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1.
Ludovica Pediatr ; 25(2): 41-58, dic.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414378

ABSTRACT

El aporte de fluidos constituye un elemento central en la atención del paciente pediátrico hospitalizado, existiendo aún controversias acerca de cuál es la composición óptima, la dosis adecuada y la mejor estrategia para administrar los mismos. El propósito de este artículo de actualización es brindar al médico que se desempeña en las diferentes áreas de la internación pediátrica, conceptos y enfoques terapéuticos que lo ayuden en la asistencia de los pacientes que por diversos motivos requieren la administración de fluidos endovenosos. La recomendación de utilizar cristaloides en la reanimación es casi uniforme. Se observa una clara tendencia al uso de soluciones isotónicas balanceadas para la reposición del déficit previo y el aporte de fluidos de mantenimiento. En relación a la dosis y a la estrategia, es generalizada la recomendación de un enfoque más restrictivo en el aporte de volumen, aún en los pacientes con shock, donde es necesario lograr un balance entre una resucitación efectiva y el riesgo de sobrecarga de fluidos. Respecto a la administración de albúmina al 20% en el paciente crítico con hipoalbuminemia, la evidencia existente es escasa y no permite formular recomendaciones. Sin embargo, es frecuente su uso en la práctica asistencial


Intravenous fluids administration is a central element in the care of hospitalized pediatric patients, and there are still controversies about what is the optimal composition, the appropriate dose, and the best strategy for their administration. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the physicians who works in the different areas of pediatric hospitalization, concepts and therapeutic approaches that help them in the care of patients who for diverse reasons require administration of intravenous fluids. The recommendation to use crystalloids in resuscitation is almost uniform. There is a clear trend towards the use of balanced isotonic solutions to replace the previous deficit and the supply of maintenance fluids. In relation to the dose and strategy, the recommendation of a more restrictive approach in volume administration is generalized, even in patients with shock, where it is necessary to strike a balance between effective resuscitation and the risk of fluid overload. Regarding the administration of 20% albumin in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia, the existing evidence is scarce and does not allow recommendations to be formulated. However, it is frequently used in healthcare practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Critical Care , Fluid Therapy , Shock/therapy , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Hypotonic Solutions/administration & dosage , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
2.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 38-44, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935971

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of continuous goal-directed analgesia on fluid resuscitation during shock stage in patients with massive burns, providing a basis for rational optimization of analgesia protocols in patients with burn shock. Methods: A retrospective case series study was conducted. One hundred and thirty-six patients with massive burns who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Zhengzhou First People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2020, and the patients were divided into continuous analgesia (CA) group (68 cases,with average age of 44 years old) and intermittent analgesia (IA) group (68 cases,with average age of 45 years old) according to whether sufentanil injection was continuously used for intravenous analgesia during the shock stage. The patients in the 2 groups were predominantly male. Before and at 72 h of treatment, the severity of disease and trauma pain of patients in the 2 groups were scored by the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Hematocrit, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), oxygen saturation in central venous blood (ScvO2), rehydration coefficient, blood lactate value, hourly urine output, and the adverse reactions such as hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, skeletal muscle tonicity, respiratory depression, bradycardia, pruritus, and drug addiction of patients in the 2 groups during the treatment were recorded at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 24 h post-injury. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, paired or independent sample t test, Bonferroni correction,chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Before treatment, APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients in the 2 groups were close (with t values of -0.67 and 0.32, respectively, P>0.05); At 72 h of treatment, APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients in CA group were 8.5±2.2 and 2.5±1.6, both of which were significantly lower than (15.2±3.0) and (7.9±2.0) of patients in IA group, respectively (with t values of -14.94 and -17.46, respectively, P<0.01). Compared with the pre-treatment period, the APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients in IA group decreased significantly at 72 h of treatment (with t values of 11.35 and 30.59, respectively, P<0.01); the changes in APACHE Ⅱ and VAS scores of patients at 72 h of treatment in comparison with those of patients before treatment in CA group were all similar to those of patients in IA group (with t values of 4.00 and 4.82, respectively, P<0.01). Compared with those of patients in IA group, there were no significant changes in CVP, hematocrit, heart rate, ScvO2, and MAP of patients in CA group at all three 24 h post-injury (with t values of <0.01, 0.12, 2.10, 1.55, 0.03; 0.13, 0.22, <0.01, 0.17, 0.49; 0.63, 0.06, 0.04, 2.79, and 2.33, respectively, P>0.05). Compared with those of patients in IA group at the 1st 24 h post-injury, CVP, ScvO2 and MAP of patients were significantly higher at the 2nd and 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of -10.10, -9.31, -8.89; -10.81, -4.65, and -9.43, respectively, P<0.01), and the heart rate of patients was significantly lower at the 2nd and 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 7.53 and 7.78, respectively, P<0.01), and the hematocrit of patients decreased significantly only at the 3rd 24 h post-injury (t=15.55, P<0.01); the changes of CVP, ScvO2, MAP and heart rate of patients at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury, and HCT of patients at the 3rd 24 h post-injury, in comparison with those of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury in CA group were similar to those of patients in IA group (with t values of -12.25, -10.24, -8.99, 9.42, -8.83, -7.53, -11.57, 10.44, and 12.91, respectively, P<0.01). Compared with those of patients in IA group, the rehydration coefficient of patients in CA group was significantly higher only at the 3rd 24 h post-injury (t=5.60, P<0.05), blood lactate value of patients in CA group was significantly lower at the 1st and 2nd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 4.32 and 14.52, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), the hourly urine output of patients in CA group increased significantly at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 24.65, 13.12, and 5.63, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the those of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury, the rehydration coefficient of patients in IA group decreased significantly at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 33.98 and 36.91, respectively, P<0.01), the blood lactate values of patients in IA group decreased significantly at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of 8.20 and 11.68, respectively, P<0.01), and the hourly urine output of patients in IA group was significantly increased at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury (with t values of -3.52 and -5.92, respectively, P<0.01); the changes of rehydration coefficients and blood lactate values of patients at the 2nd and the 3rd 24 h post-injury in comparison with those of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury in CA group were similar to those of patients in IA group (with t values of 35.64, 33.64, 9.86, and 12.56, respectively, P<0.01), but hourly urine output of patients in CA group increased significantly only at the 3rd 24 h compared with that of patients at the 1st 24 h post-injury (t=-3.07, P<0.01). Adverse reactions such as hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, bradycardia, and pruritus occurred rarely in patients of the 2 groups, and none of the patients had skeletal muscle tonicity, respiratory depression, or drug addiction. The incidence of adverse reactions of patients in CA group was similar to that in IA group (χ2=0.08, P>0.05). Conclusions: Continuous goal-directed analgesia can effectively relieve pain and improve vital signs of patients with large burns. Meanwhile it has little impact on volume load, which can assist in correcting ischemia and hypoxia during the shock period and help patients get through the shock period smoothly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Analgesia , Burns/therapy , Fluid Therapy , Goals , Pain , Resuscitation , Retrospective Studies , Shock/therapy
4.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 43-47, 2021. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1284478

