Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 377
Filter
1.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223706

ABSTRACT

A single dose of simvastatin and of artesunate monotherapy cause damage to the reproductive system of schistosomes as well as severe tegumental damage in male worms recovered from mice fed high-fat chow. This study aims to investigate whether treatment with multipledose regimes may offer more antischistosomal activity advantages than single daily dosing in mice fed high-fat chow. For this purpose, nine weeks post-infection, Swiss Webster mice were gavaged with simvastatin (200 mg/kg) or artesunate (300 mg/kg) for five consecutive days and euthanized two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were analyzed using brightfield microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, presenting damages caused by simvastatin and artesunate to the reproductive system of males and females as well as tegument alterations, including peeling, sloughing areas, loss of tubercles, tegumental bubbles and tegument rupture exposing subtegumental tissue. The overall findings in this study revealed the potential antischistosomal activity of simvastatin and artesunate against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, in addition to showing that multiple doses of either monotherapy caused severe damage to the tegument.


Una sola dosis de simvastatina y de artesunato en monoterapia causa daño al sistema reproductivo de los esquistosomas, así como daño tegumental severo en gusanos machos recuperados de ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar si el tratamiento con regímenes de dosis múltiples puede ofrecer más ventajas de actividad antiesquistosomal que la dosis única diaria en ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Para este propósito, nueve semanas después de la infección, los ratones Swiss Webster se alimentaron por sonda con simvastatina (200 mg / kg) o artesunato (300 mg / kg) durante cinco días consecutivos y se sacrificaron dos semanas después del tratamiento. Los gusanos adultos se analizaron utilizando campo claro microscopía, microscopía confocal y microscopía electrónica de barrido, presentando daños causados ​​por simvastatina y artesunato en el sistema reproductivo de machos y hembras, así como alteraciones del tegumento, incluyendo descamación, desprendimiento, pérdida de tubérculos, burbujas tegumentales y rotura del tegumento exponiendo tejido subtegumental. Los hallazgos generales de este estudio revelaron la posible actividad antiesquistosomal de la simvastatina y el artesunato contra los gusanos adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, además de mostrar que dosis múltiples de cualquiera de las dos monoterapia causaron daños graves al tegumento.


Uma única dose de sinvastatina e de monoterapia com artesunato causa danos ao sistema reprodutivo dos esquistossomos, bem como danos graves ao tegumento em vermes machos recuperados de camundongos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se o tratamento com regimes de múltiplas doses pode oferecer mais vantagens da atividade anti-esquistossomótica do que uma única dose diária em ratos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Para tanto, nove semanas após a infecção, camundongos Swiss Webster foram inoculados com sinvastatina (200 mg / kg) ou artesunato (300 mg / kg) por cinco dias consecutivos e sacrificados duas semanas após o tratamento. Vermes adultos foram analisados ​​usando campo claro microscopia, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, apresentando danos causados ​​pela sinvastatina e artesunato ao sistema reprodutivo de homens e mulheres, bem como alterações do tegumento, incluindo descamação, áreas de descamação, perda de tubérculos, bolhas tegumentais e ruptura do tegumento com exposição de tecido subtegumentar. Os achados gerais deste estudo revelaram a potencial atividade anti-esquistossomótica da sinvastatina e do artesunato contra vermes adultos do Schistosoma mansoni, além de mostrar que doses múltiplas de ambas as monoterapias causaram danos graves ao tegumento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Schistosoma mansoni , Simvastatin , Hyperlipidemias , Mice , Microscopy
2.
Medwave ; 20(10): e8053, 30-11-2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145818

ABSTRACT

La alopecia areata es un tipo común de alopecia no cicatricial. Aunque la patogénesis exacta permanece sin dilucidar, se piensa que la alopecia areata tiene una etiología multifactorial en donde se interrelacionan predisposición genética y factores ambientales. En pacientes susceptibles, se han documentado que el estrés, infecciones y microtraumas disminuyen las citoquinas inmunosupresoras que normalmente mantienen el privilegio inmune del folículo piloso. Actualmente no hay terapia curativa para la alopecia areata, aunque ciertos tratamientos pueden inducir el crecimiento del cabello en un porcentaje de pacientes. Se postula que la simvastatina restablece el privilegio inmune y ezetimibe aportaría un efecto inmunomodulador y antiinflamatorio. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años con alopecia areata, exitosamente tratada con simvastatina y ezetimibe.


Alopecia areata is a common type of non-scarring alo¬pecia. Although the exact pathogenesis remains elusive, alopecia areata is thought to have a multifactorial etiology described as an interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures. In patients with genetic susceptibility, stress, infection, and microtrauma have been documented to decrease immunosuppressive cytokines that generally maintain the hair follicle's immune privilege. There is currently no curative therapy for alopecia areata, although some treatments can induce hair growth in a percentage of patients. It has been postulated that simvastatin reestablishes the immune privilege, and ezetimibe would provide an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect. We report a case of a 23 years-old woman with alopecia areata successfully treated with simvastatin/ezetimibe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Alopecia Areata/genetics , Alopecia Areata/drug therapy , Ezetimibe/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(4): 385-391, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132314

