e ósseo da doença renal crônica (DMO-DRC) constituem uma síndrome definida por alterações do cálcio, do fósforo (P), da vitamina D e do paratormônio, do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos 23 (FGF-23) e de seu cofator específico, Klotho. Os DMO-DRC, assim como o tabagismo, estão associados a maior risco de doença cardiovascular. Porém, não se sabe se há influência do tabagismo no risco cardiovascular dos DMO-DRC. Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre o tabagismo e marcadores dos DMO-DRC. Métodos: Avaliamos 92 pacientes divididos em: 1) Grupo controle sem DRC não tabagistas; 2) Grupo DRC em tratamento conservador estágios III e IV (20 não tabagistas e 17 tabagistas); 3) Grupo DRC em diálise (21 não tabagistas e 19 tabagistas). Marcadores clínicos, demográficos e bioquímicos foram comparados entre os grupos. Resultados: Níveis de FGF-23 e Klotho não foram diferentes entre tabagistas e não tabagistas. Pacientes tabagistas do grupo com DRC em tratamento conservador exibiram maior P sérico do que não tabagistas (p = 0,026) mesmo após ajuste para função renal (p = 0,079), sexo (p = 0,145) e idade (p = 0,986). Conclusão: O tabagismo confere um maior risco cardiovascular adicional aos pacientes com DRC em tratamento conservador à medida que se associa com maiores níveis de P. Novos estudos são necessários para confirmar e melhor elucidar esse achado.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Phosphorus/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Smoking/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Conservative Treatment
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(4): 489-500, dic. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001071


Antecedentes: La tasa de filtración glomerular estimada (TFGe) es ampliamente utilizada en la práctica clínica. El presente estudio evaluó la variación biológica intraindividual (CVI) de diferentes ecuaciones de TFGe en sujetos con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y sin ERC. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron (a) determinar los perfiles de variación biológica durante 24 horas de creatinina, cistatina C y TFGe y (b) determinar si el CVI de la creatinina, la cistatina C y la TFGe cambia el deterioro de la filtración glomerular. Métodos: Se analizaron muestras de sangre cada hora de 37 individuos (17 sin ERC, 20 con ERC) durante 24 h. La creatinina (método enzimático) y la cistatina C se midieron usando un Cobas 8000 (Roche Diagnostics). La TFGe se estimó utilizando la Modificación de la Dieta en la Enfermedad Renal y la Colaboración de Epidemiología de la Enfermedad Renal Crónica basada en creatinina y/o cistatina C. Las muestras de plasma se almacenaron a -80 °C antes del análisis. Se verificaron los análisis de valores atípicos y de homogeneidad antes de realizar un ANOVA anidado para determinar la variación biológica. Resultados: La CVI de creatinina fue más alta en sujetos sin ERC que en aquellos con ERC (6.4% frente a 2.5%) debido principalmente al efecto más marcado del consumo de carne sobre la variabilidad de creatinina en individuos con concentraciones iniciales de creatinina más bajas. A diferencia de la creatinina, las concentraciones de cistatina C no se vieron afectadas por el consumo de carne. La cistatina C mostró alguna variación rítmica diurna y menor en los sujetos con ERC. Los valores de referencia del cambio (VCR) de todas las ecuaciones de TFGe estuvieron dentro del 13% al 20% en ambos grupos de estudio. Conclusiones: A pesar de las diferencias en el CVI de la creatinina, el CVI y el VRC de las ecuaciones de TFGe fueron relativamente similares para los sujetos con o sin ERC.

Background: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is widely used in clinical practice. This study assessed the within-subject biological variation (CVI) of different eGFR equations in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and people without CKD. The aims of this study were (a) to determine the 24-h biological variation profiles of creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR and (b) to determine whether CVI of creatinine, cystatin C, and eGFR changes on deterioration of glomerular filtration. Methods: Hourly blood samples were analyzed from 37 individuals (17 without CKD, 20 with CKD) during 24 h. Creatinine (enzymatic method) and cystatin C were measured using a Cobas 8000 (Roche Diagnostics). eGFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration based on creatinine and/or cystatin C. Plasma samples were stored at -80 °C before analysis. Outlier and homogeneity analyses were checked before performing a nested ANOVA to determine biological variation. Results: CVI of creatinine was higher in people without CKD than in those with CKD (6.4% vs. 2.5%) owing primarily to the more profound effect of meat consumption on creatinine variability in individuals with lower baseline creatinine concentrations. Unlike creatinine, cystatin C concentrations were unaffected by meat consumption. Cystatin C showed some diurnal rhythmic variation and less in people with CKD. Reference change values (RCVs) of all eGFR equations were within 13% to 20% in both study groups. Conclusions: Despite differences in CVI of creatinine, the CVI and RCV of the eGFR equations were relatively similar for people with or without CKD.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Biological Variation, Individual , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Analysis of Variance
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(6): 2869-2875, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977607


