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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 667-677, oct 2019. fig, graf
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1025940

ABSTRACT

The authors present a clinical and farmacological evaluation of the effect and safety of N-acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive diseases. The N-actylcysteine (NAC) is a sulphorated amino acid employed as an mucolytic agent. The efficacy and tolerability of oral NAC as compared with other agents was determined, in the mucolytic treatment on mucus hypersecretion and in the management of respiratory tract fluids and sputums from cigarette smokers, and also as a bronchial mucus fluidifying agent. A sistematic review and analysis of the effect of NAC and its effectiveness. In the treatment of acute respiratory disorders in children was determined


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromhexine/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Mucus/drug effects
2.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 238-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786398

ABSTRACT

The butanol extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis roots fermented with Weissella cibaria (BAW) effectively prevents inflammation and remodeling of airway in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. To characterize biomarkers that can predict the anti-asthmatic effects induced by BAW treatment, we measured the alteration of endogenous metabolites in the serum of OVA-induced asthma mice after administration of low concentration BAW (BAWLo, 250 mg/kg) and high concentration BAW (BAWHi, 500 mg/kg) using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectral data. The number of immune cells and serum concentration of IgE as well as thickness of the respiratory epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway significantly recovered in the OVA+BAW treated group as compared to the OVA+Vehicle treated group. In the metabolic profile analysis, the pattern recognition showed completely separate clustering of serum analysis parameters between the OVA+Vehicle and OVA+BAW treated groups. Of the total endogenous metabolites, 19 metabolites were upregulated or downregulated in the OVA+Vehicle treated group as compared to the Control treated group. However, only 4 amino acids (alanine, glycine, methionine and tryptophan) were significantly recovered after BAWLo and BAWHi treatment. This study provides the first results pertaining to metabolic changes in the asthma model mice treated with OVA+BAW. Additionally, these findings show that 4 metabolites can be used as one of biomarkers to predict the anti-asthmatic effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Amino Acids , Asthma , Biomarkers , Fermentation , Glycine , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine , Ovalbumin , Respiratory Mucosa , Therapeutic Uses , Weissella
3.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 101-110, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717161

ABSTRACT

The butanol extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis roots fermented with Weissella cibaria (BAfW) significantly suppressed the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in RAW264.7 cells. To investigate the dose dependence and durability of BAfW on the anti-asthma effects, alterations in key parameters were measured in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged Balb/c mice treated with the different doses of BAfW at three different time points. The number of immune cells, OVA-specific IgE level, thickness of respiratory epithelium and mucus score decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in response to treatment with 125 to 500 mg/kg BAfW (P < 0.05), although the highest level was detected in the 500 mg/kg treated group. Moreover, the decrease in these parameters was maintained from 24 to 48 h in the 500 mg/kg of BAfW treated group. At 72 h, the effects of BAfW on the number of immune cells, OVA-specific IgE level and thickness of respiratory epithelium partially disappeared. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that the anti-asthma effect of BAfW may reach the maximum level in OVA-challenged Balb/c mice treated with 500 mg/kg and that these effects can last for 48 h.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Asthma , Fermentation , Immunoglobulin E , Mucus , Ovalbumin , Respiratory Mucosa , Therapeutic Uses , Weissella
4.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 136-145, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Newly identified human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) and human bocavirus (HBoV) cannot propagate in vitro in traditional cell culture models; thus obtaining knowledge about these viruses and developing related vaccines are difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel platform for the propagation of these types of viruses.@*METHODS@#A platform for culturing human airway epithelia in a three-dimensional (3D) pattern using Matrigel as scaffold was developed. The features of 3D culture were identified by immunochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV in 3D cells at designated time points were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Levels of cytokines, whose secretion was induced by the viruses, were measured by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Properties of bronchial-like tissues, such as the expression of biomarkers CK5, ZO-1, and PCK, and the development of cilium-like protuberances indicative of the human respiration tract, were observed in 3D-cultured human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, but not in monolayer-cultured cells. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV and levels of virus-induced cytokines were also measured using the 3D culture system.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data provide a preliminary indication that the 3D culture model of primary epithelia using a Matrigel scaffold in vitro can be used to propagate HRV-C and HBoV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Collagen , Drug Combinations , Enterovirus , Enterovirus Infections , Virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Virology , Human bocavirus , Laminin , Parvoviridae Infections , Virology , Primary Cell Culture , Methods , Proteoglycans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Mucosa , Virology , Virus Cultivation
5.
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; : 60-61, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961032

