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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 47-51, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate a deletional mutation of the HLA-B gene in a Chinese pedigree.@*METHODS@#A female patient with acute myeloid leukemia who had visited Liuzhou People's Hospital in April 2022 was selected as the study subject. Routine human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was determined by using PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotide polymorphism (PCR-SSOP) and PCR-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to validate the candidate variant in the HLA-B gene.@*RESULTS@#The PCR-SBT and SSOP results for the HLA-B locus were inconsistent for the patient and her daughter. The SSOP results of the two individuals were HLA-B*35:01, 40:02 and HLA-B*35:01, 40:01, respectively. However, the PCR-SBT results has indicated a mismatch with the nearest HLA-B*35:01 at exon 4. NGS results showed that the HLA-B*35:01 had a 9 bp deletion in the intron 5. The patient's husband was HLA-B*40:01, 58:01, which was normal.@*CONCLUSION@#The variant in intron 5 of the HLA-B gene in this pedigree has mapped to a primer-binding region for the SBT reagent, which has affected the accuracy of PCR-SBT results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Alleles , Pedigree , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , China , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
2.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 45: e62205, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419135

ABSTRACT

Limosilactobacillus fermentum is a promising probiotic with several documented health benefits. LAB1 is an antagonistic L. fermentum strain isolated from borhani, a traditional South Asian beverage prepared from dairy and plant ingredients. Here, I present the genome sequence of the L. fermentum LAB1 strain, its annotation, and phylogenetic features. The 2.01 Mb genome with a G+C content of 51.9% was assembled into 221 contigs and predicted to have 1,913 protein-coding genes, 98 pseudo genes, 7 rRNAs, 60 tRNAs, and 1 CRISPR array. As much as 91.1% of the coding sequences could be assigned to known functional genes. Determination of average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome sequence revealed 99.37% identity to that of the type strain ATCC 14931. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence extracted from the genome sequence showed close phylogenetic association with several L. fermentum strains. The genome sequence is expected to provide useful insights with regard to the phenotypic, metabolic and beneficial aspects of this lactic acid bacterium.(AU)


Subject(s)
Cultured Milk Products/analysis , Limosilactobacillus fermentum/genetics , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
3.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 817-824, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the ability of the ForenSeqTM DNA Signature Prep kit (ForenSeq kit) in analyzing the sequence information of STRs in Zhejiang She ethnic group and its forensic application efficacy.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 Zhejiang She ethnic group samples were sequenced with the ForenSeq kit on the MiSeq FGx platform. The data was analyzed using ForenSeqTM universal analysis software to obtain the motif structure and flank regions of the 58 STRs, then compared with PCR-CE typing results to test the consistency. At last, the allele frequency and population genetic parameters were calculated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 448 sequence polymorphic alleles were detected in 50 samples of Zhejiang She ethnic group. Compared with fragment length polymorphism detected by PCR-CE, 82 alleles were increased by MPS detection based on ForenSeq kit, and 7 SNPs variation were detected in the flanking regions of 6 loci. The 22 male individuals were genotyped, and total 19 haplotypes were detected in 24 Y chromosome STRs of these 22 males. The cumulative discrimination power of the 27 autosomal STRs was 1-8.87×10-30, the cumulative probability of exclusion of duo-testing was 0.999 999 962 640 657, the cumulative probability of exclusion of trios-testing was 0.999 999 999 999 633.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Based on MPS typing technology, using the ForenSeq kit greatly improves the detection efficiency. In addition, the 58 STRs have good genetic polymorphisms in Zhejiang She ethnic group, which are suitable for individual identification and paternity identification in forensic application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , DNA , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Ethnicity/genetics , Gene Frequency , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
4.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(6): 303-311, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Astrocytomas are cancer tumors of the central nervous system and represent the most common type of solid tumors during human childhood. In 2016, the World Health Organization established a molecular classification system to regroup tumor entities to achieve a more accurate diagnosis and a better clinical decision-making and selection of treatment in patients with these types of tumors. Methods: We evaluated a genotyping assay for rapid and cost-effective mutation detection in astrocytomas using TaqMan probes in an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: Four diffuse astrocytomas (Grade II), three anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade III), and four glioblastomas (Grade IV) were sequenced, and all of them displayed the wild-type (WT) sequence. We tried to set up this melting analysis for the genotyping of pediatric astrocytomas by identifying the specific melting temperatures of the TaqMan probes due to the presence of the WT sequences in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) and H3.3 histone A genes (H3F3A). We used an IDH1-TaqMan probe to identify the WT status of IDH1 in two different WT deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates (pilocytic and diffuse astrocytoma) and obtained four melting temperature values ranged from 65.6 to 92.2°C. Furthermore, only four out of 29 reactions displayed amplification of the DNA template. Sanger sequencing was faster and more reliable to detect the gene status in all the sequenced samples. Conclusions: We conclude that conventional Sanger sequencing remains the gold standard for the genotyping of pediatric astrocytomas.