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study evaluated the odontogenic potential of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) exposed to chitosan scaffolds containing calcium aluminate (CHAlCa) associated or not with low doses of simvastatin (SV). Chitosan scaffolds received a suspension of calcium aluminate (AlCa) and were then immersed into solutions containing SV. The following groups were established: chitosan-calcium-aluminate scaffolds (CHAlCa - Control), chitosan calcium-aluminate with 0.5 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV0.5), and chitosan calcium-aluminate with 1.0 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV1.0). The morphology and composition of the scaffolds were evaluated by SEM and EDS, respectively. After 14 days of HDPCs culture on scaffolds, cell viability, adhesion and spread, mineralized matrix deposition as well as gene expression of odontogenic markers were assessed. Calcium aluminate particles were incorporated into the chitosan matrix, which exhibited regular pores homogeneously distributed throughout its structure. The selected SV dosages were biocompatible with HDPCs. Chitosan-calcium-aluminate scaffolds with 1 µM SV induced the odontoblastic phenotype in the HDPCs, which showed enhanced mineralized matrix deposition and up-regulated ALP, Col1A1, and DMP-1 expression. Therefore, one can conclude that the incorporation of calcium aluminate and simvastatin in chitosan scaffolds had a synergistic effect on HDPCs, favoring odontogenic cell differentiation and mineralized matrix deposition.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou o potencial odontogênico de células da polpa dental humana (HDPCs) em contato com scaffolds de quitosana contendo aluminato de cálcio (CHAlCa) associado ou não à baixas dosagens de sinvastatina (SV). Scaffolds de quitosana receberam uma suspensão de aluminato de cálcio e foram imersos em soluções contendo a droga. Foram estabelecidos três grupos experimentais: scaffolds de quitosana e aluminato de cálcio (CHAlCa - controle), scaffolds de quitosana-aluminato de cálcio com 0.5 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV0.5), e quitosana-aluminato de cálcio com 1.0 µM SV (CHAlCa-SV1.0). A morfologia e composição foram avaliados por MEV e EDS, respectivamente. Após 14 dias do cultivo das HDPCs sobre os scaffolds, foram avaliados a viabilidade celular, adesão e espalhamento, deposição de matriz mineralizada e expressão gênica de marcadores odontogênicos. Observou-se que as partículas de aluminato de cálcio foram incorporadas à matriz de quitosana, a qual exibiu poros regulares distribuídos por toda sua estrutura. As dosagens selecionadas de sinvastatina foram biocompatíveis com as HDPCs. A concentração de 1 µM de SV induziu intensa expressão de fenótipo odontoblástico pelas HDPCs, demonstrando aumento da deposição de matriz mineralizada e maior expressão de ALP, Col1A1 e DMP-1. Portanto, podemos concluir que a incorporação de aluminato de cálcio e sinvastatina em scaffolds de quitosana apresentou um efeito sinérgico nas HDPCs, favorecendo a diferenciação celular e deposição de matriz mineralizada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chitosan , Calcium , Porosity , Calcium Compounds , Aluminum Compounds , Simvastatin
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(2): 93-102, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132284

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several studies have aimed to develop alternative therapeutic biomaterials for bone repair. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate how statins carried by calcium phosphate affect the formation and regeneration of bone tissue in animal models when compared to other biomaterials or spontaneous healing. This systematic review followed the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, the PRISMA guidelines, and the Preclinical Systematic Review & Meta-analysis Facility (SyRF). The protocol of this systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018091112) and in CAMARADES. In addition, ARRIVE checklists were followed in order to increase the quality and transparency of the search. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, and PROSPERO library databases. The authors used a specific search strategy for each database, and they also conducted a search in the grey literature and cross-references. The eligibility criteria were animal studies, which evaluated bone repair treated with calcium phosphate as a simvastatin carrier. The selection process yielded 8 studies from the 657 retrieved. All manuscripts concluded that locally applied simvastatin carried by calcium phosphate is biocompatible, enhanced bone repair and induced statistically greater bone formation than cloth or calcium phosphate alone. In conclusion, the pertinent pre-clinical studies evidenced the calcium phosphate biocompatibility and its effectiveness in delivering SIM to improve the repair of bone defects. So, clinical trials are encouraged to investigate the impact of SIM associated with calcium phosphate bone graft in repairing bone defect in humans.