ABSTRACT

@#A 63-year old Filipino female presented with epistaxis of undisclosed duration. Examination showed a vascular, pulsating, rubbery intranasal mass involving both nasal cavities. The clinical impression was that of a nasal hemangioma. She underwent excision of the tumor and the specimen was sent for histopathologic evaluation. The specimen consisted of several tan-brown irregular tissue fragments with an aggregate diameter of 2 cm. Microscopic examination showed a cellular spindle cell tumor underneath the respiratory mucosa. (Figure 1) The tumor cells formed a syncytial pattern arranged in whorls that were separated by thin fibrovascular bands. (Figure 2) The cells had round to oval nuclei with nuclear clearing and moderate amount of syncytial cytoplasm compatible with a meningothelial derivation. (Figure 3) There was absence of nuclear atypia, significant mitotic activity, and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry studies showed positivity for Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) and Progesterone Receptors (PR), and absence of reaction for Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA) and CD34. (Figure 4) Our diagnosis was sinonasal tract meningioma. Primary extracranial meningioma of the sinonasal cavity is rare and thus secondary extension from a primary intracranial tumor should be ruled out. It involves a wide age range with no striking gender predilection.1,2 Most common symptoms include nasal obstruction, epistaxis, exophthalmos, and a mass. Etiogenesis is not completely established and is postulated to arise from meningocytes that are entrapped during closure of midline structures, very similar to the development of meningoceles.3 Histopathologic examination discloses a spindle cell tumor arranged predominantly in whorls composed of cells showing meningothelial differentiation. Most are histologically grade 1 tumors. Grade 2 and 3 sinonasal tract meningiomas are rare.4 Histologic differential diagnoses include a glomangiopericytoma, leiomyosarcoma, and a solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma. Close histologic evaluation with appropriate immunohistochemistry studies point to the correct diagnosis. Meningioma shows strong diffuse positivity with EMA and PR, and is usually negative for other immunohistochemistry markers such as muscle actins (for glomangiopericytoma and leiomyosarcoma), and CD34 (for solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma).1,3 A diagnosis of primary sinonasal meningioma should not be made if an intracranial mass is identified.4 Sinonasal meningiomas are benign tumors with no documented distant metastases.1,2 Although recurrences occur in about 30% (mostly due to incomplete excision), metastasis and malignant transformation has not been reported.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Meningioma , Epistaxis , Nasal Cavity , Mucin-1 , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Progesterone , Actins , Meningeal Neoplasms , Nose , Hemangioma , Respiratory Mucosa , Muscle, Smooth
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 934-938, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828965

ABSTRACT

In this study we examined the effects histopathologic and immunohistochemical of xylene inhalation in rats by using light microscopy. Adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. Eight rats were in control group and 8 rats were in the experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to 300 ppm formaldehyde 3­5 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells, hyperplasia of squamous cells and edema, inflamation in sub epithelial area). In the group treated xylene. Disruption of cell-cell contact was observed. Weak expression of E-cadherin was observed between cells. The vascular endothelium of capillaries and venoles showed intense immunostaining for VEGF.


Se examinó el efecto histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de la inhalación de xileno en ratas mediante el uso de microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron ratas albinas Wistar adultas. Ocho ratas formaron parte del grupo control y 8 del grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 300 ppm de formaldehído, 3­5 min/día, 5 días/semana, durante 8 semanas. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de células caliciformes, hiperplasia de células escamosas y edema, con inflamación en la zona subepitelial. En el grupo tratado con xileno se observó una interrupción del contacto célula-célula. Se observó una débil expresión de E-cadherina entre las células. El endotelio vascular de los capilares y vénulas mostraron intensa inmunotinción de VEGF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Xylenes/administration & dosage , Cadherins/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. [120] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870867

