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1.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(2): 33-40, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288197

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la diferencia del trazado cefalométrico manual con el digital en radiografías laterales de cráneo. Materiales y métodos: Inicialmente se realizó un piloto para calibrar al investigador principal, en donde se analizaron 10 radiografías pertenecientes a cinco pacientes del Servicio de Radiología del Centro Odontológico de nuestra institución para evaluar la concordancia entre los dos evaluadores y establecer el tamaño de la muestra. Finalmente, se analizaron 78 radiografías cefalométricas de 39 pacientes, en las que se realizó el trazado cefalométrico de Steiner manual y digital. Esas radiografías se analizaron en una escala 1:1 y posteriormente se evaluó la diferencia de las mediciones mediante el análisis univariado, se determinó en mediana e intervalo intercuartil por separado. En el análisis bivariado, se aplicó la prueba de signo de rangos de Wilcoxon y muestras pareadas para determinar la diferencia de las mediciones cefalométricas de Steiner entre el tipo del análisis cefalométrico. El nivel de significancia se fijó en p < 0,05 y confiabilidad al 95%, respectivamente. Resultados: No hubo diferencia significativa en la mayoría de las mediciones hechas de manera manual y digital, siendo el ángulo interincisal la única medición angular en la cual hubo diferencia significativa al obtener un resultado de p = 0,002. Mientras tanto, en las mediciones lineales, la única medición en la que hubo diferencia significativa fue en el segmento incisivo inferior - NB con p = 0,005. Conclusión: No se encuentran diferencias significativas entre el trazado cefalométrico manual y el digital. No obstante, es importante tener en cuenta que la muestra o población evaluada es reducida para definir conclusiones.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the difference of the manual cephalometric tracing with the digital tracing on lateral cranial radiographs. Materials and Methods: Initially, a pilot study was carried out to calibrate the principal investigator, where 10 radiographs belonging to 5 patients of the Radiology Service of the Dental Center, were analyzed to evaluate the intraclass concordance between the two evaluators. To establish the size of the sample, finally, 78 cephalometric radiographs of 39 patients were analyzed, in which the manual and digital Steiner cephalometric tracing was performed. These radiographs were analyzed on a 1: 1 scale and then the difference of the measurements was evaluated using the univariate analysis, which was determined in the median and interquartile range, separately. In the bivariate analysis, the Wilcoxon rank sign test and paired samples were applied to determine the difference of Steiner's cephalometric measurements between the cephalometric analysis type. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05 and 95% reliability, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in most of the measurements made manually and digitally. The interincisal angle the only angular measurement in which there was a significant difference when obtaining a result of p = 0.002, while, in the linear measurements, the only measurement in which there was significant difference was in the lower incisor segment - NB with p = 0.005. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between manual and digital cephalometric tracing, nevertheless it is important to keep in mind that the simple or population evaluated is reduced to define conclusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Cephalometry , Radiography, Dental, Digital , Patients , Population , Radiology , Research Personnel , Skull , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Radiography, Dental , Pilot Projects , Organizations , Sample Size , Materials , Incisor , Methods
2.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(3): 267-274, 20210000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348035

ABSTRACT

A ferramenta PSS Health (Power and Sample Size for Health Researchers) foi desenvolvida com o propósito de facilitar o cálculo do tamanho amostral e do poder de testes de hipóteses para diferentes objetivos de estudo, usando interface amigável e terminologia comum à área da saúde. Este é o primeiro de uma série de artigos que pretendem orientar o usuário na utilização da ferramenta PSS Health para o planejamento de uma pesquisa. Neste artigo, se ensina como utilizar o PSS Health quando o objetivo principal do estudo é estimar uma média, estimar uma proporção (prevalência ou incidência) ou estimar uma correlação. São disponibilizados vídeos demonstrando o uso da ferramenta em cada um dos contextos citados. (AU)


The PSS Health (Power and Sample Size for Health Researchers) tool was developed with the purpose of facilitating the calculation of sample size and power of hypothesis tests for different study objectives, based on a user-friendly interface and common health care terminology. This is the first in a series of articles intending to guide the user in how to use the PSS Health tool for planning a research project. This article teaches how to use PSS Health when the main objective of the study is to estimate means, proportions (prevalence or incidence), or correlations. Videos showing how to use the tool in each of the mentioned contexts are available. (AU)