Resumo Muitos estudos objetivaram desenvolver biomateriais terapêuticos alternativos para o reparo ósseo. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi avaliar o efeito da estatina carreada por fosfato de cálcio na formação e regeneração de tecido ósseo em modelos animais quando comparado com outros biomateriais ou coágulo. Esta revisão sistemática seguiu as recomendações do Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, PRISMA guidelines, e o Preclinical Systematic Review & Meta-analysis Facility (SyRF). O protocolo desta revisão sistemática foi registrado no PROSPERO (CRD42018091112) e no CAMARADES. Além disso, o guia ARRIVE foi utilizado com o objetivo de aumentar a qualidade e transparência do estudo. Uma pesquisa eletrônica foi realizada através do MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, e biblioteca do PROSPERO. Os autores utilizaram uma estratégia de busca específica para cada base de dados, e uma busca foi conduzida na literatura cinza e nas referências dos artigos selecionados. Os critérios de elegibilidade foram estudos em animais, os quais avaliaram o repara do ósseo tratado com fosfato de cálcio como carreador de estatina. O processo de seleção obteve 8 estudos dos 657 encontrados. Todos os estudos concluíram que a aplicação local da sinvastatina carreada pelo fosfato de cálcio é biocompatível, melhora o reparo ósseo e induz uma formação óssea significantemente maior que coágulo ou fosfato de cálcio sozinho. Em conclusão, os estudos pré-clínicos pertinentes evidenciaram a biocompatibilidade do fosfato de cálcio e sua eficácia na entrega do SIM para melhorar o reparo de defeitos ósseos. Assim, estudos clínicos são encorajados a investigar o impacto do SIM associado ao enxerto ósseo de fosfato de cálcio na reparação de defeito ósseo em humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Calcium Phosphates , Simvastatin , Osteogenesis , Bone Regeneration , Bone Transplantation
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 40-46, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs and may also have direct antimicrobial effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate synergic interactions between simvastatin and both amphotericin B and fluconazole, against environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds' droppings. DESIGNAND SETTING: Experimental study conducted at Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, in collaboration with Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Statin susceptibility tests of Cryptococcus neoformans samples were performed as prescribed in standards. Interactions of simvastatin with amphotericin and fluconazole were evaluated using the checkerboard microdilution method. Presence of these interactions was quantitatively detected through determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). RESULTS: Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were obtained from 30 of the 206 samples of dry bird excreta (14.5%) that were collected from pet shops and houses. Ten isolates were selected for susceptibility tests. All of them were susceptible to amphotericin and fluconazole. All presented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 128 µg/ml and, thus, were resistant in vitro to simvastatin. An in vitro synergic effect was shown through combined testing of amphotericin B and simvastatin, such that six isolates (60%) presented FICI < 0.500. Two isolates showed considerable reductions in MIC, from 1 µg/ml to 0.250 µg/ml. No synergic effect was observed through combining fluconazole and simvastatin. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that simvastatin should be considered to be a therapeutic alternative, capable of potentiating the action of amphotericin B. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the real effect of simvastatin as an antifungal agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Prospective Studies , Drug Synergism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 110-117, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987748

ABSTRACT

Background: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant involved in important interactions with foods and other drugs. Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of adverse events reported by warfarin users and their relationship with drug interactions. Methods: This was an open cohort, prospective study conducted in an 18-month period with warfarin users attending public health clinics of the city of Ijuí, Brazil. Data were collected by means of interviews administered at patients' home every month. Patients' responses were confirmed by review of medical records when patients sought medical care. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Potential drug interactions were evaluated in a database and vitamin K consumption was quantified using a validated method. Results: A total of 68 patients were followed-up; 63 completed the study and 5 died in the study period. Mean number of medications taken by the patients was 9.6 ± 4.5, and mean number of interactions involving warfarin was 2.91 ± 1.52. Most potential interactions increased the risk of bleeding, 61 of them severe interactions and 116 moderate interactions. Eighty-seven episodes of bleeding and 4 episodes of thrombosis were reported by a total of 37 and 4 patients, respectively. At the occurrence of these events, 56.5% of warfarin users were also taking omeprazole, 35.9% were taking simvastatin and 25.0% paracetamol. Most patients had a low vitamin K intake. Conclusions: A high frequency of potential interactions between warfarin and other drugs was detected, but a low intake of foods that could possibly affect the effects of warfarin was observed. Based on our results, it seems prudent to follow patients on warfarin therapy for drug-drug interactions, aiming to control adverse effects and to promote a safe and effective therapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Warfarin/adverse effects , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Drug Interactions , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Vitamin K , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Statistics as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Monitoring , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Drug Incompatibility , Pharmacovigilance , Acetaminophen
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 3-8, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985011