ABSTRACT

O transplante de pulmão é parte fundamental no tratamento das doenças terminais do pulmão, constituindo uma modalidade terapêutica eficaz para pacientes com doença pulmonar incapacitante, progressiva e em estágio final. No entanto, as drogas imunossupressoras usadas para evitar a rejeição do enxerto podem causar efeitos colaterais em diversos tecidos. O sistema mucociliar, presente nas vias aéreas, é um dos principais mecanismos de defesa do trato respiratório e pode ser alterado por ação das drogas imunossupressoras. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o sistema mucociliar traqueobrônquico de ratos submetidos a dois esquemas de terapia tríplice imunossupressora. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 90 ratos machos Wistar distribuídos em 3 grupos conforme o tratamento: controle (C) = solução salina; terapia 1 (TI) = tacrolimus + micofenolato de mofetil + prednisona; terapia 2 (TII) = ciclosporina + azatioprina + prednisona. Após o período de tratamento (7, 15 ou 30 dias), os animais foram sacrificados e realizadas as seguintes medidas: transportabilidade do muco (TM), frequência de batimento ciliar (FBC), quantificação de muco neutro e ácido, velocidade de transporte mucociliar (VTMC), e contagem total e diferencial de células no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA). RESULTADOS: A TM não foi afetada pelas terapias em nenhum dos tempos estudados. Ambas as terapias causaram significativa redução da FBC dos animais tratados por 7 e 15 dias. A produção de muco neutro foi menor nos animais tratados com a TI por 7, 15 e 30 dias. Porém, com a TII, essa redução ocorreu apenas aos 7 dias. Por outro lado, a quantidade de muco ácido foi significativamente maior em todos os animais tratados com as duas terapias. Todos os animais tratados com as terapias imunossupressoras apresentaram redução da VTMC nos três tempos. Houve aumento do número total de células e de macrófagos e neutrófilos no grupo TI em 7 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as terapias imunossupressoras foram...


Lung transplantation is an essential part in the treatment of terminal lung diseases, providing an effective therapeutic modality for patients with disabling, progressive and final stage lung disease. However, the immunosuppressant drugs used to prevent graft rejection may cause side effects in several tissues. The mucociliary system, present in the airways, is a major defense mechanism of the respiratory tract and can be changed by action of immunosuppressive drugs. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the tracheobronchial mucociliary system of rats submitted to two triple immunosuppressive therapy regimens. METHODS: We used 90 male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups according to treatment: control (C) = saline solution; therapy 1 (TI) = tacrolimus + mycophenolate mofetil + prednisone therapy; therapy 2 (TII) = cyclosporine + azathioprine + prednisone. After the period of treatment (7, 15, or 30 days), the animals were sacrificed and the following measures taken: mucus transportability (MT), ciliary beating frequency (CBF), quantification of neutral and acid mucus, mucociliary transport velocity (MCTV), and total and differential counting of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). RESULTS: MT was not affected by treatments in any of the periods studied. Both therapies have caused significant reduction of CBF of animals treated for 7 and 15 days. The neutral mucus production was lower in animals treated with TI for 7, 15 and 30 days. But with TII, this reduction occurred only at 7 days. Moreover, the amount of acid mucus was significantly higher in all animals treated with both therapies. All animals treated with immunosuppressive therapies had reduced MCTV at the three times. There was an increase of total cells and macrophages and neutrophils in the TI group in 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: Both immunosuppressive therapies were harmful to the mucociliary clearance of the airways of rats, either by reducing the CBF and MCTV, as by the increased...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Drug Combinations , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lung Transplantation , Mucociliary Clearance , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Mucosa
8.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 49(5): 775-782, Oct. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-763305

ABSTRACT

AbstractOBJECTIVETo analyze the care implemented by the nursing team to promote the safety of adult patients and prevention of skin and mucosal lesions associated with the presence of lower airways invasive devices.METHODStudy with qualitative and quantitative approach, descriptive and exploratory type, whose investigative scenarios were adult inpatient units of a hospital in the West Frontier of Rio Grande do Sul. The study subjects consisted of nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants.RESULTSA total of 118 professionals were interviewed. We highlight the observed specific care with endotracheal tube and tracheostomy, management and assessment of the cuff and the criteria used to secretion aspiration.CONCLUSIONThere is a superficial nursing work in the patient direct care and a differentiation in relation to the perception of nurse technicians, especially those working in the intensive care unit, who presented major property and view of the patient's clinical status.


