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Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 7, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152749


Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of a new formulation of a fixed dose combination of glucosamine sulfate (GS; 1500 mg) and bovine chondroitin sulfate (CS; 1200 mg) versus the reference product (RP) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, single-blind trial, 627 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)—Kellgren-Lawrence grades 2 or 3 and mean score ≥ 40 mm in the WOMAC pain subscale—were randomized to receive GS/ CS or the RP for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the absolute change in WOMAC pain subscale score. The secondary endpoints included the following: WOMAC total and subscale scores, overall assessment of the disease by the patient and the investigator, SF-12 score, OMERACT-OARSI response rate to the treatment, and rescue medication use. Results: Mean reductions of WOMAC pain score were - 35.1 (sd = 23.2) mm in the GS/CS group and - 36.5 (sd = 24.9) mm in the RP group. The difference between the adjusted means of both treatments confirmed the noninferiority of GS/CS versus the RP. Improvement was observed in pain, stiffness, physical function and total WOMAC score, as well as in overall OA assessment by the patient and the investigator for both groups. No improvement was observed in SF-12. The rate of OMERACT-OARSI responders was 89.4% in GS/CS group and 87.9% in the RP group. Headache and changes in glucose tolerance were the most frequent treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions: The new formulation of a fixed-dose combination of glucosamine sulfate and bovine chondroitin sulfate was non-inferior to the RP in symptomatic treatment of knee OA, with a high responder rate and good tolerability profile. Trial registration:; Registration number NCT02830919; Date of registration: July 13, 2016; First randomization date: December 05, 2016).(AU)

Humans , Chondroitin/therapeutic use , Osteoarthritis, Knee/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Glucosamine/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(1): e2119248, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154063


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to compare three teaching methods' time and personnel requirements, and their effects on plaque and gingival indices. Methods: This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial on fixed orthodontic appliance candidates (n = 90), assigned into a control group (n = 30) and two different study groups (n = 30 each). The control group received standard printed educational material and was assisted with verbal information. The study groups either received video-assisted or hands-on training about fixed orthodontic appliance and oral hygiene. The time requirements for all three educational interventions was recorded during the initial visit. The adequacy of oral hygiene was documented through plaque and gingival indices during the initial visit and eighth week of the treatment. The continuous variables were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA. Tukey HSD and Student t-tests were used for post-hoc comparisons (α?#8197;= 0.05). Also, a chi-square test was used for the analysis of categorical variables. Results: Standard education failed to maintain the plaque and gingival indices at the eighth week of the treatment. Although both video-assisted and hands-on training took a considerable amount of time, they served well in preserving both of the indices at the eighth week. The longer the educational intervention was, the better the preservation of the plaque and gingival indices. Conclusion: Educational intervention, either with video-assisted or hands-on programs, provided better results in oral hygiene depending on the time and personnel constraints of the orthodontist.

RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a duração e os pré-requisitos de equipe de três métodos de orientação ao paciente, e seus efeitos sobre os índices de placa e de sangramento gengival. Métodos: Esse foi um estudo controlado aleatório cego em candidatos (n=90) a tratamento ortodôntico fixo, que foram divididos em um grupo controle (n=30) e dois grupos de estudo (n= 30 cada). O grupo controle recebeu material educacional impresso e foi orientado com informações verbais. Os grupos de estudo receberam treinamento em formato de vídeo ou treinamento hands-on sobre o tratamento com Ortodontia fixa e higiene bucal. O tempo necessário para cada um dos três tipos de treinamento foi registrado durante a visita inicial. A qualidade da higiene bucal foi avaliada por meio dos índices de placa e de sangramento gengival durante a visita inicial e na oitava semana de tratamento. As variáveis contínuas foram analisadas utilizando-se one-way ANOVA. Os testes HSD de Tukey e t de Student foram utilizados para comparações post-hoc (α?#8197;= 0,05), e o teste qui-quadrado foi utilizado para análise das variáveis categóricas. Resultados: O método de ensino convencional fracassou em manter os índices de placa e de sangramento gengival até a oitava semana de tratamento. Apesar de tanto o método de treinamento com vídeos e de treinamento hands-on demandarem um tempo considerável, eles conseguiram manter ambos os índices até a oitava semana. Quanto mais longa a orientação realizada, melhor foi a manutenção dos índices de placa e de sangramento gengival. Conclusão: Tanto o método de treinamento com vídeo quanto no formato hands-on obtiveram melhores resultados de higiene bucal, mas dependem do tempo e das limitações de equipe de cada ortodontista.

Humans , Oral Hygiene , Dental Plaque , Orthodontic Appliances , Single-Blind Method , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Dental Plaque/prevention & control
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 38-43, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089367


Abstract Introduction Adenoidectomy can be performed with many ways, including curettage and microdebrider endoscopic-assisted adenoidectomy. Those two techniques have advantages and disadvantages. Objective The objective of this study is to research the effects of curettage adenoidectomy and endoscopic-assisted microdebrider adenoidectomy on the tympanum pressures in pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy without otitis media with effusion. Methods This prospective descriptive study was performed with 65 patients who had a normal tympanic membrane and normal tympanogram and then underwent adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy for adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: curettage adenoidectomy group and endoscopic microdebrider-assisted adenoidectomy group. They underwent tympanometry, and the preoperative as well as 1st and 7th day postoperative values of the tympanum pressures were compared within and among the groups. Results There were 32 patients in the curettage adenoidectomy group and 33 patients in the microdebrider adenoidectomy group. Statistically significant differences were observed in the median tympanum pressure on the preoperative and 1st and 7th postoperative days for both the left and right ears with curettage adenoidectomy (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). This difference occurred on the 1st postoperative day, and the value returned to normal on the 7th day. There was no significant difference in the median tympanum pressure on the preoperative and 1st and 7th postoperative days for both the left and right ears in the microdebrider adenoidectomy group (p = 0.376, p = 0.128). Conclusion Postoperative Eustachian tube dysfunction is seen less often with the endoscopic-assisted microdebrider adenoidectomy technique than with the conventional adenoidectomy technique.