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Diabetes is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality. Over the last years, mortality has decreased significantly, more in individuals with diabetes than in healthy ones. That is mostly due to the control of other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of our study was to analyze the dyslipidemia control in two diabetes cohorts. METHODS Patients from two distinct cohorts were studied, 173 patients from the BHS (Brasília Heart Study) and 222 patients from the BDS (Brazilian Diabetes Study). The data on dyslipidemia control were studied in both different populations. All patients had diabetes. RESULTS There are significant differences concerning comorbidities between the LDL-C and BDS groups. The average glycated hemoglobin is of 8.2 in the LDL-C > 100 group in comparison with 7.7 and 7.5 in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.024). There is a higher percentage of hypertensive patients with LDL between 70-100 (63.9%), when comparing the < 70 and > 100 groups (54.3% and 54.9%, respectively; p = 0.005). Diastolic pressure is higher in the group with LDL > 100, with an average of 87 mmHg, in comparison with 82.6 mmHg and 81.9 mmHg in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.019). The group with LDL > 100 has the greatest percentage of smokers (8.7%) in comparison with the groups with LDL between 70-100 and < 70 (5.6% and 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.015). There is also a difference in the previous incidence of coronaropathy. In the group with LDL < 70, 28.3% of patients had already experienced a previous infarction, compared with 11.1% and 10.6% in the 70-100 and > 100 groups, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The data in our study have shown that the dyslipidemia control in diabetic patients is inadequate and there is a tendency of direct association between lack of blood glucose control and lack of dyslipidemia control, in addition to the association with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as diastolic hypertension and smoking. This worsened control might be related to the plateau in the descending curve of mortality, and investments in this regard can improve the cardiovascular health in diabetic patients.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O diabetes é importante causa de mortalidade cardiovascular. Nos últimos anos, a mortalidade diminuiu substancialmente, mais em diabéticos do que em não diabéticos, em grande parte devido ao controle de outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares. Nosso estudo tem como objetivo analisar o controle de dislipidemia em duas coortes de diabéticos. MÉTODOS Foram estudados pacientes de duas coortes distintas, sendo 173 pacientes do BHS (Brasília Heart Study) e 222 pacientes do BDS (Brazilian Diabetes Study). Os dados sobre controle de dislipidemia foram estudados nas duas populações diferentes. Todos os pacientes eram diabéticos. RESULTADOS Há diferenças significativas em relação às comorbidades entre os grupos de LDL-C no BDS. A média de hemoglobina glicada é de 8,2 no grupo com LDL-C > 100, comparado com 7,7 e 7,5 nos grupos 70-100 e < 70, respectivamente (p = 0,024). Há maior porcentagem de pacientes hipertensos com LDL entre 70-100 (63,9%), quando comparado aos grupos < 70 e > 100 (54,3% e 54,9%, respectivamente; p = 0,005). A pressão diastólica é mais elevada no grupo com LDL > 100, com média de 87 mmHg, comparado com 82,6 mmHg e 81,9 mmHg nos grupos 70-100 e < 70, respectivamente (p = 0,019). O grupo com LDL > 100 tem maior porcentagem de tabagistas (8,7%) quando comparado aos grupos com LDL entre 70-100 e < 70 (5,6% e 4,3%, respectivamente; p = 0,015). Há, também, diferença na incidência prévia de coronariopatia. No grupo com LDL < 70, 28,3% dos pacientes já apresentaram infarto prévio, comparados com 11,1% e 10,6% nos grupos 70-100 e > 100, respectivamente (p < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO Os dados do nosso estudo mostram que o controle de dislipidemia em diabéticos é inadequado, e há uma tendência de associação direta entre descontrole glicêmico e descontrole de dislipidemia, além de associação com outros fatores de risco cardiovascular, como hipertensão diastólica e tabagismo. Esse pior controle pode estar relacionado ao platô no descenso da curva de mortalidade, e o investimento nesse quesito pode melhorar a saúde cardiovascular dos diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Simvastatin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Pressure , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Middle Aged
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which simvastatin (SIM) regulates osteoclast apoptosis.@*METHODS@#Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were divided into 5 groups, namely group A (control group), group B (sRANKL+ M-CSF), group C (SIM+sRANKL+M-CSF), group D (VIVIT peptide+sRANKL+ M-CSF), and group E (SIM+VIVIT peptide+sRANKL+M-CSF). WST-1 assay was used to assess the effects of simvastatin on the proliferation activity of the osteoclasts, and flow cytometry was performed to analyze the effects of SIM and VIVIVIT peptide (a NFATc1 pathway inhibitor) on apoptosis of the osteoclasts. The translocation of NFATc1 into the nucleus was investigated using immunofluorescence assay, and Western blotting was employed to assess the effect of SIM on the phosphorylation of NFATc1 in the nucleus.@*RESULTS@#WST-1 assay showed that SIM (1×10 mol/L) treatment for 24 and 48 h significantly inhibited the proliferation of the osteoclasts (=0.039 and 0.022, respectively). Compared with the control group, the SIM-treated osteoclasts exhibited significantly reduced cell percentage in G0/G1 phase (=0.041) and increased cells in sub-G1 phase (=0.028) with obvious cell apoptosis. DAPI staining and flow cytometry showed that both SIM and VIVIVIT peptide alone significantly promoted osteoclast apoptosis (=0.002 and 0.015, respectively), and their combination produced a similar pro-apoptosis effect (=0.08). Immunofluorescence and Western blotting showed that SIM significantly inhibited the intranuclear translocation of NFATc1 and the phosphorylation of NFATc1 pathway protein (=0.013).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SIM promotes osteoclast apoptosis through NFATc1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation , Mice , NFATC Transcription Factors , Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Simvastatin
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776036