ResumenOBJETIVOAnalizar los cuidados implantados por el equipo de Enfermería para la promoción de la seguridad del paciente adulto y la prevención de lesiones cutáneo-mucosas asociadas con la presencia de dispositivos invasivos en las vías aéreas inferiores.MÉTODOEstudio con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo, del tipo descriptivo y exploratorio, cuyos escenarios investigativos fueron las unidades de estancia hospitalaria de adultos en un hospital de Fronteira Oeste, Rio Grande do Sul. Los sujetos investigados se constituyeron de enfermeros, técnicos y auxiliares de Enfermería.RESULTADOSFueron entrevistados 118 profesionales. Se evidenciaron los cuidados específicos con el tubo orotraqueal y la traqueotomía, con el manejo y la evaluación del cuff y los criterios utilizados para la aspiración de secreciones.ConclusiónExiste una superficialidad de la actuación del enfermero en el cuidado directo al paciente y una diferenciación con respecto a la percepción de los técnicos de Enfermería, en especial los actuantes en la unidad de terapia intensiva, que presentaron mayor propiedad y visión clínica del paciente.


ResumoOBJETIVOAnalisar os cuidados implementados pela equipe de Enfermagem para a promoção da segurança do paciente adulto e a prevenção de lesões cutâneo-mucosas associadas à presença de dispositivos invasivos nas vias aéreas inferiores.MÉTODOEstudo com abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa, do tipo descritivo e exploratório, cujos cenários investigativos foram as unidades de internação adulto de um hospital da Fronteira Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Os sujeitos pesquisados constituíram-se de enfermeiros, técnicos e auxiliares de Enfermagem.RESULTADOSForam entrevistados 118 profissionais. Evidenciaram-se os cuidados específicos com o tubo orotraqueal e traqueostomia, com o manejo e avaliação do cuff e os critérios utilizados para a aspiração de secreções.CONCLUSÃOHá uma superficialidade da atuação do enfermeiro no cuidado direto ao paciente e uma diferenciação em relação à percepção dos técnicos de Enfermagem, em especial os atuantes na unidade de terapia intensiva, que apresentaram maior propriedade e visão da clínica do paciente.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Intubation, Intratracheal/nursing , Nursing , Patient Safety , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Respiratory Mucosa/injuries , Skin/injuries , Tracheostomy/nursing , Postoperative Complications/etiology
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. [102] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870759

ABSTRACT

Partículas da exaustão de motores a diesel (DEP) têm propriedades toxicológicas, devido às características físico-químicas. O DEP é capaz de ativar as vias de sinalização intracelular e induzir alterações metabólicas em células e tecidos do sistema respiratório. O objetivo desta tese foi: 1) avaliar o perfil das mucinas e alterações epiteliais em explantes de traqueia de camundongo BALB/c expostos ao DEP e DEP tratado com ácido nítrico e solventes orgânicos; e 2) em cultura de células de epitélio brônquico humano (BEAS-2B) expostas ao DEP e DEP tratado com hexano (DEP/HEX) para avaliar ativação de MAPK (ERK e JNK), citotoxidade, integridade de citoesqueleto, viscoelasticidade celular e expressão gênica de enzimas envolvidas no estresse oxidativo e apoptose. Os resultados mostraram que, em explantes de traqueia, o DEP causa aumento significativo em relação ao grupo controle na quantidade de muco ácido (p= 0,001), diminuição no muco neutro (p=0,001), diminuição de muco misto (p= 0,001), aumento de vacuolização (p= 0,001), aumento de apoptose (p=0,001), ora com aumento de pERK e diminuição de pJNK, e vice-versa. Os explantes submetidos à exposição ao DEP e DEP/MET aumentaram significativamente o muco ácido (p=0,01) e DEP/HEX provocou aumento da extrusão do muco (p=0,007), provavelmente devido à ação do enriquecimento inorgânico. Para as células BEAS-2B, nos resultados obtidos com células epiteliais expostas ao DEP e DEP/HEX, foram observadas alterações na membrana citoplasmática, mitocôndrias e citoesqueleto. As células expostas apenas ao DEP em baixas concentrações (15ug/mL) apresentaram alterações na expressão de genes envolvidos no apoptose (BCL-2 e Caspase-3 (p=0,05 e p=0,01) e estresse oxidativo [(SOD1 e SOD2 e GPx. p=0,01 )], e CYP1A1 ((p=0,01).


Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines have toxic properties that result from their physical and chemical characteristics. DEPs are able to activate intracellular signaling pathways and induce metabolic changes to cells and tissues of the human respiratory system. This dissertation sought to evaluate: 1) the profile of mucins and the epithelial changes to the tracheal explants of BALB/c mice exposed to both DEP and DEP treated with nitric acid and organic solvents (50 and 100 ug/mL; and 2) human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) in culture after their exposure to both DEP and DEP treated with hexane (DEP/HEX) at 100 ug/mL in order to determine MAPK (ERK/JNK) activation, cytotoxicity, cytoskeletal integrity, cell viscoelasticity and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. The results show that, in tracheal explants, DEP causes a significant increase (compared to the control) in the quantity of acidic mucus (p=0.001), a decrease in alkaline mucus (p=0.001), a decrease in mixed mucus (p=0.001), an increase in vacuolization (p=0.001), an increase in apoptosis (p=0.001), along with an increase in pERK and a decrease in pJNK, and vice versa. The explants that were exposed to DEP and DEP/MET were found to have significantly higher quantities of acidic mucus (p=0.01), and DEP/HEX caused an increase in mucus extrusion (p=0.007), which was likely due to inorganic enrichment. In the case of BEAS-2B cells, the results obtained from epithelial cells exposted to DEP and DEP/HEX revealed alterations in the cytoplasmic membrane, the mitochondria, and the cytoskeleton. The cells exposed to DEP alone at low concentrations (15 ug/mL) experienced alterations in the genes involved in apoptosis (BCL-2 and Caspase-3; p=0.05 and p=0.01, respectively), as well as oxidative stress [(SOD1, SOD2, and GPx; p=0.01 )], and changes to CYP1A1 (p=0.01).


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Hydrocarbons , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Metals , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Oxidative Stress , Toxicity , Vehicle Emissions
10.
Córdoba; s.n; 2015. 188 p. ilus, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-831442

ABSTRACT

El asma alérgica ha incrementado su prevalencia, constituyéndose como un problema mundial de salud. Factores ambientales derivados de la vida moderna han sido vinculados a este fenómeno a través de la hipótesis de la higiene; la cual postula que la vida urbana disminuye la potenciación de la inmunidad innata, lograda a través del reconocimiento de estímulos microbianos por los receptores Toll-like (TLRs), conduciendo a la mayor prevalencia de respuestas alérgicas. Las investigaciones en asma en el último siglo han tenido como objetivo la disminución de la respuesta inmune adaptativa Th2 asociada a las alergias; sin embargo han conseguido escasos avances terapéuticos. Actualmente, es creciente el número de evidencias que implican a los componentes estructurales de la vía aérea en el inicio y progresión del asma; no obstante su rol en la prevención de la inflamación alérgica no ha sido suficientemente evaluado. Por lo tanto, el presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral tuvo como objetivo general el estudio de la interacción de la inmunidad innata del epitelio bronquiolar y la inflamación alérgica del asma.


ABSTRACT: Recently, asthma rates have increased becoming a global health problem. The role of environmental factors in this increase, due to modern lifestyles, has been suggested by the hygiene hypothesis, which postulated that the urban hygienic conditions skip the early exposure to microbes hence that are clue to promote innate immune activation by signalling through the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and thus preventing the allergic responses. Even though many investigations on asthma have been focused on the reduction of the allergic Th2-nflammatory response in the last century, the therapeutic advances have been scarce. Nowadays, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of the airway epithelial cells on the origin and progression of asthma. However, the role of these cells in preventing the triggering of allergic inflammation has not been evaluated. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis was to study the interaction of innate immunity of bronchiolar epithelium and allergic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Airway Remodeling , Antigenic Modulation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Antigenic Modulation/immunology
11.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 739-743, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643707