ABSTRACT Objective: To understand the experience of people with chronic kidney disease using arteriovenous fistula. Method: Qualitative and exploratory study based on Social Phenomenology, conducted on 30 adults undergoing hemodialysis by using the fistula, interviewed in 2017. The interviews were analyzed according to the empirical-comprehensive model proposed by Amedeo Giorgi. Results: We found the categories "The changed body aesthetics"; "The perception of the other about my body"; and "The fistula as an inseparable condition for life maintenance." Final considerations: The experience of people using fistula showed that this venous access leaves marks that change the body aesthetics, making the body imperfect. Such changes cause low self-esteem and attract the look of the other, causing embarrassment in those who have the body changed. Thus, they react by camouflaging the fistula, without which there is no life. This perception arises from the fear that works as a catalyst for self-care.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Comprender la vivencia de personas con enfermedad renal crónica en uso de fístula arteriovenosa. Método: Estudio cualitativo y exploratorio fundamentado en la fenomenología social, realizado con treinta adultos en tratamiento hemodialítico por medio de fístula, entrevistados en 2017. Los testimonios fueron analizados según el modelo empírico-comprensivo propuesto por Amedeo Giorgi. Resultados: Se desvelaron las categorías "La estética corporal alterada"; "La mirada del otro sobre mi cuerpo"; y "La fístula como condición indisociable al mantenimiento de la vida". Consideraciones finales: La vivencia de personas en uso de fístula reveló que ese acceso venoso deja marcas que alteran la estética corporal, haciendo el cuerpo imperfecto. Esos cambios provocan baja autoestima y atraen la mirada del otro, causando constreñimiento en el que tiene el cuerpo marcado. Este, a su vez, reacciona camuflando la fístula, sin la cual no hay vida. De esa percepción surge el miedo, que actúa como catalizador para el autocuidado.

RESUMO Objetivo: Compreender a vivência de pessoas com doença renal crônica em uso de fístula arteriovenosa. Método: Estudo qualitativo e exploratório, fundamentado na fenomenologia social, realizado com 30 adultos em tratamento hemodialítico por meio de fístula, entrevistados em 2017. Os depoimentos foram analisados segundo o modelo empírico-compreensivo proposto por Amedeo Giorgi. Resultados: Foram desveladas as categorias: A estética corporal alterada; O olhar do outro sobre o meu corpo; e A fístula como condição indissociável à manutenção da vida. Considerações finais: A vivência de pessoas em uso de fístula revelou que esse acesso venoso deixa marcas no corpo que alteram a estética corporal, tornando o corpo imperfeito. Essas alterações provocam baixa autoestima, e atraem o olhar do outro, causando constrangimento naquele que tem o corpo marcado. Esse, por sua vez, reage camuflando a fístula, sem a qual não há vida. Dessa percepção surge o medo, que atua como catalisador para o autocuidado.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arteriovenous Fistula/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Quality of Life/psychology , Body Image/psychology , Arteriovenous Fistula/complications , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/methods , Qualitative Research , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Middle Aged
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(3): 225-232, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975916


ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high prevalence of cardiovascular mortality, and among the risk factors are dyslipidemia and obesity, common findings in the early stages of CKD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low protein diet (LPD) on the lipid and anthropometric profile in non-dialysis CKD patients. Methods: Forty CKD patients were studied (20 men, 62.7 ± 15.2 years, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 26.16 ± 9.4 mL/min/1.73m2). LPD (0.6g/kg/d) was prescribed for six months and, biochemical and anthropometric parameters like body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat mass (assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry - DXA) were evaluated before and after six months with LPD. Results: After six months of nutritional intervention, patients presented reduction on BMI (from 28.1 ± 5.6 to 27.0 ± 5.3 Kg/m2, p = 0.001), total cholesterol (from 199.7 ± 57.1 to 176.0 ± 43.6mg/dL, p = 0.0001), LDL (from 116.2 ± 48.1 to 97.4 ± 39.1 mg/dL, p = 0,001) and uric acid (from 6.8 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.3 mg/dL, p = 0.004). In addition, GFR values were increased from 26.2 ± 9.5 to 28.9 ± 12.7mL/min (p = 0.02). The energy, proteins, cholesterol and fiber intake were reduced significantly. Conclusion: LPD prescribe to non-dialysis CKD patients for six months was able to improve some cardiovascular risk factors as overweight and plasma lipid profile, suggesting that LPD can be also an important tool for protection against cardiovascular diseases in these patients.

RESUMO Introdução: Pacientes com Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) possuem alta prevalência de mortalidade cardiovascular e, dentre os fatores de risco, encontram-se alterações no perfil lipídico e excesso de peso, que são achados comuns na DRC. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da dieta hipoproteica sobre o perfil antropométrico e lipídico de pacientes com DRC em tratamento conservador. Métodos: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com DRC (20 homens, 62,7 ± 15,2 anos, e Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) de 26,2 ± 9,4 mL/min/1,73m2). Os pacientes receberam prescrição de dieta hipoproteica (0,6g/kg/d) e parâmetros bioquímicos e antropométricos como índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência da cintura (CC) e percentual de gordura corporal (GC) avaliado por absorciometria com raio-x de dupla energia (DXA), foram analisados antes e após 6 meses de intervenção. Resultados: Os pacientes apresentaram após 6 meses, redução do IMC (de 28,1 ± 5,6 para 27,0 ± 5,3Kg/m2, p = 0,001), colesterol total (de 199,7 ± 57,1 para 176,0 ± 43,6mg/dL, p = 0,0001), LDL (de 116,2 ± 48,1 para 97,4 ± 39,1 mg/dL, p = 0,001) e ácido úrico (de 6,8 ± 1,4 para 6,2 ± 1,3 mg/dL, p = 0,004) e, aumento da TFG de 26,2 ± 9,5 para 28,9 ± 12,7mL/min (p = 0,02). Houve redução significativa na ingestão de energia e proteínas, bem como de colesterol e fibras. Conclusão: A intervenção com dieta hipoproteica para pacientes com DRC em tratamento conservador por seis meses foi capaz de melhorar alguns fatores de risco cardiovascular, como o excesso de peso e o perfil lipídico plasmático, sugerindo que a dieta hipoproteica, além de outros benefícios pode também ser importante ferramenta para a proteção de doenças cardiovasculares nesses pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cholesterol/blood , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Body Size , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Conservative Treatment , Triglycerides/blood
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(3): 217-224, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975911


ABSTRACT Introduction: In chronic kidney disease (CKD), it has been suggested that alterations within the gut are associated with an inflammatory state and uremic toxicity. Studies suggest that uremia may impair the function of the intestinal barrier via the promotion of increased intestinal permeability. To understand the mechanisms that are involved in intestinal barrier damage in the setting of uremia, we evaluated the in vitro effect of uremic serum on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), inflammation, and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells (T84). Methods: Pools of serum from healthy individuals, patients not on dialysis, and patients on hemodialysis (Pre-HD and Post-HD) were prepared. T84 cells were incubated for 24 h in medium, of which 10% consisted of the pooled serum from each group. After incubation, the TER was measured and the following parameters were determined by flow cytometry: expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The level of IL-6 in the culture supernatant was determined by ELISA. Results: No difference was observed among the groups with respect to TER, apoptosis, and ROS or the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9. IL-6 secretion was higher (p < 0.001) in cells that were incubated with pre- and post-HD serum. Conclusion: The results that were obtained from this model suggest that uremic serum per se does not seem to impair the integrity of intestinal epithelial cells. The increased IL-6 secretion by cells that were incubated with HD serum suggests a potential effect of uremia in the intestinal inflammatory response.