Resumo Introdução A adenoidectomia pode ser realizada de várias maneiras, inclusive por curetagem e por microdebridador, assistida por endoscopia. Essas duas técnicas têm algumas vantagens e desvantagens. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da técnica de adenoidectomia por curetagem e da adenoidectomia por microdebridador assistida por endoscopia sobre a pressão timpânica em pacientes pediátricos com hipertrofia adenoideana sem otite média com efusão. Método Estudo descritivo prospectivo feito com 65 pacientes que apresentavam membrana timpânica e timpanograma normais, que foram então submetidos à adenoidectomia ou adenotonsilectomia por hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana. Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo adenoidectomia por curetagem e grupo adenoidectomia por microdebridador assistida por endoscópio. Todos os pacientes fizeram timpanometria e os valores das pressões do tímpano pré-operatórios e pós-operatórios no 1º e 7º dias foram comparados intragrupos e entre os grupos. Resultados Foram incluídos 32 pacientes no grupo adenoidectomia por curetagem e 33 pacientes no grupo adenoidectomia com microdebridador. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram observadas na mediana da diferença entre a pressão timpânica no pré-operatório e no 1º e 7º dias de pós-operatório para ambas as orelhas, direita e esquerda, na adenoidectomia por curetagem (p < 0,001, p < 0,001). Essa diferença ocorreu no 1º dia do pós-operatório e o valor retornou ao normal no 7º dia. Não houve diferença significante na mediana entre pressão timpânica no pré-operatório e no 1º e 7º dias de pós-operatório para as orelhas direita e esquerda no grupo de adenoidectomia com microdebridador (p = 0,376, p = 0,128). Conclusão A disfunção tubária no pós-operatório é observada menos frequentemente com a técnica de adenoidectomia por microdebridador assistida por endoscopia quando comparada com a técnica convencional.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adenoidectomy/methods , Curettage/methods , Eustachian Tube/physiopathology , Postoperative Period , Pressure , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Single-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Video-Assisted Surgery/methods , Debridement/methods , Ear, Middle/physiopathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828725


OBJECTIVE@#To compare intranasal midazolam and intramuscular phenobarbital sodium for their sedative effect in neonates undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).@*METHODS@#A total of 70 neonates who underwent cranial MRI from September 2017 to March 2019 were randomized into an observation group and a control group, with 35 cases in each group. The observation group received intranasal drops of midazolam (0.3 mg/kg), and the control group received intramuscular injection of phenobarbital sodium (10 mg/kg). The sedation status of the neonates was evaluated using the Ramsay Sedation Scale. Meanwhile, the two groups were compared for the success rate of MRI procedure and incidence of adverse reactions.@*RESULTS@#In the observation group, the sedation score was the highest at 20 minutes post administration, then was gradually decreasing, and decreased to the lowest level at 70 minutes post administration. In the control group, the sedation score was the lowest at 10 minutes post administration, then was gradually increasing, and increased to the highest level at 40 minutes and 50 minutes post administration, followed by a gradual decrease. Comparison of the sedation score at each time period suggested that the sedation score was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group within 40 minutes post administration (P0.05). The success rate of MRI procedure was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (89% vs 69%, P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intranasal midazolam is superior to intramuscular phenobarbital sodium in the sedative effect in neonates undergoing MRI, with the benefits of being fast, convenient, safe, and effective.

Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Pharmacology , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Midazolam , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5268, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133735


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of an interdisciplinary intervention with a motivational approach on exercise capacity and usual physical activity levels in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods This is a randomized, controlled clinical trial with single blinding of subjects. Adolescents aged 15 to 18 years with overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥ 85 percentile) were included. The adolescents were randomized into two groups: interdisciplinary intervention or control − traditional approach aiming at lifestyle modifications. The initial evaluations were carried out, including the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the physical activity level measurement by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a pedometer. The evaluations were performed in two moments: time zero (time of inclusion in the study) and after 3 months (end of intervention). There were 12 sessions with weekly meetings. Results A total of 37 participants were included, 19 in the Intervention Group. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic, anthropometric and physical activity characteristics between groups, with mean age of 17.3±1.0 years in the Control Group, and 16.8±0.9 years in the Intervention Group (p=0.14). The motivational intervention did not cause significant differences (p>0.05) in the comparison of the variables of exercise capacity and usual physical activity (questionnaire and pedometer) between groups. Conclusion The intervention with a motivational approach did not alter exercise capacity and levels of usual physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02455973 and REBEC: RBR-234nb5.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito de uma intervenção interdisciplinar com abordagem motivacional na capacidade de exercício e no nível de atividade física habitual em adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade. Métodos Trata-se de ensaio clínico controlado, randomizado, com cegamento único dos indivíduos. Foram incluídos adolescentes com idade entre 15 e 18 anos, com sobrepeso e obesidade (índice de massa corporal ≥ percentil 85). Os adolescentes foram randomizados em dois grupos: intervenção interdisciplinar motivacional ou controle − abordagem tradicional, visando à modificação do estilo de vida. Foram realizadas as avaliações iniciais incluindo o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar e a aferição do nível de atividade física por meio do International Physical Activity Questionnaire e do pedômetro. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois momentos, no tempo zero (inclusão no estudo) e após 3 meses (término da intervenção). Foram realizadas 12 sessões com encontros semanais. Resultados Foram incluídos 37 participantes, sendo 19 no Grupo Intervenção. Não houve diferenças significativas nos dados basais de características demográficas, antropométricas e de atividade física entre os grupos, e a média de idade foi de 17,3±1,0 anos no Grupo Controle e 16,8±0,9 anos no Intervenção (p=0,14). A intervenção motivacional não provocou diferenças significativas (p>0,05) na comparação das variáveis de capacidade de exercício e atividade física habitual (questionário e pedômetro) entre os grupos. Conclusão A intervenção com abordagem motivacional não alterou a capacidade de exercício e os níveis de atividade física habitual em adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02455973 and REBEC: RBR-234nb5.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise/psychology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Overweight/psychology , Motivational Interviewing/methods , Motivation/physiology , Body Mass Index , Single-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Exercise Test/psychology , Life Style , Obesity/psychology , Obesity/therapy
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20190016, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124012