ABSTRACT

The regulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered a unique property of phagocytic cells which use this ROS system to induce innate defense system that enables it to successfully combat the pathogens. However, the mechanisms for how respiratory mucosa might produce ROS against respiratory viral infection still need to be completely defined. Respiratory mucosa and nasal epithelium has been known as the first defense site of human respiratory tract which is highly exposed and vulnerable to environmental pathogens, including air-bone microbes, viruses and allergens. We are especially interested in the innate immune response to respiratory virus infection in nasal epithelium and how this response might be influenced by ROS generation after viral infection. The interferon (IFN) signaling system is perhaps the most critical pathway for antiviral defense and protective actions of IFNs rely on signaling through IFN receptors, transcription factors and IFN-stimulated genes or antiviral cytokines requiring for virus degradation and suppression of viral transcription or translation. We verified that both type I and type III IFN genes expression and secreted proteins were more highly induced after influenza A virus infection in nasal epithelium. We also propose that type III IFNs are the primary IFNs to mediate an anti-viral defense in nasal epithelium and more sensitively reacted with ROS which were produced after respiratory virus infection. We estimate that ROS are necessary for the innate immune response and trigger the induction of IFN-related innate immune response to resist respiratory virus infection in human respiratory mucosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergens , Critical Pathways , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Interferons , Nasal Mucosa , Phagocytes , Reactive Oxygen Species , Respiratory Mucosa , Respiratory System , Transcription Factors
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 424-429, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142457

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a rare case of concurrent gastric and pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma received eradication therapy and achieved complete remission. During follow-up, he developed de novo pulmonary MALT lymphoma as a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis, accompanied by recurrent gastric MALT lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the CDR3 region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene showed an overall polyclonal pattern with bands at 400 base pairs (bp) and 200 bp predominant in the pulmonary tissue, as well as two distinctive bands in the gastric tissue at 400 bp and 200 bp. This case suggests that multiorgan lymphomas are more likely to be independent from each other when they are far apart, involve different organ systems, and have independent precipitating factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/etiology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 424-429, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142456

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a rare case of concurrent gastric and pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma received eradication therapy and achieved complete remission. During follow-up, he developed de novo pulmonary MALT lymphoma as a sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis, accompanied by recurrent gastric MALT lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the CDR3 region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene showed an overall polyclonal pattern with bands at 400 base pairs (bp) and 200 bp predominant in the pulmonary tissue, as well as two distinctive bands in the gastric tissue at 400 bp and 200 bp. This case suggests that multiorgan lymphomas are more likely to be independent from each other when they are far apart, involve different organ systems, and have independent precipitating factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/etiology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications
14.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 207-213, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646933

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which are present in a variety of adult tissues and reside in essentially all post-natal organs and tissues. MSCs represent an important stem cell population with multi-potent capabilities which may have high utility for translational clinical applications. MSCs can be isolated from a number of adult tissues and differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages both in vitro and in vivo, such as bone, cartilage, adipose tissue, and muscle. Because of their capacities of differentiation, MSCs have emerged as a promising source for therapeutic applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In addition to their multi-lineage potential, MSCs have been shown to possess the unique ability to suppress immune response and modulate inflammation. MSCs can inhibit natural killer cell function, modulate dendritic cell maturation, and suppress the allogeneic T-cell response by alternating the cytokine secretion profile of dendritic cells and T-cells induced by an allogeneic immune reaction. Therefore, MSCs have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this article, I review recent experimental data and discuss about the application of MSCs in rhinologic fields.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Adipose Tissue , Adult Stem Cells , Asthma , Cartilage , Dendritic Cells , Immunosuppression Therapy , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Nasal Polyps , Nerve Regeneration , Olfaction Disorders , Regenerative Medicine , Respiratory Mucosa , Stem Cells , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Engineering
15.
Korean Journal of Perinatology ; : 22-26, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120731

ABSTRACT

Congenital lingual cyst is rare and there has been no prior case report about prenatally detected lingual cyst in Korea. When a huge oral cyst is observed at prenatal period and can cause life-threatening airway obstruction at birth, ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is needed to secure the airway. Herein we present a baby with a prenatally detected huge oral cyst. He was delivered safely assisting EXIT procedure and underwent an operation for resection of the cyst from his tongue. The oral cyst was diagnosed as a lingual cyst with rare histologic type consisting mixed gastrointestinal and respiratory epithelium.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Korea , Mouth , Parturition , Respiratory Mucosa , Tongue
16.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1650-1667, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329229