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los cristaloides son medicamentos usados en pacientes críticamente enfermos, con resultados ambiguos cuando se utilizan soluciones balanceadas versus solución salina normal. Objetivo: conocer si existen diferencias al usar solución salina 0.9% vs. lactato de Ringer en pacientes críticamente enfermos con sepsis y choque séptico o hipovolémico, en cuanto a mortalidad, lesión renal aguda y tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. Métodos: estudio observacional de tipo cohorte retrospectiva en mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de sepsis, choque séptico o hipovolémico. Se excluyeron aquellos con enfermedad renal crónica en diálisis, las hospitalizadas por ginecología/obstetricia y aquellos con diagnóstico de muerte encefálica o donantes de órganos. Se evaluaron los desenlaces primarios de mortalidad, lesión renal aguda y estancia hospitalaria. Resultados y discusión: se incluyeron 314 pacientes, 158 en el grupo expuesto a solución salina al 0.9% y 156 con lactato de Ringer. Se presentó lesión renal aguda en 22.7% con solución salina y 25.8% con lactato de Ringer (OR 1.18 IC 95%:0.7-2). La mortalidad con solución salina fue de 49%, y en lactato 49% (OR 1.01 IC 95%:0.63-1.63). Los factores de riesgo identificados para mortalidad fueron uso de soporte vasopresor (OR 35 IC 95% 12-83) y lesión renal aguda (1.3 IC 95% 1.01-1.69). Conclusiones: en el paciente críticamente enfermo con sepsis, choque séptico o hipovolémico el uso desolución salina 0.9% no representa diferencias al compararlo con lactato de Ringer en cuanto a mortalidad, lesión renal aguda o estancia hospitalaria. La elección de un cristaloide debe ser individualizada, teniendo en cuenta las comorbilidades, la presencia de hipercloremia o hiperpotasemia.