Subject(s)
Software , Sample Size , Statistical Analysis
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 639-647, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134551

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El estrés es un estado de inestabilidad y angustia emocional que dificulta la capacidad para concentrarse y funcionar eficazmente de forma rutinaria. En el ámbito de la educación, el estrés académico cuenta con tres dimensiones: estresores, reacciones sobre la salud en general y los reguladores del estrés. Varios estudios han señalado que los estudiantes de carreras de la salud pueden estar expuestos a niveles de estrés más elevados que la población en general. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el estrés académico autopercibido en alumnos ingresantes a la Carrera de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Córdoba, Argentina). Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, donde la muestra estuvo conformada por 291 estudiantes. La información se recolectó a través del cuestionario autoadministrado Inventario Sisco del Estrés Académico (Barraza Macías, 2007a,b). El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo empleando baremos específicos, y para la asociación entre variables se utilizaron las pruebas de Pearson y Anova, fijando el nivel de significación estadística en p<0,05. Una mayoría significativa de los alumnos (98,3 %) presentó estrés académico, con un 88,81 % de los participantes inclinándose por las categorías de intensidad más altas de estrés. Se identificó una muy significativa correlación entre las dimensiones Estresores y Reacciones (p<0,001) y entre Estresores y Estrategias (p= 0,034). La identificación de estrés académico, su caracterización y la prevención respecto a la potencial instalación de hábitos o empleo de medicamentos en muchos casos insalubres, permitirá desarrollar estrategias que favorezcan a los estudiantes el poder hacer frente a las situaciones que el nuevo entorno demanda.


ABSTRACT: Stress is a state of instability and emotional anguish that complicates the ability to focus and function effectively on a routine basis. In educational science, it is called academic stress encompassing three dimensions: stressors, general health reactions, and stress regulators. Several studies have indicated that health career students may be exposed to higher stress levels than the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-perceived academic stress in freshmen students at the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Cordoba, Argentina). A descriptive study was carried out, where the sample consisted of 291 students. The information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire Sisco Inventory of Academic Stress (Barraza Macias, 2007). Data analysis was carried out using specific scales, and for the association between variables, Pearson and Anova tests were used, setting the level of a statistical significance at p<0.05. A significant majority of the students (98.3 %) presented academic stress, with 88.81 % of participants leaning towards the highest intensity categories of stress. A very significant correlation was identified between the Stressors and Reactions dimensions (p<0.001) and between Stressors and Strategies (p=0.034). The identification of academic stress, its characterization and prevention of potential habits or use of medication often considered unhealthy, will promote the development of strategies for students, in order to better face situations encountered in the new environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Stress, Psychological , Students, Dental , Universities , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Ethics Committees , Sample Size , Correlation of Data , Age Groups
5.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 25: 1-7, set. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128491

ABSTRACT

Distúrbios do equilíbrio consistem em um grande problema na doença de Parkinson (DP). A terapia por vibração do corpo inteiro mostra-se benéfica em pessoas saudáveis, mas apresenta eficácia incerta na DP. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar os efeitos agudos da terapia por vibração do corpo inteiro sobre o equilíbrio de pacientes com DP e analisar o tamanho do efeito da intervenção para predizer o número ideal de participantes. Doze participantes com DP foram randomicamente divididos entre grupos intervenção e placebo. O grupo intervenção foi submetidos à terapia vibratória, tendo o equilíbrio avaliado em período anterior, imediatamente após e transcorrido cinco minutos da sessão. O grupo placebo fez uma intervenção simulada, tendo o equilíbrio avaliado nos mesmos períodos. Ambos os grupos tiveram seus olhos vendados para manter cegamento dos participantes sobre a intervenção. As variáveis analisadas foram deslocamento, área e velocidade de deslocamento. O tamanho do efeito foi verificado em análises univariadas e multivariadas, admitindo significância em 5%. Sobre os resultados, a terapia por vibração do corpo inteiro não apresentou eficácia sobre o equilíbrio na DP em momento imediato e transcorrido cinco minutos da aplicação da terapia. A análise que apresentou maior tamanho do efeito se deu quando o equilíbrio foi mensurado de forma multivariada, predizendo a necessidade de 46 pacientes. Em conclusão, os resultados desse estudo foram imprecisos quanto à eficácia da terapia por vibração do corpo inteiro no equilíbrio de pacientes com DP. Novas pesquisas com uma amostra superior a 46 participantes devem ser realizadas


