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1.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 610-616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981907

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of formononetin (FMN) on cognitive behavior and inflammation in aging rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods SD rats aged about 70 weeks were divided into healthy control group, CUMS model group, CUMS combined with 10 mg/kg FMN group, CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg fluoxetine hydrochloride (Flu) group. Except for healthy control group, other groups were stimulated with CUMS and administered drugs for 28 days. Sugar water preference, forced swimming experiment and open field experiment were used to observe the emotional behavior of rats in each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathological injury degree of brain equine area. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were detected by the kit. The apoptosis was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the brain tissue. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to detect Bcl2, Bcl2 associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in brain tissues. Results Compared with CUMS model group, sugar water consumption, open field activity time, open field travel distance and swimming activity time significantly increased in the CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and the CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg Flu group. The number of new outarm entry increased significantly, while the number of initial arm entry and other arm entry decreased significantly. The pathological damage of brain equine area was alleviated, and the contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly increased. The ratio of BAX/Bcl2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as the number of apoptotic cells were significantly decreased. The contents of TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6 were significantly decreased. The protein levels of TLR4, MyD88 and p-NF-κB p65 were significantly decreased. Conclusion FMN can inhibit the release of inflammatory factors by blocking NF-κB pathway and improve cognitive and behavioral ability of CUMS aged rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Horses , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/pharmacology , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hippocampus/metabolism , Cognition
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2184-2192, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981349

ABSTRACT

To investigate the antidepressant mechanism of Shenling Kaixin Granules(SLKX) in treating chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) model rats. Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, Shugan Jieyu Capsules(110 mg·kg~(-1)) group and SLKX low-(90 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(180 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(360 mg·kg~(-1)) groups. Depression rat model was replicated by CUMS method. After treatment, the behavioral changes of rats were evaluated by sugar preference, open field, elevated cross maze and forced swimming experiments. The contents of interleukin 1 beta(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in serum were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in hippocampal CA1 region were also detected. Pathological changes in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and Western blot was used to determine the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF), BDNF, phospho-tyrosine kinase receptor(p-TrkB)/TrkB, phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein(p-CREB)/CREB, nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) and caspase-3 in hippocampal CA1 region. RESULTS:: showed that compared with the control group, the model group had decreased sugar preference, reduced number of entries and time spent in the center of open field and shortened total distance of movement, reduced number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm, and increased number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment. Additionally, the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were higher, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1 and Bcl-2/Bax, and the Nrf2 nuclear translocation were lower in model group than in control group. Compared with the conditions in model group, the sugar preference, the number of entries and time spent in the center of open, total distance of movement, and the number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm in treatment groups were increased while the number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment were decreased; the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were down regulated, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1, Bcl-2/Bax, and Nrf2 nuclear translocation were enhanced. In conclusion, SLKX might regulate the Nrf2 nucleus translocation by activating BDNF/TrkB/CREB pathway, lower oxidative stress damage in hippocampus, inhibit caspase-3 activity, and reduce apoptosis of hippocampal nerve cells, thereby playing an antidepressant role.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Sugars/pharmacology , Depression/genetics , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1638-1654, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010645