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the value of ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT in evaluating bronchial mucosa involvement in patients with saroidosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was conducted among 6 sarcoidosis patients with and 14 patients without bronchial mucosa involvement to collect the data including the standard uptake value (SUVMax/Mean) of ¹⁸F-FDG, serum angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE), and proportion of lymphocytes and CD4⁺/CD8 ⁺ T lymphocyte ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The lung focal SUV(Max/Mean) was higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement than those without (7.04 ± 5.83/5.00 ± 4.69 vs 5.68 ± 3.66/3.82 ± 2.39), but such differences were not statistically significant (P=0.565/0.495). The SUV(Max/Mean) of the hilum of the lung and the mediastina lymph nodes were significantly higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement (13.28 ± 5.57/10.48 ± 4.43 vs 6.20 ± 1.77/4.52 ± 1.43, P=0.0003/0.0002; 13.84 ± 4.35/9.69 ± 2.74 vs 7.16 ± 2.52/5.28 ± 1.77, P=0.0004/0.0004). The level of sACE and CD4⁺/CD8 ⁺ T lymphocyte ratio in BALF were also significantly higher in patients with bronchial mucosa involvement (60.58 ± 16.3 vs 49.16 ± 13.3 IU/L, P=0.045; 7.30 ± 5.0 vs 2.90 ± 3.1, P=0.026). The proportion of lymphocytes in BALF was comparable between the patients with and without bronchial mucosa involvement (44.10 ± 10.3% vs 35.30 ± 12.5%, P=0.148).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>For patients with saroidosis, ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT is useful in evaluating bronchial mucosa involvement, which is one of the key features of active sarcoidosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi , Pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Lymph Nodes , Pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Blood , Positron-Emission Tomography , Respiratory Mucosa , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoidosis , Diagnosis
17.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 523-530, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270570

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the model of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) malignant transformation induced by glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and define the different methylation genes at different stages.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>DNA was extracted at different 16HBE malignant phases and changes of genes DNA methylation at different stages were detected using Methylation chip of 'NimbleGen HG18 CpG Promoter Microarray Methylation'. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to observe the methylation status of some genes, and then compared with the control groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The result showed that GMA induced 16HBE morphorlogical transformation at the dose of 8 µg/mL, and cell exposed to GMA had 1374 genes in protophase, 825 genes in metaphase, 1149 genes in anaphase, respectively; 30 genes are all methylation in the 3 stages; 318 genes in protophase but not in metaphase and anaphase; 272 genes in metaphase but not in protophase and anaphase; 683 genes in anaphase but not in metaphase and protophase; 73 genes in protophase and metaphase but not in anaphase; 67 genes in protophase and anaphase but not in metaphase; 59 genes in metaphase and anaphase but not in protophase.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The pattern of DNA methylation could change in the process of 16HBE induced by GMA.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Bronchi , Cell Biology , Carcinogens , Toxicity , DNA Methylation , Epithelial Cells , Epoxy Compounds , Toxicity , Methacrylates , Toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Respiratory Mucosa , Cell Biology
18.
Rev. interdisciplin. estud. exp. anim. hum. (impr.) ; 5(único): 22-27, dezembro 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964711

ABSTRACT

Asma e rinite são condições clínicas que frequentemente coexistem em um mesmo paciente, com forte impacto na vida social e no desempenho escolar de crianças e adolescentes. A severidade de ambas as doenças é proporcional, estando a gravidade dos sintomas de rinite alérgica relacionada à necessidade de internações nas crises de asma. Estas doenças apresentam condições fisiopatológicas semelhantes que têm como característica a reação inflamatória que ocorre na mucosa de vias aéreas, resultante de complexas interações entre células inflamatórias, estruturais e mediadores químicos, independente da intensidade da manifestação clínica. A monitoração do grau da inflamação é de fundamental importância para o controle da asma e da rinite e, para tal, são considerados ideais, além de parâmetros clínicos, marcadores laboratoriais como contagem de células inflamatórias em lavado brônquico e de vias aéreas superiores, assim como medida de fração de óxido nítrico exalado (FeNO).