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da auriculoterapia nos níveis de ansiedade em gestantes atendidas em pré-natal de baixo risco. Métodos Trata-se de estudo clínico randomizado, simples-cego, realizado em um ambulatório de pré-natal de baixo risco em uma maternidade filantrópica, no Espírito Santo, Brasil, com amostra de 50 gestantes (25 em grupo controle e 25 em grupo experimental). Utilizou-se como intervenção a auriculoterapia da Medicina Tradicional Chinesa, que é uma das práticas utilizadas como acupuntura de microssistema. Para o tratamento com auriculoterapia, utilizou-se pontos do pavilhão auricular sendo respectivamente: Triângulo Cibernético (Shen Men, Rim e Simpático), que são caracterizados como pontos de abertura, usados para ativar os pontos a serem estimulados: Tronco Cerebral, Baço, Ansiedade. O conjunto desses pontos tem a função de acalmar a mente e o espírito, reduzir a ansiedade, bem como produzir analgesia e sedação. O tipo de semente utilizada na auriculoterapia foi mostarda amarela-colza. A intervenção proposta foi realizada pelo pesquisador, enfermeiro obstetra, especialista em acupuntura. Gestantes de ambos grupos, controle e intervenção, participaram de quatro consultas de enfermagem em pré-natal, porém somente o grupo intervenção foi submetido a três sessões de auriculoterapia nessas consultas, com intervalo de três dias entre cada sessão, totalizando 13 dias de acompanhamento. A resposta esperada foi a presença de sensibilidade nos locais dos pontos a serem aplicados; e a estimulação das sementes de colza, adesivadas com fita cirúrgica microporosa e hipoalergênica, foram realizadas pela manipulação manual da gestante. Levantamento através de instrumentos como formulários contendo as variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas, e o Inventário de Traço e Estado de Ansiedade (IDATE) aplicado por enfermeira especialista em acupuntura, não tendo participação na intervenção de Enfermagem-auriculoterapia, para se evitar o viés do estudo. Realizou-se a análise descritiva dos dados, através de tabelas de frequência com número e percentual para cada um dos itens dos instrumentos de pesquisa e utilizou-se gráfico box-plot para ilustração e melhor visualização dos resultados. O ANOVA foi utilizado para comparação dos diferentes momentos, e o t Student para comparação entre os grupos caso e controle. O grau de significância adotado foi de 5%. O pacote estatístico SPSS 20 foi utilizado para análise. Resultados No primeiro momento ambos os grupos apresentaram Traço de Ansiedade e Estado de Ansiedade em nível médio, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos, o que evidenciou homogeneidade da amostra (p=0,385 e p=0,352, respectivamente); após a intervenção com auriculoterapia houve uma redução significante do Estado de Ansiedade do grupo intervenção (p=0,033) entre a terceira e quarta consulta, o mesmo não ocorreu no grupo controle (0,052). Conclusão A auriculoterapia pode ajudar a diminuir a ansiedade em gestantes durante o pré-natal de baixo risco, sendo uma prática integrativa e complementar em potencial no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde, tendo o enfermeiro acupunturista relevante importância nesse processo.

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Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of auriculotherapy on anxiety levels of pregnant women receiving low-risk prenatal care. Methods This was a randomized, single-blind clinical study conducted at a low-risk prenatal clinic in a philanthropic maternity hospital in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, with a sample of 50 pregnant women (25 in control group; 25 in experimental group). The intervention used was Auriculotherapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is one of the practices used as microsystem acupuncture. For auriculotherapy treatment, three ear points were used together, namely the Shen Men, Kidney and Sympathetic (in Portuguese they are called triângulo cibernético or "cyber triangle"). These are opening points used for activation of the following points to be stimulated: Brainstem, Spleen, Anxiety. All these points have the function of calming the mind and spirit, reducing anxiety and producing analgesia and sedation. The mustard seed (yellow rapeseed) was used for auriculotherapy. The proposed intervention was performed by the researcher, an obstetric nurse and acupuncture specialist. Pregnant women from both control and intervention groups attended four prenatal nursing consultations, but only the intervention group underwent three auriculotherapy sessions at these consultations, with a three-day interval between each session, totaling 13 days of follow-up. The expected response was the presence of sensitivity at the sites of points to be applied and stimulation of the point through the mustard seed attached with microporous, hypoallergenic surgical tape, which were performed by manual manipulation of pregnant women. The survey was performed through instruments such as forms containing sociodemographic and clinical variables, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) applied by an acupuncture nurse who did not participate in the auriculotherapy-nursing intervention to avoid bias. Descriptive data analysis was performed through frequency tables with number and percentage for each item of the research instruments. A box-plot graph was used for illustration and better visualization of results. The ANOVA was used for comparison of the different moments, and the Student's T for comparison between the case and control groups. The significance level adopted was 5%. The SPSS 20 statistical package was used for analysis. Results In the first moment, both groups presented medium level of Trait Anxiety and State Anxiety, and there was no statistical difference between groups, thereby demonstrating the sample homogeneity (p=0.385 and p=0.352). After the auriculotherapy intervention, between the third and fourth consultations, there was a significant reduction of State Anxiety in the intervention group (p=0.033), but the same did not occur in the control group (0.052). Conclusion Auriculotherapy is a potential integrative and complementary practice within the National Health System (Brazilian SUS) that can help reduce pregnant women's anxiety during low-risk prenatal care. The acupuncturist nurse has relevant importance in this process.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , Prenatal Care , Complementary Therapies , Pregnancy , Auriculotherapy , Single-Blind Method , Randomized Controlled Trial
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200332, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134784