RESUMO Introdução: Tem sido sugerido que na doença renal crônica (DRC) a uremia pode causar alterações intestinais, tais como modificações na microbiota e danos à barreira intestinal, e que estas possíveis alterações podem ter uma relação importante com o estado inflamatório e a toxicidade urêmica apresentadas por pacientes com DRC. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito in vitro do soro urêmico sobre a permeabilidade da monocamada de células epiteliais do intestino, inflamação e apoptose. Métodos: Pools de soro foram preparados a partir de soros de indivíduos saudáveis, pacientes em tratamento conservador e em hemodiálise (Pré e Pós-HD). As células T84 foram incubadas por 24 horas com os diferentes pools. Em seguida a TER foi medida e as células foram submetidas às seguintes análises: apoptose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs) e expressão de receptores toll-like (TLR) por citometria de fluxo e detecção de IL-6 no sobrenadante da cultura por ELISA. Resultados: Não foram encontradas diferenças, entre os grupos, com relação a TER, apoptose, EROs e expressão de TLR-2, TLR-4 e TLR-9. Já a secreção de IL-6 foi maior (p < 0,001) pelas células incubadas com soro pré-HD e pós-HD. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos a partir deste modelo sugerem que a uremia per se parece não comprometer a integridade das células epiteliais do intestino. O aumento da secreção de IL-6 pelas células incubadas com soro HD (pré e pós) sugere um potencial efeito da uremia sobre a resposta inflamatória intestinal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Uremia/blood , Cells, Cultured , Colon/cytology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 53-58, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893817


ABSTRACT Background: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old) were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session) intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day) at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session). Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02) and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02) after 60 minutes of dialysis. Conclusion: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.

RESUMO História: A irisina é um hormônio induzido pelo exercício recentemente identificado que estimula o "escurecimento" do tecido adiposo branco, pelo menos em camundongos. Nos pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), a regulação da irisina não é totalmente compreendida, e pouca atenção tem sido dada aos efeitos do exercício sobre os níveis de irisina nesses pacientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do exercício de alta intensidade sobre os níveis plasmáticos de irisina em pacientes com DRC em hemodiálise (HD). Métodos: 15 pacientes em HD (5 homens, 44,4 ± 15,1 anos) foram estudados e serviram como os próprios controles. Os exercícios de resistência intradialítica de alta intensidade (sessão única) consistiram em três séries de dez repetições com quatro movimentos diferentes em ambos os membros inferiores durante 30 minutos. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas em dias diferentes (dia de exercício e dia sem exercício) exatamente no mesmo horário (30 e 60 minutos após o início da sessão de diálise). Os níveis de irisina plasmática foram medidos por ensaio ELISA e os parâmetros antropométricos e bioquímicos foram avaliados. Resultados: Os níveis plasmáticos de irisina foram significativamente reduzidos tanto nos dias de exercício (125,0 ± 18,5 a 117,4 ± 15,0 ng/mL, p=0,02) quanto nos dias sem exercício (121,5 ± 13,7 a 115,4 ± 17,2 ng / mL, p=0,02), após 60 minutos de diálise. Conclusão: esses dados sugerem que o exercício intenso de resistência intradialítica não aumentou a concentração circulante de irisina em pacientes sob HD. Além disso, nossos dados mostram que após uma hora de sessão de diálise, os níveis plasmáticos de irisina podem ser reduzidos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Exercise , Renal Dialysis , Fibronectins/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Pilot Projects
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 73-76, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040236


ABSTRACT Introduction: Secondary hyperoxalemia is a multifactorial disease that affects several organs and tissues in patients with native or transplanted kidneys. Plasma oxalate may increase during renal failure because it is cleared from the body by the kidneys. However, there is scarce evidence about the association between glomerular filtration rate and plasma oxalate, especially in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A case series focuses on the description of variations in clinical presentation. A pilot study was conducted using a cross-sectional analysis with 72 subjects. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma oxalate levels were measured for all patients. Results: Median (IQR) GFR was 70.50 [39.0; 91.0] mL/min/1.73 m2. Plasma oxalate was < 5.0 µmol/L in all patients with a GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Among the 14 patients with severe CKD (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) only 4 patients showed a slightly increased plasma oxalate level (between 6 and 12 µmol/L). Conclusion: In non-primary hyperoxaluria, plasma oxalate concentration increases when GFR < 30mL/min/1.73 m2 and, in our opinion, values greater than 5 µmol/L with a GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 are suggestive of primary hyperoxaluria. Further studies are necessary to confirm plasma oxalate increase in patients with low GFR levels (< 30mL/min/1.73 m2).