Resumen Introducción: Los astrocitomas son un tipo de cáncer que afecta al sistema nervioso central y representan el tumor sólido más común durante la infancia. En el año 2016, la Organización Mundial de la Salud estableció un sistema de clasificación molecular para reagrupar tumores con identidades genéticas similares y lograr un diagnóstico más preciso, lo que lleva a tomar las decisiones clínicas idóneas al elegir el tratamiento de pacientes con este tipo de tumores. Métodos: Se evaluó un protocolo que involucra el uso de sondas TaqMan en un ensayo de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa asimétrica para la detección de mutaciones en astrocitomas. Se secuenciaron cuatro astrocitomas difusos (Grado II), tres astrocitomas anaplásicos (Grado III) y cuatro glioblastomas (Grado IV). Se intentó establecer las condiciones del análisis para la genotipificación de los astrocitomas pediátricos mediante la identificación de las temperaturas de disociación específicas de las sondas TaqMan producidas por la prescencia de las secuancias WT en los genes isocitrato deshidrogenasa 1 y 2 (IDH1, IDH2) y H3.3 histona A (H3F3A). Resultados: Los astrocitomas mostraron la secuencia wild type (WT) (silvestre) de los genes. Se utilizó una sonda TaqMan IDH1 para identificar el estado de este gen en dos templados WT de DNA (astrocitoma pilocítico y difuso) y se obtuvieron cuatro valores de temperatura de disociación (65.6-92.2 °C). Solo cuatro de las 29 reacciones mostraron amplificación de DNA. La secuenciación de Sanger fue más rápida y confiable para detectar el estado de los genes en todas las muestras. Conclusiones: La secuenciación de Sanger sigue siendo la técnica más práctica para la genotipificación de astrocitomas pediátricos.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genotyping Techniques , Astrocytoma/diagnosis , Astrocytoma/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Histones , DNA Probes , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Transition Temperature , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Mutation
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200220, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus include medical important species that are Latin American leishmaniases vectors. Little is known about the phylogenetic relationships of closely-related species in each of these taxonomic groups that are morphologically indistinguishable or differentiated by very subtle details. OBJECTIVES We inferred the phylogenetic relationships of closely-related species within both the Nyssomyia genus and the Lutzomyia subgenus using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) fragment. METHODS The sampling was carried out from 11 Argentinean localities. For genetic analyses, we used GenBank sequences in addition to our sequences from Argentina. Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) genetic distance and nucleotide divergence (Da) was calculated between closely-related species of Nyssomyia genus, Lutzomyia subgenus and between clades of Lutzomyia longipalpis complex. FINDINGS The K2P and Da values within species of Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus were lower than the divergence detected between clades of Lu. longipalpis complex. The haplotype network analyses within Lutzomyia subgenus showed shared haplotypes between species, contrary to Nyssomyia genus with none haplotype shared. Bayesian inference within Nyssomyia genus presented structuring by species. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study evidences the phylogenetic proximity among closely-related species within Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus. The COI sequences of Nyssomyia neivai derived from the present study are the first available in GenBank.