Abstract Objectives This randomized, split-mouth, single-blinded trial assessed whether the use of reservoirs in at-home bleaching trays is equivalent to non-reservoir trays. Our choice of an equivalence trial was based on the expectation that a non-reservoir tray is sufficient to produce a color change. Secondary outcomes such as tooth sensitivity (TS) and gingival irritation (GI) were also assessed. Methodology Forty-six patients were selected with canines shade A2 or darker. In half of the patient's arch, bleaching trays were made with reservoirs and the other half, without reservoirs. At-home bleaching was performed with carbamide peroxide (CP) 10% (3 h daily; 21 days). Color change was evaluated with a digital spectrophotometer (ΔE, ΔE00, and Whiteness Index) and shade guide units (ΔSGU) at baseline, during and one-month post-bleaching. TS and GI were assessed with a numeric scale (NRS) and a visual analog scale (VAS). Results After one month, the equivalence of reservoir and non-reservoir groups were observed in all color instruments (p>0.05). Fifteen and sixteen patients presented pain (absolute risk: 33% and 35%, 95%, confidence interval (CI) 21-46% and 23-49%) in the reservoir and non-reservoir side, respectively. The odds ratio for pain was 0.8 (95%CI 0.2-3.0) and the p-value was non-significant (p=1.0). TS intensity was similar between both groups in any of the pain scales (p>0.05). No difference in the GI was observed (p>0.05). Conclusions The protocol with reservoirs is equivalent in color change to the non-reservoir, although no superiority of the latter was observed in terms of reduced TS and GI with at-home 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching. Clinical Relevance The presence of reservoirs in a bleaching tray did not improve color change or affect tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

Humans , Tooth Bleaching , Dentin Sensitivity , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Peroxides , Urea , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Carbamide Peroxide , Hydrogen Peroxide
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e014, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089383


Abstract Although dental implants and bone regenerative procedures are important approaches for the reestablishment of esthetics and function in young patients with a history of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), no predictable outcomes have been reported, and the host osteo-immunoinflammatory response may play a relevant role in this context. In view of the lack of molecular investigations into the bone tissue condition of young patients with periodontitis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of bone-related factors in this population. Bone biopsies were obtained from the posterior mandible in 16 individuals previously diagnosed with GAP and on periodontal support therapy and from 17 periodontally healthy (PH) patients. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I), important biomarkers of bone turnover, was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Lower TGF-β and OPG mRNA levels were observed in GAP patients compared to PH individuals (p ≤ 0.05). There were no between-group differences in levels of TNF-α, BSP, RANKL, OC, or COL-I mRNA (p>0.05). In young adults, a history of periodontal disease can negatively modulate the gene expression of important bone-related factors in alveolar bone tissue. These molecular outcomes may contribute to the future development of therapeutic approaches to benefit bone healing in young patients with history of periodontitis via modulation of osteo-immuno-inflammatory biomarkers.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Gene Expression , Aggressive Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Biomarkers , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/genetics , Single-Blind Method , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/genetics , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/analysis , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/genetics , Alveolar Process/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3262, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101740


Abstract Objective: to know the effects of a nursing intervention to reduce alcohol use and risk factors for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Method: randomized single-blinded clinical trial performed by nurses with young women. The study included 66 participants in the intervention group and 66 participants in the control group. The instruments were the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the HIV Risk Behavior Knowledge and the Condom Use Self-efficacy Scale. Analysis of variance was used. Results: alcohol involvement decreased in the intervention group (F (1.119) = 50.28; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.297), while HIV knowledge (F (1.130) = 34.34; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.209) and condom use self-efficacy increased (F (1.129) = 27.20; p < 0.001; η2p = 0.174). In addition, less participants consumed alcohol in the past week compared to the control group (χ2 = 15.95; p < 0.001). Conclusion: the nursing intervention had positive effects, which could help young women stay away from alcohol use and the risk of sexually transmitted infections. NCT: 02405481.

Resumo Objetivo: conhecer os efeitos de uma intervenção de enfermagem para reduzir o uso de álcool e diminuir os fatores de risco para a transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, sigla em inglês). Método: ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, realizado por enfermeiras com mulheres jovens. O estudo incluiu 66 participantes no grupo de intervenção e 66 participantes no grupo controle. Os instrumentos foram o Questionário de Identificação de Distúrbios de Uso de Álcool, a HIVRisk Behavior Knowledge e a Escala de Autoeficácia no Uso de Preservativos. Foi utilizada a análise de variância. Resultados: o consumo de álcool diminuiu no grupo de intervenção (F (1,119) = 50,28; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,297), enquanto o conhecimento sobre o HIV (F (1,130) = 34,34; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,209) e a autoeficácia no uso de preservativos aumentaram (F (1,129) = 27,20; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,174). Além disso, menos participantes consumiram álcool na última semana em comparação com o grupo controle (χ2 = 15,95; p < 0,001). Conclusão: a intervenção de enfermagem teve efeitos positivos, que poderiam ajudar as mulheres jovens a ficarem longe do uso de álcool e do risco de infecção por doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. NCT: 02405481.

Resumo Objetivo: conocer los efectos de una intervención de enfermería para reducir el uso de alcohol y disminuir factores de riesgo para transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV, siglas en inglés). Método: ensayo clínico aleatorizado, simple ciego, administrado por enfermeras a mujeres jóvenes. Participaron 66 personas en el grupo de intervención y 66 en el de control. Los instrumentos fueron el Cuestionario de Identificación de Trastornos debidos al Consumo de Alcohol, el HIV Risk Behavior Knowledge y la escala de Autoeficacia del Uso de Condón. Se utilizó análisis de la varianza. Resultados: en el grupo de intervención disminuyó el involucramiento con el alcohol (F (1,119) = 50,28; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,297), aumentaron los conocimientos sobre el HIV (F (1,130) = 34,34; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,209) y la autoeficacia para uso de condón (F (1,129) = 27,20; p < 0,001; η2p = 0,174). También menos participantes bebieron alcohol en la última semana en comparación con el grupo de control (χ2 = 15,95; p < 0,001). Conclusión: la intervención de enfermería tuvo efectos positivos que podrían ayudar a las mujeres jóvenes a mantenerse alejadas del uso de alcohol y de contagio de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. NCT: 02405481.

Humans , Female , Adult , Sexual Behavior , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Hispanic Americans/education , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , Single-Blind Method , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Education , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Mexico
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 41(spe): e20190138, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1058524


Abstract Aim: To verify the relation of a nursing home care educational intervention in the use of health services by elderly people post-stroke. Methods: A randomized controlled trial conducted with 44 family caregivers of elderly people post-stroke. Data was collected between May/2016 and July/2018 in a hospital in the South of Brazil and at the participants' homes. The intervention group (IG=21) received home visits by nurses after hospital discharge. The control group (CG=23) had a conventional follow-up in a conventional health services. The Pearson's Chi-Square Test or the Fisher's Exact Test was performed for assessment of the outcome at 60 days and 1 year after discharge. Clinical Trial registration NCT02807012. Results: There was a significant difference regarding the use of hospital outpatient service (IG=100%, CG=78.3%, p<0.050) 60 days after discharge. Conclusion: The great use of outpatient service by the IG demonstrates the effectiveness of nursing educational intervention focused on health care network after discharge.