ABSTRACT

We previously identified a unique nucleus, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting nucleus. This study aims to understand its gene architecture and preliminarily suggest its functions. The results showed that there were about 19,666 genes in this nucleus, of which 913 were distinct from the dorsal raphe nucleus (non-CSF contacting). The top 40 highly-expressed genes are mainly related to energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport, secretion, and hydrolysis. The main neurotransmitter is 5-HT. The receptors of 5-HT and GABA are abundant. The channels for Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ are routinely expressed. The signaling molecules associated with the CaMK, JAK, and MAPK pathways were identified accurately. In particular, the channels of transient receptor potential associated with nociceptors and the solute carrier superfamily members associated with cell membrane transport were significantly expressed. The relationship between the main genes of the nucleus and life activities is preliminarily verified.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism
4.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 205-214, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms associated with autistic spectrum disorder. The essential oil of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson, usually known as ylang-ylang oil (YYO), is often used in aromatherapy as a mood-regulating agent, sedative, or hypotensive agent. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of YYO in alleviating anxiety, social and cognitive behaviors in autism-like rats were investigated.@*METHODS@#The prenatal valproic acid (VPA) model was used to induce autism-like behaviors in offspring rats. The effectiveness of prenatal sodium valproate treatment (600 mg/kg) on offspring was shown by postnatal growth observation, and negative geotaxis, olfactory discrimination and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Then three treatment groups were formed with varying exposure to atomized YYO to explore the effects of YYO on the anxiety, social and cognitive behaviors of the autistic-like offspring through the elevated plus-maze test, three-chamber social test, and MWM test. Finally, the monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites, in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rats were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography.@*RESULTS@#Offspring of VPA exposure rats showed autism-like behaviors. In the VPA offspring, medium-dose YYO exposure significantly elevated the time and entries into the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test, while low-dose YYO exposure significantly enhanced the social interaction time with the stranger rat in session 1 of the three-chamber social test. VPA offspring treated with YYO exposure used less time to reach the platform in the navigation test of the MWM test. YYO exposure significantly elevated the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the PFC of VPA offspring.@*CONCLUSION@#YYO exposure showed the effects in alleviating anxiety and improving cognitive and social abilities in the offspring of VPA exposure rats. The role of YYO was related to the regulation of the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine. Please cite this article as: Zhang N, Wang ST, Yao L. Inhalation of Cananga odorata essential oil relieves anxiety behaviors in autism-like rats via regulation of serotonin and dopamine metabolism. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 205-214.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Rats , Animals , Autistic Disorder/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Serotonin/metabolism , Cananga/metabolism , Dopamine , Anxiety/drug therapy , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Plant Oils , Disease Models, Animal
5.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 55-60, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of midazolam on pain in lumbar disc herniation model rats based on p38 MAPK signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Fifty SPF-grade Sprague-Dawley healthy rats, half male and half female, were selected and randomly divided into normal group, model group, and low-dose, medium-dose, high-dose groups. Model group and low-dose, medium-dose, high-dose groups were initially modeled for lumbar disc herniation. Intraperitoneal injection of saline was performed in rats of normal and model groups; and in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups, intraperitoneal injection of midazolam was performed with doses of 30, 60, and 90 mg/kg, respectively. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), β-endorphin (β-EP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) were detected in the serum of rats by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of p38 MAPK and matrix metalloproteinase-3(MMP-3) protein were detected by Western blot in the tissues of rats of each group.@*RESULTS@#The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and β-EP were higher and the level of 5-HT was lower in the model group than in the normal group(P<0.05);the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and β-EP were lower and the level of 5-HT was higher in the low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups than in the model group(P<0.05). The levels of SP and NPY increased in the model group compared with the normal group (P<0.05) and the levels of SP and NPY decreased in the low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups compared with the model group (P<0.05). The expression of p38 MAPK and MMP-3 increased in the model group compared with the normal group (P<0.05); the expression of p38 MAPK and MMP-3 decreased in the low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose compared with the model group(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Midazolam may ameliorate the immune inflammatory response in rats with a model of lumbar disc herniation, possibly regulated through the p38MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Female , Animals , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/metabolism , Midazolam , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Pain , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 586-593, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Yixin Ningshen Tablet (YXNS) on comorbidity of myocardial infarction (MI) and depression in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group according to their weights, including control, model, fluoxetine (FLXT, 10 mg/kg), low-dose YXNS (LYXNS, 100 mg/kg), and high-dose YXNS (HYXNS, 300 mg/kg) groups. All rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 12 weeks. The rat model of MI and depression was constructed by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and chronic mild stress stimulation. The echocardiography, sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test were performed. Myocardial infarction (MI) area and myocardial apoptosis was also detected. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), and norepinephrine (NE) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The proteins of adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in heart were detected by Western blot analysis. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), and kynureninase (KYNU) in hippocampus were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the cardiac function of rats treated with YXNS improved significantly (P<0.01). Meanwhile, YXNS effectively reduced MI size and cardiomyocytes apoptosis of rats (P<0.01 or P<0.05), promoted AMPK phosphorylation, and increased PGC-1α protein expression (P<0.01 or P<0.05). HYXNS significantly increased locomotor activity of rats, decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and increased the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, ACTH, and CORT (all P<0.05). Moreover, HYXNS decreased the mRNA expressions of IDO1, KMO and KYNU (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#YXNS can relieve MI by enhancing myocardial energy metabolism. Meanwhile, YXNS can alleviate depression by resisting inflammation and increasing availability of monoamine neurotransmitters. It may be used as a potential drug to treat comorbidity of MI and depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Comorbidity , Depression/drug therapy , Energy Metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Tablets , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 34-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 405-411, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is present in the epithelial enterochromaffin cells (EC), mast cells of the lamina propria and enteric neurons. The 5-HT is involved in regulating motility, secretion, gut sensation, immune system and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of diabetes and quercetin supplementation on serotoninergic cells and its cell loss by apoptosis in jejunal mucosa of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats). METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normoglycemic (C), normoglycemic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (Q), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (DQ). After 120 days, the jejunum was collected and fixated in Zamboni's solution for 18 h. After obtaining cryosections, immunohistochemistry was performed to label 5-HT and caspase-3. Quantification of 5-HT and caspase-3 immunoreactive (IR) cells in the lamina propria, villi and crypts were performed. RESULTS: The diabetic condition displayed an increase of the number of 5-HT-IR cells in villi and crypts, while decreased number of these cells was observed in lamina propria in the jejunum of STZ-rats. In the diabetic animals, an increased density of apoptotic cells in epithelial villi and crypts of the jejunum was observed, whereas a decreased number of caspase-3-IR cells was observed in lamina propria. Possibly, quercetin supplementation slightly suppressed the apoptosis phenomena in the epithelial villi and crypts of the STZ-rats, however the opposite effect was observed on the 5-HT-IR cells of the lamina propria. Quercetin supplementation on healthy animals promoted few changes of serotoninergic function and apoptotic stimuli. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin supplementation mostly improved the serotonergic function affected by diabetes maybe due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A serotonina (5-HT) está presente nas células epiteliais enterocromafins (CE), nos mastócitos da lâmina própria e nos neurônios entéricos. A 5-HT está envolvida na regulação da motilidade, secreção, nocepção intestinal, sistema imunológico e inflamação. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do diabetes e da suplementação de quercetina sobre a função serotoninérgica e a perda celular por apoptose na mucosa jejunal de ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina (ratos STZ). MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: normoglicêmico (C), normoglicêmico suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (Q), diabético (D) e diabético suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (DQ). Após 120 dias, o jejuno foi coletado e fixado na solução de Zamboni por 18 horas. Após a obtenção de cortes em criostato, a imuno-histoquímica foi realizada para marcar 5-HT e caspase-3. A quantificação de células imunorreativas (IR) à 5-HT e caspase-3 foram realizadas na lâmina própria, vilosidades e criptas. RESULTADOS: A condição diabética ocasionou um aumento do número de células 5-HT-IR nas vilosidades e criptas, enquanto que na lâmina própria houve uma redução dessas células, no jejuno de ratos STZ. Nos animais diabéticos, foi observada uma densidade aumentada de células apoptóticas no epitélio do jejuno, tanto nas vilosidades quanto nas criptas, por outro lado um número reduzido de células caspase-3-IR foi observado na lâmina própria. Possivelmente, a suplementação de quercetina suprimiu ligeiramente os fenômenos de apoptose no epitélio de vilosidades e criptas do jejuno de ratos STZ, no entanto, o efeito oposto foi observado nas células 5-HT-IR da lâmina própria. A suplementação com quercetina em animais saudáveis promoveu poucas alterações na função serotoninérgica e nos estímulos apoptóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que a suplementação de quercetina melhorou principalmente a função serotoninérgica afetada pelo diabetes, talvez devido às propriedades antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórias da quercetina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Serotonin/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Jejunum/pathology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Jejunum/drug effects
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 279-286, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(−/−)-NP). RESULTS: During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(−/−)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. CONCLUSION: Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Action Potentials/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology
10.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(2): 104-111, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959357