Balance disorders are a major problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). The whole body vibration has benefits on the balance in healthy people, but it has imprecise effectiveness in PD. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration on balance in patients with PD and to predict the ideal number of participants from the effects size. Twelve participants with PD were randomly divided into intervention and placebo groups. Participants in the intervention group underwent whole body vibration and the subjects had their balance assessed prior therapy, immediately and five minutes after the session. The control group underwent a placebo intervention and the subjects had their balance assessed on the same periods. Both groups had their eyes closed during the intervention protocol. The variables assessed were body displacement, area and velocity of body displacement. The effect size of the intervention was analysed under univariate and multivariate analyses. Significance was set at 5%. With respect to the results, the whole body vibration was inefficient in improving balance immediately and five minutes after the session. The analysis that presented the strongest effect size occurred when balance was assessed under a multivariate basis, predicting the need of 46 participants. In conclusion, the results were imprecise as to the effects of whole body vibration on the balance in patients with PD. Studies with a sample size higher than 46 participants should be carried out to further address this topic


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Random Allocation , Pilot Projects , Sample Size , Postural Balance
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the application and advantages of conditional inference forest in survival analysis.@*METHODS@#We used simulated experiment and actual data to compare the predictive performance of 4 models, including Coxproportional hazards model, accelerated failure time model, random survival forest model and conditional inference forest model based on their Brier scores.@*RESULTS@#Simulation experiment suggested that both of the two forest models had more accurate and robust predictive performance than the other two regression models. Conditional inference forest model was superior to the other models in analyzing time-to-event data with polytomous covariates, collinearity or interaction, especially for a large sample size and a high censoring rate. The results of actual data analysis demonstrated that conditional inference forest model had the best predictive performance among the 4 models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the commonly used survival analysis methods, conditional inference forest model performs better especially when the data contain polytomous covariates with collinearity and interaction.


