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1.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 107-112, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To review the advancement made in the understanding of valgus impacted proximal humeral fracture (PHF).@*METHODS@#The domestic and foreign literature about the valgus impacted PHF was extensively reviewed and the definition, classification, pathological features, and treatment of valgus impacted PHFs were summarized.@*RESULTS@#PHF with a neck shaft angle ≥160° is recognized as a valgus impacted PHF characterized by the preservation of the medial epiphyseal region of the humeral head, which contributes to maintenance of the medial periosteum's integrity after fracture and reduces the occurrence of avascular necrosis. Therefore, the valgus impacted PHF has a better prognosis when compared to other complex PHFs. The Neer classification designates it as a three- or four-part fracture, while the AO/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) categorizes it as type C (C1.1). In the management of the valgus impacted PHF, the selection between conservative and surgical approaches is contingent upon the patient's age and the extent of fracture displacement. While conservative treatment offers the advantage of being non-invasive, it is accompanied by limitations such as the inability to achieve anatomical reduction and the potential for multiple complications. Surgical treatment includes open reduction combined with steel wire or locking plate and/or non-absorbable suture, transosseous suture technology, and shoulder replacement. Surgeons must adopt personalized treatment strategies for each patient with a valgus impacted PHF. Minimally invasive surgery helps to preserve blood supply to the humeral head, mitigate the likelihood of avascular necrosis, and reduce postoperative complications of bone and soft tissue. For elderly patients with severe comminuted and displaced fractures, osteoporosis, and unsuitable internal fixation, shoulder joint replacement is the best treatment option.@*CONCLUSION@#Currently, there has been some advancement in the classification, vascular supply, and management of valgus impacted PHF. Nevertheless, further research is imperative to assess the clinical safety, biomechanical stability, and indication of minimally invasive technology.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Bone Plates , Bone Wires , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fractures, Comminuted/surgery , Humeral Fractures , Osteonecrosis , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 667-671, July-Aug. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anterior dislocations represent about 96% of total shoulder dislocations, with recurrence/instability being more common in young patients. Injury of other shoulder structures is frequent, namely bony Bankart lesion. However, the association with coracoid apophysis fracture is very rare. The present article describes the clinical case of a 67-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with complaints of persistent omalgia, with acute episodes, beginning after a fall from his own height. The patient also presented history of shoulder trauma 3 months earlier, which was evaluated at another hospital. Shoulder anterior dislocation was observed radiographically, and the computed tomography (CT) confirmed bone erosion of the anteroinferior part of the glenoid (bone loss of about 50% of the anteroposterior diameter in the lower region of the glenoid), with almost complete resorption of the bony Bankart lesion (apparent in later analysis of the radiography of the initial traumatic episode). Connectedly, a transverse fracture of the coracoid apophysis (type II in the Ogawa classification) was diagnosed. The patient was submitted to surgical treatment, with anterior bone stop confection using the remnant of the fractured fragment of the coracoid supplemented by tricortical autologous iliac graft, fixed with cannulated screws (according to the Bristow-Latarjet and Eden-Hybinett techniques). In the postoperative follow-up, a good functional result was observed, with no new episodes of dislocation and no significant pain complaints. A rare association of shoulder lesions is described, and the challenge of their treatment is highlighted, given the late diagnosis, as in the case presented.


Resumo As luxações anteriores representam cerca de 96% do total de luxações do ombro, sendo a recidiva/instabilidade mais comum em pacientes jovens. A lesão de outras estruturas do ombro é frequente, nomeadamente a lesão óssea de Bankart. Contudo, a associação com a fratura da apófise coracoide é muito rara. Este artigo descreve o caso clínico de um homem de 67 anos que recorreu ao serviço de urgência com queixas de omalgia persistente, com episódios de agudização, iniciados após queda da própria altura. O paciente apresentava ainda histórico de trauma do ombro 3 meses antes, avaliado em outro hospital. A luxação anterior do ombro foi constatada radiograficamente, e a tomografia computorizada (TC) do ombro confirmou erosão óssea da vertente anteroinferior da glenoide (perda óssea de cerca de 50% do diâmetro anteroposterior na região inferior da glenoide), com reabsorção quase completa de lesão óssea de Bankart (aparente em análise a posteriori da radiografia do episódio traumático inicial). Associadamente, foi diagnosticada uma fratura transversa da apófise coracoide (tipo II da classificação de Ogawa). O paciente foi submetido ao tratamento cirúrgico, com confecção do batente ósseo anterior utilizando remanescente do fragmento fraturado do coracoide suplementado por enxerto autólogo tricortical do ilíaco, fixados com parafusos canulados (de acordo com as técnicas de Bristow-Latarjet e Eden-Hybinett). No seguimento pós-operatório, foi observado um bom resultado funcional, sem novos episódios de luxação e sem queixas álgicas significativas. Descreve-se uma associação rara de lesões do ombro, e salienta-se o desafio do tratamento das mesmas dado o seu diagnóstico tardio, como no caso apresentado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Coracoid Process
3.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 94-100, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970980