Subject(s)
Animals , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/genetics , Phylogeny , Argentina , Base Sequence , Leishmaniasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bayes Theorem , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 77-80, mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041818

ABSTRACT

Cohnella is a highly cellulolytic bacterial genus, which can be found in a variety of habitats. The aim of this study was to assess its presence in the digestive tract of termite species collected in North-eastern Argentina: Nasutitermes aquilinus, N. corniger and Cortaritermes fulviceps. Gut homogenates were incubated with cellulosic substrate for bacterial growth. Bacterial 16S rDNA was partially amplified using new primers for Cohnella spp. and cloned. Sequences obtained showed highest similarity (97.2-99.9%) with those of Cohnella spp. previously reported from diverse environments. Phylogenetic analysis tended to group the clones according to their host species and sampling sites. These results indicate the association of Cohnella-related intestinal symbionts with three common Neotropical termites. Their potential industrial application encourages further research.


Cohnella es un género de bacterias celulolíticas que puede ser encontrado en una variedad de hábitats. El propósito de este estudio fue registrar su presencia en el tracto digestivo de termitas (Nasutitermes aquilinus, N. corniger y Cortaritermes fulviceps) colectadas en el noreste argentino (NEA). Se incubaron homogenados de intestinos en sustrato celulósico para multiplicar las bacterias. Utilizando nuevos cebadores para Cohnella spp., se amplificó una porción del ADN ribosomal 16S bacteriano, el cual fue posteriormente clonado. Las secuencias obtenidas mostraron su mayor porcentaje de similitud (97,2-99,9%) con Cohnella spp., previamente reportadas en diversos ambientes. El análisis filogenético tendió a agrupar a los clones de acuerdo a la especie hospedante y al sitio de muestreo. Estos resultados indican que especies de termitas frecuentes en el NEA albergan simbiontes intestinales relacionados con el género Cohnella. Las potenciales aplicaciones industriales de estos microorganismos animan a profundizar los estudios.


Subject(s)
Isoptera/microbiology , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Bacterial Growth/analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 84-92, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041820

ABSTRACT

El complejo Burkholderia cepacia está formado por 22 especies conocidas como patógenos oportunistas en personas inmunocomprometidas, especialmente en aquellas con fibrosis quística. También se aíslan de infecciones nosocomiales y son difíciles de erradicar debido a su capacidad intrínseca para resistir una gran variedad de antibióticos. En general, estas especies presentan genomas de gran tamaño (hasta 9 Mpb) divididos en 2-5 replicones. Esta característica aporta una gran versatilidad metabólica, que se considera importante para habitar el suelo, el agua, las plantas, incluso los nódulos en leguminosas. Algunas especies del complejo B. cepacia exhiben actividades benéficas, como biorremediación, biocontrol y promoción del crecimiento vegetal. No obstante, debido a su papel en infecciones de humanos, su uso en la agricultura está restringido. El complejo B. cepacia es un tema constante de estudio debido a su impacto en el sector salud y su potencial en la agricultura. En este trabajo se examina la historia del complejo B. cepacia y se revisa la información reciente relacionada con este grupo de bacterias.


The Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of 22 species, which are known as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised people, especially those suffering from cystic fibrosis. It is also found in nosocomial infections and is difficult to eradicate due to intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics. The species have large genomes (up to 9 Mbp), distributed into 2-5 replicons. These features significantly contribute to genome plasticity, which makes them thrive in different environments like soil, water, plants or even producing nodules in legume plants. Some B. cepacia complex species are beneficial in bioremediation, biocontrol and plant-growth promotion. However, because the B. cepacia complex is involved in human infection, its use in agriculture is restricted. B. cepacia complex is being constantly studied due to the health problems that it causes and because of its agricultural potential. In this review, the history of B. cepacia complex and the most recently published information related to this complex are revised.