Objective: crystalloids are drugs used in critically ill patients, with ambiguous results when balanced solutions versus normal saline solution (NS) are used. The objective of this study is to determine if there are differences when NS (0.9%) vs. lactated Ringer ́s (LR) solution are given to critically ill patients in sepsis or septic or hypovolemic shock, in terms of mortality, acute renal injury and length of hospital stay. Methods: a retrospective observational cohort study in patients over 18 years old with sepsis or septic or hypovolemic shock. Patients with chronic renal disease on dialysis, those hospitalized by gynecology/obstetrics and those diagnosed with brain death or organ donors were excluded. The primary mortality outcomes, acute renal injury and hospital stay were evaluated. Results: 314 patients were included, 158 in the NS group and 156 in the LR group. Acute renal injury occurred in 22.7% in the NS group and 25.8% in the LR group (OR 1.18 IC 95%:0.7-2). Mortality rate was 49% in the NS group and 49% in the LR group (OR 1.01 95%: CI 0.63-1.63). Mortality risk factors included the use of vasopressor support (OR 35 95% CI 12-83) and acute renal injury (1.3 95% CI 1.01-1.69). Conclusions: no difference was found with the use of NS in critically ill patients with sepsis or septic or hypovolemic shock when compared with LR in terms of mortality, acute renal injury or hospital stay. The choice of which crystalloid to administer should be individualized, based on the comorbidities and the presence of hyperchloremia or hyperkalemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shock/therapy , Sepsis/therapy , Ringer's Lactate/therapeutic use , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Shock/mortality , Shock, Septic/mortality , Shock, Septic/therapy , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sepsis/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Ringer's Lactate/adverse effects , Saline Solution/adverse effects , Length of Stay
5.
In. Fernández, Anabela. Manejo de la embarazada crítica y potencialmente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.135-153, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1377611
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 48-55, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131005

ABSTRACT

Abstract One-third of the population in intensive care units is in a state of circulatory shock, whose rapid recognition and mechanism differentiation are of great importance. The clinical context and physical examination are of great value, but in complex situations as in cardiac care units, it is mandatory the use of advanced hemodynamic monitorization devices, both to determine the main mechanism of shock, as to decide management and guide response to treatment, these devices include pulmonary flotation catheter as the gold standard, as well as more recent techniques including echocardiography and pulmonary ultrasound, among others. This article emphasizes the different shock mechanisms observed in the cardiac care units, with a proposal for approach and treatment.


Resumen Un tercio de la población de pacientes en unidades de cuidados intensivos se encuentran en choque circulatorio, el identificarlo y determinar su mecanismo de manera rápida y eficaz es de gran importancia. El contexto clínico y el examen físico son de gran utilidad, sin embargo existen situaciones de alta complejidad en las que se requiere del uso de las distintas modalidades de monitorización hemodinámica avanzada, tanto para determinar la causa, como para decidir el manejo y guiar respuesta al tratamiento, incluyendo el catéter de flotación pulmonar como gold standard, así como técnicas más recientes incluyendo ecocardiografía y ultrasonido pulmonar, entre otros. Este artículo enfatiza los distintos mecanismos de choque observados en las unidades de cuidados cardiacos, con propuesta de abordaje y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock/physiopathology , Coronary Care Units , Hemodynamics/physiology , Shock/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
7.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(1): 11-16, feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092884

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Establecer la medición ecográfica del diámetro de la vena cava inferior como factor predictor del shock en pacientes politraumatizados. Materiales y Método Estudio de corte transversal donde se determinó la medición ecográfica de la vena cava inferior a 40 pacientes que ingresaron a la Unidad de Politraumatizados (UPT) del Hospital General del Este "Dr. Domingo Luciani", en el período entre enero y abril de 2018. Se seleccionaron 2 grupos; el grupo 1: pacientes en shock , aquellos con tensión arterial sistólica menor a 90 mm Hg al ingreso, y el grupo 2: pacientes controles que mantuvieron cifras tensionales normales. El estudio de imagen de la vena cava inferior se realizó con el equipo de ecografía ALOKA prosound SSD-a5 y con el ultrasonido portátil MicroMaxx SonoSite , en el cual se midió el índice de colapsabilidad. Los hallazgos se registraron en la hoja de recolección de datos. El análisis estadístico se hizo con la prueba de t de student para muestras independientes y la valoración de puntos de corte diagnóstico se hizo con la prueba de ROC. Resultados La media del Índice de colapsabilidad (IC) de la VCI para el grupo control y de shock fue de 26 ± 12,7% y de 58,5 ± 5,9%, respectivamente; El índice de colapsabilidad fue > 50% en todos los pacientes del grupo de shock . Conclusiones La medición del diámetro de la VCI es un predictor de shock , siendo el IC el parámetro más sensible y específico.