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Unsatisfactory results of hemiarthroplasty in Neer's 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fractures in elderly, have led to the shift towards reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). The objective of our study was to repair the tuberosities that are generally overlooked during RSA and observe its impact on the functional outcome and shoulder scores.@*METHODS@#We include elderly patients with acutely displaced or dislocated 3- or 4-part proximal humerus fractures from July 2013 to November 2019 who were treated with RSA along with tuberosity repair by non-absorbable sutures and bone grafting harvested from the humeral head. Open injuries and cases with neuro-muscular involvement of the deltoid muscle were excluded. According to the tuberosity healing on radiographs of the shoulder at 9th postoperative month, the patients were divided into 2 groups, as the group with successful tuberosity repair and the other with failed tuberosity repair. Statistical analysis of the functional outcome and shoulder scores between the 2 groups were done by independent t-test for normally distributed parameters and Mann-Whitney test for the parameters, where data was not normally distributed.@*RESULTS@#Of 41 patients, tuberosity healing was achieved in 28 (68.3%) and failed in 13 (31.7%) cases. Lysis of the tuberosity occurred in 5 patients, tuberosity displacement in 2, and nonunion in 2. Mean age was 70.4 years (range 65 - 79 years) and mean follow-up was 58.7 months (range 18 - 93 months). There were no major complications. Group with successful tuberosity repair showed improvement in mean active range of movements, like anterior elevation (165.1° ± 4.9° vs. 144.6° ± 9.4°, p < 0.000), lateral elevation (158.9° ± 7.2° vs. 138.4° ± 9.6°, p < 0.000), external rotation (30.5° ± 6.9° vs. 35.0° ± 6.3°, p = 0.367), internal rotation (33.7° ± 7.5° vs. 32.6° ± 6.9°, p = 0.671) and in mean shoulder scores including Constant score (70.7 ± 4.1 vs. 55.5 ± 5.7, p < 0.000), American shoulder and elbow surgeons score (90.3 ± 2.4 vs. 69.0 ± 5.7, p < 0.000), disability of arm shoulder and hand score (22.1 ± 2.3 vs. 37.6 ± 2.6, p < 0.000).@*CONCLUSION@#Successful repair and tuberosity healing around the RSA prosthesis is associated with statistically significant improvement in postoperative range of motion, strength and shoulder scores. Standardized repair technique and interposition of cancellous bone grafts, harvested from the humeral head can improve the rate of tuberosity healing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Child, Preschool , Child , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/methods , Arm/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Humerus/surgery , Humeral Head/surgery , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Range of Motion, Articular
4.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1005-1010, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy of posterior axillary approach internal fixation for Ideberg Ⅰa andⅡ glenoid fractures.@*METHODS@#From December 2018 to September 2021, 9 patients with lower part of glenoid fractures were treated by posterior axillary approach, including 3 males and 6 females, aged from 50 to 78 years old. All the fractures were closed fractures. According to Ideberg type of scapular glenoid fracture was type Ⅰa in 6 cases and type Ⅱ in 3 cases. AP and lateral X-ray films of scapula were taken at 6, 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Constant-Murley and disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand (DASH), and other complications were recorded at the latest follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Nine patients were followed up, ranged from 6 to 15 months. And bone healing was achieved in all 9 patients at the final follow-up, the healing time 3 to 6 months, Constant-Murley score at the final follow-up ranged from 55 to 96, and DASH score ranged from 3.33 to 33.33. Both of them were better than preoperative.@*CONCLUSION@#The posterior axillary approach internal fixation for Ideberg Ⅰa and Ideberg Ⅱ Glenoid fractures scapular fracture is satisfactory and worthy of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Shoulder/surgery , Scapula/surgery , Shoulder Fractures , Fractures, Closed , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1375-1379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of compression screw combined with Buttress plate through direct axillary approach for Ideberg typeⅡ scapular glenoid fractures.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on 11 patients with Ideberg type Ⅱ scapular glenoid fractures treated with compression screws combined with Buttress plate fixation through the direct axillary approach between January 2014 and June 2022. There were 7 males and 4 females, aged from 34 to 75 years, with an average of 56.0 years. The causes of injury included 4 cases of falling from height injury, 4 cases of heavy object injury, and 3 cases of traffic accident injury. The time from injury to operation was 2-5 days, with an average of 3.8 days. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, complications, and fracture healing time were recorded. The Constant-Murley score, American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and shoulder joint flexion, abduction, external rotation (neutral position), and internal rotation (neutral position) range of motion were used to evaluate shoulder joint pain and function.@*RESULTS@#The operation time was 45-105 minutes, with an average of 79.0 minutes; the intraoperative blood loss was 80-200 mL, with an average of 99.2 mL; the hospital stay was 3-8 days, with an average of 5.8 days. One patient had poor wound healing after operation, and the wound healed after strengthening dressing change; the rest wounds had primary healing, and no axillary nerve paralysis occurred. Except for 1 patient lost follow-up, the remaining 10 patients were followed up 10-54 months, with an average of 26.4 months. The postoperative X-ray film examination showed that the fractures healed well within 8-15 weeks, with an average of 11.0 weeks. There was no complication such as fracture displacement, internal fixator failure or fracture during follow-up. At last follow-up, the patient's shoulder joint flexion, abduction, external rotation (neutral position), and internal rotation (neutral position) range of motion, Constant-Murley score, and ASES score significantly improved when compared with those before operation ( P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compression screw combined with Buttress plate through direct axillary approach is an effective way to treat Ideberg typeⅡ scapular glenoid fracture, with advantages of small trauma, concealed incision, and good effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Treatment Outcome , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Bone Screws , Bone Plates