Subject(s)
Burkholderia cepacia complex/classification , Burkholderia cepacia complex/pathogenicity , Genetic Profile , Phenotype , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Burkholderia Infections/epidemiology
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 602-606, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985054

ABSTRACT

Single-cell sequencing is a technique that analyzes DNA and RNA sequences on the cellular level with next generation sequencing. The ultra high resolution of single-cell sequencing provides new perspectives and opens new frontiers for our understanding of many areas of life sciences, including forensic genome. This paper summarizes the recent advancements in single-cell sequencing and the prospect of its forensic application.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Forensic Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 210-215, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985000

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficiency of REPLI-g® Single Cell Kit for sample DNA amplification, and explore its application value in forensic trace DNA amplification. Methods Three DNA extraction kits were selected to extract DNA from peripheral blood of 10 unrelated individuals. The DNA yield and purity of the three DNA extraction kits were compared. According to the results of comparison, one DNA sample was selected to concentrate and dilute, then used as the initial sample of whole genome amplification (WGA). REPLI-g® Single Cell Kit was used to amplify the initial sample at the whole genome level. The amplification yield and amplification times were calculated, and the distribution of DNA fragments was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Goldeneye® DNA ID System 20A Kit was used to perform the STR typing of the initial sample and DNA samples amplified at the whole genome level to evaluate the performance of REPLI-g® Single Cell Kit in trace DNA amplication in terms of purity and yield as well as the success rate of STR typing. Results After comparison, one DNA sample was selected from QIAsymphony® DNA Investigator® Kit extracts to concentrate and dilute as the initial sample of WGA. After amplifying the whole genome of a series of initial samples by REPLI-g® Single Cell Kit, the lowest average of amplification yield reached 8.77×103 ng, while the average of the corresponding amplification times reached 1.40×106. DNA fragments were large and concentrated. The STR typing success rate of WGA samples became lower with the decrease of initial samples used, but when the amount of samples was lower than 0.5 ng, the STR typing success rate of samples after DNA WGA was higher than that of samples without DNA WGA. Conclusion REPLI-g® Single Cell Kit can increase the yield of template DNA. Especially for trace DNA, the STR typing success rate can be improved to a certain extent.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , DNA Fingerprinting , Microsatellite Repeats , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6853, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889048

ABSTRACT

Glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSSD) is a rare inborn error of glutathione metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. The severe form of the disease is characterized by acute metabolic acidosis, usually present in the neonatal period with hemolytic anemia and progressive encephalopathy. A case of a male newborn infant who had severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia is reported. A high level of 5-oxoproline was detected in his urine and a diagnosis of generalized GSSD was made. DNA sequence analysis revealed the infant to be compound heterozygous with two mutations, c.738dupG in exon 8 of GSS gene resulting in p.S247fs and a repetitive sequence in exon 3 of GSS gene. Treatment after diagnosis of GSSD included supplementation with antioxidants and oral sodium hydrogen bicarbonate. However, he maintained a variable degree of metabolic acidosis and succumbed shortly after his parents requested discontinuation of therapy because of dismal prognosis and medical futility when he was 18 days old.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Glutathione Synthase/deficiency , Mutation , Acidosis/etiology , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Glutathione Synthase/genetics , Glutathione Synthase/metabolism , Pyroglutamate Hydrolase/deficiency , Pyroglutamate Hydrolase/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 13-19, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742510

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer that went undetected by amplification refractory mutation system-Scorpion real-time PCR (ARMS-PCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 specimens were obtained from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from August 2014 to August 2015. In total, 100 ARMS-negative and 100 ARMS-positive specimens were evaluated for EGFR gene mutations by Sanger sequencing. The methodology and sensitivity of each method and the outcomes of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 100 ARMS-PCR-positive samples, 90 were positive by Sanger sequencing, while 10 cases were considered negative, because the mutation abundance was less than 10%. Among the 100 negative cases, three were positive for a rare EGFR mutation by Sanger sequencing. In the curative effect analysis of EGFR-TKIs, the progression-free survival (PFS) analysis based on ARMS and Sanger sequencing results showed no difference. However, the PFS of patients with a high abundance of EGFR mutation was 12.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 11.6−12.4 months], which was significantly higher than that of patients with a low abundance of mutations detected by Sanger sequencing (95% CI, 10.7−11.3 months) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The ARMS method demonstrated higher sensitivity than Sanger sequencing, but was prone to missing mutations due to primer design. Sanger sequencing was able to detect rare EGFR mutations and deemed applicable for confirming EGFR status. A clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in patients with rare EGFR mutations is needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Base Sequence , Disease-Free Survival , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation/genetics , Mutation Rate , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Treatment Outcome
12.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(5)Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma, the most common and lethal brain tumor, is also one of the most defying forms of malignancies in terms of treatment. Integrated genomic analysis has searched deeper into the molecular architecture of GBM, revealing a new sub-classification and promising precision in the care for patients with specific alterations. METHOD: Here, we present the classification of a Brazilian glioblastoma cohort into its main molecular subtypes. Using a high-throughput DNA sequencing procedure, we have classified this cohort into proneural, classical and mesenchymal sub-types. Next, we tested the possible use of the overexpression of the EGFR and CHI3L1 genes, detected through immunohistochemistry, for the identification of the classical and mesenchymal subtypes, respectively. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that genetic identification of the glioblastoma subtypes is not possible using single targeted mutations alone, particularly in the case of the Mesenchymal subtype. We also show that it is not possible to single out the mesenchymal cases through CHI3L1 expression. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the Mesenchymal subtype, the most malignant of the glioblastomas, needs further and more thorough research to be ensure adequate identification.