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el papel de los mastocitos en la respuesta inflamatoria posoperatoria tras el implante de mallas protésicas para la reparación de defectos de la pared abdominal en biomodelos rata Wistar. Materiales y Métodos: Se fabricó una malla de fibroma entretejiendo sus hilos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar macho adultas, a las cuales se les creó un defecto quirúrgico de 30 × 20 mm en la pared abdominal anterior. Este defecto anatómico fue posteriormente reparado con uno de los dos tipos de mallas previamente esterilizadas, las cuales fueron la malla de fibroína, y la malla comercial ultrapo monocryl prolene composite (Johnson & Johnson-Ethicon). A los 28 días después del procedimiento quirúrgico se sacrificaron los biomodelos y se extrajeron las muestras que posteriormente fueron tratadas con técnicas histoquímicas para su análisis histológico. Resultados: El estudio reportó adherencia a omento en los dos tipos de malla utilizadas, sin embargo, la malla comercial mostró adherencias de amplio espesor a colon, intestino delgado e hígado, incluyendo también al omento menor. Se encontró que la malla comercial presentaba mayor cantidad de mastocitos en las regiones estudiadas (dermis, perimisio, y la serosa visceral). Discusión: Estudios refieren que los mastocitos y sus productos como la histamina, la serotonina, entre otras juegan un papel clave en el control de la inflamación local, la cicatrización de heridas, adherencias y las reacciones a cuerpos extraños in vivo. Conclusión: Con base en la literatura consultada se puede concluir que el presente estudio es vanguardista en lo que respecta al posible papel que juegan los mastocitos en el proceso de reparación de defectos anatómicos de la pared abdominal.


