The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the essential oil from species of genus Cordia. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. The search was conducted on four databases: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus until June 5th, 2020, with no time or language restrictions. Sixty out of the 1,333 initially gathered studies fit the inclusion criteria after the selection process. Nine species of Cordia were reported in the selected studies, out of which 79% of the evaluated studies reported essential oil from Cordia curassavica. The essential oil extraction methods identified were hydrodistillation and steam distillation. As for biological application, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal and antioxidant activities were the most reported. The main compounds reported for essential oil were ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, and sabinene. The information reported in this systematic review can contribute scientifically to the recognition of the importance of the genus Cordia.
El propósito de esta revisión sistemática fue identificar la literatura disponible sobre el aceite esencial de especies del género Cordia. Este estudio siguió los elementos de informe preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas. La búsqueda se realizó en cuatro bases de datos: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct y Scopus hasta el 5 de junio de 2020, sin restricciones de tiempo ni de idioma. Sesenta de los 1.333 estudios reunidos inicialmente cumplieron los criterios de inclusión después del proceso de selección. Se informaron nueve especies de Cordia en los estudios seleccionados, de los cuales el 79% de los estudios evaluados informaron aceite esencial de Cordia curassavica. Los métodos de extracción de aceite esencial identificados fueron la hidrodestilación y la destilación al vapor. En cuanto a la aplicación biológica, las actividades antimicrobianas, antiinflamatorias, larvicidas y antioxidantes fueron las más reportadas. Los principales compuestos reportados para el aceite esencial fueron ß-cariofileno, α-humuleno, α-pineno, biciclogermacreno y sabineno. La información reportada en esta revisión sistemática puede contribuir científicamente al reconocimiento de la importancia del género Cordia.
Subject(s)Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cordia/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Monoterpenes/analysis
This study explored the protective effect of atractylenolide Ⅰ(AO-Ⅰ) against acetaminophen(APAP)-induced acute liver injury(ALI) in mice and its underlying mechanism. C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a control group, an APAP group(500 mg·kg~(-1)), a low-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 60 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ), and a high-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 120 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ). ALI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of APAP(500 mg·kg~(-1)). AO-Ⅰ by intragastric administration was performed 2 hours before APAP treatment, and the control group received the same dose of solvent by intragastric administration or intraperitoneal injection. The protective effect of AO-Ⅰ against APAP-induced ALI was evaluated by detecting alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels in the plasma and H&E staining in liver tissues of mice. The malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) content and catalase(CAT) activity in mouse liver tissues were detected to evaluate the effect of AO-Ⅰ on APAP-induced oxidative stress in the liver. The proteins in the liver p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK), c-jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), and nuclear factor kappa-B p65(NF-κB p65) signaling pathways were measured by Western blot, and the liver inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were detected by real-time PCR. Compared with the APAP group, the combination groups showed reduced APAP-induced ALT level and liver MDA content, potentiated liver CAT activity, and elevated GSH content. Mechanistically, AO-Ⅰ treatment significantly inhibited APAP-up-regulated MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB p65, and significantly reduced the transcriptional activities of IL-1β and IL-6, downstream targets of NF-κB p65. AO-Ⅰ can improve APAP-induced ALI and the underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of the MAPK/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway in APAP-challenged mice.
Subject(s)Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Lactones , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Signal Transduction
The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.
Subject(s)Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
Chemical fractionation of the n-BuOH partition, which was generated from the EtOH extract of the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, afforded a series of polar constituents including four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4), one new sesquiterpenoid glucoside (5) and one known analogue (6) of the eudesmane type, as well as five known quinic acid derivatives (7-11). Structures of the new compounds were unambiguously characterized by detailed spectroscopic analyses, with their absolute configurations being established by X-ray crystallography, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and induced ECD experiments. The inhibitory effect of all the isolates against LPS-induced NO production in murine RAW264.7 macrophages was evaluated, with isochlorogenic acid A (7) showing significant inhibitory activity.
