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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18637, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364416

ABSTRACT

Abstract The therapeutic drugs to treat Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have toxic side effects and there has been an emergence of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new treatments for HSV infections is mounting. In the present study, semi-solid formulations containing a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from Schinus terebinthifolia were developed. Skin irritation, cutaneous permeation, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the formulations were investigated. Treatment with the ointment formulations did not result in any signs of skin irritation while the emulsions increased the thickness of the epidermis in Swiss mice. The cutaneous permeation test indicated that the CHE incorporated in the formulations permeated through the skin layers and was present in the epidermis and dermis even 3 h after topical application. In vivo antiviral activity in BALB/c mice treated with the CHE ointments was better than those treated with the CHE emulsions and did not significantly differ from an acyclovir-treated group. Taken together, this suggests that the incorporation of CHE in the ointment may be a potential candidate for the alternative topical treatment of herpetic lesions.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Simplexvirus/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Human/classification , Anacardiaceae/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Acyclovir/antagonists & inhibitors , Efficacy , Emulsions/adverse effects
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 163-168, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098075

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a cause of a severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The demonstration of specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may contribute to the retrospective neurological diagnosis. However, the commercial immunological tests for HSV infection are for use in serum samples. Objective: The aim of the present study was to adapt a commercial kit anti-HSV IgG used for serum samples to be performed with a CSF sample. Methods: Forty CSF specimens from 38 patients with suspected CNS HSV infection were serially diluted for detecting anti-HSV IgG by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The same samples were also analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The sensitivity of EIA test for HSV was 5% (dilution 1:40) and 65% (dilution 1:2) in CSF, and HSV DNA PCR was 15%. The combined analysis of EIA (dilution 1:2) and PCR increased the sensitivity up to 72.5%. The inflammatory CSF was associated with positive HSV PCR. Conclusions: We demonstrated the importance to adapt serological anti-HSV IgG EIA test for CSF assays to increase the accuracy of the analysis, considering the low concentration of specific antibodies in CSF.


Resumo O vírus herpes simples (HSV) é um dos agentes causadores de uma doença grave no sistema nervoso central (SNC) em humanos. A detecção de anticorpos específicos no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) pode contribuir para o diagnóstico neurológico retrospectivo. Entretanto, os testes imunológicos comerciais são para uso em amostras de soro. Objetivo: Adaptar um kit comercial sorológico anti-HSV IgG para ser utilizado no de LCR. Metodos: Quarenta amostras de LCR de 38 pacientes com suspeita de infecção por HSV no SNC foram diluídas pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HSV IgG pelo método imunoenzimático (EIA). Além disso, as mesmas amostras também foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Resultados: A sensibilidade do teste EIA para o HSV consistiu em 5% (diluição 1:40) e 65% (diluição 1:2) no LCR, e o PCR do DNA do HSV, 15%. A análise combinada de EIA (diluição 1:2) e PCR aumentou a sensibilidade para 72,5%. Houve associação entre presença do LCR inflamatório e PCR positiva para HSV. Conclusões: Demonstramos a importância na adaptação previa do teste sorológico anti-HSV IgG EIA para ensaios do no LCR, a fim de aumentar a acuracia da análise, considerando a baixa concentração de anticorpos específicos no LCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Simplexvirus/isolation & purification , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Viral Proteins , DNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , Simplexvirus/genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Exodeoxyribonucleases , Herpes Simplex/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System
3.
Clinics ; 75: e1498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Aqueous Humor/parasitology , Aqueous Humor/virology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Uveitis/microbiology , Uveitis/parasitology , Uveitis/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV-1 , Immunocompromised Host , Simplexvirus/genetics , Simplexvirus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunocompetence
4.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(3): 91-96, sept.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094630

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En los procesos neuroinflamatorios se produce a nivel de líquido cefalorraquídeo una activación policlonal y poliespecífica. Esta activación se produce desde los primeros días y puede permanecer por períodos prolongados. Luego por mecanismos de apoptosis los clones que no responden directamente contra los agentes biológicos involucrados no proliferan. El Reibergrama permite saber si las inmunoglobulinas presentes en el líquido cefalorraquídeo se sintetizaron o no en el sistema nervioso central (SNC) y el Índice de Anticuerpo (IA) determina la especificidad de las mismas en caso de que exista síntesis intratecal. Con estas herramientas nos propusimos identificar la respuesta neuroinmunológica frente a agentes de la familia herpesvirus en pacientes pediátricos con proceso inflamatorio del SNC a partir de sus respectivos IA. Para lograr esto se cuantificaron los niveles de IgG y albúmina en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) mediante inmunodifusión radial simple y por ensayo inmunoenzimático, con lo cual se construyó el Reibergrama que permitió la selección de 85 pacientes pediátricos con síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas, que se diferenciaron en cuatro grupos según sus edades. Mediante ensayo inmunoenzimático se cuantificaron los niveles de IgG específica contra citomegalovirus, virus varicela zoster y virus herpes simple, tanto en suero como en LCR y se determinó el IA específico. La respuesta contra los virus estudiados fue similar para los distintos grupos de edades, lo cual nos permite afirmar la exposición temprana a los mismos.


ABSTRACT In a neuroinflammatory process a polyclonal and poly-specific activation is produced in cerebrospinal fluid. This activation starts from the first days and may persist for a long time. The clones not related directly against the biological agent do not proliferate by apoptosis. Reibergram determine if part of the immunoglobulins content in cerebrospinal fluid belongs from the blood or it is synthesized in the central nervous system. Antibody index determines if the specific antibodies was synthesized intrathecally. By these tools it can be possible to identify the humoral immune response against some herpes virus in pediatric patients suffering from a central nervous system inflammatory process. Quantification of specific IgG against citomegalovirus, varicella zoster and herpes simplex virus in serum and cerebrospinal fluid was done by ELISA. Specific Antibody index against these viruses were similar for the different age groups, which confirm the early exposure of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Simplexvirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunodiffusion/methods
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750410

ABSTRACT

@#We report a case of congenital cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus infection suspected via ultrasound indicated by the presence of fetal cerebral abnormalities. The pregnancy was electively terminated at 31 weeks of gestation. The postmortem examination of the foetus showed brain with lissencephaly. The histopathological examination revealed numerous enlarged cells containing cytomegalic inclusions and multinucleated giant cells in multiple fetal organs and placenta. Documented evidence of histopathological detection of cytomegalovirus inclusions in multiple organs are very sparse in literature. This case highlights the causal relationship of viral infections in early pregnancy and abnormalities of the central nervous system.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus , Simplexvirus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare, but potentially life threatening neurological condition in children. This study aimed to investigate its clinical spectrum, diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, and prognosis. METHODS: Twelve children with ANE were included in the study. The diagnosis was made by clinical and radiological characteristics from January 1999 to December 2017 and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 12 children aged 6 to 93 months at onset (5 male: 7 female) were evaluated. The etiology was found in 4 of them (influenza A, H1N1; coxsackie A 16; herpes simplex virus; and RANBP2 gene/mycoplasma). The most common initial presentations were seizures (67%) and altered mental status (58%). The majority of the subjects showed elevation of aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase with normal ammonia and increased cerebrospinal fluid protein without pleocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased T2 signal density in bilateral thalami in all patients, but the majority of the subjects (67%) also had lesions in other areas including tegmentum and white matter. Despite the aggressive immunomodulatory treatments, the long-term outcome was variable. One child and two sisters with genetic predisposition passed away. CONCLUSION: ANE is a distinctive type of acute encephalopathy with diverse clinical spectrum. Even though the diagnostic criteria are available, they might not be watertight. In addition, treatment options are still limited. Further studies for better outcome are needed.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Aspartic Acid , Brain Diseases , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Diagnosis , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Leukocytosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Siblings , Simplexvirus , White Matter
9.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 63-66, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741662

ABSTRACT

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common pathogen, that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from minor skin infections to severe encephalitis and widespread infections. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), one of the most serious manifestations of HSV infection, is defined as a rapidly progressing necrotizing retinopathy that presents discrete areas of circumferential retinal necrosis, along with signs of uveitis, vitreitis, and retinal vasculitis. We encountered a case of a female infant, born at 33 weeks of gestation with a body weight at birth of 2,080 g, who had ARN and encephalomalacia due to HSV infection. ARN associated with HSV infection should be suspected when nonspecific retinal exudates are observed in neonates, especially preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Encephalitis , Encephalomalacia , Exudates and Transudates , Female , Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 2, Human , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Necrosis , Parturition , Pregnancy , Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute , Retinal Vasculitis , Retinaldehyde , Simplexvirus , Skin , Uveitis
10.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 606-611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785663

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a rare disease in Asian countries, but its incidence is growing rapidly in Western countries. The main pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis is esophageal epithelial barrier dysfunction; disruption of the esophageal epithelial barrier easily induces antigen sensitization to foods and aeroallergens, which leads to subsequent esophageal inflammation as a result of eosinophil recruitment. Here we report a case of an 11-year-old Korean boy who suffered from fever, odynophagia, dysphagia, and chest pain. His upper endoscopic findings showed longitudinal ulcers with a volcano-like appearance at the distal esophagus. Polymerase chain reaction test results and biopsy specimens were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1. He was treated with acyclovir and a proton pump inhibitor, but his follow-up endoscopy showed typical patterns of eosinophilic esophagitis, and the biopsy specimens were compatible with the diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis. Therefore, we report a very rare case of eosinophilic esophagitis after herpes esophagitis in a Korean child with normal immunity.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biopsy , Chest Pain , Child , Deglutition Disorders , Endoscopy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Eosinophils , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proton Pumps , Rare Diseases , Simplexvirus , Ulcer
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738992

ABSTRACT

Chest pain in kidney transplant patients is usually caused by cardiac or pulmonary problems. However, it may be rarely caused by opportunistic esophageal infections. A 66-year-old female kidney transplant recipient was admitted because of chest pain. She had been treated with high-dose steroid and immunosuppressants for acute T-cell-mediated rejection. Cardiologic and pulmonary evaluations had normal results. Endoscopic examination revealed three clear ulcerative lesions in the esophagus. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the endoscopic biopsy specimens revealed coinfection of herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus. The patient was treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 2 weeks. Her symptoms completely resolved, and follow-up endoscopy revealed complete healing of the previous ulcers. Viral esophagitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in kidney transplant recipients presenting with chest pain.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Chest Pain , Coinfection , Cytomegalovirus , Diagnosis, Differential , Endoscopy , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Ganciclovir , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Simplexvirus , Thorax , Transplant Recipients , Ulcer
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738617

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To discuss the clinical course and diagnosis of corneal dysplasia in a xeroderma pigmentosum patient based on a genetic evaluation. CASE SUMMARY: A 42-year-old female visited our clinic for decreased left visual acuity and corneal opacity. She had undergone several surgeries previously due to the presence of basosquamous carcinoma in the left lower eyelid, neurofibroma, and malignant melanoma of the facial skin. The patient showed repeated corneal surface problems, with a suspicious dendritic lesion; however, antiviral therapy was ineffective, and herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction results were negative. Despite regular follow-ups, the patient showed neovascularization around the corneal limbus and an irregular corneal surface. We performed corneal debridement with autologous serum eye drops for treatment. The patient's visual acuity and corneal surface improved after the procedure. The impression cytology result was corneal dysplasia. In whole exome sequencing, two pathogenic variants and one likely pathogenic variant of the POLH gene were detected. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first genetically identified xeroderma pigmentosum case with ophthalmological lesions of the eyelid and cornea in Korea. Debridement of the irregular corneal surface and autologous serum eye drop administration in xeroderma pigmentosum could be helpful for improving visual acuity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoma, Basosquamous , Cornea , Corneal Opacity , Debridement , Diagnosis , Exome , Eyelids , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ichthyosis , Korea , Limbus Corneae , Melanoma , Neurofibroma , Ophthalmic Solutions , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Simplexvirus , Skin , Visual Acuity , Xeroderma Pigmentosum
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786527

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus dysgalactiae has two main subspecies: S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD). SDSE often colonizes and causes infections in humans; however, SDSD is an animal pathogen which often causes pyogenic infection in domestic animals. We present a case of meningitis with SDSD and herpes simplex virus in a 22-day-old newborn baby who had no exposure to animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic , Bacteria , Colon , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meningitis , Simplexvirus , Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus
15.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 229-232, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786436

ABSTRACT

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a severe disease with a high mortality rate. Here, we report the patient presented with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to HSV infection followed by renal failure without any mucocutaneous symptoms. The patient recovered after treatment with acyclovir and peritoneal dialysis. This is the first known case of a patient in Korea who survived disseminated HSV infection with fulminant liver failure followed by renal failure without undergoing liver transplantation.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Hepatitis , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Liver Failure , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Mortality , Peritoneal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency , Simplexvirus
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kaposi varicelliform eruption (KVE) is a disseminated viral infection primarily caused by the herpes simplex virus in the setting of an underlying chronic skin disease. Few studies have reported the clinical characteristics and predisposing factors for recurrent KVE.OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical features and predisposing factors for recurrent KVE.METHODS: This retrospective comparative study of recurrent vs. single-episode KVE was performed at the Pusan National University Hospital between 2004 and 2017.RESULTS: A total of 84 episodes occurred in 60 patients, and of these, 13 patients developed recurrence (21.7%). No statistically significant intergroup difference was observed in the mean age and sex distribution. The face was the most common site of involvement in both groups, followed by the trunk and the upper and lower extremities. Atopic dermatitis was the most common pre-existing disease in both groups; however, Darier's disease was more common in the recurrent KVE group, and this difference was statistically significant. Most patients with KVE (66.7%) showed aggravation of the underlying skin disease within 3 months of KVE onset. This finding was more prominent in patients with recurrent episodes (91.7%) than in those with single-episode KVE (58.3%), (p=0.040).CONCLUSION: This study can contribute to a better understanding of recurrent KVE and guide clinicians in treating patients with conditions predisposing to KVE.


Subject(s)
Causality , Darier Disease , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption , Lower Extremity , Preexisting Condition Coverage , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Simplexvirus , Skin Diseases
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714755

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with atopic dermatitis patients complicated by eczema herpeticum. METHODS: This study included 45 patients under the age of 18 with atopic dermatitis complicated by eczema herpeticum in the disease group (ADEH+), and 50 patients under the age of 18 with atopic dermatitis without any episode of eczema herpeticum in the control group (ADEH−). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of the 2 groups. RESULTS: In this study, eczema herpeticum occurred in 2.7% of the AD patients. No significant difference in percentage of boys or mean age was found between the ADEH+ and ADEH− groups. In the ADEH+ group, eczema herpeticum occurred more frequently in the head and neck. Severe atopic dermatitis, recurrent impetigo, IgE−mediated atopic dermatitis and food allergy were identified as the risk factors of eczema herpeticum. The mean white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, percent of eosinophils and total serum IgE were higher in the ADEH+ group than in the ADEH− group. More than 2 recurrences were confirmed in 12 patients (26.7%). CONCLUSION: In the ADEH+ group, skin lesions were dominant on the head and neck. We revealed that severe atopic dermatitis, frequent impetigo, IgE-mediated atopic dermatitis, and food allergy are risk factors for eczema herpeticum.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eczema , Eosinophils , Food Hypersensitivity , Head , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Impetigo , Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption , Leukocyte Count , Neck , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Simplexvirus , Skin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine screening for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (TORCH) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates has become a common practice. However, the incidence of TORCH varies across countries, and the cost of TORCH testing may be disadvantageous compared to disease-specific screening. To evaluate the efficacy of TORCH screening, the medical charts of IUGR or SGA neonates born in a single institution in Bucheon, Korea from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. METHODS: The clinical data of the 126 IUGR or SGA neonates were gathered, including gestational age, Apgar scores, neonatal sonographic findings, chromosome study, morbidities, developmental follow-up, and growth catch-up. Maternal factors including underlying maternal disease and fetal sonography were collected, and placental findings were recorded when available. TORCH screening was done using serum IgM, CMV urine culture, quantification of CMV DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction, and rapid plasma reagin qualitative test for syphilis. Tests were repeated only for those with positive results. RESULTS: Of the 119 TORCH screenings, only one was positive for toxoplasmosis IgM. This result was deemed false positive due to negative IgM on repeated testing and the absence of clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: Considering the incidence and risk of TORCH in Korea, the financial burden of TORCH screening, and the single positive TORCH finding in our study, we suggest disease-specific screening based on maternal history and the clinical symptoms of the neonate. Regarding CMV, which may present asymptomatically, universal screening may be appropriate upon cost-benefit analysis.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cytomegalovirus , DNA , Fetal Growth Retardation , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Herpes Simplex , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Mass Screening , Plasma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rubella , Simplexvirus , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis , Ultrasonography
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