Resumen Objetivo: Verificar la relación de la intervención educativa domiciliaria de enfermería en la utilización de los servicios de salud por ancianos después de un Accidente Cerebro-Vascular (ACV). Métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado realizado con 44 cuidadores familiares de ancianos después de un ACV. Los datos se recolectaron entre mayo de 2016 y julio de 2018 en un hospital del sur de Brasil y en los domicilios de los participantes. El grupo de intervención (GI = 21) recibió visitas domiciliarias de enfermeros luego del alta hospitalaria. El grupo de control (GC = 23) mantuvo un seguimiento convencional en la red de servicios. El desenlace fue evaluado a los 60 días y 1 año después del alta. Se realizaron las pruebas Chi-cuadrado de Pearson o Exacta de Fisher para evaluar el desenlace a los 60 días y 1 año después del alta. Registro de ensayo clínico NCT02807012. Resultados: Se registró una diferencia significativa en la utilización del servicio ambulatorio hospitalario (GI = 100%, GC = 78,3%, p <0,050) 60 días después del alta. Conclusión: El mayor uso del servicio ambulatorio por parte del GI demuestra la efectividad de las intervenciones educativas de enfermería, enfocadas en la red de atención a la salud luego del alta hospitalaria.

Resumo Objetivo: Verificar a relação de intervenção educativa domiciliar de enfermagem na utilização dos serviços de saúde por idosos após Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC). Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado com 44 cuidadores familiares de idosos após AVC. Os dados foram coletados entre maio/2016 e julho/2018 em hospital no Sul do Brasil e domicílio dos participantes. O grupo intervenção (GI=21) recebeu visitas domiciliares por enfermeiros após a alta hospitalar. O grupo controle (GC=23) manteve acompanhamento convencional na rede de serviços. Realizaram-se Teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Exato de Fisher para avaliação do desfecho em 60 dias e 1 ano após a alta. Registro no Clinical Trials NCT02807012. Resultados: Houve diferença significativa quanto à utilização do serviço ambulatorial hospitalar (GI=100%, GC=78,3%, p<0,050) em 60 dias após a alta. Conclusão: A maior utilização do serviço ambulatorial pelo GI demonstra efetividade das intervenções de enfermagem direcionadas à rede de atenção à saúde após a alta.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/therapy , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Single-Blind Method , Middle Aged
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 746-752, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055505


Abstract Introduction: The use of saline irrigation for nasal washes is a well established procedure in the treatment of sinonasal inflammation and infection. In addition to saline solutions, Ringer's lactate is also an efficient option for nasal washes and humidification. Objective: To assess the comfort, humidification and tolerance regarding stinging sensation, provided by sodium chloride nasal gel at the concentrations of 4.5 mg/g and 6.0 mg/g through questionnaires answered by the patients. Methods: A total of 60 patients, 56 females, aged between 22 and 66 years old (mean age of 47) and 4 males, aged between 36 and 66 years (mean age of 49), were included in the study for a period of 17 days (±2 days) treatment. The patients were monitored by a general practitioner throughout the study period. They were instructed to apply each product in both nostrils twice a day during a 7-day period (±2 days). The patients were evaluated prior to the use of the first product at visit 0 (V0), after 7 days of treatment (±2 days) at visit 1 (V1), after 3 days of product discontinuation at visit 2 (V2) and after 7 days (±2 days) of treatment with the second product, in visit 3 (V3). Results: A significant difference (5% significance) was observed regarding comfort and stinging sensation between the two different concentrations; comfort was higher and stinging was lower with the 6.0 mg/g concentration gel. No difference in humidification was observed between the two treatments. Conclusion: Ringer's lactate at the concentration of 6.0 mg/g was superior to that at 4.5 mg/g for parameters comfort and stinging sensation. No statistical difference was observed between the two products regarding nasal humidification.

Resumo Introdução: O uso de soluções salinas para lavagem nasal está consagrado no tratamento de quadros inflamatórios e infecciosos nasossinusais. Além das soluções salinas, o ringer lactato é uma importante opção tanto para lavagem quanto para a hidratação nasal. Objetivo: Avaliar a tolerabilidade (ardência e conforto) e umidificação do produto gel nasal cloreto de sódio 4,5 mg/g em relação ao ringer lactato 6,0 mg/g, por meio de questionários respondidos pelos pacientes. Método: Foram incluídos 60 pacientes, 56 mulheres (22-66 anos; média: 47 anos) e quatro homens (36-66 anos; média: 49 anos) foram incluídos no estudo de 17 dias (± 2 dias) de tratamento. Os pacientes foram supervisionados por um clínico geral durante todo o período do estudo. Os pacientes usaram os produtos com uma borrifada em cada narina duas vezes ao dia, durante sete dias (± 2 dias). As formulações foram avaliadas antes do uso do primeiro produto na visita 0 (V0), após sete dias (± 2 dias) de tratamento na visita 1 (V1), após três dias de interrupção do primeiro tratamento na visita 2 (V2) e após sete dias (± 2 dias) de uso do segundo produto na visita 3 (V3). Resultados: Foi observada diferença significante para o conforto das vias nasais, (significância de 5%), na comparação entre os tratamentos nos atributos de conforto e ardência. O conforto das vias nasais foi superior e a ardência inferior para o gel nasal ringer lactato 6,0 mg/g em comparação ao gel cloreto de sódio 4,5 mg/g. Não foi observada diferença significante para a umidificação entre os tratamentos. Conclusão: O gel ringer lactato 6,0 mg/g foi superior ao produto gel cloreto de sódio 4,5 mg/g nos quesitos conforto e ardência. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre os tratamentos em relação à umidificação das vias nasais.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Ringer's Lactate/administration & dosage , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Single-Blind Method , Nasal Lavage Fluid , Gels , Humidity , Nasal Mucosa/physiopathology
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 433-439, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024413