Subject(s)Animals , Flowers/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , Mice , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane/pharmacology , Tussilago/chemistry
Sarglanoids A-F, six new sesquiterpenoids belonging to eudesmane (1-5) and eremophilane (6) types, were isolated from the leaves of Sarcandra glabra, a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1-2 were rare N-containing eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids. Compound 3 exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values at 20.00 ± 1.30 μmol·L-1. These findings provide scientific evidence for sesquiterpenoids as the material foundation of S. glabra.
Subject(s)Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes , Seeds , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
Four new sesquiterpene quinone meroterpenoids, dysideanones F-G (1-2) and dysiherbols D-E (3-4), were isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara collected from the South China Sea. The new structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data including HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and their absolute configurations were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD calculations. Anti-inflammatory evaluation showed that dysiherbols D-E (3-4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity on TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in human HEK-293T cells with IC50 values of 10.2 and 8.6 μmol·L-1, respectively.
Subject(s)Animals , Dysidea/chemistry , Porifera , Quinones/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Skeleton
β-Elemene is an effective anti-cancer ingredient extracted from the genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae familiy). In the present study, we demonstrated that β-elemene inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. In addition, β-elemene induced nuclear chromatin condensation and cell membrane phosphatidylserine eversion, decreased cell mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP proteins, indicating apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. At the same time, β-elemene induced autophagy response, and the treated cells showed autophagic vesicle bilayer membrane structure, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of LC3B and SQSTM1. Furthermore, β-elemene increased ROS levels in colorectal cancer cells, promoted phosphorylation of AMPK protein, and inhibited mTOR protein phosphorylation. In the experiments in vivo, β-elemene inhibited the tumor size and induced apoptosis and autophagy in nude mice. In summary, β-elemene inhibited the occurrence and development of colon cancer xenografts in nude mice, and significantly induced apoptosis and autophagy in colorectal cancer cells in vitro. These effects were associated with regulation of the ROS/AMPK/mTOR signaling. We offered a molecular basis for the development of β-elemene as a promising anti-tumor drug candidate for colorectal cancer.
Subject(s)AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Nude , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sesquiterpenes , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
OBJECTIVE@#To identify the target genes mediating anti-tumor effect of sesquiterpenoids from Cryptoporus volvatus and explore the possible mechanism using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation.@*METHODS@#Based on the chemical structure of sesquiterpenes from C. volvatus, we explored the online reverse target finding websites PharmMapper, SEA, Target Hunter and related literature for preliminary prediction of possible anti-tumor targets. Discovery Studio 4.0 (Libdock function) and Maestro 12.3 were used to connect sesquiterpenes with the possible targets, and the potential targets were selected according to the scores. The interaction between the sesquiterpenes and the targets were analyzed using 2D interaction diagram, and the influence of different sesquiterpene skeletons on their activity was inferred based on their activity measurements in experiment. Kinetic simulation was performed for front-end protein sequence (1UNQ) of the Akt (protein kinase B) and for the complex formed by 1UNQ and compound 4 (which had the best cytotoxic activity in vitro) in its optimal conformation, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) value and root mean square float (RMSF) value of the complex and 1UNQ were measured to evaluate the stability of the binding of compound 4 to the target.@*RESULTS@#The sesquiterpenes showed optimal binding with 1UNQ. Analysis of 2D interaction diagram suggested that the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force were the most important forces mediating the interaction between the sesquiterpenes and 1UNQ. Analysis of the optimal 3D conformation showed that for different sesquiterpenes, a slight change of the molecular framework produced a steric hindrance effect and caused changes in their bioactivity. Kinetic simulation showed that the complex formed by compound 4 and1UNQ had a lower RMSD than the target pure protein sequence, indicating that compound 4 could stably bind to 1UNQ. The anti-tumor effect of the sesquiterpenoids from C. volvatus was associated with their ability to cause Lys-144 acetylation, which blocks Akt binding to the downstream PIP3 and thus affects the proliferation of tumor cells.@*CONCLUSION@#1UNQ is the target of sesquiterpenoids from C. volvatus, which affects the proliferation of tumor cells by acetylating Lys-14.