Asthma and rhinitis are medical conditions that often coexist in the same patient, with strong impact on social life and school performance of children and adolescents. The severity of both diseases is proportional, with the severity of symptoms of allergic rhinitis related to the need for hospitalization in asthma attacks. These diseases have similar pathophysiological conditions that are characterized by inflammatory reaction that occurs in the airway mucosa, resulting from complex interactions between inflammatory cells, structural and chemical mediators, regardless of the intensity of the clinical manifestation. Monitoring the degree of inflammation is critical for the control of asthma and rhinitis, and to that end, are considered ideal, in addition to clinical parameters, laboratory markers as inflammatory cell counts in bronchial lavage and upper airway, as well as as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO).


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/physiopathology , Rhinitis, Allergic/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide , Asthma/therapy , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy , Immunotherapy
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Oct; 50(5): 387-401
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150248

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the airborne poultry dust (particulate matter, PM)-induced respiratory tract inflammation, a common symptom in agricultural respiratory diseases. The study was based on the hypothesis that poultry PM would induce the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by respiratory epithelial cells under the upstream regulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation and subsequent formation of cyclooxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-catalyzed arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites (eicosanoids). Human lung epithelial cells (A549) in culture were treated with the poultry PM (0.1-1.0 mg) for different lengths of time, following which PLA2 activity, release of eicosanoids and secretion of IL-8 in cells were determined. Poultry PM (1.0 mg/ml) caused a significant activation of PLA2 in a time-dependent manner (15-60 min), which was significantly attenuated by the calcium-chelating agents, cPLA2-specific inhibitor (AACOCF3) and antioxidant (vitamin C) in A549 cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced the release of COX- and LOX-catalyzed eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxane A2 and leukotrienes B4 and C4) and upstream activation of AA LOX in the cells. Poultry PM also significantly induced release of IL-8 by the cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated by the calcium chelating agents, antioxidants and COX- and LOX-specific inhibitors. The current study for the first time revealed that the poultry PM-induced IL-8 release from the respiratory epithelial cells was regulated upstream by reactive oxygen species, cPLA2-, COX- and LOX-derived eicosanoid lipid signal mediators.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Egtazic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Egtazic Acid/pharmacology , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Lipoxygenases/metabolism , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Particulate Matter/pharmacology , Phospholipases A2, Cytosolic/antagonists & inhibitors , Phospholipases A2, Cytosolic/metabolism , Poultry , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Solvents/chemistry , Time Factors
20.
Clinics ; 68(5): 702-709, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Advances in graft reepithelialization and revascularization have renewed interest in airway transplantation. This study aims to determine whether topically applied preservation solutions can ameliorate ischemic injury to tracheal grafts. We analyzed 1) the effects of cold ischemia on the mucociliary clearance of tracheal grafts and 2) the impact of topically applied preservation solutions on the effects of cold ischemia on mucociliary clearance. METHOD: Tracheal segments (n=217) from 109 male Wistar rats were harvested, submerged in low-potassium-dextran-glucose, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, or saline solution (saline group), and stored at 4°C for 6, 10, 16, or 24 hours. A control group (not submerged) was analyzed immediately after harvesting. In situ mucociliary transport and ciliary beating frequency were measured using a stroboscope. Epithelial integrity, cellular infiltration, and mucus storage were quantified by light microscopy and image analysis software, along with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: 1) The effects of cold ischemia: in situ mucociliary transport and ciliary beating frequency were greater in the control group than after cold ischemia. Microscopic analysis results were similar between groups. 2) The effects of preservation solutions: there was no difference between the low-potassium-dextran-glucose, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, and saline groups in functional or light microscopy analysis. The saline group presented stronger signs of ischemic injury with transmission electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Cold ischemia diminished the mucociliary clearance of the tracheal respiratory epithelium. Topically applied preservation solutions did not ameliorate the injury caused by cold ischemia to the tracheal respiratory epithelium. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cold Ischemia/methods , Organ Preservation Solutions/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mucociliary Clearance/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Trachea/transplantation , Trachea/ultrastructure
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