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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 184-190, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a pathological process that involves cardiac muscle tissue death. Intravenous thrombolysis with fibrinolytics or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), an invasive technique, can be performed for tissue revascularization. PCI has been preferred as compared to non-invasive methods, although few studies have described its use in Brazil. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze data on the use of primary PCI and investigate the relevance of hospitalizations for the treatment of STEMI in the country. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Unified Health system (SUS) Department of Informatics (DATASUS) from 2010 to 2019 was conducted. Results: Hospitalizations for STEMI represented 0.6% of all hospital admissions in Brazil in the analyzed period, 0.9% of hospital costs, and 2.1% of deaths. The number of hospitalizations due to STEMI was 659,811, and 82,793 for PCIs. Length of hospital stay was 36.0% shorter and mortality rate was 53.3% lower in PCI. The mean cost of PCI was 3.5-fold higher than for treatment of STEMI. Conclusions: Data on hospitalizations for STEMI treatment in Brazil revealed high hospitalization and mortality rates, elevated costs, and long hospital stay. Although primary PCI is a more expensive and less used technique than other methods, it can reduce the length of hospital stay and mortality in the treatment of STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Disease/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 14-21, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360123

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A fetuína-A é um fator anti-inflamatório e anticalcificação envolvido no curso da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Em alinhamento com essas funções, investigou-se a fetuína-A como marcador de risco cardiovascular em vários estudos. Porém, a associação entre a fetuína-A e o prognóstico dos pacientes com DAC ainda é controversa. Objetivos O presente estudo foi conduzido para identificar a associação entre o nível de fetuína-A sérica e doença cardiovascular (DCV) de longo prazo e a mortalidade global por infarto do agudo do miocárdio por supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (STEMI). Métodos Foram cadastrados no estudo cento e oitenta pacientes consecutivos com STEMI. A população do estudo foi dividida em subgrupos (mais baixo, ≤288 µg/ml; e mais alto, >288 µg/ml) de acordo com a mediana do nível de fetuína-A. Dados de acompanhamento clínico foram obtidos por contato telefônico anual com pacientes ou familiares. As causas das mortes também foram confirmadas pelo banco de dados de saúde nacional. P-valores bilaterais <0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Durante um acompanhamento médio de 10 anos, foram registradas 71 mortes, das quais 62 foram devidas a DCV. Identificou-se um índice de mortalidade global e por DCV significativamente mais alto no grupo com nível de fetuína-A mais baixo que no grupo com nível de fetuína-A mais alto (44% versus 24%, p= 0,005; 48% versus 31%, p= 0,022, respectivamente). Nas análises de risco proporcionais por regressão de Cox, detectou-se que a fetuína-A era um preditor independente de mortalidade global e por DCV. Conclusões A baixa concentração de fetuína-A está associada ao prognóstico de longo prazo ruim pós-STEMI, independentemente de fatores de risco cardiovascular tradicionais. Nossos achados fortaleceram estudos prévios demonstrando consistentemente o papel determinante dos mediadores anti-inflamatórios em síndromes coronárias agudas.


Abstract Background Fetuin-A is an anti-inflammatory and anti-calcification factor involved in the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). In line with these functions, fetuin-A has been investigated as a cardiovascular risk marker in many studies. However, the association between fetuin-A and the prognosis of CAD patients is still controversial. Objectives The present study was conducted to identify the association between serum fetuin-A level and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods One hundred eigthy consecutive patients with STEMI were enrolled in the study. The study population was divided into subgroups (lower, ≤288 µg/ml; and higher, >288 µg/ml) according to the median fetuin-A level. Clinical follow-up data was obtained by annual contact with the patients or family members by telephone. The causes of death were also confirmed by the national health database. Two-sided p-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results During a median follow-up of 10 years, 71 deaths were recorded , 62 of whom died from CVD. Both CVD and all-cause mortality were found to be significantly higher in the lower fetuin-A group than the higher fetuin-A group (44% vs 24%, p= 0.005; 48% vs 31%, p= 0.022, respectively). In Cox regression proportional hazard analyses, fetuin-A was found to be an independent predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality. Conclusions Low fetuin-A concentration is associated with a poor long-term prognosis after STEMI, regardless of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings have strengthened previous studies that consistently demonstrate the determining role of anti-inflammatory mediators in acute coronary syndromes.


Subject(s)
Humans , alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein/analysis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(1): 37-41, março 2021. tab., graf.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361703

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar os valores da amplitude de distribuição das hemácias em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea primária e avaliar sua associação com resultados adversos. Métodos: Os níveis de amplitude de distribuição das hemácias foram medidos em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST antes da intervenção coronária percutânea primária e divididos conforme valor das amplitudes de distribuição das hemácias. Após a alta hospitalar, os pacientes foram acompanhados por até 3 anos para a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares adversos maiores e mortalidade a longo prazo. Resultados: Foram incluídos 893 pacientes com idade média de 60,7 (±12,5) anos, e 66,3% eram do sexo masculino. Na análise multivariada, a hemácia permaneceu como preditor independente de mortalidade a longo prazo. A área sob a curva para mortalidade a longo prazo foi de 0,64 (IC95% 0,61-0,67; p<0,0001). Amplitudes de distribuição das hemácias <13,3 tiveram valor preditivo negativo de 87,1% para mortalidade por todas as causas. Conclusão: Um valor elevado de amplitude de distribuição das hemácias é um preditor independente de mortalidade a longo prazo e eventos cardiovasculares adversos maiores em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea primária. Amplitudes de distribuição das hemácias baixas têm baixo tem um excelente valor preditivo negativo para mortalidade a longo prazo. (AU)


Objective: To determine red cell distribution width values in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention and to evaluate its association with adverse outcomes. Methods: Red cell distribution width levels were measured in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients before primary percutaneous coronary intervention and divided into low and high red cell distribution width. After discharge, patients were followed for up to 3 years for the occurrence of long-term major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Results: A total of 893 patientes were with a mean age of 60.7 (±12.5) years, 66.3% were male. In multivariate analysis, the red cell distribution width remained as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. The area under the curve for long-term mortality was 0.64 (95%CI0.61-0.67; p<0.0001). Red cell distribution width<13.3 had a negative predictive value of 87.1% for all-cause mortality. Conclusion: High number of red cell distribution width is an independent predictor of long-term mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. A low number of red cell distribution width has an excellent negative predictive value for long-term mortality. Patients with sustained elevated levels of red cell distribution width have worse outcomes at long-term follow-up. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Erythrocyte Indices , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/blood , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Blood Cell Count , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Comorbidity , Cohort Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(1): 53-59, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154535