Aim To establish the sonographic measurement of the diameter of the inferior vena cava as a predictor of shock in trauma patients. Materials and Method A cross-sectional study to determined the sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava to 40 patients attended at Hospital Domingo Luciani trauma unit, in the period between January and April of 2018. Two groups were selected; group 1: shock patients, those with systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mm Hg, and the group 2: control patients that kept normal blood pressure. The image study of the inferior vena cava was carried out with the ALOKA prosound ultrasound equipment SSD a5 and with the portable ultrasound MicroMaxx SonoSite, in which the collapsibility index was measured. The findings were recorded in the data collection sheet. The statistical analysis proposed for the comparison of averages was made with the student's t-test for independent samples and the assessment of diagnostic cut-off points was made with a ROC curve. Results the mean of collapsability index of de IVC for control and shock group were 26 ± 12,7% and 58,5 ± 5,9%, respectively; The collapsability index (CI) was > 50% in all patients of shock group. Conclusions The measurement of the ICV diameter is a predictor of shock, being the IC the most sensitive and specific parameter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology , Hypovolemia/diagnostic imaging , Shock/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography , Arterial Pressure , Fluid Therapy/methods
8.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2020165, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136711

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Recently, there have been reports of children with severe inflammatory syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction associated with elevated inflammatory markers. These cases are reported as presenting the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. In this study, we describe with parental permission a case of MIS-C in an infant with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Case description: A seven-month-old infant, with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of extreme preterm birth and very low weight at birth, with an initial course of mild respiratory symptoms and abrupt progression to vasoplegic shock, myocarditis and hyperinflammation syndrome, shown by high levels of troponin I, ferritin, CRP, D-dimer and hypoalbuminemia. Despite the intensive care provided, the child developed multiple organ dysfunction and died. Comments: Patients with a history of extreme prematurity may present with MIS-C in the presence of COVID-19 and are a group of special concern.


RESUMO Objetivo: Recentemente, foram descritos relatos de crianças com exame positivo para o coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) associado à disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, secundária à hiperinflamação, denominada de síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica pediátrica (do inglês multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children - MIS-C). O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de MIS-C em lactente com infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e com evolução fatal abrupta, a despeito do suporte de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Descrição do caso: Lactente de sete meses, com infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e antecedentes de prematuridade extrema, com quadro inicial de síndrome gripal e progressão abrupta para choque vasoplégico, miocardite e síndrome de hiperinflamação, evidenciados por níveis elevados de troponina I, ferritina, proteína C reativa (PCR), dímero D e hipoalbuminemia. Não obstante o suporte de terapia intensiva instituído, a criança evoluiu com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos e morte. Comentários: Pacientes com antecedentes de prematuridade extrema podem apresentar MIS-C na vigência de doença do coronavírus 19 (COVID-19) e constituir um grupo de preocupação especial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Resuscitation/methods , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Risk Factors , Fatal Outcome , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Premature Birth , Clinical Deterioration , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 240-247, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013771

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A ressuscitação hídrica do paciente em falência circulatória aguda tem como um de seus objetivos aumentar o volume sistólico e, consequentemente, o débito cardíaco, para melhor oxigenação dos tecidos. Contudo, isso não se verifica em cerca de metade dos pacientes, que são considerados não respondedores a fluidos. A avaliação da resposta a fluidos antes de sua administração pode selecionar os pacientes que devem ter benefício e evitar o risco de sobrecarga nos restantes. Os parâmetros dinâmicos de avaliação da resposta a fluidos têm se revelado promissores enquanto fatores preditores. Entre estes, a medição ecocardiográfica da variação respiratória do diâmetro da veia cava inferior é um método de fácil aplicação, que tem sido difundido na avaliação hemodinâmica em unidades de cuidados intensivos. No entanto, a aplicabilidade desta técnica tem muitas limitações, e os estudos, até à presente data, são heterogêneos e pouco consistentes em alguns grupos de pacientes. Realizamos uma revisão sobre a utilização da variação respiratória do diâmetro da veia cava inferior, medida por ecocardiografia transtorácica, na decisão de administrar fluidos ao paciente em falência circulatória aguda, em cuidados intensivos, incluindo potencialidades e limitações da técnica, de sua interpretação e a evidência existente.


ABSTRACT The fluid resuscitation of patients with acute circulatory failure aims to increase systolic volume and consequently improve cardiac output for better tissue oxygenation. However, this effect does not always occur because approximately half of patients do not respond to fluids. The evaluation of fluid responsiveness before their administration may help to identify patients who would benefit from fluid resuscitation and avoid the risk of fluid overload in the others. The dynamic parameters of fluid responsiveness evaluation are promising predictive factors. Of these, the echocardiographic measurement of the respiratory variation in the inferior vena cava diameter is easy to apply and has been used in the hemodynamic evaluation of intensive care unit patients. However, the applicability of this technique has many limitations, and the present studies are heterogeneous and inconsistent across specific groups of patients. We review the use of the inferior vena cava diameter respiratory variation, measured via transthoracic echocardiography, to decide whether to administer fluids to patients with acute circulatory failure in the intensive care unit. We explore the benefits and limitations of this technique, its current use, and the existing evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resuscitation , Shock/therapy , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care/methods , Fluid Therapy , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Vena Cava, Inferior/physiology , Echocardiography , Acute Disease
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 112-115, jan.-mar. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899552