OBJETIVO: O glioblastoma (GBM), o tumor cerebral mais comum e mais letal, é também um dos tipos de tumores de mais difícil tratamento. Análises genômicas integradas têm contribuído para um melhor entendimento da arquitetura molecular dos GBMs, revelando uma nova subclassificação com a promessa de precisão no tratamento de pacientes com alterações específicas. Neste estudo, nós apresentamos a classificação de uma casuística brasileira de GBMs dentro dos principais subtipos do tumor. MÉTODO: Usando sequenciamento de DNA em larga escala, foi possível classificar os tumores em proneural, clássico e mesenquimal. Em seguida, testamos o possível uso da hiperexpressão de EGFR e CHI3L1 para a identificação dos subtipos clássico e mesenquimal, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados deixam claro que a identificação genética dos subtipos moleculares de GBM não é possível utilizando-se apenas um único tipo de mutação, em particular nos casos de GBMs mesenquimais. Da mesma forma, não é possível distinguir os casos mesenquimais apenas com a expressão de CHI3L1. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados indicam que o subtipo mesenquimal, o mais maligno dos GBMs, necessita de uma análise mais aprofundada para sua identificação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Glioblastoma/classification , Genes, erbB-1 , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/analysis
13.
Clinics ; 72(10): 588-594, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, DNA sequencing has been increasingly utilized in clinical practice. Our goal was to investigate the impact of genomic evaluation on treatment decisions for heavily pretreated patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed metastatic cancer patients from a single institution whose cancers had progressed after all available standard-of-care therapies and whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing analysis. We determined the percentage of patients who received any therapy directed by the test, and its efficacy. RESULTS: From July 2013 to December 2015, 185 consecutive patients were tested using a commercially available next-generation sequencing-based test, and 157 patients were eligible. Sixty-six patients (42.0%) were female, and 91 (58.0%) were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.2 years, and the mean number of pre-test lines of systemic treatment was 2.7. One hundred and seventy-seven patients (95.6%) had at least one identified gene alteration. Twenty-four patients (15.2%) underwent systemic treatment directed by the test result. Of these, one patient had a complete response, four (16.7%) had partial responses, two (8.3%) had stable disease, and 17 (70.8%) had disease progression as the best result. The median progression-free survival time with matched therapy was 1.6 months, and the median overall survival was 10 months. CONCLUSION: We identified a high prevalence of gene alterations using an next-generation sequencing test. Although some benefit was associated with the matched therapy, most of the patients had disease progression as the best response, indicating the limited biological potential and unclear clinical relevance of this practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Genomics/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Genomics/trends , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Precision Medicine/methods , Receptor, ErbB-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Biol. Res ; 50: 3, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838974