Subject(s)
Data Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Sample Size , Survival Analysis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the relationship between sample size in the groups and statistical power of ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test with an imbalanced design.@*METHODS@#The sample sizes of the two tests were estimated by SAS program with given parameter settings, and Monte Carlo simulation was used to examine the changes in power when the total sample size varied or remained fixed.@*RESULTS@#In ANOVA, when the total sample size was fixed, increasing the sample size in the group with a larger mean square error improved the statistical power, but an excessively large difference in the sample sizes between groups led to reduced power. When the total sample size was not fixed, a larger mean square error in the group with increased sample size was associated with a greater increase of the statistical power. In Kruskal-wallis test, when the total sample size was fixed, increasing the sample size in groups with large mean square errors increased the statistical power irrespective of the sample size difference between the groups; when total sample size was not fixed, a larger mean square error in the group with increased sample size resulted in an increased statistical power, and the increment was similar to that for a fixed total sample size.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The relationship between statistical power and sample size in groups is affected by the mean square error, and increasing the sample size in a group with a large mean square error increases the statistical power. In Kruskal-Wallis test, increasing the sample size in a group with a large mean square error is more cost- effective than increasing the total sample size to improve the statistical power.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Models, Statistical , Monte Carlo Method , Sample Size
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2688-2695, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is relatively common worldwide and an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is closely linked to arterial stiffness of the carotid artery. However, the association of MetS with the safety of carotid revascularization has been rarely studied. The aim of this study was to observe the current status of MetS and its components in Chinese carotid revascularized patients, and investigate the impact on major adverse clinical events (MACEs) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS).@*METHODS@#From January 2013 to December 2017, patients undergoing CEA or CAS in the Neurosurgery Department of Xuanwu Hospital were retrospectively recruited. The changes in prevalence of MetS and each component with time were investigated. The primary outcome was 30-day post-operative MACEs. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the impact of MetS on CEA or CAS.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2068 patients who underwent CEA (766 cases) or CAS (1302 cases) were included. The rate of MetS was 17.9%; the prevalence rate of MetS increased with time. The occurrence rate of MACEs in CEA was 3.4% (26 cases) and in CAS, 3.1% (40 cases). There was no statistical difference between the two groups (3.4% vs. 3.1%, P = 0.600). For CEA patients, univariate analysis showed that the MACE (+) group had increased diabetes history (53.8% vs. 30.9%, P = 0.014) and MetS (34.6% vs. 15.8%, P = 0.023). For CAS patients, univariate analysis showed that the MACE (+) group had increased coronary artery disease history (40.0% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.006) and internal carotid artery tortuosity (67.5%% vs. 37.6%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the MACE (+) group had higher systolic blood pressure (143.38 ± 22.74 vs. 135.42 ± 17.17 mmHg, P = 0.004). Multivariable analysis showed that the influencing factors for MACEs in CEA included history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.345; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.057-5.205; P = 0.036) and MetS (OR = 2.476; 95% CI = 1.065-5.757; P = 0.035). The influencing factors for MACEs in CAS included systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.023; 95% CI = 1.005-1.040; P = 0.010), coronary artery disease (OR = 2.382; 95% CI = 1.237-4.587; P = 0.009) and internal carotid artery tortuosity (OR = 3.221; 95% CI = 1.637-6.337; P = 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The prevalence rate of MetS increased with time in carotid revascularized patients. MetS is a risk for short-term MACEs after CEA, but not CAS.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , China/epidemiology , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sample Size , Stents/adverse effects , Stroke , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 41(spe): e20190095, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1093864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: To analyze the behavior of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the presence of defining characteristics (DCs) of the nursing diagnosis Excess fluid volume (00026) in patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Methods: Cohort study of patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (September 2015 to September 2016) defined by Boston Criteria. Patients hospitalized for up to 36 h with BNP values ≥ 100 pg/ml were included; BNP values at baseline-final assessment were compared by Wilcoxon test, the number of DCs at baseline-final assessment was compared by paired t-test. Results: Sixty-four patients were included; there was a significant positive correlation between delta of BNP and the number of DCs present at initial clinical assessment. Conclusions: The behavior of BNP was correlated to the DCs indicating congestion. With clinical compensation, DCs and BNP decreased. The use of this biomarker may provide additional precision to the nursing assessment.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento del péptido natriurético tipo B (BNP) en presencia de características definitorias (CD) del diagnóstico de enfermería Exceso de volumen de líquidos (00026) en pacientes hospitalizados por insuficiencia cardíaca aguda descompensada (ICAD). Métodos: Estudio de cohorte de pacientes ingresados ​​con ICAD (septiembre/2015 a septiembre/2016).Se incluyeron pacientes hospitalizados hasta 36 h con valores de BNP ≥ 100 pg / ml; Los valores de BNP en la evaluación inicial basal se compararon mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, el número de CD en la evaluación inicial basal se comparó mediante el Test-T apareado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 64 pacientes; hubo una correlación positiva significativa entre el delta del BNP y las CD presentes en la evaluación clínica inicial. Conclusiones: El comportamiento del BNP se correlacionó con las CD que indican congestión. Con compensación clínica, las CD y el BNP disminuyeron. El uso del BNP puede proporcionar precisión adicional a la evaluación de enfermería.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o comportamento do peptídeo natriurético tipo B (BNP) na presença de características definidoras (CDs) do diagnóstico de enfermagem Excesso de volume de líquidos (00026) em pacientes hospitalizados por insuficiência cardíaca descompensada. Métodos: Estudo de coorte com pacientes internados com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada (setembro-2015 a setembro-2016), definida pelos Critérios de Boston. Pacientes hospitalizados por mais de 36 horas, valor de BNP ≥ 100 pg/ml foram incluídos; valores de BNP basal-final foram comparados pelo teste Wilcoxon; as CDs no basal-final foram comparadas pelo teste t pareado. Resultados: Sessenta e quatro pacientes foram incluídos; houve correlação positiva significativa entre o delta de BNP com o número de CDs presentes na avaliação clínica inicial. Conclusões: O comportamento do BNP foi correlacionado com as CDs, indicando congestão. Com a compensação clínica, as CDs e a concentração de BNP diminuíram. O uso deste biomarcador pode fornecer precisão adicional à avaliação de enfermagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/diagnosis , Nursing Diagnosis , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Heart Failure/blood , Stroke Volume , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Sample Size , Emergency Medical Services , Heart Failure/nursing , Heart Failure/physiopathology
11.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 63-70, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117821