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The use of an adequate door-to-balloon time (≤ 90 minutes) is crucial in improving the quality of care provided to patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objective To determine the door-to-balloon time in the management of STEMI patients in a cardiovascular emergency department in a hospital of northern Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study based on review of medical records. A total of 109 patients with STEMI admitted to the emergency department of a referral cardiology hospital in Pará State, Brazil, between May 2017 and December 2017. Correlations of the door-to-balloon time with length of hospital stay and mortality rate were assessed, as well as whether the time components of the door-to-balloon time affected the delay in performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Quantitative variables were analyzed by Spearman correlation and the G test was used for categorical variables. A p<0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results Median door-to-balloon time was 104 minutes. No significant correlation was found between door-to-balloon time and length of hospital stay or deaths, but significant correlations were found between door-to-balloon time and door-to-ECG time (p<0.001) and ECG-to-activation (of an interventional cardiologist) time (p<0.001). Conclusion The door-to-balloon time was longer the recommended and was not correlated with the length of hospital stay or in-hospital mortality. Door-to-ECG time and ECG-to-activation time contributed to the delay in performing the primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Length of Stay
5.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(3): e201, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1366972

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las medidas sanitarias de emergencia impuestas para contener el SARS-CoV-2 pueden tener efectos colaterales en la atención de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Los datos mundiales de los países sobre la incidencia de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST) durante la pandemia son fundamentales para la política sanitaria futura. Objetivos: nuestro objetivo fue determinar si las medidas sanitarias de emergencia impuestas en Uruguay tuvieron un impacto directo en la calidad de la atención en la reperfusión del IAMCEST. Métodos: realizamos un estudio retrospectivo poblacional de todo el país para determinar la incidencia de reperfusión de IAMCEST (fibrinolíticos e intervención coronaria percutánea, FBL e ICP respectivamente) durante el período sanitario de emergencia. La tasa de incidencia de la reperfusión, el tiempo hasta la reperfusión y la mortalidad asociada se recopilaron de la base de datos del Fondo Nacional de Recursos (organización gubernamental única a cargo de la financiación de la reperfusión del IAMCEST en Uruguay). Estos mismos datos se recuperaron para 2019, 2018 y 2017. Resultados: se trataron durante el periodo de estudio del 2020 (136 pacientes) en comparación con 2019 (180 pacientes), 2018 (182 pacientes) y 2017 (174 pacientes). Se realizó FBL como tratamiento único en 5,1%, 7,2%, 7,7% y 12,1%, respectivamente. La razón de tasa de incidencia de IAMCEST durante el período estudiado en 2020 fue de 0,7 (IC95%: 0,59-0,91). La mediana del tiempo hasta la reperfusión fue similar en comparación con 2019, 2018 y 2017 (p = 0,4). No hubieron diferencias en la mortalidad a 15 dias entre los años evaluados.


Introduction: the emergency health measures imposed to contain SARS-CoV-2 can have collateral effects in the care of cardiovascular diseases. Global country data on the incidence of ST acute myocardial infarction during the pandemic are critical for future health policy. Objectives: our objective was to determine if the emergency health measures imposed in Uruguay had a direct impact on the quality of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction care. Methods: we carried out a population-based retrospective study of the entire country to determine the incidence of reperfusion of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (fibrinolytic and percutaneous) during the emergency health period. The incidence rate of reperfusion, time to reperfusion, and associated mortality were collected from the Fondo Nacional de Recursos (the only government organization in charge of the reperfusion of ST elevation myocardial infarction in Uruguay). These same data were recovered for 2019, 2018 and 2017. Results: fewer patients were treated in 2020 (136 patients) compared to 2019 (180 patients), 2018 (182 patients), and 2017 (174 patients). Fibrinolytics was performed as the only treatment in 5.1%, 7.2%, 7.7% and 12.1% respectively. The proportion in incidence rate of ST elevation myocardial infarction during the study period in 2020 was lower (0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.91). The median time to reperfusion was similar compared to 2019, 2018, and 2017 (p = 0.4). Mortality at 15 days was similar in 2017 (8%), 2018 (6%), 2019 (11%) and 2020 (8%). Conclusion: emergency health measures were associated with a decrease in the incidence of reperfusion of ST elevation myocardial infarction without affecting the time to reperfusion and mortality.


Introdução: as medidas emergenciais de saúde impostas para conter o SARS-CoV-2 podem ter efeitos colaterais no cuidado das doenças cardiovasculares. Os dados globais do país sobre a incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio durante a pandemia são essenciais para a futura política de saúde. Objetivos: nosso objetivo foi determinar se as medidas de saúde de emergência impostas no Uruguai tiveram um impacto direto na qualidade do atendimento infarto agudo do miocárdio. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de base populacional em todo o país para determinar a incidência de reperfusão do infarto agudo do miocárdio (fibrinolítico e percutâneo) durante o período de emergência de saúde. A taxa de incidência de reperfusão, tempo de reperfusão e mortalidade associada foram coletados do Fondo Nacional de Recursos (a única organização governamental responsável pela reperfusão de infarto agudo do miocárdio no Uruguai). Esses mesmos dados foram recuperados para 2019, 2018 e 2017. Resultados: menos pacientes foram tratados em 2020 (136 pacientes) em comparação com 2019 (180 pacientes), 2018 (182 pacientes) e 2017 (174 pacientes). Fibrinolisis foi realizado como o único tratamento em 5,1%, 7,2%, 7,7% e 12,1%, respectivamente. A proporção na taxa de incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio durante o período estudado em 2020 foi menor (0,74, IC 95%: 0,59-0,91). O tempo médio para reperfusão foi semelhante em comparação com 2019, 2018 e 2017 (p = 0,4). A mortalidade em 15 dias foi semelhante em 2017 (8%), 2018 (6%), 2019 (11%) e 2020 (8%). Conclusão: as medidas emergenciais de saúde foram associadas à diminuição da incidência de reperfusão do infarto agudo do miocárdio, sem afetar o tempo de reperfusão e a mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 372-378, sep.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249934

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: México es el país con mayor mortalidad por infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAM CEST), por lo que el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social desarrolló el protocolo de atención para los servicios de urgencias denominado Código Infarto. En este artículo se discuten aspectos de la medicina traslacional con una perspectiva bioética e integral. Objetivo: Analizar el protocolo Código Infarto desde la perspectiva de la bioética traslacional. Método: Se realizó una aproximación centrada en el problema a través del equilibrio reflexivo, así como la aplicación del método integral para el discernimiento ético. Resultados: El protocolo de atención para los servicios de urgencias Código Infarto se rige por la medicina basada en la evidencia y la medicina basada en valores; se orienta por el principio de integridad que considera las seis dimensiones de la calidad para la atención de pacientes con IAM CEST. Conclusión: El protocolo supera algunos determinantes sociales adversos que afectan la atención médica del IAM CEST, disminuye la mortalidad, la carga económica global de la enfermedad y desarrolla una medicina de excelencia de alto alcance social.