6.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 262-267, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#With the help of finite element analysis, to explore the effect of proximal humeral bone cement enhanced screw plate fixation on the stability of internal fixation of osteoporotic proximal humeral fracture.@*METHODS@#The digital model of unstable proximal humeral fracture with metaphyseal bone defect was made, and the finite element models of proximal humeral fracture bone cement enhanced screw plate fixation and common screw plate fixation were established respectively. The stress of cancellous bone around the screw, the overall stiffness, the maximum stress of the plate and the maximum stress of the screw were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The maximum stresses of cancellous bone around 6 screws at the head of proximal humeral with bone cement enhanced screw plate fixation were 1.07 MPa for No.1 nail, 0.43 MPa for No.2 nail, 1.16 MPa for No.3 nail, 0.34 MPa for No.4 nail, 1.99 MPa for No.5 nail and 1.57 MPa for No.6 nail. These with common screw plate fixation were:2.68 MPa for No.1 nail, 0.67 MPa for No.2 nail, 4.37 MPa for No.3 nail, 0.75 MPa for No.4 nail, 3.30 MPa for No.5 nail and 2.47 MPa for No.6 nail. Overall stiffness of the two models is 448 N/mm for bone cement structure and 434 N/mm for common structure. The maximum stress of plate appears in the joint hole:701MPa for bone cement structure and 42 0MPa for common structure. The maximum stress of screws appeared at the tail end of No.4 nail:284 MPa for bone cement structure and 240.8 MPa for common structure.@*CONCLUSION@#Through finite element analysis, it is proved that the proximal humerus bone cement enhanced screw plate fixation of osteoporotic proximal humeral fracture can effectively reduce the stress of cancellous bone around the screw and enhance the initial stability after fracture operation, thus preventing from penetrating out and humeral head collapsing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Finite Element Analysis , Bone Cements , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Biomechanical Phenomena , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humeral Head , Bone Screws , Bone Plates
7.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 116-119, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical outcomes of allogeneic femoral head as strut allograft combined with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) in the treatment of proximal humeral Neer grade Ⅳ fracture with humeral head collapse.@*METHODS@#From January 2018 to November 2020, 18 patients with Neer grade Ⅳ fracture with humeral head collapse were treated with strut allograft with PHILOS, including 4 males and 14 females, aged from 55 to 78 years old, with an average of (68.11±7.20) years old. The operation time, intraoperative bleeding, postoperative drainage volume, fracture healing time, neck-shaft angle and the height of the humeral head, failure of internal fixation the shoulder function at the last follow-up was assessed using Neer's scoring system.@*RESULTS@#All 18 patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 10 to 12 months, with an average of (11.08±0.65) months. The operation time was (66.44±5.06) min, the intraoperative bleeding volume was (206.67±36.14) ml, the postoperative drainage volume was (76.11±9.63) ml, and the fracture healing time was (17.28±3.92) weeks. At the last follow-up, the degree of loss of neck-shaft angle was (5.44±0.86) ° and the loss of the height of humeral head was (1.43±0.27) mm. All 18 patients had healing without complications such as fracture, withdrawal, penetration of internal fixation and necrosis of humeral head. According to Neer's evaluation standard, the total score was (89.61±5.60), 10 cases got an excellent result, 6 good, 2 fair.@*CONCLUSION@#Allogeneic femoral head combined with PHILOS is an appropriate treatment for the four-part proximal humerus fractures with humeral head collapse, exhibiting good clinic outcome.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Humeral Head , Shoulder , Treatment Outcome , Bone Plates , Retrospective Studies , Humerus , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Humeral Fractures , Allografts
8.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 110-115, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty as a revision procedure for the failed fixation of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly patients.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 8 patients with failed internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures from May 2014 to March 2020, including 3 males and 5 females, aged from 65 to 75 years old. All 8 patients underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, and the mean time between initial fixation and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty ranged from 8 to 16 months. Range of motion(ROM), University of California at Los Angeles(UCLA) shoulder score, visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating anxiety scale(SAS), and Constant-Murley score of shoulder function were assessed pre-operatively and at the last follow-up. Complications relating to the surgery were recorded.@*RESULTS@#All 8 patients successfully followed up. The mean follow-up after reverse total shoulder arhroplasty ranged from 16 to 28 months. The range of motion (forward flexion, external rotation, abduction and internal rotation) of the affected shoulder was significantly improved after surgery, and the post-operative VAS, SAS and UCLA scores were also significantly improved. For the Constant-Murley score of shoulder joint function, the total scores and the subscores of pain, daily activities, range of motion and strength test at the last follow-up were all significantly improved. Scapular glenoid notch was observed in patient, which was evaluated as grade 1 on imaging. All the other patients did not develop specific or non-specific complications.@*CONCLUSION@#Reverse total shoulder arhroplasty is an appropriate treatment as a revision surgery for failed fixation of proximal humeral fractures. It has shown satisfactory clinical outcomes, accelerating the rehabilitation of shoulder function and improving the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Shoulder/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Quality of Life , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Humerus/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular
9.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 103-109, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical outcomes of anteromedial combined with lateral locking plate for complex proximal humeral fractures in the eldery.@*METHODS@#From June 2018 to October 2020, 30 patients who underwent surgical treatment for Neer grade 3 to 4 proximal humeral fractures, including 8 males and 22 females, aged from 51 to 78 years old with an average of (61.5±7.5) years old. Of them, 15 patients had fractures fixed with anteromedial combined with lateral locking plate(ALLP group), whereas 15 received internal fixation with proximal humerus locking plate only(PHLP group). The clinical data, simple shoulder test (SST), humeral head height loss, varus angle and shoulder range of motion were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#All fractures were healed. The follow-up time ranged from 12 to 24 months, with an average of(14.3±2.9) months. The operation time of ALLP group was longer than that of PHLP group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in intraoperative blood loss between the two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in SST score between the two groups at 1, 3 and 12 months after operation (P>0.05). In terms of radiographic measurement, there was no significant difference in humeral head height loss and varus angle between the two groups at 1 and 3 months after operation (P>0.05). At 12 months after operation, the height loss and varus angle of humeral head in ALLP group were lower than those in PHLP group (P<0.05). In shoulder range of motion, the range of forward elevation in ALLP group was larger than that in PHLP group 1 year after operation(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in external rotation between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Anteromedial combined with lateral locking plate in the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures in the elderly can increase the stability of the medial column and obtain a good fracture prognosis. But there are also disadvantages such as longer operation time, so it should be individualized according to the fracture type of the patient.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Shoulder , Humeral Head , Bone Plates , Humeral Fractures/surgery
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1444932

ABSTRACT

Las fracturas bifocales de húmero son lesiones infrecuentes, más aun las que ocurren asociadas con fracturas en el húmero proximal y diáfisis. Presentamos a cuatro pacientes con fracturas bifocales de húmero proximal y diafisario (Maresca A2), la planificación quirúrgica, los detalles técnicos y sus resultados funcionales. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Bifocal humeral fractures are infrequent injuries, and fractures involving the proximal and diaphyseal humerus are even rarer. We present four patients with bifocal humeral fractures of the Maresca type A2 classification. We detail the surgical plan, technical pearls, and functional outcomes. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Humeral Fractures/surgery
11.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 63(3): 205-214, dic.2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437139

ABSTRACT

Las fracturas de húmero proximal (FHP) son una de las fracturas más frecuentes en la población anciana. La reducción abierta y fijación interna (RAFI) generalmente está indicada para pacientes con una FHP desplazada en jóvenes o pacientes mayores con alta demanda funcional y buena calidad ósea. No se ha llegado a un consenso sobre la técnica de fijación ideal. La RAFI con placas ha sido la más utilizada, pero se han reportado altas tasas de reintervenciones y complicaciones globales en la literatura. La necesidad de agregar técnicas de aumentación a la RAFI con placas bloqueadas en fracturas complejas puede resultar en un tiempo quirúrgico más largo, abordajes extensos y mayores costos. Debido a esto, se hace necesario considerar otras opciones para la osteosíntesis de FHP. Con una mayor comprensión de los mecanismos de falla de la osteosíntesis, la fijación intramedular se ha convertido en una opción de tratamiento aceptada para las FHP con ventajas biomecánicas y biológicas. La fijación intramedular para las FHP ha demostrado menor tiempo quirúrgico, sangrado intraoperatorio, tiempo hasta la unión ósea y menores tasas de infecciones, que las placas bloqueadas. La fijación intramedular es una opción válida para que las fracturas complejas se resuelvan con un implante que por sí solo puede satisfacer en gran medida todas las necesidades de aumento requeridas por una placa bloqueada


Proximal humeral fractures are one of the most frequent fractures in the elderly population. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is generally indicated for young patients and older patients with high functional demands and good bone quality. No consensus has been reached regarding the ideal fixation technique. Although ORIF with plates is the most widely used technique, high re-intervention rates and global complications with locked plate fixation have been reported in the literature. Addition of augmentation techniques to locked plate fixation in complex fractures may result in longer surgical times, extensive approaches, and higher costs. Therefore, considering other options for ORIF is necessary. With a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fixation failure, intramedullary fixation has become the accepted treatment option for proximal humeral fractures considering the specific biomechanical and biological advantages. Compared with ORIF with locked plates, intramedullary fixation for proximal humeral fractures has low surgical time, intraoperative bleeding, time to bone union, and rate of infections. Intramedullary fixation is a valid option to resolve complex fractures with an implant that may largely supply all the augmentation requirements of a locked plate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Internal Fixators , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone Nails , Bone Plates
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 273-281, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387996

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To describe the functional result of the conservative treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures (PHF) using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score after 12 months and assess whether the different initial classifications and radiographic measurements are related to clinical results. Methods Forty patients > 60 years old, with displaced PHUs submitted to conservative treatment were evaluated at standardized times (3, 6, and 12 months). The American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Constant-Murley and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scales were used as clinical outcomes. Radiographic variables included the Neer and Resch classifications, the presence and displacement of tuberosity fracture, metaphyseal comminution, medial periosteal lesion, and angular and translational deviations of the head in the coronal and sagittal plane. Results The result of the ASES score was 77.7 23.2 for the whole sample, the mean absolute values of the Constant-Murley score were 68.7 16 and 82.6% for the scale relative to the contralateral side. The SANE scale at 12 months was 84.8 19. We observed that the severity of the Neer classification and the coronal plane angular deviation (measured by the head-shaft angle) and the presence of fractures in both tuberosities negatively influenced the ASES score after 12 months of treatment. Conclusion Nonoperative treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients results in good clinical results. Clinical results are negatively influenced by the angular deviation of the humeral head and the presence of fractures of the greater and lesser tubercles, as well as by the Neer classification.


Resumo Objetivos Descrever o resultado funcional do tratamento não operatório de fraturas desviadas da extremidade proximal do úmero (FEPU) pela escala da American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES, na sigla em inglês) após 12 meses e avaliar se as diferentes classificações e medidas radiográficas iniciais têm correlação com os resultados clínicos. Métodos Foram avaliados em tempos padronizados (3, 6 e 12 meses), 40 pacientes > 60 anos com FEPU submetidos ao tratamento não operatório. Foram utilizadas as escalas da ASES, Constant-Murley e Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE, na sigla em inglês). As variáveis radiográficas incluíram as classificações de Neer e Resch, a presença de fratura e desvio dos tubérculos, cominuição metafisária, lesão periosteal medial, desvios angulares e translacionais da cabeça no plano coronal e sagital e desvio dos tubérculos. Resultados Observamos resultados pela escala de ASES de 77,7 23,2 para toda a amostra, pelade Constant-Murley de 68,7 16e de 82,6% paraa escala em relação aolado contralateral.AescaladeSANEaos12mesesfoide84,8 19.Oscritériosradiográficosque apresentaram influência negativa no resultado clínico pela escala de ASES aos 12 meses foram a gravidade pela classificação de Neer e pelo desvio angular no plano coronal (mensurado pelo ângulo cabeça-diáfise) e a presença de fratura dos tubérculos. Conclusão O tratamento não operatório de fraturas desviadas da extremidade proximal do úmero em pacientes idosos resulta em bons resultados clínicos. Os resultados clínicos são influenciados negativamente pelo desvio angular da cabeça do úmero e pela presença de fratura dos tubérculos maior e menor, assim como pela classificação de Neer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shoulder Fractures/complications , Shoulder Fractures/therapy , Shoulder Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Conservative Treatment
13.
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 36(1): 16-19, 2022. ilus.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1378763

ABSTRACT

Shoulder fracture is one of the most frequently treated injuries in trauma centers, with an overall incidence that appears to have increased in recent years, ranging from 219 to 419 cases per 100 000 person-years. In clinical terms, shoulder girdle injury is difficult to diagnose due to the close relationship between the shoulder and the chest, and imaging identification of the different types of injuries can be challenging. In this context, X-rays are the most appropriate method and the cornerstone of the initial approach to shoulder trauma, and at least 3 views are recommended: true anteroposterior view (AP), axial or axillary projection or modified axial projection (Velpeau view), and lateral scapula shoulder or Y view. However, patient positioning is often problematic due to the additional pain associated with limb mobilization in order to achieve the proper position for radiographic projection. The following is the description of a technique for performing an axial shoulder projection that is free of these complications, easy to standardize, and applicable to any traumatic or degenerative disease of the proximal humerus or glenohumeral joint, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been previously published.


El trauma de hombro es una de las patologías más frecuentemente vista en los centros de trauma con una incidencia global que aparentemente ha aumentado en los últimos años y que se ha reportado entre 219 a 419 casos por 100000 personas-año. El diagnóstico del trauma de la cintura escapular no es fácil clínicamente por la íntima relación entre el hombro y el tórax, y la identificación imagenológica de las distintas lesiones puede ser desafiante. Las radiografías son el método más apropiado y piedra angular del estudio inicial en el trauma de hombro, el set de trauma tiene al menos 3 planos: la vista Anteroposterior (AP) verdadera, una proyección axial o axilar o su modificación descrita por Velpeau. Y una proyección Y de escápula. Sin embargo, el posicionamiento del paciente muchas veces no es fácil por el dolor adicional que puede generar la movilización de la extremidad para lograr la posición adecuada para la proyección radiográfica. Describimos una técnica para realizar una proyección axial de hombro sin estas dificultades, fácilmente estandarizable para cualquier patología traumática o degenerativa del húmero proximal o de la articulación gleno-humeral y que creemos no ha sido publicada previamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiography , Shoulder Dislocation , Shoulder Fractures , Diagnostic Imaging , Shoulder Injuries
14.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 300-304, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928312

ABSTRACT

The proximal medial column of the humerus is a continuous cortical region in the inner and lower part of the humerus head, which has attracted more and more attention in clinical and scientific research since it was proposed. It has been shown to increase the stability of internal fixation, maintain the height of the humeral head to prevent varus, and reduce the risk of screw penetration. Biomechanical studies have also shown that the medial column has an outstanding performance in increasing the stiffness, torsion resistance, and shear resistance of the locking plate. Although it has many benefits, there is no unified definition of its concept and specific region, and the existing classification does not include the medial column, therefore more researches are required to provide supporting information. The methods of medial column reconstruction mainly include locking plate combined with talus screw, locking plate combined with bone grafting, internal and external double plate combined support, locking plate combined with bone cement, and humeral cage. These methods have their own characteristics, however they will increase the cost of surgery and bring new complications. How to determine the best way of reconstruction is one of the focuses of future research. In this review, the concept of the proximal medial humerus column, the role of maintaining internal fixation, the role of biomechanics and the reconstruction methods are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Bone Plates , Bone Screws , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Humeral Head , Shoulder Fractures/surgery
15.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 186-193, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy of locking plate fixation with a fibular strut allograft (FA group) and locking plate fixation alone (LP group) in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures in adults by Meta-analysis.@*METHODS@#Databases including PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database(CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), WanFang Data, and China Science and Technology Journal Database (cpvip Database) were searched by computer from establishing to March 2020 to collect studies about locking plate fixation with fibular strut allograft versus locking plate fixation alone for proximal humeral fractures in adults. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. The postoperative humeral head height changes, neck-shaft angle changes, Constant-Murley score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons(ASES)score, visual analogue scale(VAS), varus malunion rate, and screw penetration rate were compared by RevMan 5.3 software for Meta-analysis.@*RESULTS@#Ten cohort studies were enrolled in a total of 749 patients, 300 patients in the FA group and 449 patients in the LP group. The results of Meta-analysis showed that locking plate with fibular strut allograft was superior to locking plate fixation alone in the changes in humeral head height [MD=-2.69, 95%CI(-3.24, -2.13), P<0.000 01], the changes in neck-shaft angle [MD=-5.65, 95%CI(-7.18, -4.12), P<0.000 01], Constant-Murley score [MD=9.00, 95%CI(4.26, 13.73), P=0.000 2], the ASES score [MD=5.56, 95%CI(4.29, 6.84), P=0.000 01], VAS score [MD=-0.23, 95%CI(-0.37, -0.09), P=0.001], the varus malunion rate [RR=0.22, 95%CI(0.09, 0.53), P=0.000 7] and the screw penetration rate [RR=0.26, 95%CI(0.13, 0.55), P=0.000 3], respectively.While there was no significant difference in the rate of osteonecrosis of the humeral head [RR=1.18, 95%CI(0.57, 2.45), P=0.65].@*CONCLUSION@#For proximal humeral fractures in adults, current evidence shows that locking plate fixation with fibular strut allograft is superior to single locking plate fixation in improving postoperative radiological outcomes and shoulder function, relieving postoperative pain, reducing varus malunion rate and screw penetration rate. However, the efficacy in decreasing the osteonecrosis rate is not clear. Due to limited quality and quantity of the included studies, more high-quality studies are required to verify the above conclusion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Allografts , Bone Plates , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Humeral Fractures , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
16.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1193-1196, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of lateral locking compression plate combined with medial buttress plate in treating osteoporotic comminuted fractures of proximal humerus.@*METHODS@#From May 2017 to December 2021, 12 patients with osteoporotic comminution of proximal humerus were treated by lateral locking compression plates combined with medial buttress plates, including 5 males and 7 females, aged from 55 to 78 years old, bone mineral density(BMD) less than -2.5 g/cm3, the time from injury to operation was from 2 to 6 days. According to Neer classification, 7 patients were type Ⅲ, 4 patients were type Ⅳ and 1 patient was type Ⅵ. Postoperative complications, fracture healing and internal fixation were observed and Constant-Murley score of shoulder joint was used to evaluate clinical effects at 6 months after operation.@*RESULTS@#Postoperative wound healed well at stage I. All patients were followed up from 6 to 18 months. Humeral head collapse and necrosis occurred in 1 patient and humeral head varus in 1 patient. No impact of shoulder joint, internal fixation loosening occurred. Constant-Murley score at 6 months ranged from 45 to 90 points, and 6 patients got excellent result, 3 good, and 3 poor.@*CONCLUSION@#Locking compression plate combined with medial buttress plate could effectively reconstruct medial humeral column support and enhance fracture stability, and receive satisfactory clinical results. However, no control group was established in this study, and function of shoulder joint has not been evaluated many times after operation, so it cannot dynamically reflect changes of shoulder joint function.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Plates/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Fractures, Comminuted/surgery , Humeral Fractures/complications , Humeral Head , Humerus , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Osteoporotic Fractures/surgery
17.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1142-1147, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of double plate technique in treating Neer 3 to 4 partial fractures of proximal humerus.@*METHODS@#From May 2018 to December 2020, 38 patients with proximal humeral classified to Neer 3 to 4 partial fractures were treated with double plate technique and long head tendon fixation of biceps brachii, including 23 males and 15 females, aged from 41 to 89 years old with an average of (67.00 ± 9.76) years old;23 patients classified to Neer 3 fracture, 15 classified to Neer 4 fracture;the time from injury to operation ranged from 5 to 12 days with an average of (8.00±2.86) days. Degree of pain was evaluated by numerical rating scale(NRS) on the third day after operation; change of height of humeral head and angle of humeral neck stem were measured and compared between 2 days and 1 year after operation. Neer score was used to evaluate recovery of shoulder joint after operation at 1 year after operation.@*RESULTS@#All 38 patients were followed up for 12 to 19 months with an average of (14.00±1.59) months. NRS score at 3 days after operation was (1.95±0.73) points. Fracture healing time ranged from 2.2 to 3.2 months with an average of(2.60±0.27) months. There were no significant difference in the height of humeral head and angle of humeral neck trunk between two days and 1 year after operation(P>0.05). Four Neer 4 fracture patients occurred absorption of greater tubercle of humerus and partial cystic change of humeral head, but the activity function of shoulder joint was good. Postoperative Neer score at 1 year was 89.50±5.19, and 20 patients got excellent results, 16 good, and 2 moderate.@*CONCLUSION@#Double plate technique and long head tendon fixation of biceps brachii were used to treat Neer 3 to 4 fractures of proximal humerus has good clinical effect, and postoperative pain was mild, without special instruments.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Plates , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Humeral Head , Humerus , Pain, Postoperative , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Tendons , Treatment Outcome , Humeral Fractures/surgery
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392481