ABSTRACT

Direct tests of the random or non-random distribution of nucleotides on genomes have been devised to test the hypothesis of neutral, nearly-neutral or selective evolution. These tests are based on the direct base distribution and are independent of the functional (coding or non-coding) or structural (repeated or unique sequences) properties of the DNA. The first approach described the longitudinal distribution of bases in tandem repeats under the Bose-Einstein statistics. A huge deviation from randomness was found. A second approach was the study of the base distribution within dinucleotides whose bases were separated by 0, 1, 2... K nucleotides. Again an enormous difference from the random distribution was found with significances out of tables and programs. These test values were periodical and included the 16 dinucleotides. For example a high ¨positive¨ (more observed than expected dinucleotides) value, found in dinucleotides whose bases were separated by (3K + 2) sites, was preceded by two smaller ¨negative¨ (less observed than expected dinucleotides) values, whose bases were separated by (3K) or (3K + 1) sites. We examined mtDNAs, prokaryote genomes and some eukaryote chromosomes and found that the significant non-random interactions and periodicities were present up to 1000 or more sites of base separation and in human chromosome 21 until separations of more than 10 millions sites. Each nucleotide has its own significant value of its distance to neutrality; this yields 16 hierarchical significances. A three dimensional table with the number of sites of separation between the bases and the 16 significances (the third dimension is the dinucleotide, individual or taxon involved) gives directly an evolutionary state of the analyzed genome that can be used to obtain phylogenies. An example is provided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phylogeny , Base Sequence/genetics , Genome , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Nucleotides/genetics , Periodicity , Prokaryotic Cells/chemistry , Reference Values , Algorithms , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Chi-Square Distribution , Collagen/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Chromosome Structures , Genetic Drift , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Epistasis, Genetic/genetics , Nucleotides/chemistry
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 82-89, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phylogenies within Toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. Here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. Partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpC) and beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB), and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome B (cytB) were analyzed. Laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona were investigated, along with Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (strains RH, CTG and PTG), Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondiand two genetically divergent lineages of Hammondia heydorni. The molecular analysis based on organellar genes did not clearly differentiate between N. caninum and N. hughesi, but the two lineages of H. heydorni were confirmed. Slight differences between the strains of S. falcatula and S. neurona were encountered in all markers. In conclusion, congruent phylogenies were inferred from the three different genes and they might be used for screening undescribed sarcocystid parasites in order to ascertain their phylogenetic relationships with organisms of the family Sarcocystidae. The evolutionary studies based on organelar genes confirm that the genusHammondia is paraphyletic. The primers used for amplification of clpC and rpoB were able to amplify genetic sequences of organisms of the genus Sarcocystisand organisms of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae as well.


Resumo A filogenia da subfamília Toxoplasmatinae tem sido amplamente investigada com diversos marcadores moleculares. Neste estudo, a filogenia molecular da subfamília Toxoplasmatinae foi analisada através de genes de apicoplasto e mitocondriais. Foram analisadas sequências parciais de genes de apicoplasto codificadores da protease caseinolítica (clpC), e da subunidade beta da RNA polimerase (rpoB) e de gene mitocondrial codificador de citocromo B (cytB). Foram investigadas cepas adaptadas em laboratório de Sarcocystis neurona eSarcocystis falcatula, parasitos estreitamente relacionados, além de Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (cepas RH, CTG e PTG),Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondi e duas linhagens geneticamente divergentes de Hammondia heydorni. A análise molecular, baseada em genes de organelas, não diferenciou claramenteN. caninum de N. hughesi, porém foi possível confirmar as duas linhagens de H. heydorni. Foram encontradas pequenas diferenças entre as cepas adaptadas em laboratório deS. falcatula e S. neurona em todos os marcadores moleculares avaliados. Concluindo, filogenias congruentes foram reconstruídas com os três diferentes genes que podem ser úteis em triagem de parasitos sarcocistídeos não identificados, para identificar sua relação com organismos da família Sarcocystidae. Os estudos evolutivos com genes organelares confirmam que o gênero Hammondia é parafilético. Osprimers utilizados para amplificação declpC e rpoB foram capazes de amplificar sequências genéticas de organismos do gênero Sarcocystis e da subfamília Toxoplasmatinae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Sarcocystidae/genetics , Apicoplasts/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Neospora/genetics
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 200-208, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777367