Subject(s)Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasms , Polyporaceae , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
Varronia curassavica has anti-inflammatory properties because of the terpenes, α-humulene and ß-caryophyllene, present in the essential oil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of seasonality on the essential oil of V. curassavica accessions. Leaves from six accessions were collected from the Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Minas Gerais over 12 months. Correlations between the essential oil content and meteorological factors were determined. Gas chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectrometry was conducted to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. The content and chemical composition of the oil varied throughout the year. Relative humidity was correlated with accessions ICA-VC2 (-0.64) and ICA-VC4 (0.68). ß-bourbonene, ß-elemene, spathulenol, germacrene, caryophyllene oxide, α-humulene, and ß-caryophyllene occurred in all accessions. Accession ICA-VC3 exhibited lower variation (22.17%), higher average (0.97%) essential oil, and maintained an average abundance of α-humulene greater than 2.6%, which is the amount necessary for phytotherapeutics.
Varronia curassavica tiene propiedades antiinflamatorias debido a los terpenos, α-humuleno y ß-cariofileno, presentes en el aceite esencial. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de la estacionalidad en el aceite esencial de las accesiones de V. curassavica. Se recolectaron hojas de seis accesiones del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais durante 12 meses. Se determinaron las correlaciones entre el contenido de aceite esencial y los factores meteorológicos. Se realizó un análisis de cromatografía de gases junto con espectrometría de masas para determinar la composición química del aceite esencial. El contenido y la composición química del aceite varió a lo largo del año. La humedad relativa se correlacionó con las accesiones ICA-VC2 (-0,64) e ICA-VC4 (0,68). En todas las accesiones aparecieron ß-bourboneno, ß-elemeno, espatulenol, germacreno, óxido de cariofileno, α-humuleno y ß-cariofileno. La accesión ICA-VC3 mostró una menor variación (22,17%), un promedio más alto (0,97%) de aceite esencial y mantuvo una abundancia media de α-humuleno superior al 2,6%, que es la cantidad necesaria para los fitoterápicos.
Subject(s)Seasons , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Boraginaceae/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Temperature , Seed Bank , Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Humidity
Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. is a tree native to central and southern Chile. Also it found in part of Argentina. It is abundant in wet swampy localities from sea level to an altitude of 1700 m. This tree is sacred for the Mapuche culture; it is used in folk medicine in such as inflammatory and painful processes. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated that this plant contains mainly sesquiterpenes of the drimane type, flavonoids, essential oils, phytosterols and some lignans. These drimanes have attracted interest because of their antifeedant, plant growth regulation, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The objective of this review is to establish clearly the phytochemistry and biological activity of Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. Articles based on other varieties are not considered.
Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. es un árbol nativo del centro y sur de Chile. También se encuentra en parte de Argentina. Es abundante en localidades pantanosas y húmedas desde el nivel del mar hasta una altitud de 1700 m. Este árbol es sagrado para la cultura mapuche. Se utiliza en la medicina popular para tratar enfermedades como procesos inflamatorios y dolorosos. Los estudios fitoquímicos han demostrado que esta planta contiene principalmente sesquiterpenos del tipo drimano, flavonoides, aceites esenciales, fitoesteroles y algunos lignanos. Estos drimanos han despertado interés debido a sus propiedades antialimentarias, regulación del crecimiento de las plantas, propiedades citotóxicas, antimicrobianas e insecticidas. El objetivo de este examen es establecer claramente la fitoquímica y la actividad biológica de Drimys winteri JR et G. Forster var chilensis (DC) A. No se consideran los artículos basados en otras variedades D. winteri var winteri.