Introduction: Studies have reported that although speech perception in noise was unaltered with and without digital noise reduction (DNR), the annoyance toward noise measured by acceptable noise level (ANL) was significantly improved by DNR with the range between 2.5 and 4.5 dB. It is unclear whether a similar improvement would be observed in those individuals who have an ANL ≥ 14 dB (predictive of poor hearing aid user) often rejects their aid because of annoyance toward noise. Objectives: (a) To determine the effect of activation of DNR on the improvement in the aided ANL from low- and high-ANL groups; and (b) to predict the change in ANL when DNR was activated. Method: Ten bilateral mild to severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) participants in each of the low- and high-ANL groups were involved. These participants were bilaterally fitted with receiver in canal (RIC) hearing aids (Oticon, Smorum, Egedal, Denmark) with a DNR processor. Both SNR-50% (Signal to noise ratio (in dB) required to achieve 50 % speech recognition) and ANL were assessed in DNR-on and DNR-off listening conditions. Results: Digital noise reduction has no effect on SNR-50 in each group. The annoyance level was significantly reduced in the DNR-on than DNR-off condition in the low-ANL group. In the high-ANL group, a strong negative correlation was observed between the ANL in DNR off and a change in ANL after DNR was employed in the hearing aid (benefit). The benefit of DNR on annoyance can be effectively predicted by baseline-aided ANL by linear regression. Conclusion: Digital noise reduction reduced the annoyance level in the high-ANL group, and the amount of improvement was related to the baseline-aided ANL value (AU)

Middle Aged , Aged , Auditory Threshold/physiology , Speech Perception/physiology , Noise Effects , Hearing Aids , Single-Blind Method , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/physiopathology
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 469-476, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057463


Abstract Objectives: Emergence agitation is a negative behavior commonly recorded after pediatric tonsillectomy. We investigated the efficacy of preoperative premedication with oral transmucosal buccal dexmedetomidine on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in preschool children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Ninety patients aged (3-6 years), ASA I‒II were enrolled into three groups (n = 30) to receive oral transmucosal dexmedetomidine 0.5 µ (Group DEX I), 1 µ (Group DEX II) or saline placebo (Group C). Our primary endpoint was the Watcha agitation score at emergence in PACU. Secondary outcomes were preoperative sedation score, intraoperative hemodynamics, postoperative Objective Pain Scale (OPS) and adverse effects. Results: The patients' demographics, preoperative sedation scores and extubation time showed no difference between groups. Significant differences between groups in incidence and frequency distribution of each grade of Watcha score were evident at 5 minutes (p= 0.007), 10 minutes (p= 0.034), 30 minutes (p= 0.022), 45 minutes (p= 0.034) and 60 minutes (p= 0.026), postoperatively with significant differences between DEX I and II groups. DEX groups showed lower OPS scores at 5 minutes (p= 0.011), 10 minutes (p= 0.037) and 30 minutes (p= 0.044) after arrival at PACU, with no difference between DEX I and II groups. Patients in DEX II group exhibited lower intraoperative mean heart rate at 15 min (p= 0.020), and lower mean arterial pressure at 30 minutes, (p= 0.040), 45 minutes (p= 0.002) and 60 minutes (p= 0.006) with no significant differences between groups in other time points. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the clinical advantage and the simple technique of oral transmucosal DEX premedication for emergence agitation in preschool children undergoing tonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia compared with saline placebo. Trial registration Clinical trial registry: NCT02720705.

Resumo Objetivos: A agitação ao despertar da anestesia é um comportamento negativo comumente registrado após amigdalectomia pediátrica. Avaliamos a eficácia da pré-medicação com dexmedetomidina via transmucosa oral no pré-operatório sobre a incidência e gravidade da agitação ao despertar em crianças pré-escolares submetidas à amigdalectomia sob anestesia com sevoflurano. Métodos: Noventa pacientes entre três e seis anos e estado físico ASA I-II foram incluídos em três grupos (n = 30) para receber 0,5 µ ou 1 µ de dexmedetomidina via transmucosa oral (Grupo DEX I e Grupo DEX II, respectivamente) ou solução salina (Grupo C). O desfecho primário foi o escore de agitação ao despertar medido com a escala de Watcha na SRPA. Os desfechos secundários foram escore de sedação pré-operatória, hemodinâmica intraoperatória, escore OPS (Objective Pain Scale) e efeitos adversos no pós-operatório. Resultados: A demografia dos pacientes, os escores de sedação pré-operatória e o tempo de extubação não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. Diferenças significativas entre os grupos na distribuição da incidência e frequência de cada grau do escore de Watcha foram evidentes aos 5 minutos (p = 0,007), 10 minutos (p = 0,034), 30 minutos (p = 0,022), 45 minutos (p = 0,034) e 60 minutos (p = 0,026) no pós-operatório, com diferenças significativas entre os grupos DEX I e II. Os grupos DEX apresentaram escores OPS mais baixos aos 5 minutos (p = 0,011), 10 minutos (p = 0,037) e 30 minutos (p = 0,044) após a chegada à SRPA, sem diferença entre os grupos DEX I e II. Os pacientes do grupo DEX II apresentaram menor frequência cardíaca média aos 15 minutos de intraoperatório (p = 0,020) e menor pressão arterial média aos 30 minutos, (p = 0,040), 45 minutos (p = 0,002) e 60 minutos (p = 0,006), sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos em outros momentos. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra a vantagem clínica e a técnica simples da pré-medicação com DEX por via transmucosa oral para agitação ao despertar em crianças pré-escolares submetidas à amigdalectomia sob anestesia com sevoflurano, comparado à solução salina. Registro do estudo: Clinical trial registry: NCT02720705.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tonsillectomy , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Emergence Delirium/prevention & control , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Administration, Buccal , Single-Blind Method , Mouth Mucosa
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1161-1167, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041080