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Entre as principais causas de morte em nosso meio, situam-se acidentes automobilísticos, afogamento e queimaduras acidentais. O estrangulamento é uma injúria potencialmente fatal, além de importante causa de homicídio e suicídio em adultos e adolescentes. Em crianças, sua ocorrência é usualmente acidental. No entanto, nos últimos anos, vários casos de estrangulamento acidental em crianças ao redor do mundo têm sido reportados. Paciente masculino de 2 anos de idade foi vítima de estrangulamento em vidro do carro. Admitido na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica com Escala de Coma de Glasgow de 8, piora progressiva da disfunção respiratória e torpor. Paciente apresentou quadro de Síndrome da Angústia Respiratória Aguda, edema agudo de pulmão e choque. Foi manejado com ventilação mecânica protetora, drogas vosoativas e antibioticoterapia. Recebeu alta da unidade de terapia intensiva sem sequelas neurológicas ou pulmonares. Após 12 dias de internação, teve hospitalar alta para casa em ótimo estado. A incidência de estrangulamento por vidro de automóvel é rara, mas de alta morbimortalidade, devido ao mecanismo de asfixia ocasionado. Felizmente, os automóveis mais modernos dispõem de dispositivos que interrompem o fechamento automático dos vidros se for encontrada alguma resistência. No entanto, visto a gravidade das complicações de pacientes vítimas de estrangulamento, é significativamente relevante o manejo intensivo neuroventilatório e hemodinâmico das patologias envolvidas, para redução da morbimortalidade, assim como é necessário implementar novas campanhas para educação dos pais e cuidadores das crianças, visando evitar acidentes facilmente preveníveis e otimizar os mecanismos de segurança nos automóveis com vidros elétricos.


ABSTRACT Among the main causes of death in our country are car accidents, drowning and accidental burns. Strangulation is a potentially fatal injury and an important cause of homicide and suicide among adults and adolescents. In children, its occurrence is usually accidental. However, in recent years, several cases of accidental strangulation in children around the world have been reported. A 2-year-old male patient was strangled in a car window. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 and presented with progressive worsening of respiratory dysfunction and torpor. The patient also presented acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pulmonary edema and shock. He was managed with protective mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drugs and antibiotic therapy. He was discharged from the intensive care unit without neurological or pulmonary sequelae. After 12 days of hospitalization, he was discharged from the hospital, and his state was very good. The incidence of automobile window strangulation is rare but of high morbidity and mortality due to the resulting choking mechanism. Fortunately, newer cars have devices that stop the automatic closing of the windows if resistance is encountered. However, considering the severity of complications strangulated patients experience, the intensive neuro-ventilatory and hemodynamic management of the pathologies involved is important to reduce morbidity and mortality, as is the need to implement new campaigns for the education of parents and caregivers of children, aiming to avoid easily preventable accidents and to optimize safety mechanisms in cars with electric windows.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Asphyxia/etiology , Automobiles , Accidents , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Asphyxia/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Glasgow Coma Scale , Treatment Outcome , Intensive Care Units
11.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2014 Jan; 17(1): 52-55
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149694

ABSTRACT

Severe mitral regurgitation (MR) following balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV) needing emergent mitral valve replacement is a rare complication. The unrelieved mitral stenosis is compounded by severe MR leading to acute rise in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular afterload, decreased coronary perfusion, ischemia and right ventricular failure. Associated septal shift and falling left ventricular preload leads to a vicious cycle of myocardial ischemia and hemodynamic collapse and needs to be addressed emergently before the onset of end organ damage. In this report, we describe the pathophysiology of hemodynamic collapse and peri‑operative management issues in a case of mitral valve replacement for acute severe MR following BMV.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, General , Balloon Valvuloplasty/methods , Emergencies , Female , /methods , Humans , Mitral Valve/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Mitral Valve Stenosis/surgery , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Postoperative Complications/methods , Rheumatic Heart Disease/complications , Rheumatic Heart Disease/surgery , Shock/physiopathology , Shock/therapy
12.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 2013. 34 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025521