Objective: The objective of this study was to evalúate the role of mast cells in the postoperative inflammatory response after implantation of prosthetic mesh to repair abdominal wall defects in Wistar rat. Materials and Methods: An abdominal wall defect (30 × 20 mm) was created in the anterior abdominal wall of 25 adult male Wistar rats. The anatomical defect was then repaired with one of the two type's meshes. Fibroin and monocryl ultrapo prolene meshes. Fibroin meshes were manufactured by weaving its threads, the polypropylene mesh was bought to Johnson & Johnson-Ethicon. After 28 days of implantation Wistar rats were sacrificed and the mesh with abdominal tissue was extracted. Subsequently the samples were treated with histochemical techniques for histological analysis. Results: The study reported adherence to omentum in both types of meshes used, however, the polypropylene mesh showed widely adhesions to colon, slight to intestine and liver, also in a very lower amount, adhesions to omentum. It was found that mast cells were presented in all the studied regions for the polypropylene mesh (dermis, perimysium, and visceral serosa). Discussion: Studies indicate that mast cells and their products such as histamine, seroto- nin, and others play a key role in controlling local inflammation, wound healing, adhesions, and reactions to foreign bodies in vivo. Conclusion: We can conclude that this study is a good step to show the possible role of mast cells in the abdominal wall repair process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Surgical Mesh , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Mast Cells/metabolism , Histamine/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Inflammation
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 273-283, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days. On the morning of the 31st day, animals were euthanized and subsequently analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and in regions that receive serotonin innervation from these two brain areas. Treatment with a tryptophan-enriched diet increased Fos-ir in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal grey and dorsal and median raphe nucleus. These observations suggest that the physiological and behavioral alterations that follow the administration of tryptophan are associated with the activation of brain regions that regulate cognition and mood/anxiety-related responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anxiety/drug therapy , Brain/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/administration & dosage , Affect/drug effects , Anxiety/metabolism , Time Factors , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Brain/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Serotonin/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Supplements , Diet Therapy/methods
12.
Clinics ; 70(5): 313-317, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate the association between IL-17 and clinical manifestations, disease activity, laboratory findings and treatment. METHODS: We included 67 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients [61 women; median age 18 years (range 11-31)], 55 first-degree relatives [50 women; median age 40 years (range 29-52)] and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy controls [42 women; median age 19 years (range 6-30)]. The childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were assessed for clinical and laboratory systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations, disease activity [Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)], cumulative damage [Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index] and current drug use. Serum IL-17 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using commercial kits. RESULTS: The median serum IL-17 level was 36.3 (range 17.36-105.92) pg/mL in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29.47 (15.16-62.17) pg/mL in healthy controls (p=0.009). We observed an association between serum IL-17 levels and active nephritis (p=0.01) and migraines (p=0.03). Serum IL-17 levels were not associated with disease activity (p=0.32), cumulative damage (p=0.34), or medication use (p=0.63). CONCLUSION: IL-17 is increased in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and renal manifestations. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the role of IL-17 in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Affect/physiology , Brain/physiology , Estrogens/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Serotonin/physiology , Administration, Cutaneous , Administration, Oral , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Amino Acids/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estradiol/blood , Estradiol/pharmacology , Functional Neuroimaging/methods , Functional Neuroimaging/psychology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/psychology , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Serotonin/metabolism , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Tryptophan/blood , Tryptophan/pharmacology
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 28 (1): 221-225
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153899