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on diabetic neuropathic pain and systematic inflammation in diabetic rats and explore their molecular mechanisms.Methods Totally 24 rats were equally randomized into the normal+vehicle(NV)group,diabetic+vehicle(DV)group,and diabetic+simvastatin(DS)group using the random number table.Streptozotocin(STZ)was used to establish the rat models of diabetes.Blood glucose,body mass,paw withdrawal mechanical threshold(PWMT),and paw withdrawal thermal latency(PWTL)in each group were observed on days 7,14,21,and 28 after STZ injection.On day 28 after STZ injection,rats were sacrificed,and the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and serum were collected.Western blotting was used to detect the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products(RAGE)and the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B(AKT),extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK),p38,and c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK)in the spinal dorsal horn of rats in each group.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine the serum concentrations of oxidized low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL)and interleukin-1β(IL-1β).Results On days 14,21 and 28 after STZ injection,the PWMT in DV group were(8.6 ± 0.8),(7.1 ± 1.6),and(7.8 ± 0.8)g respectively,which were significantly lower than (12.0 ± 0.9)(=8.482, =0.000),(11.6 ± 1.5)(=11.309, =0.000),and(11.7 ± 1.5)g(=9.801, =0.000)in NV group.The PWMT in DS group on days 21 and 28 were(9.4 ± 1.4)(=5.780, =0.000)and(9.7 ± 0.9)g(=4.775, =0.003),respectively,which were significantly improved comparing with those of DV group.On days 7,14,21,and 28,there were no significant differences in PWTL among these three groups (all <0.05).The expression of RAGE in the spinal dorsal horn of DV group was significantly higher than those of NV group(=6.299, =0.000)and DS group(=2.891, =0.025).The phosphorylation level of AKT in the spinal dorsal horn of DV group was significantly higher than those of NV group(=8.915,=0.000)and DS group(=4.103,=0.003).The phosphorylation levels of ERK( =8.313,=0.000),p38( =2.965, =0.022),and JNK(=7.459, =0.000)in the spinal dorsal horn of DV group were significantly higher than those of NV group;the phosphorylation level of JNK in the spinal dorsal horn of DS group was significant lower than that of DV group(=3.866, =0.004);however,there were no significant differences in the phosphorylation levels of ERK(=1.987,=0.122)and p38(=1.260,=0.375)in the spinal dorsal horn between DS group and DV group.The serum concentrations of ox-LDL and IL-1β in DV group were(41.86 ± 13.40)ng/ml and(108.16 ± 25.88)pg/ml,respectively,which were significantly higher than those in NV group [(24.66 ± 7.87)ng/ml(=3.606,=0.003)and(49.32 ± 28.35)pg/ml(=5.079,=0.000)] and DS group [(18.81 ± 5.62)ng/ml (=4.833, =0.000)and(32.73 ± 11.73)pg/ml(=6.510, =0.000)].Conclusions Simvastatin can relieve the mechanical allodynia of diabetic rats possibly by inhibiting the activation of RAGE/AKT and the phosphorylation of JNK in the spinal dorsal horn.Simvastatin can also decrease the serum concentrations of ox-LDL and IL-1β in diabetic rats,which may contribute to the relief of systematic inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hyperalgesia , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Interleukin-1beta , Blood , Lipoproteins, LDL , Blood , Neuralgia , Drug Therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Metabolism , Simvastatin , Pharmacology
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1128-1134, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763167

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Simvastatin has demonstrated anti-tumor activity in preclinical studies via tumor cell senescence, apoptosis, and anti-angiogenesis. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity profile of conventional XELOX and bevacizumab chemotherapy plus simvastatin in metastatic colorectal cancer patients (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with MCRC received first-line XELOX in 3-week treatment cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m² plus bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg (day 1), followed by oral capecitabine 1,000 mg/m² twice daily (day 1-14). Simvastatin 80 mg tablets were taken orally once daily every day during the period of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, duration of response, overall survival (OS), time to progression, and toxicity. RESULTS: From January 2014 to April 2015, 60 patients were enrolled and 55 patients were evaluable for tumor response. The median follow-up duration was 30.1 months (range, 28.5 to 31.7 months). The median PFS was 10.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6 to 11.1). The median OS of all patients was 19.0 months (95% CI, 11.9 to 26.0). The disease-control rate and overall response rate were 88.3% (95% CI, 74 to 96) and 58.3% (95% CI, 44 to 77), respectively, by intent-to-treat protocol analysis. There was one complete response and 34 partial responses. One patient experienced grade 3 creatine kinase elevation and liver enzyme elevation. CONCLUSION: Based on the current study, the addition of 80 mg simvastatin to XELOX and bevacizumab showed comparable clinical efficacy in patients with MCRC as first-line chemotherapy and did not increase toxicity.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Arm , Bevacizumab , Capecitabine , Cellular Senescence , Colorectal Neoplasms , Creatine Kinase , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Simvastatin , Tablets , Treatment Outcome
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900408, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001086