ABSTRACT

Este artigo visa elucidar algumas dúvidas enfrentadas ou equívocos estatísticos cometidos por pesquisadores de diversas áreas. São explanados os temas: "tradução não é validação", "análise fatorial exploratória ou confirmatória", "nem todo estudo com dois grupos tem delineamento caso-controle", "teste ou ajuste de Bonferroni", "tamanho de amostra para teste de hipóteses e/ou para intervalo de confiança", e "testes ou dados paramétricos". A abordagem é realizada em uma linguagem acessível ao público leigo, utilizando exemplos e sugerindo referências para aprofundar o conhecimento.(AU)


This article aims to answer some questions and elucidate statistical misconceptions of researchers from different fields. The following topics are addressed: "translation is not validation", "exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis", "not every study with two groups is a case-control study", "Bonferroni test or adjustment", "sample size for testing hypotheses and/or for confidence intervals", and "parametric data or tests". The topics are explained in lay terms, using examples and suggesting references to advance knowledge.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Sample Size , Confidence Intervals , Data Interpretation, Statistical
12.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(4): 247-253, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252890

ABSTRACT

Nas próximas edições da seção de Bioestatística da revistaClinical & Biomedical Researchuma nova série de artigos será publicada abordando um assunto de grande importância ao planejar uma pesquisa: o tamanho de amostra mínimo necessário para atingir os objetivos do estudo. Nessa série será apresentado como calcular o tamanho de uma amostra usando a ferramenta PSSHealth(Power and Sample Size for Health Researchers), construído em linguagem R por meio do pacote Shiny, para diferentes tipos e objetivos de estudo, direcionado à pesquisadores da área da saúde, utilizando termos e conceitos comumente utilizados nesta área. Além disso, o pacote fornece uma sugestão de texto com as informações consideradas no cálculo, e como devem ser descritas, com a finalidade de minimizar problemas de interpretação por parte dos pesquisadores. Neste primeiro artigo será apresentada essa ferramenta desenvolvida pela Unidade de Bioestatística do Grupo de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, que permite calcular não apenas o tamanho de amostra, mas também o poder de um teste de hipóteses. (AU)


In the next issues ofClinical and Biomedical Research, the Biostatistics section will introduce a new series of articles addressing a very important subject for research planning: the minimum sample size to achieve the aim of a study. This series will show how to calculate sample size using PSS Health (Power and Sample Size for Health Researchers). This tool was built using R language through the Shiny package. It can be used for different types of study and is designed for health researchers by using terms and concepts commonly used in this area. PSS Health also suggests a text with information considered in the calculation to minimize problems of interpretation by the researchers. In this first article, a general overview of PSS Health will be presented. This tool, which was developed by the Research and Graduate Group Biostatistics Unit of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, is useful not only to calculate sample size but also to determine power of a hypothesis test. (AU)


Subject(s)
Software , Sample Size , Statistics as Topic/instrumentation
13.
Repert. med. cir ; 29(3): 203-207, 2020. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1255380

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el Ministerio de Educación Nacional (MEN) de Colombia reconoció 420 instituciones de educación superior (IES), de las cuales 243 (57.8%) ofrecen programas técnicos o tecnológicos. El procesamiento de tejidos debe tener fundamento teórico y entrenamiento práctico para la preparación de tejidos humanos, animales o vegetales como apoyo diagnóstico. Esta profesión no es muy conocida y juega un papel relevante en el diagnóstico de patologías. Objetivo: determinar el conocimiento que tiene el personal de salud que labora en un hospital de cuarto nivel de atención con respecto a las habilidades y capacidades del citohistólogo. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal que incluyó trabajadores de una institución prestadora de servicios (IPS) de salud. Se calculó el tamaño muestral de 231 en Epi-info 7. Este trabajo fue aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación. Resultados: 231 trabajadores de la salud fueron interrogados, con una mediana de edad de 25 años (RIQ: 22-31), 83,1% mujeres, 61,5% conocen la definición correcta de citohistología y 49,3% lo relacionan con un aporte en promoción y prevención de cáncer. Conclusiones: existe un desconocimiento por parte de los trabajadores de la IPS sobre las actividades del citohistólogo y sus funciones, como la adecuada fijación, traslado y procesamiento de los tejidos, que al no realizarse en forma correcta afectan el diagnóstico patológico, lo cual incide en la morbilidad por muestras inadecuadas, causando además trastornos administrativos hospitalarios.