ABSTRACT

The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin [5-HT] in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract [AGAE] on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Seeds , Brain , Serotonin/pharmacology , Feeding Behavior , Body Weight , Serotonin/metabolism , Mice, Obese , Plant Extracts
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(9): 759-765, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719322

ABSTRACT

The monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter, also has important functions outside the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT in the proliferation, differentiation, and function of osteoblasts in vitro. We treated rat primary calvarial osteoblasts with various concentrations of 5-HT (1 nM to 10 µM) and assessed the rate of osteoblast proliferation, expression levels of osteoblast-specific proteins and genes, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Next, we detected which 5-HT receptor subtypes were expressed in rat osteoblasts at different stages of osteoblast differentiation. We found that 5-HT could inhibit osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization at low concentrations, but this inhibitory effect was mitigated at relatively high concentrations. Six of the 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C) were found to exist in rat osteoblasts. Of these, 5-HT2A and 5-HT1B receptors had the highest expression levels, at both early and late stages of differentiation. Our results indicated that 5-HT can regulate osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Serotonin/pharmacology , DNA Primers , Gene Expression , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Serotonin/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(6): 513-520, 02/jul. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679201

ABSTRACT

Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms. Since we did not find any reports on the effects of sciatic nerve transection (SNT) on the ultrastructure and pattern of metabolic substances in frog dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, in the present study, 18 adult male frogs (Rana catesbeiana) were divided into three experimental groups: naive (frogs not subjected to surgical manipulation), sham (frogs in which all surgical procedures to expose the sciatic nerve were used except transection of the nerve), and SNT (frogs in which the sciatic nerve was exposed and transected). After 3 days, the bilateral DRG of the sciatic nerve was collected and used for transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect reactivity for glucose transporter (Glut) types 1 and 3, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and c-Fos, as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-diaphorase). SNT induced more mitochondria with vacuolation in neurons, satellite glial cells (SGCs) with more cytoplasmic extensions emerging from cell bodies, as well as more ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, intermediate filaments and mitochondria. c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in neuronal nuclei. More neurons and SGCs surrounded by tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity were found. No change occurred in serotonin- and Glut1- and Glut3-like immunoreactivity. NADPH-diaphorase occurred in more neurons and SGCs. No sign of SGC proliferation was observed. Since the changes of frog DRG in response to nerve injury are similar to those of mammals, frogs should be a valid experimental model for the study of the effects of SNT, a condition that still has many unanswered questions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Ganglia, Spinal/ultrastructure , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/injuries , Serotonin/metabolism , Cellular Microenvironment , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , NADPH Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rana catesbeiana , /metabolism
16.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 511-516
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142611

ABSTRACT

Being rich in polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, green tea is suggested to be a potential candidate for the treatment of obesity, stress, depression, Parkinson's and other disorders. Since serotonin has an important role in the pathophysiology of these disorders, present study was designed to monitor the effects of green tea in rats. Green tea extract was provided to the male Albino Wistar rats for 5 weeks, and effects on behaviors were monitored. Results show a decrease in food intake after 5th week but not before. An increase in locomotive activities of the animals was observed, as monitored in novel as well as in familiar environment. Anxiolytic effects were observed in elevated plus maze but not in light dark activity box. An increase in dopamine and serotonin turnover was observed. Our results suggest that beneficial effects of green tea drinking might be due to alteration of serotonin and/or dopamine metabolism. We thereby propose that in further experiments, green tea should be administered in animal model of learned helplessness and effects on the development of adaptation to stress should be monitored. Neurochemical estimations of catecholamine and indoleamine in these animal models of stress exposed to green tea would help in understanding the anxiolytic effects of green tea