Subject(s)Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Drimys/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Lignans/analysis
The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi leaves and fruits, and to determine its acaricidal activity on Rhipicephalus microplusy larval packet test and larvicidal action on Aedes aegyptiby larval immersion test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes in bacupari leaves and fruits, and α-cedrene, α-chamigrene, α-trans-bergamotene, and ß-curcumene as major compounds. Essential oil from leaves of G. gardneriana presented acaricidal activity on R. microplus (LC50= 4.8 mg/mL; LC99= 10.8 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect on A. aegypti (LC50= 5.4 mg/mL; LC99 = 11.6 mg/mL), where as essential oil from the fruits of G. gardneriana showed LC50= 4.6 mg/mL and LC99= 8.9 mg/mL against R. microplus and LC50= 6.4 mg/mL and LC99= 13.9 mg/mL against A. aegypti. These results thus demonstrate the potential acaricidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of G. gardneriana, offering new perspectives for the realization of bioassays from this essential oil.
El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas y frutos de Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, y determinar su actividad acaricida en Rhipicephalus microplus y larvicida en Aedes aegypti empleando la prueba de inmersión de larvas. El análisis químico del aceite esencial por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas identificó hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados en hojas y frutos de bacupari, y α-cedreno, α-chamigreno, α-trans-bergamoteno y ß-curcumeno como compuestos principales. El aceite esencial obtenido de las hojas de G. gardneriana presentó actividad acaricida en la garrapata del ganado (LC50= 4,8 mg/mL; LC99= 10,8 mg/mL) y actividad larvicida en A. aegypti (LC50= 5,4 mg/mL; LC99= 11,6 mg/mL), así como, el aceite esencial obtenido de los frutos de G. gardneriana mostró LC50= 4,6 mg/mL y LC99= 8,9 mg/mL contra las larvas de garrapatas de ganado y LC50= 6,4 mg/mL y LC99= 13,9 mg/mL en las larvas de A. aegypti. Por lo tanto, estos resultados demuestran la actividad acaricida y larvicida del aceite essencial de G. gardneriana, ofreciendo nuevas perspectivas para la realización de bioensayos a partir de este aceite esencial.
Subject(s)Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides , Insecticides/chemistry , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.
El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.
Subject(s)Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), Î´-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.
La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), Î´-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.
Subject(s)Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
Three seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpene lactones, one phenylpropanoid, and two lignans were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of stems and branches of Illicium ternstroemioides with silica gel column chromatography, ODS column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Based on the spectral data, they were identified as burmanicumolide D(1), veranisatin A(2), veranisatin B(3), dihydroconiferylalcohol(4), pinoresinol(5),(-)-matairesinol(6), respectively. Among them, compound 1 was a new seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpene lactone, and 2-6 were obtained from this plant for the first time. None of these compounds display antiviral or cytotoxic activities.
Subject(s)Antiviral Agents , Illicium , Lactones , Molecular Structure , Phytochemicals , Sesquiterpenes
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the influence of atractylenolide (Atr) III on sepsis-induced lung damage. Methods: We constructed a mouse sepsis model through cecal ligation and puncture. These mice were allocated to the normal, sepsis, sepsis + Atr III-L (2 mg/kg), as well as Atr III-H (8 mg/kg) group. Lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis were accessed via hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's staining. We used terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry for detecting sepsis-induced lung cell apoptosis. The contents of the inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Atr III-H did not only reduce sepsis-induced lung injury and apoptosis level, but also curbed the secretion of inflammatory factors. Atr III-H substantially ameliorated lung function and raised Bcl-2 expression. Atr III-H eased the pulmonary fibrosis damage and Bax, caspase-3, Vanin-1 (VNN1), as well as Forkhead Box Protein O1 (FoxO1) expression. Conclusions: Atr III alleviates sepsis-mediated lung injury via inhibition of FoxO1 and VNN1 protein.