Introduction: the Colombian National Ministry of Education (MEN) recognized 420 higher education institutions (HEI) of which 243 (57.8%) offer technical and technological study programs. Human or animal tissue preparation and processing as aids to diagnosis requires understanding its theoretical principles and practical training. This profession is little known and plays a relevant role for diagnosing diseases. Objective: to determine the knowledge among health care personnel of a fourth level institution regarding the skills and competencies of a cytotechnologist. Methods: a cross-section study including workers of a health care institution (IPS). Epi-info 7 was used to calculate the sample size of 231. This work was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: 231 health care providers answered a questionnaire, median age 25 years (IQR: 22-31), 83.1% females, of which, 61.5% know the correct definition of cytotechnology and 49.3% relate cytotechnology with cancer prevention and control [screening] programs. Conclusions: the health care personnel of the institution were not acquainted with the activities and functions of a cytotechnologist or the tissue fixation, processing and transportation procedures. An inappropriate sample can affect pathology results impacting morbidity rates causing hospital administrative issues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Education, Higher , Pathology , Tissue Fixation , Sample Size , Knowledge , Delivery of Health Care , Occupations
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate the relationship between circulating interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and associations between polymorphisms in IL17 genes and SLE susceptibility.METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of serum/plasma IL-17 levels in patients with SLE and controls and evaluated the associations between the IL17A rs2275913, IL17F rs763780, and IL17F rs2397084 polymorphisms and IL17F copy number variations (CNVs) and risk of SLE.RESULTS: Thirteen studies focusing on 2,096 patients with SLE and 2,587 controls were included. Our meta-analysis revealed that IL-17 levels were significantly higher in the SLE group than the control group (standardized mean difference=1.045, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=0.521~1.568, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis using sample size showed increased IL-17 levels in samples from large (n>100) but not small (n < 90) SLE groups. We found no evidence of associations between SLE and the IL17A rs2275913, IL17F rs763780, and IL17F rs2397084 polymorphisms. However, a significant association was found between SLE and IL17F CNVs in a pooled cohort of affected individuals compared to that in pooled controls (odd ratio=3.663, 95% CI=2.466~5.221, p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed significantly higher circulating IL-17 levels in patients with SLE and showed evidence of associations between IL17F CNVs and SLE.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Sample Size
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811314

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of three intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas (SRK/T, Barrett Universal II, and T2) in cataract surgery patients.METHODS: In total, 73 eyes of 73 patients who underwent uneventful cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. IOL power was determined using SRK/T, Barrett Universal II, and T2 preoperatively. The findings were compared with the actual refractive outcome to obtain the prediction error. The mean prediction error (ME) and mean absolute error (MAE) of each formula were compared. The MAE was defined as the difference between the postoperative spherical equivalence (SE) and the preoperatively predicted SE. The ME and MAE of each formula 3 months after surgery were compared with preoperatively predicted SE. Eyes were classified into subgroups based on axial length (AL) and average keratometry (K).RESULTS: The ME and MAE for the three formulas were SRK/T [−0.08 ± 0.45 diopters (D) and 0.35 ± 0.40 D, respectively], Barrett Universal II (−0.01 ± 0.44 D and 0.33 ± 0.30 D, respectively), and T2 (0.04 ± 0.45 D and −0.34 ± 0.30 D, respectively), but no statistically significant differences were detected. Similar results were obtained in groups with a long AL or a large average K. In groups with an AL ≥ 26 mm or with an average K ≥ 47 D, the Barrett Universal II formula yielded the smallest standard deviation and a ME closest to zero, but these differences were not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were observed between the three formulas regarding ME or MAE. However, recent formulas such as the Barrett Universal II could provide certain benefits in predicting IOL power for patients with a long AL (> 26 mm) or larger average K. Further research with a larger sample size is recommended for more evaluation.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Humans , Lenses, Intraocular , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor outcomes. This study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of PH-specific therapeutic agents for IPF patients.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restriction until November 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality to end of study.RESULTS: We analyzed 10 RCTs involving 2,124 patients, 1,274 of whom received PH-specific agents. In pooled estimates, the use of PH-specific agents was not significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality to end of study compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92, 1.06; P = 0.71; I² = 30%). When we performed subgroup analyses according to the type of PH-specific agent, sample size, age, forced vital capacity, diffusion lung capacity, and the extent of honeycombing, PH-specific agents also showed no significant association with a reduction in all-cause mortality. A small but significant improvement in quality of life, measured using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total score, was found in the PH-specific agent group (mean difference, −3.16 points; 95% CI, −5.34, −0.97; P = 0.005; I² = 0%). We found no significant changes from baseline in lung function, dyspnea, or exercise capacity. Serious adverse events were similar between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Although PH-specific agents provided small health-related quality-of-life benefits, our meta-analysis provides insufficient evidence to support their use in IPF patients.