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar los resultados clínicos y las complicaciones de una serie consecutiva de pacientes con fracturas de húmero proximal tratados con prótesis invertida de hombro y con consolidación anatómica de las tuberosidades o sin ella. Materiales y Métodos: Se evaluó a 113 pacientes >65 años con fractura de húmero proximal tratados con prótesis invertida de hombro. Setenta presentaron consolidación anatómica de las tuberosidades y 43, ausencia de consolidación. Se evaluó el rango de movilidad, y se utilizaron los puntajes de Constant-Murley, ASES, SANE y la escala analógica visual. Se documentaron todas las complicaciones y las reoperaciones. Resultados: El seguimiento promedio fue de 56 meses (rango 24-96) y la edad media era de 73 años (rango 65-83). La elevación activa y la rotación interna medias posoperatorias fueron de 131° (± 14) y 27° (± 5), respectivamente. La rotación externa posoperatoria media en abducción y aducción fue de 27° (± 1) y 15° (± 6), respectivamente. La escala analógica visual promedio posoperatoria fue de 1,7 (± 0,8). Los puntajes ASES, de Constant-Murley y SANE promedio fueron de 76 (± 6), 62 (± 11) y 74% (± 7), respectivamente. La elevación anterior, la rotación externa y los puntajes funcionales promedio finales ASES y de Constant-Murley fueron significativamente mejores en el grupo con consolidación de las tuberosidades. Conclusiones: En pacientes >65 años con fractura de húmero proximal tratados con prótesis invertida de hombro tanto la movilidad posoperatoria, como los puntajes funcionales fueron significativamente mejores en los pacientes con consolidación anatómica de las tuberosidades. Nivel de Evidencia: III


Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and complications of a consecutive series of patients with proximal humerus fractures (PHF) treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), with and without anatomical healing of the tuberosities. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 113 patients >65 years old with PHF treated with RSA. Seventy patients presented anatomical healing of the tuberosities and 43 presented absence of healing. Range of motion (ROM), Constant score, ASES score, visual analog scale (VAS) and the score of the numerical evaluation of single evaluation (SANE) were evaluated. Results: The mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 24-96 months) and the mean age was 73 years (range, 65-83 years). Mean postoperative active elevation and internal rotation were 131° (±14) and 27° (±5), respectively. The mean postoperative external rotation in abduction and adduction was 27° (±1) and 15° (±6) respectively. The mean postoperative VAS was 1.7 (±0.8). The mean ASES, Constant and SANE scores were 76 (±6), 62 (±11) and 74% (±7), respectively. Anterior elevation, external rotation, and final mean ASES and Constant functional scores were significantly better in the group with tuberosity healing than in the group without healing. Conclusions: In patients >65 years old with PHF treated with RSA, both postoperative ranges of motion and functional scores were significantly better in patients where anatomic tuberosity healing was achieved than in those where it was not achieved. Level of Evidence: III


Subject(s)
Aged , Shoulder Fractures , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular , Treatment Outcome , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder
19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367131