Abstract Introduction: Mexico is the country with the highest mortality due to ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), and the IMSS has therefore developed the protocol of care for emergency departments called Código Infarto (Infarction Code). In this article, aspects of translational medicine are discussed with a bioethical and comprehensive perspective. Objective: To analyze the Código Infarto protocol from the perspective of translational bioethics. Method: A problem-centered approach was carried out through reflective equilibrium (or Rawls' method), as well as by applying the integral method for ethical discernment. Results: The protocol of care for emergency services Código Infarto is governed by evidence-based medicine and value-based medicine; it is guided by a principle of integrity that considers six dimensions of quality for the care of patients with STEMI. Conclusion: The protocol overcomes some adverse social determinants that affect STEMI medical care, reduces mortality and global economic disease burden, and develops medicine of excellence with high social reach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion/ethics , Clinical Protocols , Bioethical Issues , Emergency Service, Hospital/ethics , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stakeholder Participation , Mexico
7.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(4): 310-320, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139191

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja" de Baracoa, Guantánamo, hasta la fecha, no se ha caracterizado la morbilidad y mortalidad por infarto agudo del miocardio. Objetivo: Caracterizar la morbilidad y mortalidad por infarto agudo del miocardio en el citado hospital durante el trienio 2017-2019. Método: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte transversaldel total de pacientes infartados en el trienio 2017-2019 (n=75). Se estudió la edad, sexo, características del infarto (semiología del dolor, localización, clasificación pronóstica-clínica, complicaciones, estado al egreso y causas de muerte). Resultados: El 72,0 % de los pacientes fueron hombres y el 37,3 % tenía 50 y 59 años de edad. La letalidad representó el 14,7 %. Fue más común el infarto anterior del ventrículo izquierdo (53,4 %). El 28,0 % presentó una clase IV, según criterios de Killip-Kimball y de Forrester. El 49,3 % mostró alto riesgo según la escala GRACE. El 88,0 % tuvo complicaciones, la más común del tipo mecánica (60,0 %). La encefalopatía isquémica-hipóxica posparada cardiorrespiratoria secundaria a fibrilación ventricular (54,5 %) fue la causa directa de muerte más frecuente. Conclusiones: Se elabora un referente que describe el infarto agudo del miocardio en el contexto territorial.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Morbidity and mortality by myocardial infarction has not been characterized so far in the General Teaching Hospital "Dr. Octavio de la Concepcion y la Pedraja" in Baracoa, Guantanamo. Objective: Tocharacterize the morbidity and mortality by myocardial infarction on the institution in the triennium 2017-2019. Method: A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the patients diagnosed with infarction in the triennium 2017-2019 (n=75). Were taken into account the following variables: age, gender, clinical characteristics of infarction (painful symptoms, location, prognostic and clinical classification, complications, status of the patient at the time of discharge and cause of death). Results: 72.0 % of the patients were male, and the 37.3 % had an age ranging from 50 to 59 years old. Lethality represented a 14.7 %. The anterior left ventricle wall infarction was the most common (53.4 %). 28.0 % presented a class IV type, according to the Killip-Kimball and the Forrester classifications. 49.3 % presented high risks according to the GRACE score. 88.0 % had complications, the most common of them being the mechanical type (60.0 %). The most common cause of death was the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy caused by secondary atrial fibrillation (54.5 %). Conclusions: A reference to describe the myocardial infarction in the province was elaborated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Morbidity , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/classification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 948-957, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Backgrund: New-onset atrial fibrillation complicating acute myocardial infarction represents an important challenge, with prognostic significance. Objective: To study the incidence, impact on therapy and mortality, and to identify predictors of development of new-onset atrial fibrillation during hospital stay for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: We studied all patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction included consecutively, between 2010 and 2017, in a Portuguese national registry and compared two groups: 1 - no atrial fibrillation and 2 - new-onset atrial fibrillation. We adjusted a logistic regression model data analysis to assess the impact of new-onset atrial fibrillation on in-hospital mortality and to identify independent predictors of its development. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We studied 6325 patients, and new-onset atrial fibrillation was found in 365 (5.8%). Reperfusion was successfully accomplished in both groups with no difference regarding type of reperfusion. In group 2, therapy with beta-blockers and angiotensin-conversion enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) was less frequent, 20.6% received anticoagulation at discharge and 16.1% were on triple therapy. New-onset atrial fibrillation was associated with more in-hospital complications and mortality. However, it was not found as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. We identified age, prior stroke, inferior myocardial infarction and complete atrioventricular block as independent predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation. Conclusion: New-onset atrial fibrillation remains a frequent complication of myocardial infarction and is associated with higher rate of complications and in-hospital mortality. Age, prior stroke, inferior myocardial infarction and complete atrioventricular block were independent predictors of new onset atrial fibrillation. Only 36.7% of the patients received anticoagulation at discharge.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação auricular de novo no contexto de infarto agudo do miocárdio representa um importante desafio com potencial impacto prognóstico. Objetivo: Determinar a incidência, impacto na terapêutica e mortalidade, e identificar possíveis preditores do aparecimento de fibrilação auricular de novo durante o internamento por infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST. Métodos: Estudamos todos os pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST inseridos consecutivamente de 2010 a 2017 num registro nacional português e comparamos dois grupos: 1 - sem fibrilação auricular; 2- com fibrilação auricular de novo. Efetuamos análise com modelo de regressão logística para avaliar o impacto de fibrilação auricular de novo na mortalidade intra-hospitalar e identificar preditores independentes para o seu aparecimento. Para teste de hipóteses, considerou-se significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Estudamos 6325 pacientes, dos quais 365 (5.8%) apresentaram fibrilação auricular de novo. Não houve diferença no número de pacientes reperfundidos nem na estratégia de reperfusão. No grupo 2, terapêutica com betabloqueadores e IECA/ARA foi menos frequente, 20.6% tiveram alta sob anticoagulação oral e 16.1% sob terapêutica tripla. A fibrilação auricular de novo associou-se a maior incidência de complicações e mortalidade intra-hospitalar, mas não foi preditor independente de mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Identificamos idade, acidente vascular cerebral prévio, infarto inferior e bloqueio auriculoventricular completo como preditores independentes de fibrilação auricular de novo. Conclusões: A fibrilação auricular de novo continua sendo uma complicação frequente do infarto agudo do miocárdio, estando associada a aumento das complicações e mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Apenas 36.7% desses pacientes teve alta sob anticoagulação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stents/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Portugal/epidemiology , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion/mortality , Incidence , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Hospital Mortality , Coronary Angiography , Thrombectomy/mortality , Stroke/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 251-256, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040517

ABSTRACT

Se evaluaron las características clínicas, demoras, resultados y morbimortalidad de 1142 pacientes tratados con angioplastia primaria (AP) dentro de las 36 horas del infarto, incluidos en el registro ARGEN-IAM-ST, de carácter prospectivo, transversal, multicéntrico y de alcance nacional. Edades: 61.2 ± 12 años, 88% varones, 20% diabéticos y 58% hipertensos; 77.6% en Killip y Kimball I y 6.2% en shock cardiogénico. El tiempo desde el inicio del dolor hasta el ingreso fue de 153 (75-316) minutos, y puerta-balón de 91 (60-150) minutos. Los casos derivados (17%) tuvieron mayor demora de ingreso, 200 minutos (195-420; p = 0.0001) y mayor tiempo puerta-balón, 113 minutos (55-207); p = 0.099. En 47.6% de los casos la AP se hizo en arteria descendente anterior, en 36.4% a coronaria derecha, en 14.8% a circunfleja y en 1.2% al tronco de coronaria izquierda; en 95% con stent (29% farmacológico). El 95% fue exitoso. El 1.3% presentó angina post-infarto (APIAM), 1.3% re-infarto, 8.8% shock y 3.2% sangrado. Se asociaron a mayor mortalidad edad > 64 años (OR 6.2 (IC 95%: 3.2-12), p < 0.001), diabetes (OR 2.5, IC 95% 1.6-3.9, p < 0.001), re-infarto o APIAM (OR 3.3, IC 95% 1.3-8.3, p = 0.011) y shock (OR 29.2 (15.6-54.8), p < 0.001). La mortalidad hospitalaria del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST tratado con AP fue de 7.6%. La derivación se asoció a demora de tratamiento. El shock cardiogénico y la isquemia post-infarto se asociaron a alta mortalidad. No hubo variables del procedimiento asociadas a mortalidad.


Our objective was to evaluate clinical characteristics, results and morbi-mortality in primary angioplasty (PA), of patients treated with PA within 36 hours of a myocardial infarction (MI), included in a prospective, transversal, multicenter and national survey (ARGEN-IAM-ST). A total of 1142 patients treated with PA were registered, 61.2 ± 12 years old, 88% male, 20% diabetics and 58% with hypertension; 77.6% in Killip Kimball I and 6.2% in cardiogenic shock. The time from the onset of pain until admission was 153 (75-316) minutes, and door-balloon of 91 (60-150) minutes. The transferred patients (17%) showed longer delay to admission, 200 minutes (195-420; p = 0.0001) and door-to-balloon 113.5 minutes (55-207); p = 0.099. In 47.6% of the cases, the PA was made in the anterior descending artery, in 36.4% in the right coronary artery, in 14.8% in the circumflex artery and in 1.2% in the left coronary artery; in 95% with stent (29% pharmacological); 95% was successful, 1.3% presented post-infarct angina (APIAM), 1.3% re-infarct, 8.8% shock and 3.2% bleeding. Age > 64 years (OR 6.2 (95% CI: 3.2-12), p <0.001), diabetes (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.9, p < 0.001), re-infarction or APIAM (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.3, p = 0.011) and shock (OR 29.2 (15.6-54.8), p < 0.001) were independently associated with higher mortality. In-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation treated with PA was 7.6%. Transference from other center was associated with delay in the admission and treatment. Cardiogenic shock and post-infarct ischemia were associated with high mortality. There were no procedural variables associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 402-407, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001282

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Studies have shown the benefits of rapid reperfusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction. However, there are still delays during transport of patients to primary angioplasty. Objective: To evaluate whether there is a difference in total ischemic time between patients transferred from other hospitals compared to self-referred patients in our institution. Methods: Historical cohort study including patients with acute myocardial infarction treated between April 2014 and September 2015. Patients were divided into transferred patients (group A) and self-referred patients (group B). Clinical characteristics of the patients were obtained from our electronic database and the transfer time was estimated based on the time the e-mail requesting patient's transference was received by the emergency department. Results: The sample included 621 patients, 215 in group A and 406 in group B. Population characteristics were similar in both groups. Time from symptom onset to arrival at the emergency department was significantly longer in group A (385 minutes vs. 307 minutes for group B, p < 0.001) with a transfer delay of 147 minutes. There was a significant relationship between the travel distance and increased transport time (R = 0.55, p < 0.001). However, no difference in mortality was found between the groups. Conclusion: In patients transferred from other cities for treatment of infarction, transfer time was longer than that recommended, especially in longer travel distances.


Resumo Fundamento: Estudos mostram o benefício da terapia de reperfusão rápida no infarto agudo do miocárdio. No entanto, ainda ocorrem atrasos durante o transporte de pacientes para angioplastia primária. Objetivo: Definir se existe uma diferença no tempo total de isquemia entre pacientes transferidos de outro hospital comparados aos que procuram o serviço espontaneamente. Método: Estudo de coorte histórico, incluindo pacientes atendidos com infarto entre abril de 2014 e setembro de 2015. Os pacientes foram divididos em pacientes transferidos (grupo A) e por demanda espontânea (grupo B). As características clínicas dos pacientes foram retiradas do banco de dados de infarto e o tempo de transferência foi estimado tendo como base o correio eletrônico de acordo com o horário de contato. O nível de significância adotado foi um p < 0,05%. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 621 pacientes, 215 no grupo A e 406 no grupo B. As características populacionais foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. O delta T foi significativamente maior no grupo de pacientes transferidos (385 minutos vs. 307 minutos para o grupo B, p < 0,001) com um atraso decorrente do transporte de 147 minutos. Houve relação significativa da distância de transferência e aumento do tempo de transporte (R = 0,55; p < 0,001). Entretanto, não houve diferença na mortalidade entre os grupos. Conclusão: Pacientes transferidos de outras cidades para tratamento de infarto tem Delta T de transferência acima do recomendado, com tempo ainda mais longo quanto maior a distância a ser percorrida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Angioplasty/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors , Brazil , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Angioplasty/mortality , Statistics, Nonparametric , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Geography
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 138-146, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A subset of patients who take antiplatelet therapy continues to have recurrent cardiovascular events which may be due to antiplatelet resistance. The effect of low response to aspirin or clopidogrel on prognosis was examined in different patient populations. Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of poor response to dual antiplatelet therapy and its relationship with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in young patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: In our study, we included 123 patients under the age of 45 with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention. A screening procedure to determine both aspirin and clopidogrel responsiveness was performed on the fifth day of admission. We followed a 2x2 factorial design and patients were allocated to one of four groups, according to the presence of aspirin and/or clopidogrel resistance. Patients were followed for a three-year period. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We identified 48% of resistance against one or more antiplatelet in young patients with STEMI. More MACE was observed in patients with poor response to dual platelet therapy or to clopidogrel compared those with adequate response to the dual therapy (OR: 1.875, 1.144-3.073, p < 0.001; OR: 1.198, 0.957-1.499, p = 0.036, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that poor responders to dual therapy had 3.3 times increased odds for three-year MACE than those with adequate response to the dual therapy. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to dual antiplatelet therapy in terms of increased risk for cardiovascular adverse events especially in young patients with STEMI.


Resumo Fundamento: Um subgrupo de pacientes que recebem terapia antiplaquetária continua a apresentar eventos cardiovasculares recorrentes, possivelmente por resistência aos medicamentos. O efeito da baixa resposta à aspirina ou ao clopidogrel sobre o prognóstico foi avaliado em diferentes populações. Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de baixa resposta à terapia antiplaquetária e sua relação com eventos adversos cardiovasculares em pacientes jovens com infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCST). Métodos: Em nosso estudo, incluímos 123 pacientes com IAMCST e idade inferior a 45 anos, submetidos à intervenção percutânea primária. No quinto dia após admissão hospitalar, os pacientes foram rastreados quanto à capacidade de resposta à aspirina e ao clopidogrel. Seguimos um delineamento fatorial 2x2 e os pacientes foram alocados a um dos quatro grupos formados segundo presença de resistência à aspirina e/ou ao clopidogrel. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por um período de três anos. Um valor de P inferior a 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Nós identificamos 48% de resistência a um ou mais agentes antiplaquetários em pacientes jovens com IAMCST. Houve maior ocorrência de MACE em pacientes com baixa resposta à terapia antiplaquetária dupla ou ao clopidogrel em comparação àqueles com resposta adequada à terapia dupla (OR: 1,875; 1,144-3,073; p < 0,001; OR: 1,198; 0,957-1,499; p = 0.036, respectivamente). Após ajuste quanto a possíveis fatores de confusão, pacientes com baixa resposta à terapia dupla apresentaram risco 3,3 vezes maior para MACE em três anos em comparação àqueles com resposta adequada a essa terapia. Conclusão: Atenção deve ser dada à resistência à terapia antiplaquetária dupla quanto ao risco aumentado de eventos adversos cardiovasculares, especialmente em pacientes jovens com IAMCST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
12.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(3): 176-182, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-977999

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción Las fallas de los puentes venosos pueden llegar casi al 50% a 10 años y la angioplastía percutánea es el tratamiento de elección. Estos pacientes constituyen un grupo de muy alto riesgo cardiovascular con tasas de mortalidad cercanas al 30% en el mediano plazo. Objetivo Caracterizar a la población sometida a angioplastia de puentes coronarios (APC) y comparar su mortalidad con un grupo pareado de pacientes intervenidos con Infarto agudo al miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST). Métodos Estudio retrospectivo de tipo Caso-Control que incluyó a pacientes con APC entre los años 2010-2016 comparados con igual número de controles con IAMCEST pareados por edad y sexo. Se analizaron características clínicas del procedimiento y mortalidad, tanto global como de causa cardiaca usando T Student, Chi2 y curvas de Kaplan Meier. Resultados Se identificaron 63 pacientes sometidos a APC (total 76 procedimientos). Los puentes más comúnmente intervenidos fueron a la arteria circunfleja 48,7%. Hubo 18 (28,5%) pacientes fallecidos en el grupo APC y 6 (9,5%) pacientes en el grupo con IAM-CEST, lo que resultó en un exceso de mortalidad global en pacientes con APC (HR 3,02; IC 95% 1,11 - 8,22, p=0,02). Esta diferencia se debió a una mayor mortalidad de causa no cardiaca en el grupo APC (12,7% (n=8) vs 3,2% (n= 2) [p=0,04]). Conclusión Los pacientes sometidos a APC presentan una mortalidad 3 veces mayor que aquellos pacientes con IAMCEST, principalmente derivada de una mayor mortalidad no cardíaca.


Abstract: Background Failure rates of saphenous vein grafts can reach almost 50% at 10 years and percutaneous angioplasty is the treatment of choice. This is a group with a very high cardiovascular risk, with mid-term mortality rates close to 30%. Aim To describe the population undergoing coronary bypass angioplasty (CBA) and compare their mortality with an age and gender matched group of patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI) Methods This was a retrospective case-control study including patients with CBA between 2010-2016. This group was compared with the same number of controls with STEMI matched by age and sex. Clinical characteristics, procedure variables and overall mortality as well as cardiac mortality were analyzed using Student's T test, Chi squared test and Kaplan Meier curves (significance set at p <0.05). Results: We identified 63 patients undergoing CBA (76 procedures). The most commonly intervened bypasses were to the circumflex artery (48.7%). There were 18 (28.5%) patients who died in the CBA group and 6 (9.5%) patients in the STEMI group, which resulted in an excess of global mortality risk in patients with CBA (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.11 - 8.22, p = 0.02). This difference was driven by a higher non-cardiac mortality in the CBA group (12.7% (n = 8) vs 3.2% (n = 2) [p = 0.04]) Conclusion Patients undergoing CBA have a mortality rate more than three times that of the STEMI patients, mainly due to a higher non-cardiac mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Saphenous Vein , Case-Control Studies , Survival Analysis , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Cause of Death , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 579-587, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977466

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association of pulse pressure (PP) with mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in one-year period after anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (A-STEMI). Methods: A total of 261 consecutive patients whose blood pressure was measured with the aid of a catheter before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) between August 2016 and February 2017 were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to pulse pressure (PP) (Group 1, PP<35 mmHg; Group 2, 35≤PP≤50 mmHg; Group 3, PP>50 mmHg). Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.4±14.1 years, and 206 of them were male. The groups were similar in terms of age and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The ratio of female patients in Group 1 was higher, and their systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower than those from the other groups (P=0.005 vs. P=0.042). The rates of MACE and mortality were higher in Group 1. The predictive PP values were calculated to be 42.5 mmHg for development of MACE and 41.5 mmHg for mortality. One-year survival ratio was worse in Group 1 than in the others according to Kaplan-Meier analysis (P<0.001). Conclusion: The values of PP which was measured intra-aortically in patients with A-STEMI were associated with mortality and MACE in the one-year follow-up period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulse/methods , Stroke Volume/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Prognosis , Preoperative Care , Risk Factors , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(4): 587-593, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973765

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the time elapsed from symptom onset to receiving medical care is one of the main mortality predictors. Objective: To identify independent predictors of late presentation in patients STEMI representative of daily clinical practice. Methods: All patients admitted with a diagnosis of STEMI in a reference center between December 2009 and November 2014 were evaluated and prospectively followed during hospitalization and for 30 days after discharge. Late presentation was defined as a time interval > 6 hours from chest pain onset until hospital arrival. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of late presentation. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,297 patients were included, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 11.6 years, of which 71% were males, 85% Caucasians, 72% had a mean income lower than five minimum wages and 66% had systemic arterial hypertension. The median time of clinical presentation was 3.00 [1.40-5.48] hours, and approximately one-quarter of the patients had a late presentation, with their mortality being significantly higher. The independent predictors of late presentation were Black ethnicity, low income and diabetes mellitus, and a history of previous heart disease was a protective factor. Conclusion: Black ethnicity, low income and diabetes mellitus are independent predictors of late presentation in STEMI. The identification of subgroups of patients prone to late presentation may help to stimulate prevention policies for these high-risk individuals.


Resumo Fundamento: Em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST), o tempo decorrido desde o início dos sintomas até a busca por atendimento médico é um dos principais preditores de mortalidade. Objetivo: Identificar preditores independentes de apresentação tardia em pacientes com IAMCSST representativos da prática clínica diária. Métodos: Todos os pacientes admitidos com diagnóstico de IAMCSST em um centro de referência, no período de dezembro de 2009 a novembro de 2014, foram avaliados e prospectivamente acompanhados, durante a hospitalização e por 30 dias após a alta. A apresentação tardia foi definida como tempo maior que 6 horas desde o início da dor torácica até a chegada ao hospital. Análise de regressão logística múltipla foi usada para identificar os preditores independentes de apresentação tardia. Foi considerado estatisticamente significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Foram incluídos 1.297 pacientes, com idade média de 60,7 ± 11,6 anos, 71% do sexo masculino, 85% da raça branca, 72% com renda média menor que cinco salários mínimos e 66% com hipertensão arterial sistêmica. A mediana do tempo de apresentação clínica foi de 3,00 [1,40-5,48] horas, sendo que aproximadamente um quarto dos pacientes apresentou-se tardiamente, e a mortalidade deles foi significativamente maior. Os preditores independentes de apresentação tardia foram raça negra, baixa renda e diabetes melito, e história de doença cardíaca prévia foi fator protetor. Conclusão: Raça negra, baixa renda e diabetes melito são preditores independentes de apresentação tardia no IAMCSST. A identificação de subgrupos de pacientes propensos à apresentação tardia pode auxiliar a estimular políticas de prevenção nestes indivíduos de alto risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
15.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 447-453, dic. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, associated factors, and 30-day mortality of patients with heart failure (HF) after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Peru. Methods: Observational, cohort, multicentre study was conducted at the national level on patients enrolled in the Peruvian registry of STEMI, excluding patients with a history of HF. A comparison was made with the epidemiological characteristics, treatment, and 30 day-outcome of patients with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) heart failure after infarction. Results: Of the 388 patients studied, 48.7% had symptoms of HF, or a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% after infarction (Group 1). Age > 75 years, anterior wall infarction, and the absence of electrocardiographic signs of reperfusion were the factors related to a higher incidence of HF. The hospital mortality in Group 1 was 20.6%, and the independent factors related to higher mortality were age > 75 years, and the absence of electrocardiographic signs of reperfusion. Conclusions: Heart failure complicates almost 50% of patients with STEMI, and is associated with higher hospital and 30-day mortality. Age greater than 75 years and the absence of negative T waves in the post-reperfusion ECG are independent factors for a higher incidence of HF and 30-day mortality.


Resumen Objetivos: Se desea saber la incidencia, los factores asociados y la mortalidad a 30 días de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) postinfarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IMCEST) en Perú. Métodos: Estudio observacional, de cohortes, multicéntrico a nivel nacional, de pacientes enrolados en el registro peruano de IMCEST, excluyendo los pacientes con antecedente de IC. Se compararon las características epidemiológicas, tratamiento y evolución a 30 días de los pacientes con (grupo 1) y sin (grupo 2) IC postinfarto. Resultados: De 388 pacientes se encontró un 48.7% con síntomas de IC o fracción de eyección de ventrículo izquierdo < 40% postinfarto (grupo 1). La edad > 75 años, el infarto de pared anterior y la ausencia de signos electrocardiográficos de reperfusión fueron los factores relacionados a mayor incidencia de IC. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en el grupo 1 fue del 20.6% y los factores independientes relacionados a mayor mortalidad fueron la edad > 75 años y la ausencia de signos electrocardiográficos de reperfusión. Conclusiones: La IC complica casi al 50% de pacientes con IMCEST y está asociada a mayor mortalidad intrahospitalaria y a 30 días. La edad > 75 años y la ausencia de ondas T negativas en el electrocardiograma posreperfusión son factores independientes de mayor incidencia de IC y de mortalidad a 30 días.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ventricular Function, Left , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Registries , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Electrocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality
16.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 194-199, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899586

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El implante de dos stents imbricados (SIMB) es una práctica frecuente en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. Sin embargo, evidencia reciente sugiere que en pacientes con infarto con supradesnivel del segmento ST (IAMc/SDST) esta técnica puede asociarse a mejores resultados cuando se utilizan exclusivamente stents medicados. Objetivo: Evaluar en una cohorte de pacientes chilenos las causas, características clínicas y sobrevida a 2 años de los pacientes con IAMc/SDST que son tratados con SIMB, en función del tipo de dispositivo y combinación utilizada; metálico/metálico (BMS/BMS), metálico/medicado (BMS/DES), medicado/medicado (DES/DES). Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, caso incidente, entre enero del año 2012 y mayo del año 2016 en nuestro laboratorio de hemodinamia. Se recolectó la información clínica, angiográfica y sobrevida a 2 años de los pacientes ingresados por IAMc/SDST que fueron tratados con SIMB. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó chicuadrado, regresión logística y análisis multivariado en programa SPSS, considerando significativa una p<0,05. Resultados: De 2403 pacientes evaluados, el 13% (n=312) recibió tratamiento con SIMB. La edad pro-medio fue de 68 ± 6,6 años y el 71% correspondió a hombres. La presencia de DMII fue de 37%, HTA 65%, tabaquismo 41%, dislipidemia 29% y cardiopatía coronaria previa 18%. Se observó que la fracción de eyección promedio fue de 45 ± 3,5%, medida por método de Simpson. Las causas para imbricar stents fueron la disección post implante de stent en 72%, desplazamiento de placa en 22,5% y extensión de placa más allá de la longitud del stent en un 5,5%. El 38% fue tratado con 2 stents BMS, el 26% con stents BMS/DES y el 36% con DES/DES. El diámetro y largo promedio de SIMB fue de 2,8 ± 2,6 mm y 41,3 ± 6,4 mm, respectivamente. Se observó una mortalidad a 2 años de 11% en el grupo BMS/BMS, 8% BMS/DES y 6% DES/DES (p<0,01) y la necesidad de revascularización fue 8%, 5,2% y 2% respectivamente (p=0,02). El usar la combinación BMS/ BMS se asoció a una mayor mortalidad a 2 años en análisis de regresión logística univariado (OR 5,2, IC 95% 2,0-17,9, p<0,01) y multivariado (ajustado por variables clínicas, número de vasos enfermos y presentación clínica) [OR 5,5, IC 95% 1,9-21,0, p<0,01]). Excluyendo a los pacientes con mortalidad temprana, como marcador de severidad de presentación clínica, la mortalidad a 2 años en el grupo BMS/BMS tuvo un OR de 5.9, 95% CI 2.1- 19.5 (p < 0.01). No se observó diferencia en la mortalidad de pacientes tratados con 2 SIMB DES/DES y los tratados con 1 stent DES. Conclusión: El implantar stents imbricados en pacientes con IAMc/SDST es una práctica común en el laboratorio de hemodinamia. Nuestros resultados sugieren que los resultados a mediano plazo son significativamente mejores cuando al menos uno de los stents utilizados es medicado, lo cual es concordante con reportes recientes.


Abstracts: Background: Coronary angioplasty using two overlapping (OL) stents is a frequent practice at the cath laboratory, however the impact this strategy has on patient prognosis and the preferred stent type are largely unknown. Aim: To evaluate 2-year outcomes of STEMI patients who underwent treatment with OL stents and assess the impact of different types of stents combinations:(BMS/BMS), (BMS/DES), or (DES/DES). Methods: Patients presenting with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty with 2 OL stents between January 2012 to May 2016 were included. Baseline and procedural information was collected, clinically-driven new revascularizations were recorded, and 2-year survival status was confirmed from the national database registry. OL stents technique was defined as a segment with a double layer of stents of at least 1 mm and less than 5 mm long. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS v21.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), at with p<=0.05 being considered significant. Results: Of 2403 STEMI patients treated within this period, in 312 (13%) the OL was used. Mean age was 68 ± 6.6 years. 71% males. Type 2 diabetesmellitus was present in 37%, arterial hypertension in 65%, smoking in 41%, dyslipidemia in 29% and previously treated coronary heart disease (either CABG or PCI) in 18% of patients. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as assessed by 2D Simpson method was 48±3.5%. Indications for overlapping stents were plaque extension in 72%, edge dissection after stent implantation in 22.5%, and plaque displacement in 5.5%. One, 2 or 3 vessels disease was present in 23%, 34% and 43%, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of patients were treated with 2 BMS stents, 26% with BMS/DES stents and 36% with two DES stents. The mean stent diameter and length were 2.8 ± 2.6 mm and 41.3 ± 6.4 mm, respectively, with no difference between the 3 groups. Post procedure target vessel revascularization was 8% for BMS/BMS, 5.2% for BMS/DES and 2% for DES/DES groups (p=0.02). Two-year cardiovascular mortality was 11% for the BMS/BMS group, 8% for the BMS/DES group and 6% for the DES/DES (p <0.01). BMS/BMS combination was associated with a greater cardiovascular 2-year mortality in both univariate (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.0-17.9, p <0.01) and multivariate analyses ([OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.9-21.0, p <0.01]). After excluding early mortality cases during the first week (due to their overall severity at presentation), 2-year cardiovascular mortality in the BMS/BMS group had an adjusted OR of 5.9, 95% CI 2.1-19.5 (p< 0.01). There were no differences between the treatment with 2 OL DES stents and the treatment with BMS/DES. Conclusion: Overlapping stent technique is a common practice in our cath lab, mainly driven by an initial unfavorable result with the first stent. The reported findings suggest that midterm results are better when at least on of the imbricated stents is These results are in agreement with recent reports on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Drug-Eluting Stents , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Chi-Square Distribution , Logistic Models , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 599-605, Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887976

ABSTRACT

Abstract The best approach of multivessel coronary artery disease in the context of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation and primary percutaneous coronary intervention is one of the main reasons for controversy in cardiology. Although the main global guidelines do not recommend routine complete revascularization in these patients, recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated benefit of this approach in reducing cardiovascular outcomes. For this reason, an adequate review of this evidence is essential in order to establish scientifically based strategy and achieve better outcomes for these patients who present with acute myocardial infarction. This review aims to present objectively the most recent evidence available on this topic.


Resumo O adequado manejo da doença arterial coronariana (DAC) multivascular, no contexto do infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST e da intervenção coronariana percutânea primária, é um dos grandes motivos de controvérsia em Cardiologia. Embora as principais diretrizes mundiais não recomendem a revascularização completa de forma rotineira nesses pacientes, recentes ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) têm demonstrado benefício dessa abordagem na redução de desfechos cardiovasculares. Por esse motivo, torna-se imprescindível uma adequada revisão dessas evidências, a fim de que se possa estabelecer uma conduta cientificamente embasada e capaz de trazer benefícios aos pacientes que se apresentam no contexto agudo do infarto do miocárdio. Esta revisão objetivou apresentar de forma objetiva as evidências mais recentes disponíveis a respeito desse tema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Revascularization
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3): 213-221, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887923

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: QRS fragmentation (fQRS) is classically defined as the presence of slurred QRS morphology in at least two contiguous leads, and its prognostic importance has been shown in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, no study has investigated the significance of single lead fQRS (sl-fQRS) in surface electrocardiography (ECG). Objectives: To evaluate whether sl-fQRS is as valuable as classical fQRS in patients with acute STEMI who had successful revascularization with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods: We included 330 patients with a first STEMI who had been successfully revascularized with pPCI. The patient's electrocardiography was obtained in the first 48 hours, and the patients were divided into three groups according to the absence of fQRS (no-fQRS); fQRS presence in a single lead (sl-fQRS); and ≥2 leads with fQRS (classical fQRS). Results: In-hospital mortality was significantly higher both in patients with sl-fQRS and in patients with ≥ 2 leads with fQRS compared to patients with no-fQRS. In ROC curve analysis, ≥ 1 leads with fQRS yielded a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 57.4% for the prediction of in-hospital mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that sl-fQRS is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR: 3.989, 95% CI: 1.237-12.869, p = 0.021). Conclusions: Although the concept of at least two derivations is mentioned for the classical definition of fQRS, our study showed that fQRS in only one lead is also associated with poor outcomes. Therefore, ≥1 leads with fQRS can be useful when describing the patients under high cardiac risk in acute STEMI.


Resumo Fundamento: A fragmentação do QRS (fQRS) é classicamente definida como a presença de morfologia empastada do QRS em pelo menos duas derivações contíguas e sua importância prognóstica tem sido demonstrada no infarto do miocárdio com elevação do ST (STEMI). No entanto, nenhum estudo investigou a significância do fQRS de derivação única (sl-fQRS) no eletrocardiograma (ECG). Objetivos: Avaliar se o sl-fQRS é tão valioso quanto o fQRS clássico em pacientes com STEMI aguda que tiveram sucesso na revascularização com intervenção coronariana percutânea primária (ICPp). Métodos: Incluímos 330 pacientes com um primeiro STEMI que tinham sido revascularizados com sucesso com ICPp. O eletrocardiograma do paciente foi obtido nas primeiras 48 horas, e os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos de acordo com a ausência de fQRS (não-fQRS); presença de fQRS numa única derivação (sl-fQRS); e ≥ 2 derivações com fQRS (fQRS clássico). Resultados: A mortalidade intrahospitalar foi significativamente maior tanto em pacientes com sl-fQRS como em pacientes com ≥ 2 derivações com fQRS em comparação com pacientes com não-fQRS. Na análise da curva ROC, ≥ 1 derivação com fQRS produziu uma sensibilidade de 75% e especificidade de 57,4% para a predição de mortalidade intrahospitalar. A análise multivariada mostrou que sl-fQRS é um preditor independente de mortalidade intrahospitalar (OR: 3,989, IC 95%: 1,237-12,869, p = 0,021). Conclusões: Embora o conceito de pelo menos duas derivações seja mencionado para a definição clássica de fQRS, nosso estudo mostrou que fQRS em apenas uma derivação também está associado com maus resultados. Portanto, ≥ 1 derivação com fQRS pode ser útil ao descrever os pacientes sob risco cardíaco alto em STEMI agudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(4): 261-266, ago. 2017. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894476

ABSTRACT

Cardiogenic shock (CS) in the setting of an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a severe complication and constitutes one of the principal causes of death associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies and hospital outcome of CS associated with STEMI in Argentina. The Argentine Registry of Cardiogenic Shock (ReNA-Shock) was a prospective and multicenter registry of consecutive patients with CS hospitalized in 64 centers in Argentina between July 2013 and May 2015. Only those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were selected for this analysis. Of the 165 patients included in the ReNa-Shock registry, 124 presented STEMI. Median age was 64 years (IQR 25-75: 56.5-75) and 67% were men; median time from symptom onset to admission was 240 minutes (IQR 25-75: 132-720). 63% of the cases presented CS at admission. Eighty-seven percent underwent reperfusion therapy: 80% primary percutaneous intervention with a median door-to-balloon time of 110 minutes (IQR 25-75: 62-184). Inotropic agents were used in 96%; 79% required mechanical ventilation; a Swan Ganz catheter was inserted in 47% and 35% required intra-aortic balloon pumping. Most patients (59%) presented multivessel disease (MV). Hospital mortality was 54%. Multivariate analysis identified that time from symptom onset to admission (> 240 min) was the only independent predictor of mortality (OR: 3.04; CI 95%: 1.18-7.9). Despite using treatment strategies currently available, morbidity and mortality of STEMI complicated with CS remains high.


El shock cardiogénico (SC) en el síndrome coronario agudo con elevación del ST (SCACEST), es una complicación grave y constituye una de las principales causas de muerte. El objetivo del registro fue conocer las características clínicas, estrategias de tratamiento y evolución intrahospitalaria del SC secundario a un SCACEST en Argentina. El Registro Argentino de Shock Cardiogénico (ReNa-Shock) fue prospectivo, multicéntrico y consecutivo de pacientes internados con SC en el periodo 2013/2015 en 64 centros de Argentina. Fueron incluidos 165 pacientes, de los cuales124 presentaban SCACEST. La edad (mediana) fue de 64 [RIC25-75: 56-75] años, 67% hombres. La mediana de tiempo desde el inicio de los síntomas al ingreso hospitalario fue de 240 minutos [RIC25-75: 132-720]. Un 63% de los casos tuvo SC desde el ingreso. El 87% recibió tratamiento de reperfusión, con un 80% de angioplastia primaria y un tiempo puerta-balón (mediana): 110 minutos [RIC25-75: 62-184]. Requirieron inotrópicos un 96%, asistencia respiratoria mecánica el 79%, catéter de Swan Ganz 47%, balón de contrapulsación intraaórtico 35%. El 59% tenía lesión de 2 o 3 vasos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue 54%. En el análisis multivariado, solo el tiempo de evolución al ingreso (345 min [RIC25-75: 135-720] vs. 180 min [RIC25-75: 85-420]; p: 0.03) fue la única variable predictora independiente de mortalidad. La morbimortalidad del SC complicando un SCACEST es elevada a pesar de la utilización de las estrategias de tratamiento actualmente disponibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock, Cardiogenic/mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Argentina/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(5): 572-578, mayo 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902514

ABSTRACT

Background: Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score (TIMI-RS) was designed to predict early mortality in patients with a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEAMI). Aim: To evaluate the predictive capacity for hospital mortality of TIMI-RS. Material and Methods: Patients with ≤ 12-hour evolution STEAMI were selected from a prospective registry of all patients hospitalized in our coronary unity within January 1988 and December 2005. Observed mortality was analyzed according to TIMI-RS and its predictive capacity was estimated. Results: We analyzed 1125 consecutive patients aged 61 ± 13 years (76% men). Fifty one percent were smokers, 47% hypertensive and 40% had a history of angina. Fifty eight percent of patients underwent reperfusion therapy. Most patients had TIMI-RS scores ≤ 5 points and only 3.6% had scores ≥ 10 points. Overall mortality was 14.8% and there was an 80% concordance between observed mortality and that predicted with the TIMI-RS score. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.7. Conclusions: TIMI-RS was acceptably useful to predict in-hospital mortality in this group of patients with STEAMI. Differences between the observed and originally predicted mortality are explained by the clinical profile and therapeutic protocols applied to patients in different studies. Thus, caution needs to be taken when interpreting the risk associated to a specific score, particularly within non-reperfused patients whose risk might be underestimated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment
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