ABSTRACT

El manual, corresponde a una estrategia para reducir la tasa de mortalidad materna en relación a la hemorragia obstétrica y como indica el documento: "El comportamiento de la morbi-mortalidad materna en los últimos diez años, ha situado a la hemorragia obstétrica en el primer lugar del país. Por lo anterior se priorizan las acciones que impacten en la reducción de la muerte materna implementando la estrategia de "Código Rojo", la cual estandariza los lineamientos técnicos, normativos y clínicos para la prevención y manejo de la hemorragia obstétrica y choque hipovolémico, respondiendo así al derecho reproductivo que establece que ninguna mujer debe morir por causas relacionadas al embarazo, parto y post parto." Código rojo


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Shock/therapy , Uterine Hemorrhage/mortality , Blood Transfusion , Labor, Obstetric , Maternal Mortality/trends , Delivery, Obstetric/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Reproductive Health/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Abortion, Spontaneous/blood , Health Statistics , Emergencies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Guatemala
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 29(4): 281-302, abr. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-587827

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo informa acerca del proceso y los resultados del Segundo Consenso Clínico de la SIBEN (Sociedad Iberoamericana de Neonatología), en el cual 80 neonatólogos de 23 países fueron invitados a participar y colaborar. Se desarrollaron varias preguntas de importancia clínico-fisiológica sobre el manejo hemodinámico del recién nacido. Los participantes fueron distribuidos en grupos, facilitando así la interacción y el trabajo conjunto, con la consigna de responder de tres a cinco preguntas mediante el análisis de bibliografía y factores locales. El Grupo de Consenso se reunió en Mar del Plata, Argentina, donde se llevaron a cabo diversas ponencias, debates y presentaciones. En total participaron 54 neonatólogos de 21 países, con el objetivo de desarrollar un consenso sobre aspectos que incluyeron conceptos y definiciones de inestabilidad hemodinámica, la fisiopatología del cuadro de compromiso hemodinámico, las estrategias terapéuticas recomendadas y el monitoreo hemodinámico. Se espera que esta experiencia internacional sirva como una iniciativa útil tanto para la búsqueda de futuros consensos como para reducir las disparidades existentes entre los tratamientos y resultados de los diferentes países de la Región.


This study reports on the process and results of the Second Clinical Consensus of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology. Eighty neonatologists from 23 countries were invited to collaborate and participate in the event. Several questions of clinical-physiological importance in the hemodynamic management of newborns were addressed. Participants were divided into groups to facilitate interaction and teamwork, with instructions to respond to three to five questions by analyzing the literature and local factors. Meeting in Mar del Plata, Argentina, the Consensus Group served as a form for various presentations and discussions. In all, 54 neonatologists from 21 countries attended, with the objective of reaching a consensus on such matters as concepts and definitions of hemodynamic instability, the physiopathology of hemodynamic compromise, recommended therapy strategies, and hemodynamic monitoring. It is hoped that this international experience will serve as a useful initiative for future consensus building and reduction of the existing disparities among the countries of the Region in terms of treatment and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Hypotension/diagnosis , Hypotension/therapy , Heart Diseases/congenital , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/therapy , Hemodynamics , Hypotension/physiopathology , Hypovolemia/diagnosis , Shock/diagnosis , Shock/therapy
14.
West Indian med. j ; 60(2): 225-228, Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672757

ABSTRACT

A thirty-six-year old female with shock was found to be unconsciousness a few days after developing a respiratory infection. Her past medical history included autoimmune hypothyroidism. Her state of shock was not controlled by massive fluid resuscitation with a vasopressor and antibiotics. However, an infusion of 250 mg methylprednisolone dramatically improved her shock state. Further examination indicated secondary acute adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency may complicate other endocrine disorders. Accordingly, a physician should consider hypoadrenocorticism, when patients are in a state ofrefractory shock in spite ofmassive infusion with a vasopressor, especially in patients with other endocrine disorders.


Una mujer de treinta y seis años en shock fue hallada inconsciente unos dias después de desarrollar una infección respiratoria. Los antecedentes en su historia clinica incluian hipotiroidismo autoinmune. Su estado de shock no fue controlado por la reanimación con liquidos masiva con un vasopresor y antibióticos. Sin embargo, una infusion de 250 mg metilprednisolona habia mejorado considerablemente su estado de shock. Un examen mas detenido indicó insuficiencia adrenal aguda secundaria. La insuficiencia adrenal puede complicar otros trastornos endocrinos. En consecuencia, un médico debe considerar la posibilidad de hipoadrenocorticismo, cuando los pacientes se encuentran en estado de shock refractario a pesar de una infusion masiva con un vasopresor, especialmente en el caso pacientes con otros trastornos endocrinos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Adrenal Insufficiency/therapy , Shock/therapy , Acute Disease , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Shock/etiology
15.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 20(4 supl.3): 38-43, out.-dez.2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-795501

ABSTRACT

A queimadura é um dos acidentes mais frequentes em Pediatria, com altas taxas de mortalidade. As complicações mais frequentes são o choque hipovolêmico, a desnutrição progressiva e as infecções. O presente artigo tem por objetivo fazer uma abordagemdo choque hipovolêmico na criança queimada. Discutem-se a fisiopatologia, as diversas modalidades de tratamento propostas na literatura e as vantagens e desvantagens de cada uma. Foi realizada revisão da literatura, abrangendo as bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane Library, utilizando os descritores burn, fluid resuscitation,shock e child, no período de 1993 a 2008...