ABSTRACT

Gastric (GC) and breast (BrC) cancer are two of the most common and deadly tumours. Different lines of evidence suggest a possible causative role of viral infections for both GC and BrC. Wide genome sequencing (WGS) technologies allow searching for viral agents in tissues of patients with cancer. These technologies have already contributed to establish virus-cancer associations as well as to discovery new tumour viruses. The objective of this study was to document possible associations of viral infection with GC and BrC in Mexican patients. In order to gain idea about cost effective conditions of experimental sequencing, we first carried out an in silico simulation of WGS. The next-generation-platform IlluminaGallx was then used to sequence GC and BrC tumour samples. While we did not find viral sequences in tissues from BrC patients, multiple reads matching Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) sequences were found in GC tissues. An end-point polymerase chain reaction confirmed an enrichment of EBV sequences in one of the GC samples sequenced, validating the next-generation sequencing-bioinformatics pipeline.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Breast Neoplasms/virology , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , /genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Stomach Neoplasms/virology , Computers , Computational Biology/methods , Computer Simulation/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Mexico , Nucleic Acids/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
17.
São Paulo med. j ; 134(1): 13-19, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777450

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has attracted the interest of researchers because of similarities between paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of MAP through cultures, histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on intestinal biopsies from Brazilian CD patients. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed on positive samples. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with control group at two federal universities. METHODS: Fresh samples were collected from 25 patients; five with CD, eight with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 12 controls with non-inflammatory bowel disease (nIBD). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 143 patients were also collected: 44 CD, 49 UC and 56 nIBD. RESULTS: None of the fresh samples was positive for MAP. Five FFPE samples (one CD, two UC and two nIBD) and three fresh samples (one in each group) were positive through IS900-PCR. qRT-PCR was performed on these eight samples. Among the FFPE samples, there were 192.12 copies/μl in the CD group, 72.28 copies/μl in UC and 81.43 copies/μl in nIBD. Among the fresh samples, there were 432.99 copies/μl, 167.92 copies/μl and 249.73 copies/μl in the CD, UC and nIBD groups, respectively. The highest bacterial load was in the CD group. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide evidence for a role of MAP in the etiology of CD, although MAP DNA was detected in all three patient groups. This is the first report of MAP presence in human intestinal biopsies in Brazil.


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Mycobaterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) tem atraído o interesse de pesquisadores devido às semelhanças entre a paratuberculose e a doença de Crohn (CD). Este estudo objetivou avaliar a frequência de MAP por meio de cultura, histologia e reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR), em biópsias intestinais de pacientes brasileiros com CD. PCR quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) foi realizada nas amostras positivas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal analítico com grupo controle realizado em duas universidades federais. MÉTODOS: Amostras frescas foram coletadas de 25 pacientes; cinco com CD, oito com colite ulcerativa (UC) e 12 controles sem doença inflamatória intestinal (nIBD). Também foram coletadas 149 amostras fixadas em parafina (FFPE): 44 CD, 49 UC e 56 nIBD. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma das amostras frescas foi positiva para MAP. Cinco amostras FFPE (uma CD, duas UC e duas nIBD) e três amostras frescas (uma de cada grupo) foram positivas por IS900-PCR. qRT-PCR foi realizada nessas oito amostras. Nas amostras FFPE, havia 192,12 cópias/μl no grupo CD, 72,28 cópias/μl no UC e 81,43 cópias/μl no nIBD. Nas amostras frescas, havia 432,99 cópias/μl, 167,92 cópias/μl e 249,73 cópias/μl nos grupos CD, UC e nIBD, respectivamente. A maior carga bacteriana foi encontrada no grupo CD. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo não fornece evidências do papel de MAP na etiologia da CD, embora DNA de MAP tenha sido detectado em pacientes dos três grupos. Este é o primeiro relato da presença de MAP em biópsias intestinais humanas no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/microbiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/microbiology , Crohn Disease/microbiology , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 22: 5, 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-773437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Termicin is an antimicrobial peptide with six cysteines forming three disulfide bridges that was firstly isolated from the salivary glands and hemocytes of the termite Pseudacanthotermes spiniger. In contrast to many broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, termicin is most active against filamentous fungi. Although more than one hundred complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding termicin-like peptides have been reported to date, all these termicin-like peptides were obtained from Isoptera insects. Methods The cDNA was cloned by combination of cDNA library construction kit and DNA sequencing. The polypeptide was purified by gel filtration and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Its amino acid sequence was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against several bacterial and fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution tests. Results A novel termicin-like peptide with primary structure ACDFQQCWVTCQRQYSINFISARCNGDSCVCTFRT was purified from extracts of the cockroach Eupolyphaga sinensis (Insecta: Blattodea). The cDNA encoding Es-termicin was cloned by cDNA library screening. This cDNA encoded a 60 amino acid precursor which included a 25 amino acid signal peptide. Amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA matched well with the result of protein Edman degradation. Susceptibility test indicated that Es-termicin showed strong ability to kill fungi with a MIC of 25 μg/mL against Candida albicans ATCC 90028. It only showed limited potency to affect the growth of Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC of 200 μg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was inactive against gram-negative bacteria at the highest concentration tested (400 μg/mL). Es-termicin showed high sequence similarity with termicins from many species of termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Conclusions This is the first report of a termicin-like peptide isolated from E. sinensis that belongs to the insect order Blattodea. Our results demonstrate the diversity of termicin-like peptides, as well as antimicrobial peptides in insects.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Cockroaches/immunology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(2): 329-336, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Phenotypic profiles for microbial identification are unusual for rare, slow-growing and fastidious microorganisms. In the last decade, as a result of the widespread use of PCR and DNA sequencing, 16S rRNA sequencing has played a pivotal role in the accurate identification of microorganisms and the discovery of novel isolates in microbiology laboratories. The 16S rRNA region is universally distributed among microorganisms and is species-specific. Accordingly, the aim of our study was the genotypic identification of microorganisms isolated from non-parenteral pharmaceutical formulations. DNA was separated from five isolates obtained from the formulations. The target regions of the rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced using suitable primers. The sequence data were analyzed and aligned in the order of increasing genetic distance to relevant sequences against a library database to achieve an identity match. The DNA sequences of the phylogenetic tree results confirmed the identity of the isolates as Bacillus tequilensis, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and B. amyloliqueficians. It can be concluded that 16S rRNA sequence-based identification reduces the time by circumventing biochemical tests and also increases specificity and accuracy.