Subject(s)Animals , Mice , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Lung Injury , Forkhead Box Protein O1/antagonists & inhibitors , Amidohydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Apoptosis , GPI-Linked Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lactones
Eight sesquiterpenes were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of Chloranthus henryi by column chromatographies over silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20,and preparative HPLC. Their chemical structures were established by spectral data and physiochemical properties as(1S,6S,8S,10R)-8-ethoxy-10-methoxychlomultin C(1),tianmushanol(2),multistalide A(3),myrrhterpenoid N(4),1α,9α-dihydroxy-8,12-expoxy-eudesma-4,7,11-trien-6-one(5),4β,10α-aromadendranediol(6),oplopanone(7),10α-hydroxycadinan-4-en-3-one(8). Among them, compound(1) was a new compound, and compounds 2-8 were isolated from Chloranthus henryi for the first time.
Subject(s)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Molecular Structure , Sesquiterpenes
Sesquiterpene lactones are a kind of widely distributed natural organic compounds with anti-tumor, anti-malarial and other significant biological activities. Based on their carbocylic skeletons, sesquiterpene lactones are classified into germacranolide, guaia-nolide, xanthanolide, pseudo-guaianolide, elemonolide and eudesmanolide, etc. In recent years, with the development of various omics and synthetic biology technologies, the biosynthetic pathways of sesquiterpene lactone compounds of different structural types have gradually been resolved. Among them, the researches on germacrene-derived sesquiterpene lactones are relatively more than others. Therefore, this article focused on the germacrene-derived sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathways and their key enzyme genes, which can lay the foundation for in-depth analysis of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthetic pathways, functional gene mining and heterologous synthesis of active ingredients.
Subject(s)Biosynthetic Pathways , Lactones , Sesquiterpenes
A chemical investigation on the fermentation products of Sanghuangporus sanghuang led to the isolation and identification of fourteen secondary metabolites (1-14) including eight sesquiterpenoids (1-8) and six polyphenols (9-14). Compounds 1-3 were sesquiterpenes with new structures which were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were tested for their stimulation effects on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and cellular antioxidant activity. Compounds 9-12 were subjected to molecular docking experiment to primarily evaluate their anti-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) activity. As a result, compounds 9-12 were found to increase the glucose uptake of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 18.1%, 62.7%, 33.7% and 21.4% at the dose of 50 μmol·L
Subject(s)Agaricales , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Basidiomycota , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology
Terpenes are the largest group of natural products and contain the widest assortment of structural types. Terpene cyclization is also the most complex reaction found in nature. For a long time, terpenoids with diverse structures have attracted natural product chemists to explore their biosynthesis mechanism. Such a large number of terpene skeletons are catalyzed by enzymes called terpene synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase is a kind of terpene synthase, which can catalyze the cyclization of linear precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate(FPP) to sesquiterpene skeletons. Sesquiterpene synthase cyclize a single precursor FPP into many sesquiterpene skeletons. With the continuous discovery of sesquiterpene synthase, the cyclization mechanism of sesquiterpene synthase has been studied deeply. In recent years, with the development and improvement of isotope labeling of substrate FPP and structural analysis of sesquiterpene synthase, the structure and cyclization mechanism of sesquiterpene synthase have been studied more systematically and accurately. In this review, we reviewed the progress of the research methods on the mechanism of sesquiterpene cyclization by substrate isotope labeling and protein structure, as well as the summary and prospect of sesquiterpene synthase research.
Subject(s)Cyclization , Sesquiterpenes , Terpenes
The genus Chloranthus has 13 species and 5 varieties in China, which can be found in the southwest and northeast regions. Phytochemical studies on Chloranthus plants have reported a large amount of terpenoids, such as diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoid dimers. Their anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antifungal, antivirus, and neuroprotection activities have been confirmed by previous pharmacological research. Herein, research on the chemical constituents from Chloranthus plants and their biological activities over the five years was summarized to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Chloranthus plants.