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Maze Learning/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Serotonin/metabolism , Tea/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Dopamine/metabolism , Eating/drug effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 115-119, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effects of ketamine and alcohol on learning and memory in mice and its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty mice were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, ketamine group, alcohol group, and alcohol plus ketamine group. Ketamine and alcohol were given by intraperitoneal injection and intragastric administration, respectively, 1 time per day, for 14 days. The ability of learning and memory in mice was tested by the method of step-down and Morris water maze. Acetylcholine (ACh) and 5-hydroxy tryptamine(5-HT) in mice brain tissue were analyzed for the possible mechanism.@*RESULTS@#(1) Step-down: The treatment groups lessened the latency and added wrong times (P < 0.05). The number of errors in the combined treatment group significantly increased comparing with the single drug treatment group (P < 0.05). (2) Morris water-maze: The treatment groups prolonged the latency (P < 0.05), reduced the target quadrant activity time significantly (P < 0.05), and decreased the numbers of crossing the former platform significantly (P < 0.05). (3) Biochemical index determination: The concentrations of ACh and 5-HT in treatment groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05), showed a more decreasement comparing with the single drug treatment group.@*CONCLUSION@#Ketamine has a synergistic effect with alcohol on learning and memory impairment in mice, which may be related to the common inhibitive effect on the ACh and 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Acetylcholine/metabolism , Alcohols/pharmacology , Brain/physiopathology , Drug Synergism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Serotonin/metabolism , Spatial Behavior/drug effects
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 613-618, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188013

ABSTRACT

Many studies showed abnormal serotonin transporter (5-HTT) function and heart rate variability (HRV) in panic disorder patients. The present study investigated the relationship between HRV power spectral analysis findings and platelet serotonin uptake in panic disorder patients. Short-term HRV over 5 min and platelet serotonin transporter uptake parameters (V(max) and K(m)) were measured both in 45 patients with panic disorder and in 30 age-matched normal healthy control subjects. Low frequency power (LF) normalized unit (nu) and LF/high frequency power (HF) were significantly higher, whereas HF and HF nu were lower in the patient group than in the control group. V(max) and K(m) were all significantly lower (i.e., reflects decreased 5-HTT function) in patients with panic disorder than in normal controls. In the patient group, Km was negatively correlated with LF/HF and LF nu whereas no such correlations between them were found in the control group. By multivariate analysis based on multiple hierarchical linear regression, a low Km independently predicted an increased LF nu even after controlling for age, sex, and body mass index in the patient group. These results suggest that impaired 5-HTT function is closely related to dysregulation of autonomic nervous system in panic disorder.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Heart Rate/physiology , Panic Disorder/physiopathology , Serotonin/metabolism , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism
19.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 454-459, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983613

ABSTRACT

The relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and violent-aggressive behavior has been payed attention since 1980s. Their correlation was explored by many epidemiological investigations, and the effect of PUFAs on prevention or reduction of violent-aggressive behavior in different groups were also affirmed by some intervention studies. This article summarized the previous studies and reviewed the history of epidemiological or intervention studies on PUFAs and its relationship with violent-aggressive behavior. It also presented the possible influencing factors in these studies and possible mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Aggression , Dietary Fats, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Omega-6/pharmacology , Fishes , Folic Acid/metabolism , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/metabolism , Norepinephrine/metabolism , Risk Factors , Serotonin/metabolism , Violence/prevention & control
20.
Armaghane-danesh. 2010; 15 (1): 56-66
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-105182

ABSTRACT

Effective materials from Valerian officinalis L. have too much usage in the pharmacological industry. It is used as a sedative, anticonvulsion, and antidepressant drug. Serotonin has a widespread role in vital function such as sleep, awareness and calmness. In this study we evaluated the effect of hydrochloric extract of valerian on number and size of raphe magnus neurons in adult rat. In this experimental study, which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009, forty adult Wistar rats, each 170-250 gr, were divided randomly into four groups [one control group and three experimental groups]. The animals were injected daily for one month with doses of 300, 400 and 600 mg/kg of the extract. The control group just received distilled water. After transcardial perfusion, the whole brain was separated, then 10 micro m sections of the brain stem were prepared, and hematoxylin and eosin [H and E] staining were done. Number and size of raphe magna neurons were observed under light microscope. The gathered data were analyzed by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA and LSD. The control group did not statistically show significant changes in number of raphe magna neurons. Comparison of the means of long and short diameter neurons showed significant increases in experimental groups with control group [P<0.05]. In experimental groups the neuron nucleuses were more euchromatic than the control group. Hydrochloric extract of valerian has no effect on raphe magnus neurons, but it is effective on neurons' size. It can be concluded that the extract increases both neurons activity and serotonin secretion


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Raphe Nuclei/drug effects , Plant Extracts , Reticular Formation , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Analysis of Variance
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