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Dyspnea , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung , Lung Volume Measurements , Mortality , Quality of Life , Sample Size , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents , Vital Capacity
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 442-445, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056482

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the subgingival irrigation of chlorhexidine 0.12 % of the total anaerobic microbiota. Microbial sampling to 30 subjects with periodontitis stage II Grade B, in pockets with a periodontal probing depth > 4 mm. The subgingival irrigation was made with 5 mL of chlorhexidine in the test group and with 5 mL of distilled water in the control group. 24 hours after the procedure was obtained a second sample to compare. It was found that the subgingival irrigation with chlorhexidine at 0.12 % achieved a statistically significant decrease in anaerobic microbiota (p< 0.05).


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto de la irrigación subgingival de la clorhexidina 0,12 % sobre la microbiota anaeróbica total. Se tomaron muestras microbiológicas a 30 sujetos con periodontitis estadio II grado B, en sacos periodontales con una profundidad de sondaje > 4 mm. Se realizó la irrigación subgingival con 5 mL. de clorhexidina en el grupo test y con 5 mL. de agua destilada en el grupo control. 24 horas después del procedimiento se obtuvo una segunda muestra a comparar. Se detectó que la irrigación subgingival con clorhexidina al 0,12 % logra disminuir en forma estadísticamente significativa la microbiota anaeróbica total (p< 0,05).


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Bacteria, Anaerobic/classification , Bacterial Infections/chemically induced , Dental Prophylaxis , Periodontitis/therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Chile , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Experimental , Statistical Analysis , Demographic Data , Sample Size , Therapeutic Irrigation
19.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 437-441, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056481

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el riesgo de caries en la población infantil entre 7 y 34 meses, usuarios de un centro de atención primaria de salud en la ciudad de Osorno, ingresados al programa de Población en Control con Enfoque de Riesgo Odontológico (CERO) durante el año 2017. Expresándolo en alto o bajo riesgo. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, tomando una muestra de 135 pacientes, con edades dentro del rango en estudio, inscritos en el centro de salud e ingresados al programa. Se utilizaron las pautas diseñadas por el Ministerio de Salud e incluidas en el programa CERO, aplicándolas en una sesión, junto al examen clínico para determinar el nivel de riesgo de cada individuo. Posteriormente se sometieron los datos a análisis de estadística descriptiva. El 59 % de la población entre 7-34 meses tiene un riesgo de caries alto. El grupo con mayor riesgo es el de 12-23 meses con un 70 %. Los hombres tienen un 59 % de riesgo alto y las mujeres un 58 %. Al analizar en detalle cada variable, el "cepillado antes de dormir" fue el que con mayor frecuencia se encontraba en alto riesgo, con un 60 %, seguido del "momento de ingesta de alimentos azucarados" y el "uso de pasta con flúor", con un 56 % y 53 %, respectivamente.


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries risk in the child population between 7 and 34 months, users of a primary health care center in the city of Osorno, Chile, admitted to the Population in Control with Dental Risk Approach program during the year 2017. The risk was expressed at high or low. A descriptive observational study was carried out, taking a sample of 135 patients, with ages within the range under study, enrolled in the health center and entered in the program. The guidelines designed by the Ministry of Health and included in the Population in Control with Dental Risk Approach program were used, applying them in a session, along with the clinical examination to determine the level of risk of each individual. Subsequently, the data were subjected to descriptive statistics analysis. 59 % of the population between 7-34 months has a high dental caries risk. The group with the highest risk is 12-23 months of age with 70 %. Men have a 59 % high risk rate, and women 58 %. When analyzing each variable in detail, the "brushing before sleep" was the most frequently found at high risk, with 60 %, followed by the "moment of intake of sugary foods" and the "use of paste with fluoride", with 56 % and 53 %, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Oral Hygiene , Public Health , Dental Caries , Chile/epidemiology , Child Health , Risk Factors , Dental Care , Sample Size , Age and Sex Distribution
20.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 458-465, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056485