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histologically and immunohistochemically the bone regeneration after application of simvastatin on tibial bone defects in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as control (6 mm tibial bone defect), defect + graft (allograft treatment), and defect + graft + simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Results: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation in control group (defect group), congestion in blood vessels, and an increase in osteoclast cells. In defect + graft group, osteoclastic activity was observed and osteocyte cells were continued to develop. In defect + graft + simvastatin group, osteocytes and matrix formation were increased in the new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin and osteonectin expression were positive in the osteclast cells in the control group. Osteoblasts and some osteocytes showed a positive reaction of osteopontin and osteopontin. In defect + graft + simvastatin group, osteonectin and osteopontin expression were positive in osteoblast and osteocyte cells, and a positive expression in osteon formation was also seen in new bone trabeculae. Conclusion: The simvastatin application was thought to increase bone turnover by increasing the osteoinductive effect with graft and significantly affect the formation of new bone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tibia/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Tibia/surgery , Tibia/pathology , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Autografts
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the feasibility and efficacy of simvastatin-collagen composite sponge as a novel, direct pulp capping material.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the simvastatin-collagen composite sponge group (SIM group), the collagen sponge group (CS group), and the Ca(OH)2 group (CH group). An endodontic entry cavity was prepared on the occlusion of the first molar on the left maxillary of each rat. The contralateral teeth were utilized as the normal control group. The rats were experimented after 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. X-ray observations were conducted and the specimens underwent hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's Thichrome staining. Dentin bridge formations and pulpal biology reactions were evaluated histopathologically.@*RESULTS@#X-ray results: high-density images could be observed on the pulp exposure sites in the CH group on the 28th day. In the SIM group, high-density images could be observed after 14 and 28 days, whereas in the CS group, high-density images were not observable in the exposed area. HE and Masson's Thichrome staining results: different degrees of inflammation under the cavity were detected in the three groups at different time points. The inflammatory reaction of the CS group was the most serious. The degree of the inflammatory reaction varied significantly between the SIM and the CS groups on the 14th and 28th days (P<0.01). The inflammatory reaction in the SIM group was lighter than in the CH group. There was a statistical difference between the SIM and the CH groups on the 14th day (P<0.05). During the observation period, the SIM group induced the best and fastest formation of reparative dentin. As for dentin bridge formation, a significantly higher complete bridge rate was observed in the SIM group than in the CH and in the CS groups on the 14th day (P<0.05) and for the SIM and the CH groups compared with the CS group on the 28th day (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The simvastatin-collagen composite sponge exhibited satisfactory biocompatibility with the pulp tissue and promoted the formation of reparative dentin. The application of simvastatin-collagen composite sponge as a pulp-capping material has satisfactory potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Hydroxide , Collagen , Dental Pulp , Dental Pulp Capping , Dental Pulp Exposure , Dentin, Secondary , Molar , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin
13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(3): 287-292, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959136

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of simvastatin on mechanical properties of muscle and bone in hypercholesterolemic rats submitted to physical exercise. Methods: Ten male Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat diet rich in cholesterol for 90 days. The animals were then divided into two groups: animals treated with physical exercise (EG) and animals treated with physical exercise and simvastatin (ESG). Protocols for physical exercise in water and simvastatin administration were performed for eight weeks. After this period, the animals were euthanized; the left tibia and right gastrocnemius muscle were dissected for mechanical analysis, and the right tibia for densitometry. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test, considering a level of significance of 5%. Results: The comparison of maximum load and stiffness revealed no significant differences between the groups for both the tibia (p = 0.851 and p = 0.259) and the gastrocnemius (p = 0.911 and p = 0.083). The tibia BMD also showed no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.803). Conclusion: Simvastatin had no negative effects on mechanical properties in tibia and gastrocnemius of hypercholesterolemic rats submitted to physical exercise.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da sinvastatina nas propriedades mecânicas de ossos e músculos de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos submetidos a exercício físico. Métodos: Foram usados dez ratos machos da raça Wistar, submetidos a dieta hiperlipídica rica em colesterol por 90 dias. Os animais foram então distribuídos em dois grupos: submetidos a tratamento com exercício físico (GE) e submetidos a tratamento com exercício físico e sinvastatina (GE+S). Foi aplicado um protocolo de exercício físico na água e administração de sinvastatina por oito semanas. Após esse período, os animais foram eutanasiados e dissecados a tíbia esquerda e o músculo gastrocnêmio direito de cada animal para análise mecânica e a tíbia direita para densitometria. Para análise dos dados foi aplicado o teste t de Student, considerou-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: A comparação da força máxima e rigidez não revelou diferença significativa entre os grupos tanto para a tíbia (p = 0,851 e p = 0,259) quanto para o músculo gastrocnêmio (p = 0,911 e p = 0,083). A DMO das tíbias também não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos (p = 0,803). Conclusão: A sinvastatina não teve efeitos deletérios nas propriedades mecânicas da tíbia e do músculo gastrocnêmio de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos submetidos a exercício físico aeróbio.


Subject(s)
Rats , Tibia , Exercise , Muscle, Skeletal , Simvastatin , Hypercholesterolemia
14.
Actual. osteol ; 14(1): 31-35, Ene - Abr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116836

ABSTRACT

Statins are a widely prescribed class of medications that inhibit similar pathways as the anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs. Statins target the mevalonate pathway by blocking HMG-CoA reductase. Several recent meta-analyses concluded statins are osteoprotective in the general population. Here we present current literature exploring the mechanisms underlying the putative osteoprotective effects of statins. We also review recent clinical studies, ranging from observational cohort studies to randomized clinical trials, testing the effect of statins on bone health in various populations. (AU)