RESUMO Os perfis fenotípicos para identificação microbiana são incomuns para micro-organismos raros, de crescimento lento e exigentes. Na última década, em resultado do uso generalizado de PCR e sequenciação de DNA, a sequenciação do rRNA 16S tem desempenhado papel crucial na identificação precisa do micro-organismo e a descoberta de novos isolados em laboratórios de microbiologia. A região de rRNA 16S é universalmente distribuída entre micro-organismos e é espécie-específica. A genotipagem foi realizada sobre os organismos isolados a partir de formulações farmacêuticas não parenterais. O DNA foi separado dos cinco isolados obtidos a partir das formulações. As regiões alvo dos genes de rRNA foram amplificados por PCR e sequenciados utilizando os iniciadores adequados. Os dados dos sequência foram analisados e alinhados na ordem crescente de distância genética de sequências relevantes contra biblioteca de dados para obter a identidade. A sequência de DNA de árvores filogenéticas confirma a identidade dos isolados como Bacillus-tequilensis, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus e B. amyloliqueficians. Pode-se concluir identificação baseada na sequência do rRNA 16S reduz o tempo por evitar testes bioquímicos e também aumenta a especificidade e a precisão.


Subject(s)
/analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Genes, rRNA , Genes, Microbial
20.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 282-289, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984849

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of second generation sequencing (SGS) within the past few years has led to the increasement of data throughput and read length while at the same time brought down substantially the sequencing cost. This made new breakthrough in the area of biology and ushered the forensic genetics into a new era. Based on the history of sequencing application in forensic genetics, this paper reviews the importance of sequencing technologies for genetic marker detection. The application status and potential of SGS in forensic genetics are discussed based on the already explored SGS platforms of Roche, Illumina and Life Technologies. With these platforms, DNA markers (SNP, STR), RNA markers (mRNA, microRNA) and whole mtDNA can be sequenced. However, development and validation of application kits, maturation of analysis software, connection to the existing databases and the possible ethical issues occurred with big data will be the key factors that determine whether this technology can substitute or supplement PCR-CE, the mature technology, and be widely used for cases detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Forensic Genetics , Genetic Markers , MicroRNAs/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
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