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las fracturas de húmero proximal son frecuentes, particularmente en la población mayor. Los resultados de la fijación con placa bloqueada siguen siendo impredecibles. El soporte de la columna medial jugaría un rol significativo. Nuestro pro-pósito fue evaluar los resultados de la osteosíntesis de húmero proximal con aloinjerto óseo estructural. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluaron los resultados clínico-radiológicos en 12 pacientes con fractura de húmero proximal tratados con placa bloqueada e injerto estructural endostal. Se definió como pérdida de reducción a un cambio del ángulo cervicodiafisario >5° o en la altura de la cabeza humeral >3 mm. La evaluación clínica incluyó rango de movilidad, puntaje de Constant-Murley, valor subjetivo del hombro, escala analógica visual para dolor y retorno a la actividad habitual. Resultados: Doce pacientes completaron el seguimiento (edad promedio 62.8 años). Diez mantuvieron la reducción. El puntaje promedio de Constant-Murley fue de 82,1; el del valor subjetivo del hombro, del 80%, y el de la escala analógica visual, de 1,9. La elevación anterior fue de 138,3°; la rotación externa, de 49,5°, y la rotación interna a nivel de la vértebra de L3. La diferencia de la altura de la cabeza humeral y el ángulo cervicodiafisario fue de 2,3 mm y 4,92°. No hubo complicaciones. Conclusiones: La osteosíntesis con placa bloqueada y aumento con injerto estructural endomedular es una técnica fiable para tratar fracturas de cuello quirúrgico del húmero. Proporciona soporte al cuello humeral y mantiene la reducción en la fractura de húmero proximal con rotura de la bisagra medial. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Introduction: Proximal humeral fractures (PHF) are common, particularly in the elderly. To date, locking plate fixation continues to provide unpredictable outcomes. Medial hinge support plays a significant role in stability until the bone heals. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of plate fixation with endosteal strut allograft augmentation in the treatment of PHF. Materials and methods: We evaluated clinical and radiological outcomes in the medium-term follow-up of 12 patients with PHF who were treated with plate fixation and strut allograft augmentation. The strut allograft was introduced into the humeral shaft to add support to the medial hinge. We compared the final follow-up radiographs to those taken immediately after surgery. We defined a loss of reduction if the change in Humeral Head Height or the Neck-Shaft Angle measured over 3 mm or 5°, respectively. The clinical evaluation included range of motion, Constant-Murley (CM) score, Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and return to daily activities. Results: Twelve patients completed follow-up. The patients' average age was 62.8. Ten patients healed without loss of reduction. Average CM and SSV scores were 82.1 and 80%, respectively, and average VAS was 1.9. Anterior elevation averaged 138.3°, external rotation 49.5°, and internal rotation at L3 level. The mean differences in HHH and NSA were 2.3 mm and 4.92°, respectively. We recorded no complications associated to the procedure. Conclusion: Locking plate fixation with endosteal strut allograft augmentation is a reliable technique for the treatment of PHF. It provides support to the humeral neck and maintains reduction in fractures with disruption of the medial hinge. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Adult , Middle Aged , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Bone Plates , Range of Motion, Articular , Allografts , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 181-183, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391952

ABSTRACT

Convulsive seizures caused by hyponatremia occur when this condition is severe and develops quickly, resulting in a brain's adaptive inability to contain brain swelling. Seizures are rarely the cause of shoulder fractures. This is a case report of bilateral humerus fracture following a single epileptic seizure caused by drug hyponatremia, an unconventional event in medical practice. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room after a single tonic-clonic seizure with spontaneously ceased sphincter relaxation, showing Glasgow 6. No falls or restraint were reported by observers. When alert, the patient reported pain and difficulty moving both arms. During examination, the movement was li- mited to the right and left. Anteroposterior radiographs revealed bilateral fracture at the neck of humerus. To complement inves- tigation for further lesions, a computed tomography confirmed bilateral fracture-dislocation with impaction of the humeral head with the glenoid. Atraumatic bilateral fracture-dislocation of the humerus after epileptic seizure is a very rare event. It is believed that some of these diagnoses have been neglected due to the difficulty of characterizing the patient's pain in a postictal state. The importance of a detailed physical examination shall be emphasized in risk groups such as the polymedicated elderly.


Convulsive seizures caused by hyponatremia occur when this condition is severe and develops quickly, resulting in a brain's adaptive inability to contain brain swelling. Seizures are rarely the cause of shoulder fractures. This is a case report of bilateral humerus fracture following a single epileptic seizure caused by drug hyponatremia, an unconventional event in medical practice. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room after a single tonic-clonic seizure with spontaneously ceased sphincter relaxation, showing Glasgow 6. No falls or restraint were reported by observers. When alert, the patient reported pain and difficulty moving both arms. During examination, the movement was li- mited to the right and left. Anteroposterior radiographs revealed bilateral fracture at the neck of humerus. To complement inves- tigation for further lesions, a computed tomography confirmed bilateral fracture-dislocation with impaction of the humeral head with the glenoid. Atraumatic bilateral fracture-dislocation of the humerus after epileptic seizure is a very rare event. It is believed that some of these diagnoses have been neglected due to the difficulty of characterizing the patient's pain in a postictal state. The importance of a detailed physical examination shall be emphasized in risk groups such as the polymedicated elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Seizures/complications , Shoulder Dislocation/etiology , Shoulder Fractures/etiology , Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic/complications , Shoulder Dislocation/surgery , Shoulder Dislocation/rehabilitation , Shoulder Dislocation/diagnostic imaging , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Shoulder Fractures/rehabilitation , Shoulder Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Physical Therapy Modalities , Amnesia, Anterograde/etiology , Hydrochlorothiazide/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/chemically induced , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects
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