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La ansiedad puede ser un detonante de la disfunción temporomandibular (DTM). Se ha mencionado que el trastorno psicológico más frecuente en México es la "ansiedad" con 14,3 %. El objetivo es correlacionar y comparar los niveles de ansiedad y los grados de DTM en cirujanos dentistas residentes (CDR) de dos universidades mexicanas: la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de la Salle Bajío León, Guanajuato (FOULSB), y de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma (FOUADY) de Yucatán México durante el periodo de septiembre 2017 a febrero 2018. El tipo de estudio fue correlacional, comparativo de cohorte transversal, siendo las variables: ansiedad (niveles según cuestionario de autoevaluación de ansiedad estado/rasgo STAI); signos y síntomas clínicos para el diagnóstico de DTM, (CDI/TTM Grupo I Desórdenes Musculares; Grupo II Desplazamientos discales; Grupo III Artralgia, osteoartritis). El tamaño de la muestra y criterios de inclusión en ambas universidades fueron: CDR en Odontología; que aceptaron participar en el estudio, mediante la firma del consentimiento informado y voluntario; hombres y mujeres; entre 25 a 34 años de edad. Criterios de exclusión: con tratamientos ortodónticos, quirúrgicos, enfermedades sistémicas o neurológicas y que sólo el día que se tomó la muestra presentaron otalgia o cefalea. El tipo de muestreo, por conveniencia. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Los resultados: 40 CDR de la FOULSB, donde el 92,5 % (n=37) manifestaron tener niveles de ansiedad bajos, y el 7,5 % (n=3) moderado. El 65,8 % (n=26) presentó diagnóstico de DTM. De los 40 CDR de la FOUADY, 97,5 % (n=39) declararon tener niveles de ansiedad bajos, y el 2,5 % (n=1) obtuvo un nivel alto. El 67,5 % (n=27) presentaron signos y/o síntomas de DTM. La conclusión fue que no existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, ya que los CDR de ambas universidades presentaron porcentajes de DTM similares y también tuvieron niveles de ansiedad similares.


ABSTRACT: Anxiety can be a trigger for temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). It has been mentioned that the most frequent psychological disorder in Mexico is "anxiety" with 14.3 %. The objective is to correlate and compare the levels of anxiety and the degrees of TMD in resident dentists (CDR) of two Mexican universities: the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of La Salle Bajío León, Guanajuato (FOULSB), and the Faculty of Dentistry. Dentistry of the Autonomous University (FOUADY) of Yucatan Mexico during the period from September 2017 to February 2018. The type of study was correlational, comparative crosssectional cohort, the variables being: anxiety (levels according to questionnaire self-assessment of anxiety state / trait STAI); clinical signs and symptoms for the diagnosis of TMD, (CDI / TTM Group I Muscle Disorders, Group II Displacement discs, Group III Arthralgia, osteoarthritis). The size of the sample and inclusion criteria in both universities were CDR in Dentistry; who agreed to participate in the study, by signing the informed and voluntary consent; men and women; between 25 to 34 years of age. Exclusion criteria: with orthodontic, surgical treatments, systemic or neurological diseases and that only the day the sample was taken showed otalgia or headache. The type of sampling, for convenience. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The results: 40 CDR of FOULSB, where 92.5 % (n = 37) reported having low anxiety levels, and 7.5 % (n = 3) moderate. Sixty-five point eight percent (n=26) presented diagnosis of TMD. Of the 40 CDRs of FOUADY, 97.5 % (n = 39) reported having low anxiety levels, and 2.5 % (n = 1) had a high level. Sixtyseven point five percent (n=27) presented signs and / or symptoms of TMD. The conclusion was that there were no statistically significant differences, since the CDRs of both universities presented similar DTM percentages and had similar levels of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Temporomandibular Joint , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Dentists/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sample Size , Orthodontists/statistics & numerical data , Correlation of Data , Mexico
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