Burning is one of the most common causes of accidents in pediatrics, with high rates of mortality. The most common complications are hypovolemic shock, progressive malnourishment and infections. This article describes an approach to the hypovolemicshock in the burned child. The pathophysiology, the various types of treatment used andits vantages and disadvantages are described here. A literature review was performed, comprising MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases with the keywords burn,fluid resuscitation, shock and child, from 1993 to 2008...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Shock/physiopathology , Shock/therapy , Burns/complications , Retrospective Studies , Hypertonic Solutions/therapeutic use
16.
Cir. & cir ; 77(5): 365-368, sept.-oct. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-566473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El colon es el segundo órgano más frecuentemente lesionado en las heridas por trauma penetrante de abdomen. En México, las lesiones por arma blanca o de fuego van en aumento. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el principal manejo para las lesiones traumáticas de colon. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y aleatorizado de 178 pacientes con trauma abdominal y lesiones de colon, en un lapso de cinco años (enero de 2003 a junio de 2008) en el Hospital General de Balbuena. Se comparó el uso del cierre primario y cirugía derivativa con colostomía. Se analizó sexo, grupo de edad, tipo de herida, grado de lesión y mortalidad. Resultados: De 178 pacientes, 156 fueron hombres (87.6 %) y 22 mujeres (12.4 %). El grupo de edad con mayor afección fue el de 21 a 30 años; 74 pacientes (41.6 %) presentaron heridas por instrumento punzocortante y 104 pacientes (58.4 %) heridas por arma de fuego. El principal manejo fue mediante cierre primario: 92 casos (51.7 %) versus 86 (48.3 %) para cirugía derivativa; sin embargo, en las heridas por arma de fuego el principal manejo fue la colostomía (67 casos). La mortalidad fue de 17 casos (9.55 %) debido a causas diversas como lesiones a múltiples órganos de manera asociada. Conclusiones: En las lesiones colónicas debe individualizarse el tratamiento, según la etiopatogenia, grado de lesión y lesiones asociadas.


BACKGROUND: Colon trauma is frequent and its prevalence is difficult to establish because of the different factors that intervene in its origin. In Mexico, traumatic colon injuries, albeit stab wounds or gunshot wounds, are on the rise. Our objective was to evaluate the most appropriate management for traumatic colon injuries. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 178 case files of patients with abdominal trauma and colon lesions during a 5-year period from January 2003 to June 2008 from the General Hospital of Balbuena, Mexico City. The study compared the use of primary closure vs. colostomy, analyzing variables such as sex, age, type of wound, severity of lesion and mortality. RESULTS: There were a total of 178 patients; 156 were male (87.6%) and 22 were female (12.4%). The most affected age group was between 21 and 30 years; 74 patients (41.6%) had stab wounds and 104 patients (58.4%) had gunshot wounds. Management consisted mainly of primary closure in 92 cases (51.7%) vs. colostomy in 86 patients (48.3%). However, 64% of gunshot wounds were treated with colostomy. Reported mortality was 9.55% and this was due to different factors such as multiple organ injury. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of traumatic colon injury should be case specific, taking into account the mechanism of the lesion, its severity and associated injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Colon/surgery , Colostomy/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Stab/surgery , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Abdominal Injuries/surgery , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Colon/injuries , Colostomy/adverse effects , Colostomy , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy , Mexico/epidemiology , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Suture Techniques , Multiple Trauma/epidemiology , Multiple Trauma/surgery , Abdominal Injuries/epidemiology , Viscera/injuries , Young Adult
17.
Invest. clín ; 50(1): 89-94, mar. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518695

ABSTRACT

Se reporta el caso clínico de escolar masculino de 6 años de edad, quien presentó trauma renal derecho severo con ruptura del sistema pielocaliceal y estallido renal (grado IV). Al ingreso en la emergencia presentó palidez cutánea, taquicardia, taquifigmia, dolor intenso en región lumbar derecha y hematuria macroscópica. A través de ecografía abdominal se demostró lesión del parénquima renal derecho con colección perirenal. Estudios hematológicos evidenciaron descenso de las cifras de hemoglobina de 3,1 g% en las primeras 48 horas posterior al trauma. Se decidió el manejo conservador no operatorio debido a que el estado hemodinámico del paciente se mantuvo estable a pesar de las alteraciones en la hemoglobina. Para tratar la lesión renal, se colocó catéter de drenaje percutáneo en espacio peri renal derecho a los 16 días del accidente. El paciente egresó después de este procedimiento y se controló en forma ambulatoria hasta sellarse la ruptura del sistema urinario excretor (3 semanas), cuando reingresó para el retiro del catéter. La evolución del paciente fue excelente; se preservó el riñón y no ha presentado complicaciones en 6 meses de seguimiento posterior a la lesión. El tratamiento no quirúrgico en el trauma renal con lesión del sistema excretor es efectivo y recomendable en niños, cuando los pacientes se encuentran hemodinamicamente estables.


The clinical case of a 6 years old boy, who presented severe right renal trauma with rupture of the pyelocaliceal system and renal injury (IV grade), is reported. Upon admittance to emergency he presented paleness, tachycardia, rapid pulse, intense pain in the right lumbar region and macroscopic hematuria. Using abdominal ultrasound scan, an injury of the right renal parenchyma with perirenal collection was shown. Hematology studies showed a decrease in the hemoglobin count of 3,1 g% during the first posttraumatic 48 hours. A non-surgical conservative treatment was decided, since the patient’s hemodynamic status held stable despite the hemoglobin alterations. To treat renal injury, a percutaneous catheter drainage was placed in the right perirenal space on day 16th from the accident. The patient was released after this treatment and was controlled as an outpatient, until the rupture of the excretory urinary system was sealed (3 weeks), when the patient returned to have the catheter removed. The patient´s progress was excellent, the kidney was preserved and no complications have occurred in a 6 months follow up after the injury. The non-surgical treatment in renal trauma with injury to the excretory system is effective and advisable in children, provided the patients are hemodynamically stable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Drainage/methods , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Shock/therapy
19.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 85(1): 3-10, 2006. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-431013

ABSTRACT

A solução hipertônica de cloreto de sódio 7,5 por cento (SSH) é eficaz em restaurar os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e reduzir a inflamação em modelos experimentais de choque hemorrágico. Assim, foi nosso objetivo investigar a ação da SSH sobre os mecanismos envolvidos na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão (I/R) em um modelo de choque hemorrágico controlado. Ratos Wistar (280-350 g) foram submetidos à hemorragia controlada, mantendo-se a pressão arterial média em 40 mmHg por 1 h / Hypertonic saline solution (HSS - NaCI 7,5 per cent) was shown to restore hemodynamic parameters in hemorrhagic shock and to decrease the inflammation triggered by ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of HSS on the mechanisms involved in I/R, in an experimental model of controled hemorrhagic shock. Wistar rats (2`80-350 g) were submitted to the controled bleeding, keeping the mean arterial pressure around 40 mmHg, for 1 hour...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Shock/therapy , Heat-Shock Proteins/analysis , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Neutrophil Activation , Cytokines/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Disease Models, Animal , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 44(2/3)abr.-sept. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-439509

ABSTRACT

Se presentan 32 pacientes con shock hipovolémico, tratados con solución salina hipertónica en la fase inicial de reanimación volumétrica. Se evaluó la respuesta clínica ante este método. Mostramos las posibilidades que ofrecen las soluciones salinas hipertónicas para la reanimación inicial en el shock hipovolémico. La respuesta clínica fue adecuada y permitió la recuperación de parámetros de monitorización periféricos (diuresis, pulso, tensión). Al iniciar la reanimación, la presión arterial media variaba en un rango de 42 a 63 mm Hg y llegaba a los 10 min a un rango de 68 a 86 mm Hg, lo cual permitió que estos pacientes mantuvieran la estabilidad hemodinámica necesaria para las conductas posteriores. La reanimación con solución salina hipertónica es un método eficaz para el tratamiento inicial del shock hipovolémico con respuesta clínica a corto tiempo, complicaciones escasas y fácil corrección(AU)


32 patients are presented with shock hipovolémico, treaties with solution saline hipertónica in the initial phase of reanimación volumétrica. The clinical answer was evaluated before this method. We show the possibilities that you/they offer the solutions saline hipertónicas for the initial reanimación in the shock hipovolémico. The clinical answer was adapted and it allowed the recovery of parameters of outlying monitorización (diuresis, pulse, tension). When beginning the reanimación, the pressure arterial stocking varied in a range from 42 to 63 mm Hg and it arrived to the 10 min to a range from 68 to 86 mm Hg, that which allowed these patients to maintain the necessary hemodynamic stability for the later behaviors. The reanimación with solution saline hipertónica is an effective method for the initial treatment of the shock hipovolémico with clinical answer at short time, complications scarce and easy correction(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Shock/therapy , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods
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