RESUMO Introdução: A hiperoxalemia secundária é uma doença multifatorial que afeta vários órgãos e tecidos em pacientes com rins nativos ou transplantados. O oxalato plasmático pode aumentar durante a insuficiência renal porque é eliminado do corpo pelos rins. No entanto, há evidências escassas sobre a associação entre taxa de filtração glomerular e oxalato plasmático, especialmente nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica (DRC). Métodos: uma casuística centrada na descrição das variações na apresentação clínica. Foi realizado um estudo piloto a partir da análise transversal com 72 indivíduos. As taxas de filtração glomerular (TFG) e os níveis plasmáticos de oxalato foram medidos para todos os pacientes. Resultados: A TFG mediana (IIQ) foi de 70,50 [39,0; 91,0] mL/min/1,73 m2. O nível plasmático de oxalato foi < 5,0 µmol/L em todos os pacientes com TFG > 30 mL/min/1,73 m2. Entre os 14 pacientes com DRC grave (TFG < 30 mL/min/1,73 m2), apenas quatro apresentaram ligeiro aumento do nível plasmático de oxalato (entre 6 e 12 µmol/L). Conclusão: Na hiperoxalúria não primária, a concentração plasmática de oxalato aumenta quando TFG < 30 mL/min/1,73 m2 e, em nossa opinião, valores superiores a 5 µmol/L com TFG > 30 mL/min/1,73 m2 sugerem presença de hiperoxalúria primária. Estudos adicionais são necessários para confirmar o aumento do oxalato plasmático em pacientes com níveis baixos de TFG (< 30 mL/min/1,73 m2).

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Oxalates/blood , Iohexol/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Pilot Projects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7355, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889110


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Patients with CKD on hemodialysis are more likely to present behavioral changes and worse quality of life as a result of their routine and complications. They also have higher levels of cytokines. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the inflammatory profile and quality of life measured by KDOQL-SF36 in hemodialysis outpatients. Patients older than 21 years of age and on routine hemodialysis for at least 6 months with treatment on a regular weekly basis were included and their anthropometric parameters and serum inflammatory markers were evaluated. Thirty patients consented to participate. Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were correlated with worse glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P=0.003) and creatinine (P=0.002). IL-6 was not correlated with worse nutritional status taking into account body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; P=0.83). On the other hand, TNF-alpha was positively correlated with albumin (P=0.008), nutritional status by BMI (P=0.04), and nutritional status by arm circumference area (P=0.04). IL-6 was correlated with activity limitation (P=0.02) and Hcy with work status (P=0.04). Hcy was correlated with nutritional status and inflammatory markers. In this population, the majority of the sections in KDOQL-SF36 were not correlated with cytokines levels.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Inflammation/blood , Quality of Life/psychology , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Body Mass Index , Creatinine/blood , Cytokines/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Homocysteine/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Nutritional Status , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
Clinics ; 73: e116, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890744


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of frailty and the association of vitamin D levels and the frailty phenotype among non-geriatric dialysis patients. METHOD: Seventy-four stable, chronic hemodialysis patients from the hemodialysis unit of the hospital were enrolled in the study. The patients' medical histories and laboratory findings were obtained from the medical records of the dialysis unit. Serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were determined using chemiluminometric immunoassays. Frailty was defined by Fried et al. as a phenotype; shrinking, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, decreased activity and slowed walking speed were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-one (55%) of the patients were males. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to frailty scores: 39 (53%) patients were frail, 6 (8%) patients were intermediately frail, and 28 (39%) patients were normal. Significant differences were found for 25-hydroxy vitamin D and hemoglobin levels among the groups; however, no differences were observed in body mass index, comorbidities, sex, marital status, education, disease and dialysis durations, or parathyroid hormone, creatinine, serum calcium, phosphorus, and potassium levels. CONCLUSIONS: Weakness and slowness are serious outcomes of both vitamin D deficiency and frailty, and vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of decreased physical activity, falls, fractures and death in postmenopausal women and older men. Although studies on frailty have focused on older adults, growing evidence indicates that the frailty phenotype is becoming a factor associated with poor health outcomes in non-geriatric populations with chronic disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Phenotype , Vitamin D/blood , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Hemoglobins/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle Weakness/blood , Health Status Disparities , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood