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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 374-384, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533948

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Salmonella spp. es un agente patógeno zoonótico transmitido al humano por el agua o los alimentos contaminados. La presencia de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido es un creciente problema para la salud pública debido a que estas enzimas confieren resistencia contra las cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación. Objetivo. Caracterizar las ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. recibidos por el programa de vigilancia de enfermedad diarreica aguda o enfermedad transmitida por alimentos del Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. Materiales y métodos. Entre enero de 1997 y junio de 2022, se recibieron 444 aislamientos de Salmonella spp. resistentes, por lo menos, a una de las cefalosporinas de tercera generación. El fenotipo de las ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido se identificó con la prueba de doble disco. El ADN se extrajo por ebullición y mediante PCR se amplificaron los genes bla CTX-M, bla SHVy : ' a ILM. Resultados. Todos los aislamientos fueron positivos para la prueba de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido. Los resultados de la amplificación por PCR fueron: bla CTX-M + bla TLM (n=200), bla CTX-M (n=177), bla SHV(n=16), bla SHV + bla CTX-M (n=6), bla TLM (n=13) y bla SHV + bla CTX-M + bla TLM (n=3). Del total, 26 aislamientos fueron negativos para los genes evaluados. Los aislamientos positivos para ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido se identificaron en Bogotá y en 21 departamentos: Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Bolívar, Casanare, Cesar, Córdoba, Quindío, Atlántico, Tolima, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Boyacá, Caldas, Norte de Santander, Risaralda, Antioquia, Nariño, Santander y Valle del Cauca. Conclusión. La resistencia a las cefalosporinas de tercera generación en aislamientos de Salmonella spp. fue generada principalmente por bla CTX-M. El 44 % (197/444) de los aislamientos presentó resistencia a ampicilina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol y trimetoprim- sulfametoxazol Los serotipos portadores de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido más frecuentes fueron S. Typhimurium y S. Infantis.


Introduction. Salmonella spp. is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans through contaminated water or food. The presence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases is a growing public health problem because these enzymes are resistant to third and fourth generation cephalosporins. Objective. To characterize extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in Salmonella spp. isolates received by the acute diarrheal disease/foodborne disease surveillance program of the Grupo de Microbiología of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Materials and methods. A total of 444 Salmonella spp. isolates, resistant to at least one of the cephalosporins, were obtained between January 1997 and June 2022. The extended- spectrum ß-lactamases phenotype was identified by the double disk test. DNA extraction was carried out by the boiling method, and the bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TLM genes were amplified by PCR. Results. All the isolates were positive for the extended-spectrum ß-lactamases test. The genes identified were: bla CTX-M + ba TLM (n=200), bla CTX-M (n=177), bla SHV(n=16), bla SHV + bla CTX-M (n=6), bla TLM (n=13) and bla SHV + bla CTX-M + bla TLM (n=3). Twenty-six isolates were negative for the evaluated genes. Positive extended-spectrum ß-lactamases isolates were identified in Bogotá and 21 departments: Chocó, Magdalena, Meta, Bolívar, Casanare, Cesar, Córdoba, Quindío, Atlántico, Tolima, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Boyacá, Caldas, Norte de Santander, Risaralda, Antioquia, Nariño, Santander y Valle del Cauca. Conclusion. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins in Salmonella spp. isolates was mainly caused by bla CTX-M. Isolates were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (44 %; 197/444). The most frequent extended-spectrum ß-lactamases-expressing serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Infantis.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , beta-Lactamases
2.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 134-151, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437896

ABSTRACT

A avicultura de corte levou ao Brasil a ser o no líder exportador de carne de frango, desde 2011, e o terceiro produtor global desta proteína. Portanto, é importante que todo produtor possua e mantenha um programa de biosseguridade continuado, respeitando rigorosamente cada etapa ou prática de manejo a fim de obter o sucesso econômico de sua produção. Sustentado pela medicina veterinária preventiva, um programa de biosseguridade deve apresentar aspectos direcionados a cada sistema de proteção em particular, para prevenir e controlar a presença e/ou introdução de microrganismos patogênicos nos rebanhos. O objetivo deste trabalho e apresentar uma revisão atualizada de literatura sobre programas de biosseguridade para evitar a proliferação de agentes patogênicos na avicultura de corte como os dois tipos de Salmonella que causam riscos à saúde pública e à dos animais. A pesquisa é qualitativa de cunho exploratório bibliográfico-documental, com pesquisa em sites como o Google Acadêmico, da revista de veterinária da Unipar, SCIELO, portal CAPES e sites governamentais. O resultado da pesquisa apresentou um panorama real sobre emprego de programas de biosseguridade no Brasil, direcionados à avicultura de corte, demonstrando que os produtores estão se conscientizando sobre a importância destes programas, devido à pressão do mercado exportador global. Conclui-se que ainda falta uma maior conscientização por parte de todos os produtores brasileiros, para evitar que o plantel produzido seja contaminado por agentes patogênicos, principalmente a Salmonella, evitando que a saúde pública e animal esteja comprometida. Somente desta maneira, o Brasil conseguirá manter e expandir mais o mercado avícola a nível global.(AU)


Poultry farming has led Brazil to be the leading exporter of chicken meat, since 2011, and the third global producer of this protein. Therefore, it is important that every producer has and maintains a continuous biosecurity program, strictly respecting each stage or management practice in order to obtain the economic success of their production. Supported by preventive veterinary medicine, a biosecurity program must present aspects directed to each protection system in particular, to prevent and control the presence and/or introduction of pathogenic microorganisms in herds. The objective of this work is to present an updated review of the literature on biosecurity programs to prevent the proliferation of pathogenic agents in poultry farming, such as the two types of Salmonella that pose risks to public and animal health. The research is qualitative, bibliographical-documentary exploratory, with research on sites such as Google Scholar, Unipar's veterinary magazine, SCIELO, CAPES portal and government sites. The result of the research presented a real panorama on the use of biosecurity programs in Brazil, directed to poultry production, demonstrating that producers are becoming aware of the importance of these programs, due to the pressure of the global export market. It is concluded that there is still a lack of greater awareness on the part of all Brazilian producers, to prevent the produced herd from being contaminated by pathogenic agents, mainly Salmonella, preventing public and animal health from being compromised. Only in this way will Brazil be able to maintain and further expand the poultry market at a global level.(AU)


La avicultura llevó a Brasil a ser el principal exportador de carne de pollo, desde 2011, y el tercer productor mundial de esta proteína. Por ello, es importante que todo productor cuente y mantenga un programa de bioseguridad continuo, respetando estrictamente cada etapa o práctica de manejo para obtener el éxito económico de su producción. Apoyado en la medicina veterinaria preventiva, un programa de bioseguridad debe presentar aspectos dirigidos a cada sistema de protección en particular, para prevenir y controlar la presencia y/o introducción de microorganismos patógenos en los rebaños. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión actualizada de la literatura sobre programas de bioseguridad para prevenir la proliferación de agentes patógenos en la avicultura, como los dos tipos de Salmonella que presentan riesgos para la salud pública y animal. La investigación es cualitativa, bibliográfico-documental exploratoria, con pesquisa en sitios como Google Scholar, revista veterinaria de la Unipar, SCIELO, portal de la CAPES y sitios gubernamentales. El resultado de la investigación presentó un panorama real sobre el uso de programas de bioseguridad en Brasil, dirigidos a la producción avícola, demostrando que los productores están tomando conciencia de la importancia de estos programas, debido a la presión del mercado mundial de exportación. Se concluye que aún falta una mayor conciencia por parte de todos los productores brasileños, para evitar que el hato producido sea contaminado por agentes patógenos, principalmente Salmonella, evitando que se comprometa la salud pública y animal. Solo así Brasil podrá mantener y expandir aún más el mercado avícola a nivel mundial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Salmonella Infections, Animal/prevention & control , Disease Prevention , Biosecurity , Salmonella
3.
Actual. nutr ; 24(1): 13-23, ener. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426117

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el ámbito de las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, la Salmonella spp. puede causar salmonelosis, principalmente, a través del huevo de gallina, integrante alimentario básico, del cual se pueden evaluar diversos parámetros cualitativos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la calidad y la presencia de Salmonella spp. en huevos expendidos en Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos. Material y métodos: El estudio fue desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Nutrición de la Universidad Adventista del Plata en Libertador San Martín, y un Laboratorio de análisis químicos en Paraná, desde mayo hasta agosto de 2020. El diseño fue descriptivo, retrospectivo y de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo constituida por 114 huevos obtenidos de 3 supermercados locales, en los cuales se encuentran representados todos los proveedores de huevos de la ciudad. Resultados: No se aisló Salmonella spp. En ninguna de las muestras analizadas. Cada unidad estuvo limpia, aunque 49 no presentaron yema céntrica, siendo el 57,01 % (n = 65) de calidad A, respecto de la cáscara y contenido. El peso promedio fue de 56,89 g, predominando los huevos grandes, DE ± 3,72. Para el Índice de forma la media fue 74,71, DE ± 2,45, destacándose los de forma óptima. Con referencia a la prueba de flotación, la mayoría fueron frescos del día. Respecto del Índice de yema, la media fue 0,38, DE ± 0,09, clasificándose la mayoría debajo de calidad B. Hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa entre este último parámetro y el estado de la cáscara y contenido (p = 0,010). El pH promedio de la clara fue 8,8, DE ± 0,39 y de la yema 8,0, DE ± 0,71. Conclusiones: Los parámetros cualitativos y el microbiológico son aceptables, excepto el Índice y pH de yema. Es imprescindible seguir procurando la inocuidad del huevo


Introduction: In the field of foodborne diseases, Salmonella spp. can cause salmonellosis through foods such as chicken eggs, a basic food component, of which various qualitative parameters can be evaluated. The objective of the study was to evaluate the quality and the presence of Salmonella spp. in eggs sold in Libertador San Martín, Entre Ríos. Material and methods: The study was developed in the Nutrition Laboratory of the Universidad Adventista del Plata in Libertador San Martín, and a Chemical Analysis Laboratory in Paraná, from May to August 2020. The design was descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 114 eggs obtained from 3 local supermarkets, in which all egg suppliers in the city were represented. Results: Salmonella spp. wasn´t isolated in none of the samples analyzed. Each unit was clean, although 49 did not present centric yolk, being 57.01 % (n = 65) of A quality, with respect to the shell and content. The average weight was 56.89 g, with a predominance of large eggs, SD ± 3.72. For the shape index, the mean was 74.71, SD ± 2.45, highlighting those with optimal shape. With reference to the flotation test, most were fresh from the day. Regarding the yolk index, the mean was 0.38, SD ± 0.09, with the majority classified below B quality. There was a statistically significant relationship between this last parameter and the state of the shell and content (p = 0.010). The average pH of the white was 8.8, SD ± 0.39 and of the yolk 8.0, SD ± 0.71. Conclusions: The qualitative and microbiological parameters are acceptable, except the index and pH of the yolk. It is essential to continue ensuring the safety of the egg


Subject(s)
Humans , Salmonella , Eggs
4.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 685-689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013155

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance of invasive non-typhoid Salmonella infection in children at Xiamen. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. The clinical manifestations, treatment, prognosis, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance of 29 hospitalized children with invasive non-typhoid Salmonella infection confirmed by blood, cerebrospinal fluid, bone marrow and other sterile body fluids or deep pus culture at the Department of Infectious Diseases, the Department of Orthopedics and the Department of General Surgery in Xiamen Children's Hospital from January 2016 to December 2021 were analyzed. According to the clinical diagnosis criteria, the patients were divided into sepsis group and non-sepsis group (bacteremia and local suppurative infection). The inflammatory markers, serogroups distribution and drug resistance were compared between the two groups. Comparison between groups using Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Results: Among the 29 cases, there were 17 males and 12 females, with an onset age of 14 (9, 25) months, and 10 cases (34%) of patients were younger than 1 year old, 15 cases (52%) under 1 to 3 years old, and 4 cases (14%) greater than or equal 3 years old. The onset time of 25 cases (86%) was from April to September. The diseases included 19 cases (66%) septicemia (2 of which were combined with suppurative meningitis), 10 cases (34%) non-sepsis group, including 7 cases bacteremia and 3 cases local suppurative infection (2 cases of osteomyelitis, 1 case of appendicitis with peritonitis). The clinical manifestations were fever in 29 cases (100%), diarrhea and abdominal pain in 18 cases (62%), cough and runny nose in 10 cases (34%). Eighteen cases (62%) were cured and 11 cases (38%) were improved by effective antibiotics treatment. C-reactive protein in sepsis group was significantly higher than that in non-sepsis group (25.2 (16.1, 56.4) vs. 3.4 (0.5, 7.5) mg/L, Z=-3.81, P<0.001).The serogroups of C, B and E were the most prevalent among non-typhoid Salmonella isolates, accounting for 10 cases (34%), 9 cases (31%) and 7 cases (24%) respectively. Antibacterial drug sensitivity test showed that the sensitivity rates of imipenem, ertapenem and piperaciratazobactam were all 100% (31/31), those of ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime were 94% (29/31), 94% (29/31) and 97% (30/31) respectively. The drug resistance rates of ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 51% (16/31), 48% (15/31) and 48% (15/31) respectively, those of cefazolin, cefotetan, tobramycin, gentamicin and amikacinwere all 100% (31/31). There were no significant differences in the drug resistance rates of ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, ampicillin-sulbactam, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin between the sepsis group and the non-sepsis group (χ2=0.31,0.31,0.00,0.02,0.02,0.02,0.26, all P>0.05). Conclusions: Invasive non-typhoid Salmonella infection in children at Xiamen mainly occurred in infants younger than 3 years old.The main clinical manifestations are fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea. C-reactive protein can be served as the laboratory indicators for indicating sepsis. The third generation of cephalosporins is recommended as the first choice for treatment.


Subject(s)
Infant , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , C-Reactive Protein , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Salmonella , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Bacteremia , Abdominal Pain , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
5.
Afr J Pharm Res Dev (AJOPRED) ; 15(3): 35-42, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1553532

ABSTRACT

Salmonella species is the causative agent of typhoid fever which is a disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was carried out to screen oxacillin resistantSalmonella species isolated from palms of some primary school pupils and food vendors within Kaduna South LGA, Nigeria. Three hundred (300) swab samples were collected from pupils and food vendors of the three selected primary schools as the sampling location. Salmonella enterica was isolated and identified using standard bacteriological methods. Isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin 28 (70.0%), Augmentin® 25 (65.0%) amoxicillin 25 (62.5%) and vancomycin 22 (55.0%) but showed resistance to oxacillin 9 (22.5%), ampicillin 12 (30.0%), chloramphenicol 15 (37.5%) and tetracycline 16 (40.0%). Antibiotics that exhibited intermediate susceptibility were methicillin 8 (20.0%) and gentamicin 11 (27.5%). Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antimicrobial agent against Salmonella enterica. The presence of oxacillin-resistant Salmonella enterica was detected via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis. The study recommends that regular monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility pattern and good hygiene practices such as hand washing with soap and water and the use of alcoholic based hand sanitizers should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Salmonella
6.
Article in English | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1417271

ABSTRACT

Salmonella serovars Heidelberg and Minnesota encoding antimicrobial resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are often detected in poultry/poultry meat. We analysed the genomes of 10 Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) and 4 Salmonella Minnesota (SM) from faecal isolates of Brazilian poultry. These featured virulent and multidrug-resistant characteristics, with AmpC beta-lactamase (blaCMY-2 ) predominance (9/14), for all SM (4/4) and some SH (3/10) located on IncC plasmid replicons. IncC carrying blaCTX-M-2 was only detected among SH (3/10). Mutation in the gyrA/parC genes was present in all SH, whereas SM harboured parC mutation plus qnrB19 on ColRNAI plasmids (3/4). In silico resistance overall corroborated with phenotypic results. Core genome phylogenies showed close clustering and high similarities between the Brazilian and poultry meat/food isolates from Europe, and to human isolates from European countries with documented import of Brazilian poultry meat. Conjugation assays with SM successfully transferred blaCMY-2 , and qnrB19 to an Escherichia coli recipient. The findings reinforce the ongoing antimicrobial resistance acquisition of SH and Minnesota and the risks for disseminating resistant strains and/or mobile elements which may increasingly affect importing countries and the need for controlling AMR in major poultry-exporting countries like Brazil.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Sprains and Strains , Cephalosporins
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 1-132 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1428772

ABSTRACT

Salmonella spp. são os mais frequentes agentes causadores de surtos de origem alimentar sendo tipicamente encontrado em aves, e o sorotipo Heidelberg ganhou destaque entre esses isolados. Nos últimos anos, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana verificada em Salmonella, principalmente no sorotipo Heidelberg tem sido de grande interesse em saúde pública em nível Nacional. Diante desta prioridade, o presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade genética, verificar a presença de fatores de virulência e os perfis fenotípicos e genotípicos de resistência aos antimicrobianos em 32 isolados de S. Heidelberg. O teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinado pela técnica de disco-difusão. Os isolados foram geneticamente comparados pela técnica de pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A técnica do sequenciamento do genoma completo (WGS) permitiu a pesquisa dos fatores de virulência, dos genes adquiridos e mutações pontuais presentes em genes cromossomais associados a mecanismos de resistência. Além disso, os isolados também foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), análise de single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) e core genome MLST (cgMLST). Vinte e seis isolados (81,3%) apresentaram resistência a três ou mais diferentes classes de antimicrobianos. A técnica de PFGE demonstrou 80,4% de similaridade entre os isolados, e os agrupou em 21 diferentes pulso-tipos. A pesquisa de genes de virulência resultou na presença de vários fatores em todos os isolados entre eles: Lpf¸ MisL, RatB, MgtBC, sifA, ssaR, invA, sopB e fljB. Foram detectados genes de resistência a ß-lactâmicos blaCMY-2 (n=20/62,5%) e blaCTX-M-2 (n=2/6,3%), a aminoglicosídeos aac(3)-Via (n=3/9,4%), aac(6')-Iaa (n=32/100%) e aadA1 (n=4/ 12,5%), a tetraciclinas tet(A) (n=25/78,1%) e a sulfonamidas sul2 (n=25/78,1%). Entre os isolados que apresentaram mutações pontuais, 26 (81,3%) apresentaram em gyrA (p.S83F) e 30 isolados (93,8%) em parC (p.T57S). A caracterização in silico dos plasmídeos demonstrou a presença...(AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Infective Agents
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00022021, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416873

ABSTRACT

Biosecurity, cleaning and disinfection of swine and poultry facilities are fundamental for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms of importance for public and animal health. The objective of this work was to compare the levels of active ingredient described on the label and the real levels detected in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of two disinfectants., then evaluate the antimicrobial activity since, following the Germicidal Sanitizing Action and Disinfectant Detergent (Official Method AOAC 960.09) in four different dilutions with the presence of 3% organic matter during 15 min of contact, against Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). The product "A" presents active levels of agreement according to the label. The content of quantified assets for product "B" was lower than that recorded on the label. The disinfectant "A" was effective in microbiological evaluation while the disinfectant "B" had microbiocidal activity compromised by the deficit of assets.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Salmonella typhimurium , Benzalkonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Glutaral/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-10, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468477

ABSTRACT

The secondary metabolism products of plants have influenced great economic interest, given their chemical diversity and biological activities. Because of this, this study evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal, and antioxidant activity of plant extracts and oil of Myrcia oblongata. Saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids were detected. The extracts showed antimicrobial capacity on the tested microorganisms, except for the methanolic extract, which showed no activity for P. mirabilis and S. enteritidis. Regarding the analysis of antioxidant compounds, the hexanic, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed higher antioxidant activities and also higher insecticidal performance on Alphitobius diaperinus larvae, resulting in 80% adult mortality. The results reported here show that there may be a relationship between antioxidant potential and the insecticidal effect of Myrcia oblongata DC. The components present in both the extract and the oil can be used as natural alternative to synthetic compounds in the biological control of parasites and pathogenic microorganisms.


Os produtos do metabolismo secundário das plantas têm despertado grande interesse econômico, dada sua diversidade química e atividades biológicas. Neste sentido, o estudo objetivou avaliar a composição fitoquímica, atividade antimicrobiana, inseticida e antioxidante dos extratos vegetais e óleo de Myrcia oblongata. Foram detectados a presença de saponinas, esteróides, triterpenóides, taninos e flavonóides. Os extratos apresentaram capacidade antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos testados, exceto o extrato metanólico que não demonstrou atividade para P. mirabilis e S. Enteritidis. Quanto a análise de compostos antioxidantes observou-se que os extratos hexânico, acetato de etila e acetona apresentaram maiores atividades antioxidantes e também maior performance inseticida sobre a larva Alphitobius diaperinus e exibindo mortalidade de 80% na fase adulta. Os resultados aqui reportados mostram que pode haver uma relação entre potencial antioxidante e efeito inseticida do óleo de Myrcia oblongata; os componentes presentes tanto no extrato como o oléo podem ser utilizados como alternativa natural aos compostos sintéticos no controle biológico de parasitas e microrganismos patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Coleoptera , Phytotherapy , Insecticides/analysis , Myrtaceae/microbiology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Salmonella
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468494

ABSTRACT

Agroecological production represents a new reality in vegetable farming. Thus, the study aimed to search for the presence of pesticides in agroecological samples and microbiological and parasitological contamination in Lactuca sativa L. of agroecological and conventional fairs in Alagoas. Thirty-two samples were collected, a hygienic sanitary checklist was performed, along with coliform, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus research and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) for pesticide research; using two methodologies for parasitological studies. Thirty-two samples were analyzed, with a sanitary adequacy level at 45% and 38% for fairs (agroecological and conventional) respectively, with three samples (9.4%) in total, being adequate to the microbiological pattern according to RDC no. 12/2001. Among the 23 samples which were tested positive for parasites, 69.5% originated from samples extracted at conventional fairs, and 53% of every positive samples presented Entamoeba coli as the main contaminant. All together, no traces of deltamethrin were detected, but in two of the samples a peak retention for diphenoconazole was detected. In conclusion, the fairs represent an adequate environment for human pathogens and indicators. Therefore greater hygiene training of vegetable traders and consumers in the state of Alagoa sis required, especially in conventional fairs, which presented more critical microbiological and parasitological indexes comparing to fairs with agroecological products; however, the presence of difenoconazole in two samples of agricultural fairs suggests accidental contamination or indiscriminate use of this chemical in the production of Lactuca sativa, however, products with agroecological origin represents a better choice for the consumers.


A produção agroecológica representa uma nova realidade no cultivo das hortaliças. Assim, o estudo teve como objetivo verificar a presença de agrotóxicos em amostras agroecológicas e analisar a contaminação microbiológico e parasitológico em Lactuca sativa L. de feiras agroecológicas e convencionais de Alagoas. Foram coletadas 32 amostras, realizando checklist higiênico-sanitário, análises de coliformes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus e Cromatografia Gasosa com Espectrômetro de Massas (GC-MS) para pesquisa de agrotóxicos; utilizando-se duas metodologias para estudos parasitológicos. Foram analisadas 32 amostras, com nível de adequação sanitária de 45% e 38% para feiras (agroecológicas e convencionais) respectivamente, sendo três amostras no total (9,4%) adequadas a padrão microbiológico segundo RDC n° 12//2001; Dentre as 23 amostras positivas para parasitos, 69,5% teve origem em amostras de feiras convencionais, e 53% de todas as amostras positivas apresentaram Entamoeba coli como principal contaminante, juntamente, não foi detectado traços de deltametrina, porem foi visualizado em duas amostras, pico de retenção para padrão de difenoconazol. Concluindo-se que as feiras representam um ambiente adequado para patógenos humanos e indicadores, necessitando de uma maior higienização e treinamento dos comerciantes e consumidores de hortaliças do estado de Alagoas, principalmente em feiras convencionais, que apresentaram índices microbiológicos e parasitológicos mais críticos em relação a feiras com produtos agroecológicos; mas, a presença de difenoconazole em duas amostras de feiras agroecológicas sugerem contaminação acidental ou uso indiscriminado deste químico em produção da Lactuca sativa L., todavia os produtos de origem agroecológica representam uma melhor escolha para o consumidor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Agrochemicals/analysis , Lactuca/microbiology , Lactuca/parasitology , Coliforms , Salmonella , Staphylococcus aureus , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
11.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(5): 899-907, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1418931

ABSTRACT

En investigaciones similares se ha reportado un grado de desconocimiento respecto a las enfermedades diarreicas agudas en los padres de grupos de riesgo. Varias investigaciones han abordado el tema de la educación sanitaria como factor determinante en la prevención de enfermedades. Las políticas de salud, están obligadas a mantener vigentes las estrategias de prevención efectivas y proponer una búsqueda continua y exhaustiva de nuevas políticas que ayuden a desterrar la EDA de las principales causas de morbilidad en grupos vulnerables. El desafío actual es atenuar los determinantes sociales y atender a la población con factores de riesgo. En esta revisión se evaluó y sistematizó publicaciones en busca de pruebas de la efectividad de la educación sanitaria en la prevención de la enfermedad diarreica aguda(AU)


Similar investigations have reported a degree of ignorance regarding acute diarrheal diseases in parents of risk groups. Several investigations have addressed the issue of health education as a determining factor in disease prevention. Health policies are obliged to keep effective prevention strategies in force and propose a continuous and exhaustive search for new policies that help banish ADD from the main causes of morbidity in vulnerable groups. The current challenge is to mitigate the social determinants and care for the population with risk factors. In this review, we evaluated and systematized publications looking for evidence of the effectiveness of health education in the prevention of acute diarrheal disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Health Education , Diarrhea , Disease Prevention , Salmonella , Child Nutrition Disorders , Campylobacter jejuni , Rotavirus Vaccines , Dehydration , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli
12.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 623-630, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1411907

ABSTRACT

La calidad de los alimentos que consumimos se ha convertido en uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial, ya que son la puerta de entrada de patógenos y vectores para la trasmisión de diversas enfermedades. Se estimó que el 17,9% de las enfermedades trasmitidas por el consumo de alimentos, está relacionada con aves de corral, y el 19% de estas enfermedades, están asociadas a la contaminación por Salmonella entérica. La Salmonelosis es una enfermedad invasiva que afecta en gran medida a las poblaciones altamente vulnerables (niños, ancianos e inmunocomprometidos), causando la necesidad de hospitalización y en ocasiones la muerte. A nivel mundial se estima que anualmente hay más de 94 millones de personas afectadas por gastroenteritis causada por el consumo de aves contaminadas con Salmonella, así como más de 155.000 fallecidos. Sin embargo, los orígenes de esta cepa: Salmonella entérica y otras de mayor alcance patógeno están influenciadas muy de cerca por el control de dos cepas con poca acción en la población humana: la S. polloroum y la S. gallinarum. La casi desaparición de estos dos serovares impulsó la colonización de cepas más resistente a los antibióticos y más perjudiciales para los seres humanos(AU)


The quality of the food we consume has become one of the main public health problems worldwide, since it is the gateway for pathogens and vectors for the transmission of various diseases. It was estimated that 17.9% of diseases transmitted by food consumption are related to poultry, and 19% of these diseases are associated with contamination by Salmonella enterica. Salmonellosis is an invasive disease that greatly affects highly vulnerable populations (children, the elderly and immunocompromised), causing the need for hospitalization and sometimes death. Worldwide, it is estimated that annually there are more than 94 million people affected by gastroenteritis caused by the intake of poultry contaminated with Salmonella, as well as more than 155,000 deaths. However, the origins of this strain: Salmonella enterica and others with a greater pathogenic scope are closely influenced by the control of two strains with little action in the human population: S. polloroum and S. gallinarum. The near disappearance of these two serovars prompted the colonization of strains more resistant to antibiotics and more harmful to humans(AU)


Subject(s)
Poultry , Salmonella , Food Quality , Salmonella Infections , Public Health , Environmental Pollution , Gastroenteritis
13.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 714-720, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1412407

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades diarreicas constituyen la principal causa de morbimortalidad en niños menores de cinco años, con alrededor de 1.700 millones de casos y 1,5 millones de muertes por año a nivel mundial. Para el año 2010, en la Sierra de Ecuador se registró un alto porcentaje de infantes fallecidos a causa de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA), incluyendo la provincia de Chimborazo; mientras que, para el año 2016, se registraron en Ecuador 590.523 casos de EDA, siendo más afectados los niños de sectores de mayor pobreza. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en pacientes pediátricos con episodios diarreicos que acudieron a centros de salud de los cantones rurales de la provincia Chimborazo. Se realizó análisis coprológico y coproparasitológico en 258 muestras; se identificaron bacterias enteropatógenas mediante pruebas bioquímicas y de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, se realizó diagnóstico parasitológico mediante análisis macroscópico y microscópico y para detección de virus se emplearon pruebas inmunológicas. Se observó un mayor número de casos de EDA en los cantones Alausí (50%) y Chunchi (19%). De los pacientes con EDA, los rotavirus son el principal agente etiológico aislado (24,8%), seguido por Shigella (17,8%); mientras que Giardia intestinalis (8,5%) y Salmonella (10,1%) son los microorganismos que se aislaron con menor frecuencia en las muestras. Los resultados del presente estudio, permiten tener un panorama etiológico de las EDA en la provincia de Chimborazo y contribuir en la vigilancia epidemiológica, ejecución de programas sanitarios y de vacunación, para disminuir la vulnerabilidad de la población infantil ante dichas infecciones(AU)


Diarrheal diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age, with around 1.7 billion cases and 1.5 million deaths per year worldwide. For the year 2010, in the Sierra de Ecuador a high percentage of infants died due to acute diarrheal diseases (ADD), including the province of Chimborazo; while, for the year 2016, 590,523 cases of ADD were registered in Ecuador, with children from the poorest sectors being more affected. A descriptive study was carried out in pediatric patients with diarrheal episodes who attended health centers in the rural cantons of Chimborazo province. Coprological and coproparasitological analysis was performed on 258 samples; Enteropathogenic bacteria were identified by biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, a parasitological diagnosis was made by macroscopic and microscopic analysis, and immunological tests were used to detect viruses. A greater number of ADD cases was observed in the Alausí (50%) and Chunchi (19%) cantons. Of patients with ADD, rotaviruses are the main etiological agent isolated (24.8%), followed by Shigella (17.8%); while Giardia intestinalis (8.5%) and Salmonella (10.1%) are the microorganisms that were isolated less frequently in the samples. The results of this study allow us to have an etiological panorama of EDA in the province of Chimborazo and contribute to epidemiological surveillance, execution of health and vaccination programs, to reduce the vulnerability of the child population to these infections(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Diarrhea, Infantile/etiology , Salmonella , Shigella , Bacteria , Giardia lamblia , Rotavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring
14.
Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 58-63, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987098

ABSTRACT

Background@#Salmonellosis is one of the most reported bacterial foodborne illnesses worldwide. Salmonella outbreaks are also prevalent in the Philippines, with egg-containing food and feces of chicken as implicated sources. The presence of Salmonella in eggshells and in egg content poses a significant threat to public health. Hence, this study aimed to determine the presence of S. enterica from different parts of chicken eggs sold in a public market in the City of Manila. @*Methodology@#A descriptive study design was employed to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in different parts of retail chicken eggs. A total of 72 egg samples from 24 stalls were included. The methodology for isolation and identification of Salmonella followed the guidelines set by the US Food and Drug Administration as seen in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual with some additions and modifications. @*Results@#Contaminated eggs were found in 21 (87%) of the 24 stalls. A total of 29 (40%) out of 72 eggs were identified as the source of putative Salmonella isolates. Nineteen (66%) eggs had putative Salmonella isolates from the eggshell, while 7 (24%) had putative Salmonella isolates from the egg content. There were three (10%) eggs with both eggshell and egg content possibly contaminated with Salmonella. @*Conclusion@#The presence of putative Salmonella and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to strengthen food safety at the production and distribution levels of retail chicken eggs. There is also a need to establish a national surveillance system along with strengthened diagnostic capacity for S. enterica in the Philippines.


Subject(s)
Salmonella
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1085-1093, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345255

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at isolating and characterizing Salmonella spp. from chicken cuts marketed in Francisco Beltrão, PR, and verify the resistance profile of the isolates against antimicrobials used in human therapy. Samples of chicken cuts (n=40) were purchased from supermarkets and submitted to microbiological analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. The suspected colonies underwent biochemical testing for the identification of enterobacteria. Four colonies were selected from each sample positive for Salmonella spp., totaling 28 isolates that were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. Colonies that showed resistance to ceftriaxone were subjected to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Among the analyzed chicken samples, seven (17.5%) showed biochemical behavior characteristic of Salmonella spp. Among the 28 isolates, seventeen different resistance profiles were found, of which 46.42% (n=13) had a multi-resistance profile, and 21.4% (n=6) of the isolates had a phenotype for ESBL production. The strains of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken cuts found in this study showed a high level of resistance to antimicrobials of different classes and of last generations, these data serve as a warning, as they put the human treatment of salmonellosis at risk.(AU)


A pesquisa objetivou isolar e caracterizar Salmonella spp., a partir de cortes de frangos comercializados na cidade de Francisco Beltrão - PR, bem como verificar o perfil de resistência dos isolados em relação aos antimicrobianos utilizados na terapêutica humana. Amostras de cortes de frango (n=40) foram adquiridas em supermercados e submetidas à análise microbiológica para detecção de Salmonella spp. As colônias suspeitas foram submetidas a provas bioquímicas para identificação de enterobactérias. Quatro colônias foram selecionadas de cada amostra positiva para Salmonella spp., totalizando 28 isolados, que foram testadas quanto à sensibilidade a antimicrobianos. As colônias que apresentaram resistência à ceftriaxona foram submetidas à pesquisa de betalactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL). Das amostras de frango analisadas, sete (17,5%) apresentaram comportamento bioquímico característico de Salmonella spp. Entre os 28 isolados, foram encontrados 17 perfis diferentes de resistência, tendo 46,42% (n=13) apresentado perfil de multirresistência e 21,4% (n=6) apresentado fenótipo para produção de ESBL. As cepas de Salmonella spp. isoladas de cortes de frango, encontradas neste estudo, apresentaram alto índice de resistência a antimicrobianos de diferentes classes e de últimas gerações. Esses dados servem de alerta, uma vez que coloca em risco o tratamento da salmonelose humana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Salmonella Infections, Animal , Chickens/microbiology
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1243-1247, Sept.-Oct. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345271

ABSTRACT

Salmonelose é uma doença causada por bactérias do gênero Salmonella, com importância para saúde pública e animal. Dentre os sorotipos hospedeiro-específicos, destaca-se o Gallinarum, que possui os biovares Gallinarum e Pullorum adaptados às aves e amplamente difundidos pelo mundo. Os dados sobre a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em criações avícolas alternativas no Brasil são escassos. O objetivo deste estudo foi pesquisar a ocorrência de Salmonella spp. em galinhas coloniais encaminhadas para necropsia ao LRD/FV/UFPel. Foram realizadas análises histopatológicas, microbiológicas e moleculares das colônias bacterianas isoladas de 12 amostras de órgãos de galinhas domésticas dos municípios de Pelotas e Piratini, no Rio Grande do Sul. Na análise microbiológica, foram isoladas bactérias do gênero Salmonella sorotipo Gallinarum das 12 amostras, sendo 10/12 bioquimicamente compatíveis com biovar Gallinarum e 2/12 com biovar Pullorum. Na análise molecular PCR 11/12, 91,7% foram identificadas genotipicamente como Salmonella spp. O presente estudo demonstrou uma elevada frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum em aves sintomáticas criadas em regime extensivo. Além disso, os dados epidemiológicos das aves analisadas demonstram que a infecção por Salmonella Gallinarum nesses casos está associada ao contato com aves silvestres e falhas de manejo sanitário.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens
17.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(2, cont.): e2411, jul-dez. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352319

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is the world's most common foodborne illness. In Brazil, foods contaminated by salmonella lead the statistics. Therefore, the aim of this study is, through biotechnological knowledge, to compile alternative and innovative techniques for the detection of salmonella in foods, such as fish-farming derivatives, immunological and biosensorial techniques. This is a descriptive exploratory data survey of a qualitative nature, aiming at data analysis. Research and data collection were carried out in bibliographic databases: Academic Google, Scielo, CAPES journals and institutional repositories using specific descriptors - in Portuguese and English, with words and terms separated by the Boolean operators 'AND' and 'OR'. Some innovative and alternative methods are available to identify the presence of salmonella in food. Immunological and biosensory techniques, despite being less frequent in the scientific literature than molecular methods, are techniques that present high specificity and sensitivity. These techniques have been the most developed alternative methods in fish in recent years. And, they can employ both molecular and immunological techniques in biorecognition, which is characterized as an advantage of not having a requirement for pre-enrichment of the sample. According to the literature found, the techniques covered in this study are quick to respond, which speeds up decision-making by researchers and technicians, which makes the techniques very promising for industrial application.(AU)


A salmonelose é uma enfermidade de maior ocorrência no mundo veiculada por alimentos. No Brasil, alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideram as estatísticas. Por isso, o objetivo desse estudo é através dos conhecimentos biotecnológicos compilar técnicas alternativas e inovadoras para a detecção de salmonelas em alimentos, como os derivados da piscicultura, as técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais. Trata-se de um estudo de levantamento de dados descritivo exploratório de de caráter qualitativo, visando à análise dos dados. As pesquisas e coletas de dados foram realizadas nas bases bibliográficas: Google Acadêmico, Scielo, periódicos da CAPES e repositórios institucionais utilizando os descritores específicos - nos idiomas português e inglês, com palavras e termos separados pelos operadores booleanos 'AND' e 'OR'. São disponibilizados alguns métodos inovadores e alternativos para identificação da presença de salmonelas em alimentos. As técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais, apesar de serem menos frequentes na literatura científica do que os métodos moleculares são técnicas que apresentaram elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Essas técnicas têm sido os métodos alternativos mais desenvolvidos em peixes nos últimos anos. E, podem empregar tanto técnicas moleculares como imunológicas no biorreconhecimento, o que se caracteriza como vantagem de não haver requerimento de pré-enriquecimento da amostra. Conforme a literatura encontrada, as técnicas abordadas por esse estudo apresentam rapidez de resposta o que agiliza as tomadas de decisões dos pesquisadores e técnicos, o que torna as técnicas bastante promissora para aplicação industrial.(AU)


La salmonelosis es la enfermedad transmitida por alimentos más común del mundo. En Brasil, los alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideran las estadísticas. Por tanto, el objetivo de ese estudio fue a través de conocimientos biotecnológicos recopilar técnicas alternativas e innovadoras para la detección de salmonelas en los alimentos, como los derivados de la piscicultura, las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales. Se trata de una encuesta de datos exploratorio descriptivo de carácter cualitativo, cuyo objetivo es el análisis de datos. Las investigaciones y recopilaciones de datos se realizaron en bases de datos bibliográficas: Google Académico, Scielo, revistas CAPES y repositorios institucionales utilizando descriptores específicos, en portugués e inglés, con palabras y términos separados por los operadores booleanos 'AND' y 'OR'. Se encuentran disponibles algunos métodos innovadores y alternativos para identificar la presencia de salmonela en los alimentos. Las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales, a pesar de ser menos frecuentes en la literatura científica que los métodos moleculares, son técnicas de alta especificidad y sensibilidad. Esas técnicas han sido los métodos alternativos más desarrollados en peces en los últimos años. Y pueden emplear técnicas tanto moleculares como inmunológicas en el biorreconocimiento, que se caracteriza por la ventaja de no tener un requisito de preenriquecimiento de la muestra. Según la literatura encontrada, las técnicas abordadas en este estudio son de rápida respuesta, lo que agiliza la toma de decisiones por parte de investigadores y técnicos, lo que hace que las técnicas sean muy prometedoras para la aplicación industrial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections , Immunologic Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fisheries , Food Microbiology , Data Analysis
18.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(3): 165-170, 15/09/2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369416

ABSTRACT

La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) es una de las principales complicaciones postrasplante renal, los datos a nivel nacional en ese grupo poblacional son limitados. Objetivos caracterizar la microbiología de las ITU presentadas en receptores de trasplante renal (TxR) en un centro colombiano durante el periodo 2017­2019, los factores relacionados con la resistencia antimicrobiana y el impacto de la ITU en la función del injerto renal. Métodos estudio de corte transversal ejecutado mediante el análisis de la base de datos de ingresos hospitalarios por urgencias de pacientes receptores de TxR con sospecha clínica de ITU en una institución de cuarto nivel en Bogotá, Colombia. El análisis de datos se ejecutó en STATA 13.0. Resultados La ITU causó 12,69% de visitas a urgencias en pacientes trasplantados. Los microorganismos aislados fueron: Escherichia coli 52,22%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 16,67%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4,44%, Salmonella spp 4,44%, Proteus mirabilis 3,33%, Serratia marcescens 2,22%, Klebsiella oxytoca 2,22%, Citrobacter koseri 1,11%, Enterobacter cloacae 1,11%, otros 2,22%; El urocultivo fue negativo en 10% de los casos. El 28,39% (n:23) de gérmenes aislados fue multisensible mientras que el 71,60% (n:58) expresó algún tipo de patrón de resistencia distribuido así: 68,96% productor de betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), 15,52% productor de carbapenemasas, 12,06% productor de betalactamasa tipo IRT, 3,45% fue catalogado como multirresistente. 17,78% de los pacientes presentó criterios de urosepsis, no se registró ningún caso de mortalidad asociada a la ITU. La creatinina sérica tuvo un incremento promedio de 0,46 mg/dl durante el episodio de ITU (p: <0,0001) y el antecedente de diabetes mellitus se relacionó con la ITU causada por gérmenes resistentes (p: 0,008). Conclusiones La ITU es una causa frecuente de atención en urgencias para pacientes receptores de TxR; la Escherichia coli es el microorganismo causal más frecuente y cerca del 70% de los gérmenes aislados presentó algún patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana.


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after kidney transplantation (KTx). This study aims to characterize the microbiology of UTIs presented in KTx recipients in a Colombian tertiary center during the period 2017­2019, factors related with antimicrobial resistance and the impact of UTI on kidney graft function. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective single center study were made through the institutional database analysis of hospital admissions to the emergency room of KTx recipients with clinical suspicion of UTI. Data analysis was run on STATA 13.0. Results UTI caused 12.69% of visits to the emergency room in transplant patients during the study period. The isolated microorganisms were Escherichia coli 52.22%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 16.67%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4.44%, Salmonella spp 4.44%, Proteus mirabilis 3.33%, Serratia marcescens 2.22%, Klebsiella oxytoca 2.22%, Citrobacter koseroi 1.11%, others 2.22%; Urine culture was negative in 10% of cases. 28.39% (n: 23) of isolated germs were multisensitive while 71.60% (n: 58) expressed some type of resistance pattern distributed as follows: 68.96% extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 15.52% carbapenemases producers, 12.06% IRT-type beta-lactamase producers, 3.45% was classified as multi-resistant. 17.78% of patients presented criteria for urosepsis, there was no cases of mortality due to UTI. Serum creatinine had an average increase of 0.46 mg/dl during the UTI episode (p: <0.0001) and a history of diabetes mellitus was related with UTI caused by resistant germs (p: 0.008). Conclusion UTI is a frequent cause of emergency care for KTx recipients. E. coli is the most common causative microorganism and about 70% of isolated germs showed some pattern of antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections , beta-Lactamases , Kidney Transplantation , Proteus mirabilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella , Serratia marcescens , Colombia , Emergency Medical Services , Kidney
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 781-790, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285278

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to Standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocol for the authentication of bovine and buffalo milk, and to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this, the target DNA was extracted, mixed, and subjected to a PCR assay. Milk samples were defrauded and experimentally contaminated with microorganisms to assess the detection of target DNA at different times of cultivation, bacterial titers, and concentration of genetic material. In addition, the protocol was tested with DNA extracted directly from food, without a pre-enrichment step. The proposed quadruplex PCR showed good accuracy in identifying target DNA sequences. It was possible to simultaneously identify all DNA sequences at the time of inoculation (0h), when the samples were contaminated with 2 CFU/250mL and with 6h of culture when the initial inoculum was 1 CFU/250mL. It was also possible to directly detect DNA sequences from the food when it was inoculated with 3 CFU/mL bacteria. Thus, the proposed methodology showed satisfactory performance, optimization of the analysis time, and a potential for the detection of microorganisms at low titers, which can be used for the detection of fraud and contamination.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi padronizar um protocolo de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para a autenticação de leite bovino e bubalino e a detecção da presença de Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Para isso, o DNA-alvo foi extraído, misturado e submetido ao ensaio de PCR. Amostras de leite foram fraudadas e contaminadas experimentalmente com os micro-organismos, para se avaliar a detecção do DNA-alvo em diferentes tempos de cultivo, os títulos bacterianos e a concentração de material genético. Além disso, o protocolo foi testado com DNA extraído diretamente do alimento, sem a etapa de pré-enriquecimento. A PCR quadriplex proposta mostrou boa precisão na identificação de sequências de DNA-alvo. Foi possível identificar simultaneamente todas as sequências de DNA no momento da inoculação (0h), quando as amostras estavam contaminadas com 2 UFC/250mL, e com seis horas de cultura, quando o inóculo inicial foi de 1 UFC/250mL. Também foi possível detectar diretamente as sequências de DNA do alimento quando este foi inoculado com 3 UFC/mL de bactérias. Dessa forma, a metodologia proposta apresentou desempenho satisfatório, otimização do tempo de análise e potencial para detecção de micro-organismos em baixos títulos, podendo ser utilizada para detecção de fraude e contaminação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Buffaloes , Milk/microbiology , Fraud/prevention & control , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Food Safety/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
20.
Asunción; s.n; junio 2021. 142 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1363416

ABSTRACT

Los análisis microbiológicos de los alimentos, constituyen un componente esencial para evaluar la inocuidad de un alimento y las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura (BPM) un requisito sanitario de obligado cumplimiento en los locales gastronómicos. Ambos, son utilizados para evaluar la aptitud de un alimento.. El objetivo es describir la contaminación microbiologica de los alimentos de alto riesgo en la ciudad de Coronel Oviedo, Caaguazú, Paraguay (2015 ­ 2016). Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal, fueron censados los servicios gastronomicos de la Ciudad de Cnel. Oviedo, y fueron clasificados en alto, mediano y bajo riesgo epidemiologico. Fue realizado un muestreo aleatorio simple y fueron tomados alimentos para su analisis microbiologico. Fueron realizados recuentos para Aerobios Mesofilos (RAM) y S. aureus por la tecnica PETRIFILM. Los coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y E. Coli por la tecnica del NMP. El patogeno analizado fue la Salmonella spp. El limite microbiológico fue dado por la Norma Sanitaria del Ministerio de Salud de Perú "Norma Sanitaria que establece los criterios microbiológicos de calidad sanitaria e inocuidad para los alimentos y bebidas de consumo humano " RM N° 615 ­ 2003 SA/DM). Fueron censados y georreferenciados 177 establecimientos y se muestrearon 77 locales. Fueron analizadas 26 muestras sin tratamiento térmico. El 96,2%(25) cumplio RAM y el 88,5%(23) cumplió S. aureus. El 26,9% (7) cumplió la Norma Sanitaria para Coliformes Totales, 3,9%(1) para E. coli. Los alimentos con mayor riesgo fueron los sandwich y las ensaladas. Los sándwich presentaron valores a lo establecido en la legislación para RAM,S. aureus, C. Totales, E. coli y S. aureus. Las ensaladas presentaronrecuentos mayores para C. Totales, E. coli y S. aureus. Las muestras analizadas presentan valores altos para los microorganismos indicadores por lo que se deberá insistir en mejorar las prácticas de manipulación de alimentos. Fueron analizadas 48 muestras con tratamiento térmico. El 72,9%(35) cumplio RAM y el 37,5%(18) cumplió S. aureus. El 27,1% (20) cumplió la Norma Sanitaria para Coliformes Totales, 33,3%(16) para E. coli. Los alimentos con mayor riesgo fueron las empanadas y hamburguesas, los cuales presentaron valores a lo establecido en la legislación para RAM, S. aureus, C. Totales, y E. coli. No fue aislada Salmonella spp. en ninguna de las muestras. Se observaron fallas en el cumplimiento de las BPM para muchos ítems, entre ellos el origen de la materia prima, almacenamiento a temperaturas mayores a las recomendadas en las heladeras, congeladoras y en las vitrinas exhibidoras. Asimismo, los manipuladores presentan malos hábitos, a pesar de tener buen aspecto. Se observan practicas que favorecerían la contaminación cruzada. Es prioritario la implementación por parte del Municipio de Cnel.Oviedo, de un Programa de Control de Alimentos a fin de eliminar o disminuir los riesgos durante la manipulación de alimentos. Palabras claves: contaminación, microbiología, alimentos, alto riesgo, Caaguazú, Paraguay .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Health , Food and Beverages , Food , Food Handling , Paraguay , Salmonella , Environmental Pollution , Escherichia coli
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