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) in morbidly obese individuals in two moments following bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass): post-anesthetic recovery (PAR) and first postoperative day (1PO). DESIGN Randomized and blinded clinical trial. METHODS We studied 40 morbidly obese individuals aged between 25 and 55 years who underwent pulmonary function test and chest X-ray preoperatively, and on the day of discharge (2nd day after surgery). They were randomly allocated into two groups: PAR-G (BiPAP in PAR for one hour), and 1PO-G (BIPAP for one hour on the 1PO). RESULTS In the PAR-G and 1PO-G, respectively there were significant reductions in slow vital capacity (SVC) (p=0.0007 vs. p<0.0001), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) (p=0.0016 vs. p=0.0026), and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.0013 vs. p<0.0001) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) was maintained only for the PAR-G (p=0.4446 vs. p=0.0191). Comparing the groups, the SVC (p=0.0027) and FVC (p=0.0028) showed a significant difference between the treatments, while the PAR-G showed smaller declines in these capacities. The prevalence of atelectasis was 10% for the PAR-G and 30% for the 1PO-G (p=0.0027). CONCLUSION Thus, the use of BiPAP in PAR can promote restoration of ERV and contribute to the reduction of atelectasis.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Investigar o uso da pressão positiva em dois níveis nas vias aéreas (BiPAP) em obesos mórbidos em dois momentos após a cirurgia bariátrica (bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux): recuperação pós-anestésica (RPA) e primeiro dia de pós-operatório (1PO). DESENHO Ensaio clínico randomizado e cego. MÉTODO Foram estudados 40 obesos mórbidos, com idade entre 25 e 55 anos, submetidos à prova de função pulmonar e radiografia de tórax no pré-operatório e no dia da alta (segundo dia de pós-operatório). Eles foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: G-RPA (BiPAP na RPA por uma hora) e G-1PO (BiPAP por uma hora no 1PO). RESULTADOS No G-RPA e G-1PO, respectivamente, houve reduções significativas na capacidade vital lenta (CVL) (p=0,0007 vs p<0,0001), volume de reserva inspiratório (VRI) (p=0,0016 vs p=0,0026) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) (p=0,0013 vs p<0,0001). O volume de reserva expiratório (VRE) foi mantido apenas para o G-RPA (p=0,4446 vs p=0,0191). Comparando os grupos, a CVL (p=0,0027) e a CVF (p=0,0028) apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos e o G-RPA apresentou menores declínios nessas capacidades. A prevalência de atelectasia foi de 10% para o G-RPA e 30% para o 1PO-G (p=0,0027). CONCLUSÃO O uso de BiPAP na RPA pode promover uma restauração do VRE e contribuir para a redução de atelectasias.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Atelectasis/epidemiology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Bariatric Surgery/rehabilitation , Postoperative Period , Pulmonary Atelectasis/prevention & control , Spirometry , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Single-Blind Method , Vital Capacity , Expiratory Reserve Volume , Prevalence , Lung/physiopathology , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(3): 283-292, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013835


INTRODUCCIÓN: La artritis idiopática juvenil (AIJ), es una enfermedad reumatológica en menores de 16 años, que produce discapacidad física temprana. Se propone el uso de hidroterapia Watsu en estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la efectividad del Watsu en comparación a hidroterapia convencional en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS), estado de salud funcional, dolor y rangos articulares de movimiento en pacientes con AIJ aguda o subaguda. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Ensayo clínico controlado paralelo, con asignación 1:1, aleatorio y simple ciego, en 46 pacientes con AIJ en fase aguda y subaguda entre 8-18 años de edad. Se utilizaron las evaluaciones Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0), Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) y 10 joints-Global range of motion score (GROMS) al inicio, posterior al tratamiento y a los 3 meses de seguimiento. Los pacientes se asignaron aleatoriamente al grupo Watsu (n = 24) y al grupo hidroterapia convencional (n = 22), participando de 10 sesiones de 45 minutos, con frecuencia de una vez por semana. RESULTADOS: La terapia Watsu presentó mejoras estadísticamente significativas en funcionamiento ñsico-CVRS (p = 0,041), índice de discapacidad (p = 0,015), índice de malestar (p = 0,015) y estado de salud funcional-CHAQ (p = 0,013) posterior al tratamiento en comparación a la hidroterapia convencional. CONCLUSIONES: La terapia Watsu mejoró la CVRS, sensación de dolor y estado de salud funcional en comparación a la hidroterapia convencional. Se requiere de adaptaciones metodológicas en futuros estudios para mejorar la validez externa de estos resultados.

INTRODUCTION: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a rheumatologic disease in children under 16 years old, which causes early physical disability. The use of hydrotherapy Watsu in these patients is proposed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Watsu compared to conventional hydrotherapy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), functional health status, pain, and ranges of joint motion in patients with acute or subacute JIA. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Randomized (1:1) single-blind parallel controlled clinical trial in 46 patients with acute and subacute JIA between 8-18 years old. Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4.0), Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), and 10-joints Global range of motion score (GROMS) assessments were used at the beginning, post treatment, and after three months of follow-up. Patients were randomly assigned to the Watsu group (n = 24) and to the conventional hydrotherapy group (n = 22), participating in 10 sessions of 45 mi nutes once a week. RESULTS: Watsu therapy showed statistically significant improvements in physical functioning-HRQoL (p = 0.041), disability index (p = 0.015), distress index (p = 0.015), and functio nal health status-CHAQ (p = 0.013) after treatment compared to conventional hydrotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Watsu therapy improved HRQoL, pain sensation, and functional health status compared to conventional hydrotherapy. Methodological adaptations are required in future studies to improve the external validity of these results.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/therapy , Quality of Life , Hydrotherapy/methods , Pain/etiology , Single-Blind Method , Health Status , Treatment Outcome , Disability Evaluation
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 42-48, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001864


Abstract Introduction: Various types of separators have been advocated, but the ideal separator should produce optimum separation with minimal pain and discomfort. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the amount of separation achieved by three different types of separators (Elastomeric, Kesling and Kansal), and to assess the associated pain and discomfort. Methods: A random single-blind split-mouth study was conducted on 108 patients seeking fixed orthodontic treatment, in which two different separators were used on each side in both the arches for a single patient. After five days, the amount of separation was measured with a feeler gauge. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring was performed by the patient on each day, to evaluate pain perception. Discomfort was evaluated by questionnaire filled by the patient at the time of separator removal. Results: The greatest amount of separation was seen with the elastomeric separators, while the smallest separation was seen with Kansal separators. VAS scoring showed maximum pain at day 1 with all the three separator types. Highest pain was perceived in the Elastomeric separators group, followed by Kesling and Kansal separators, respectively. Statistically significant difference was found in VAS score of Elastomeric separators, when compared to both Kesling and Kansal, on day 1 and 2 (p= 0.001). Analysis of the questionnaires revealed that a greater number of patients experienced discomfort with elastomeric separators placement (69.4%), which was statistically significant (p< 0.01) when compared to the other two types of separators. Answers to the other questions were comparable, except for the need for medications, which was reportedly highest with elastomeric separators. Conclusion: Kesling separators produce adequate separation with minimal discomfort and pain, compared to Elastomeric and Kansal separators.