Las estatinas son un grupo de drogas prescriptas en forma habitual, con la capacidad de bloquear vías de señalización similares a las inhibidas por los amino-bisfosfonatos. Las estatinas inhiben la vía del mevalonato, a través del bloqueo de diferentes enzimas. Varios metaanálisis recientes llevaron a la conclusión de que las estatinas tienen capacidad osteoprotectora en la población general. En esta revisión presentamos la literatura actual describiendo los mecanismos que subyacen en el potencial efecto osteoprotector de las estatinas, como así también estudios observacionales y clínicos aleatorizados sobre el efecto de estatinas en la salud ósea en diversas poblaciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mice , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Density/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Postmenopause/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Mevalonic Acid/pharmacology
15.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 422-426 469, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of simvastatin on myocardial injury induced by diabetes.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four SD rats (180~220)g were randomly divided into control group (control, =8) and modeled groups(=16), the modeled groups were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Then the modeled rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus group (DM group, =8) and diabetes mellitus + simvastatin group (DM+S group, =8). Rats in DM+S group were treated with simvastatin at the dose of 40 mg/(kg·d)by gavage for 4 weeks, and the other two groups were treated with the same amount of saline. At the end of experiments, the heart tissues were collected for further observation. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in heart tissues were measured by spectrophotometry; HE staining of rat heart slides was used to observe the pathological changes; TUNEL assay was used to determine the apoptosis index of myocardial cells in each groups; The distribution of p53 in the heart tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry; Western blot was used to detect the expressions of p53, p53-phospho-serine 15, Bax and Bcl-2 in the heart tissues.@*RESULTS@#①Compared with control group, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was increased while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was decreased significantly in DM group (<0.01). After simvastatin administration, the activity of SOD was increased and the content of MDA was decreased significantly (<0.01). ② HE staining results showed that the myocardial cells in the DM group were disorganized, with unclear morphological structure and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration. Compared with DM group, the myocardial morphology in DM+S group was improved significantly. ③TUNEL staining results showed that the apoptosis index of myocardial cells in DM group was increased significantly compared with that of control group, and the apoptosis index was decreased significantly after the treatment of simvastatin (<0.01).④ Immunohistochemistry showed that compared with control group,the expression of p53 in DM group was increased significantly, and was expressed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, while the expression of p53 in DM+S group was decreased and the expression of p53 in nucleus was decreased significantly (<0.01). ⑤ The results of Western blot showed that the expression levels of p53, p53-phospho-serine15 and Bax were higher than those in control group, and the expression of Bcl-2 was lower than that in control group (<0.01). After simvastatin administration, the expression levels of p53,p53-phospho-serine 15 (<0.01) and Bax were decreased significantly (<0.05) and the expression of Bcl-2 was increased (<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Simvastatin exerted protective effects on myocardial injury caused by diabetes through improving the abnormal morphological changes of diabetic myocardium, alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting apoptosis of myocardial cells. The mechanism is related to the regulation of apoptosis pathway mediated by p53.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Myocardium , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the protective effect of simvastatin on renal injury in diabetic rats and to explore the possible molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC) group (=8) and modeling group (=16).The rats in modeling group were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a dose of 55 mg/kg to establishing diabetic rat model. After diabetic ratmodel established successfully, the diabetic rats were randomly subdivided into diabetes mellitus (DM) group and diabetes mellitus + simvastatin (DM+Sim) group (=8).Rats in DM+Sim group were given simvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/kg by oral gavages, once a day for 4 weeks. Morphological changes and interstitial fibrosis of kidney were observed by histopathological method. The expressions of relative protein in endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammatory molecules in renal tissues and cells apoptosis were detected by molecular biology method.@*RESULTS@#① Compared with NC group, the pathological changes of glomerulus and tubulointerstitium were obvious, and the collagen fibers were obviously erythrophilous and unevenly distributed in DM group. Compared with DM group, the morphological changes and fibrosis were significantly improved in DM+Sim group. ② The expressions of GRP78, p-IRE1α, NF-κB p65 and MCP-1 in DM group were significantly higher than those in NC group (<0.05), while the expressions of GRP78, p-IRE1α, NF-κB p65 and MCP-1in DM + Sim group were decreased (<0.05). ③ There were a small number of apoptotic nuclei in the glomeruli and adjunctive renal tubules in NC group detected by TUNEL assay, while there were a large number of apoptotic nuclei in DM group (<0.01). The number of apoptotic nuclei was decreased significantly in DM+Sim group (<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Morphologicalchanges and fibrosis of renal tissue are improved obviously, and the number of apoptotic cells is decreased significantly after administration of simvastatin in diabetic rats. Simvastatin exertsthe protective effect on diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway, and reducing renal cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies , Kidney , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin , Pharmacology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773598

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). New therapeutic strategies which have the potential for slowing down the evolution of NAFLD and reducing CVD-related mortality are urgently needed. Statins are well recognized in the treatment of dyslipidemia, but their use in the treatment of NAFLD is limited due to the safety concerns. Ilexgenin A (IA) is one of the main bioactive compounds in 'Shan-lv-cha', an herbal tea commonly used in China. In the present study, we investigated the possible synergistic therapeutic effects of IA and simvastatin (SV) on NAFLD. IA or SV showed beneficial effects on the rats with NAFLD by lowering the liver weight, liver index and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, regulating abnormal metabolism of lipids and ameliorating steatosis in liver. IA significantly enhanced the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation effects of SV. Furthermore, a sensitive, accurate, convenient and reproducible LC-MS method was developed to investigate the effects of IA on the pharmacokinetics of SV. No significant changes were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of SV and simvastatin hydroxy acid in the IA plus SV co-treated group in comparison with those in the group treated with SV alone. The mRNA levels and activity of CYP3A1 were not altered by IA. In conclusion, the results obtained from the present study should be helpful for further clinical application of SV and IA alone or in combination.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lipids , Blood , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Molecular Structure , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Blood , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin , Pharmacokinetics , Therapeutic Uses , Transcription, Genetic , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812387