Resumo Introdução: diversos tipos de separadores de dentes já foram descritos e seu uso, justificado na literatura. Porém, o separador ideal deve produzir uma força adequada para realizar a separação com o mínimo de dor e desconforto. Objetivo: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar e comparar a separação ortodôntica obtida por meio de três diferentes tipos de separadores (Elastômeros, Kesling e Kansal), bem como a dor e o desconforto a eles vinculados. Métodos: foi conduzido um estudo randomizado, cego e de boca dividida em 108 pacientes interessados em realizar tratamento ortodôntico, nos quais foram utilizados dois separadores diferentes, um em cada lado de ambas as arcadas de cada paciente. Cinco dias após a inserção dos dispositivos, a quantidade de separação foi mensurada com o auxílio de um medidor (calibrador de folga). Para avaliar a dor, os pacientes preencheram uma Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) a cada dia do estudo; e, para a avaliação do desconforto, preencheram um questionário no dia da remoção dos separadores. Resultados: os Elastômeros obtiveram a maior quantidade de separação, enquanto os separadores Kansal conseguiram a menor separação. A análise das EVAs apontou a maior intensidade de dor no primeiro dia, para os três tipos de separadores, sendo os maiores índices relatados no grupo de Elastômeros, seguido pelos grupos Kesling e Kansal, respectivamente. Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram encontradas nas escalas EVA dos Elastômeros em comparação aos separadores Kesling e Kandal, nos dias 1 e 2 (p= 0,001). A análise dos questionários mostrou que um grande número de pacientes relatou desconforto após a inserção dos Elastômeros (69,4%), valor estatisticamente significativo em comparação aos outros dois tipos de separadores (p< 0,01). As respostas às outras questões foram semelhantes entre os grupos, com exceção da necessidade de uso de medicamentos, a qual foi maior no grupo dos Elastômeros. Conclusão: os separadores Kesling produziram uma separação adequada, com o mínimo de dor e desconforto, em comparação aos Elastômeros e separadores Kansal.

Humans , Orthodontic Appliances , Pain Perception , Pain , Pain Measurement , Single-Blind Method
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 37-45, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003636


Resumen: Introducción: Atletas altamente entrenados muestran cambios cardíacos estructurales como adaptación a la sobrecarga, producto del ejercicio repetitivo y extenuante. Se han evidenciado elevación de biomarcadores de remodelado y fibrosis miocárdica posterior al ejercicio intenso en atletas. Sin embargo, el comportamiento de estos biomarcadores según el nivel de entrenamiento previo no se ha evaluado. Objetivo: Investigar biomarcadores de fibrosis y función ventricular derecha en maratonistas con distinto nivel de entrenamiento previo. Métodos: Se incluyeron 36 maratonistas hombres, sanos, que completaron 42 km en la maratón de Santiago. Se dividieron según entrenamiento previo en dos grupos, Grupo 1 (G1): ≥100 km/semana y Grupo 2 (G2): <100 km/semana. Se realizó ecocardiografía transtorácica y se evaluaron niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 y del propéptido amino terminal del procolágeno tipo III (PIIINP) en la semana previa a la carrera e inmediatamente posterior a ésta. Resultados: Posterior a la maratón, la función sistólica del ventrículo derecho disminuyó en el grupo G2 junto con un aumento significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de PIIIPNP (61±16 a 94±24 ng/mL, p=0,01). Estos cambios no se observaron en el grupo G1 (65 ± 11 a 90±29 ng/mL, p=0,10). Los niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 aumentaron significativamente en ambos grupos posterior al ejercicio (6,8±2,2 a 19,7±4,9 ng/mL, p 0,012 y 6,0±1,1 a 19,4 ± 5,9 ng/mL, p 0,01) en los grupos G1 y G2, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Atletas con menor grado de entrenamiento, presentan posterior a una maratón un significativo aumento de productos de degradación del colágeno (PIIIPNP) asociado a disminución de la función del ventrículo derecho. Los niveles de galectina-3 plasmática aumentan significativamente en ambos grupos post-esfuerzo independiente del entrenamiento previo.

Abstracts: Introduction: Highly trained athletes show structural cardiac changes as adaptation to overload. Rise in remodeling biomarkers and myocardial fibrosis after intense exercise in athletes has been evidenced; however, the behavior of these biomarkers according to pre-competition training level has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate fibrosis biomarkers levels and right ventricle function in marathon runners according to their previous training level, in the period prior to a marathon race and immediately after it. Methods: Thirty-six healthy male marathon runners were included. Subjects were grouped according to their previous training level: Group 1 (G1): ≥100 km/week and Group 2 (G2): <100 km/week. Transthoracic echocardiography along with plasmatic levels of galectin-3 and amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were measured one week previous and immediately after the marathon. Results: Post-effort right ventricle systolic function decreased in G2, together with a significant elevation of PIIIPNP (61±16 to 94±24 ng/mL, p=0.01). These changes were not observed in G1 (from 65±11 to 90±29 ng/mL, p=0.10). Plasma galectin-3 increased significantly in both groups immediately post-exercise (6.8±2.2 to 19.7±4.9 ng/mL, p=0.012, and 6.0±1.1 to 19.4±5.9 ng/mL, p=0.01, in G1 and G2. respectively). Conclusion: Less trained athletes evidenced higher post marathon levels of PIIIPNP which is associated with a decreased global right ventricle function. Plasma galectin-3 levels increased significantly after intense exertion regardless of the intensity of previous training.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Running/physiology , Fibrosis/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Injuries/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Single-Blind Method , Chile , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Procollagen/blood , Galectin 3/blood , Athletes