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). New therapeutic strategies which have the potential for slowing down the evolution of NAFLD and reducing CVD-related mortality are urgently needed. Statins are well recognized in the treatment of dyslipidemia, but their use in the treatment of NAFLD is limited due to the safety concerns. Ilexgenin A (IA) is one of the main bioactive compounds in 'Shan-lv-cha', an herbal tea commonly used in China. In the present study, we investigated the possible synergistic therapeutic effects of IA and simvastatin (SV) on NAFLD. IA or SV showed beneficial effects on the rats with NAFLD by lowering the liver weight, liver index and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, regulating abnormal metabolism of lipids and ameliorating steatosis in liver. IA significantly enhanced the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation effects of SV. Furthermore, a sensitive, accurate, convenient and reproducible LC-MS method was developed to investigate the effects of IA on the pharmacokinetics of SV. No significant changes were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of SV and simvastatin hydroxy acid in the IA plus SV co-treated group in comparison with those in the group treated with SV alone. The mRNA levels and activity of CYP3A1 were not altered by IA. In conclusion, the results obtained from the present study should be helpful for further clinical application of SV and IA alone or in combination.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lipids , Blood , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Molecular Structure , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Blood , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin , Pharmacokinetics , Therapeutic Uses , Transcription, Genetic , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 950-955, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687003

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced oxidative stress and endothelial apoptosis are essential for atherosclerosis. Our previous study has shown that ox-LDL-induced apoptosis is mediated by the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α-subunit (eIF2α)/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in endothelial cells. Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that exert pleiotropic effects including suppression of oxidative stress. This study aimed to explore the roles of simvastatin on ox-LDL-induced ER stress and apoptosis in endothelial cells.</p><p><b>Methods</b>Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with simvastatin (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 μmol/L) or DEVD-CHO (selective inhibitor of caspase-3, 100 μmol/L) for 1 h before the addition of ox-LDL (100 μg/ml) and then incubated for 24 h, and untreated cells were used as a control group. Apoptosis, expression of PERK, phosphorylation of eIF2α, CHOP mRNA level, and caspase-3 activity were measured. Comparisons among multiple groups were performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons using Tukey's tests. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p><p><b>Results</b>Exposure of HUVECs to ox-LDL resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis (31.9% vs. 4.9%, P < 0.05). Simvastatin (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 μmol/L) led to a suppression of ox-LDL-induced apoptosis (28.0%, 24.7%, and 13.8%, F = 15.039, all P < 0.05, compared with control group). Ox-LDL significantly increased the expression of PERK (499.5%, P < 0.05) and phosphorylation of eIF2α (451.6%, P < 0.05), if both of which in the control groups were considered as 100%. Simvastatin treatment (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 μmol/L) blunted ox-LDL-induced expression of PERK (407.8%, 339.1%, and 187.5%, F = 10.121, all P < 0.05, compared with control group) and phosphorylation of eIF2α (407.8%, 339.1%, 187.5%, F = 11.430, all P < 0.05, compared with control group). In contrast, DEVD-CHO treatment had no significant effect on ox-LDL-induced expression of PERK (486.4%) and phosphorylation of eIF2α (418.8%). Exposure of HUVECs to ox-LDL also markedly induced caspase-3 activity together with increased CHOP mRNA level; these effects were inhibited by simvastatin treatment.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>This study suggested that simvastatin could inhibit ox-LDL-induced ER stress and apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cells, Cultured , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL , Pharmacology , Oligopeptides , Pharmacology , Simvastatin , Pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Simvastatin has been reported to attenuate the development of pulmonary hypertension through increased apoptosis as well as reduced proliferation of smooth muscle cells in obstructive vascular lesions. Microarray experiment can accomplish many genetic tests in parallel. The purpose of this study is to evaluate altered expressions of gene in rat hearts with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension after simvastatin treatment. METHODS: Six-week-old male rats were grouped as follows: control group (C group, saline injection), M group (MCT 60 mg/kg), and S group (MCT 60 mg/kg plus 10 mg/kg/day simvastatin by gavage during 28 days). Body weight, right ventricular pressure and right ventricular/left ventricle+septum ratio in each group were measured. The rats were sacrificed after 28 days. Total RNA was extracted from the rat heart tissue and microarray analysis was performed. RESULTS: Administration of simvastatin significantly inhibited the progression of right ventricular hypertrophy at day 28 in the S group than in the M group. Compared with the C group, MCT was associated with a significant difference in expression of genes related to biosynthesis and with the regulation of heart contraction rate. Simvastatin treatment resulted in a significantly changed expression of genes about the regulation of progression through cell cycle and system development compared to the M group. The expressions of nitric oxide synthase and brain natriuretic peptide were significantly decreased after simvastatin treatment. CONCLUSION: Administration of simvastatin exerted inhibitory effects on right ventricular hypertrophy during the development of MCT-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats. Simvastatin changes the expression of genes associated with various functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Body Weight , Cell Cycle , Gene Expression , Heart , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular , Male , Microarray Analysis , Monocrotaline , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Rats , RNA , Simvastatin , Ventricular Pressure
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL