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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 107-110, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528815

ABSTRACT

Las técnicas de doble tinción y transparentación se han usado desde 1897, pero su utilidad ha sido poco explorada en los estudios anatómicos de micromamíferos adultos. No obstante, la combinación de estas técnicas con el análisis alométrico mutivariado posibilita el estudio de esqueletos poscraneales articulados de tales grupos de micromamíferos como los roedores, los cuales son muy limitados ya que casi siempre se enfocan en los cráneos. En este estudio, analizamos y comparamos la morfometría del esqueleto de Neotomodon alstoni con la de Meriones unguiculatus, Phodopus campbelli y Rattus norvegicus. Usamos la técnica de doble tinción y transparentación para analizar las relaciones morfométricas entre estos roedores utilizando sesenta caracteres esqueléticos. Se encontró que tres especies comparten dos correlaciones comunes y compartieron el mismo tipo de crecimiento isométrico en una de ellas; además se encontraron similitudes aparentes entre los patrones de la morfometría de P campbelli con el patrón de osificación descrito para la especie relacionada Mesocricetus auratus. Las diferencias en el crecimiento alométrico pueden representar también diferencias en el ritmo de desarrollo de acuerdo con el tipo de historia de vida de cada especie. Aquí demostramos que tanto la técnica de preparación como el método de análisis morfométricos son herramientas poderosas pero simples, para realizar estudios anatómicos y morfológicos en el laboratorio. Nuestros resultados reflejan las condiciones del desarrollo ontogenético derivados delpropio patrón de heterocronía para cada especie, y además representan la historia evolutiva de este grupo analizado. Sin embargo, consideramos que es deseable más investigación.


SUMMARY: Clearing and staining techniques have been present since 1897, However, their use in anatomical studies of adult micromammals has been limited. When using such techniques in combination with allometric method, it is possible to study articulated skeletons of micromammals, instead of relying only on the skulls, which is important in morphologically complicated groups as the rodents. Research involving multivariate allometric analysis of postcranial skeleton of rodents has been limited and confined to specific items. In this study, we analyzed and compared the morphometry of the skeleton of Neotomodon alstoni with that of Meriones unguiculatus, Phodopus campbelli and Rattus norvegicus. We applied the double staining and clearing technique in order to determine the morphometric relation between these rodents using sixty skeletal characters. We found that three species share two common correlations and one isometric, with apparent similarities between the morphometry patterns of P campbelli with the ossification pattern described for the related species Mesocricetus auratus. The differences in allometric growth could represent differences in the development stages according to the type of life history for each species. In this analysis we confirmed that both the preparation technique and morphometric analysis method, are simple yet verifiable tools for anatomical and morphological studies. Our results reflect the conditions of ontogenetic development derived from the heterochrony pattern for each species, representing the evolutionary history for this group. Therefore, as this approach continues to be discussed, ongoing research is warranted.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/anatomy & histology , Skeleton/anatomy & histology , Staining and Labeling
2.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 11(1): e401, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527677

ABSTRACT

Objetivo principal: Conocer la epidemiologia de las fracturas del cuarto distal del radio en el esqueleto en crecimiento y el tratamiento realizado en el CHPR en los años 2017 y 2018. Objetivos específicos: Valorar re-desplazamiento, necesidad de re manipulación, complicaciones, re-fractura. Metodología: Estudio observacional descriptivo retrospectivo. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes de 0 a 14 años con fractura de radio distal (fisaria, metafisaria y suprametafisaria) valorados en el CHPR entre 1 enero del 2017 y 31 diciembre del 2018. Criterios de exclusión: pacientes con radiografía normal, fracturas en miembros con malformaciones, infecciones óseas, patología tumoral maligna o benigna. Obtención de datos: Valoración de radiografías de puño y antebrazo realizadas en el CHPR en 2017 y 18, iniciales y evolutivas. Se analizaron: edad, sexo, fecha fractura, topografía de la fractura, desplazamiento inicial, tratamiento, evolución radiográfica y complicaciones. Resultados: se incluyeron 662 pacientes. Siendo en su mayoría de género masculino (65%), con una media de 9 años, miembro derecho (61%), en los meses de verano (36%). En cuanto a la topografía se evidenció una frecuencia mayor en fracturas tipo rodete y metafisarias (31.72% y 31.57%), seguido por suprametafisaria (18.43%) y fisaria (18.28%). El tratamiento realizado fue ortopédico en el 86.56% de los casos, mientras que quirúrgico fue el 12.84%, en su gran mayoría con alambres de Kirschner (11,2%). El tiempo de inmovilización promedio fue de 6 semanas, con un porcentaje de complicaciones del 14.05% del total de las fracturas. Conclusiones: Se valoraron las características de los pacientes y fracturas de radio distal en el CHPR en los años 2017 y 18, siendo un total de 662 fracturas, en las que su mayoría se realizó tratamiento ortopédico con un índice de complicaciones que ronda el 14%, siendo mayor cuanto mayor es el desplazamiento inicial de la fractura.


Objetivo principal: Conhecer a epidemiologia das fraturas do quarto distal do rádio no esqueleto em crescimento e o tratamento realizado no CHPR nos anos de 2017 e 2018. Objetivos específicos: Avaliar re-deslocamento, necessidade de remanipulação, complicações, refratura. Metodologia: Estudo observacional descritivo retrospectivo. Critérios de inclusão: pacientes de 0 a 14 anos com fratura do rádio distal (fisário, metafisário e suprametafisário) avaliados no CHPR entre 1º de janeiro de 2017 e 31 de dezembro de 2018. Critérios de exclusão: pacientes com radiografias normais, fraturas em membros com malformações, osso infecções, patologia tumoral maligna ou benigna. Coleta de dados: Avaliação das radiografias de punho e antebraço realizadas no CHPR em 2017 e 18, inicial e evolutiva. Foram analisados: idade, sexo, data da fratura, topografia da fratura, deslocamento inicial, tratamento, evolução radiográfica e complicações. Resultados: 662 pacientes foram incluídos. Sendo maioritariamente do sexo masculino (65%), com média de 9 anos, membro direito (61%), nos meses de verão (36%). Em relação à topografia, foi evidenciada maior frequência nas fraturas da borda e metafisárias (31,72% e 31,57%), seguidas das suprametafisárias (18.43%) e fisárias (18.28%). O tratamento realizado foi ortopédico em 86.56% dos casos, enquanto cirúrgico em 12.84%, sendo a maioria com fios de Kirschner (11,2%). O tempo médio de imobilização foi de 6 semanas, com percentual de complicações de 14.05%. Conclusões: Foram avaliadas as características dos pacientes e fraturas do rádio distal no CHPR nos anos de 2017 e 18, com um total de 662 fraturas (0,9 por dia), em que a maioria foi submetida a tratamento ortopédico com índice de complicações que fica em torno de 14%, sendo maior quanto maior for o deslocamento inicial da fratura.


Title: Fractures of the distal end of the radius in the immature skeleton. Epidemiological study at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center. Main objective: To know the epidemiology of fractures of the distal fourth of the radius in the growing skeleton and the treatment carried out in the CHPR in the years 2017 and 2018. Specific objectives: To assess re-displacement, need for re-manipulation, complications, re- fracture. Methodology: Retrospective descriptive observational study. Inclusion criteria: patients aged 0 to 14 years with distal radius fracture (physeal, metaphyseal and suprametaphyseal) evaluated at the CHPR between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2018. Exclusion criteria: patients with normal radiographs, fractures in limbs with malformations, bone infections, malignant or benign tumor pathology. Data collection: Assessment of fist and forearm X-rays performed at the CHPR in 2017 and 18, initial and evolutionary. The following were analyzed: age, sex, fracture date, fracture topography, initial displacement, treatment, radiographic evolution and complications. Results: 662 patients were included. Being mostly male (65%), with an average of 9 years, right limb (61%), in the summer months (36%). Regarding the topography, a higher frequency was evidenced in rim and metaphyseal fractures (31.72% and 31.57%), followed by suprametaphyseal (18.43%) and physeal (18.28%). The treatment performed was orthopedic in 86.56% of the cases, while surgical was 12.84%, mostly with Kirschner wires (11.2%). The average immobilization time was 6 weeks, with a percentage of complications of 14.05%. Conclusions: The characteristics of the patients and fractures of the distal radius in the CHPR in the years 2017 and 18 were evaluated, with a total of 662 fractures (0.9 per day), in which the majority underwent orthopedic treatment with an index of complications that is around 14%, being greater the greater the initial displacement of the fracture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Wrist Fractures/epidemiology , Recurrence , Skeleton/growth & development , Uruguay/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Age and Sex Distribution , Temporal Distribution , Wrist Fractures/classification , Wrist Fractures/complications , Wrist Fractures/therapy
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 37-45, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385575

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los estudios sobre sistemática y anatomía han revelado que las características del esqueleto de los batoideos muestran gran variabilidad y proporcionan información importante sobre las relaciones de parentesco de este grupo, es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la morfología del neurocráneo de ocho especies de batoideos. Los batoideos estudiados mostraron grandes variaciones principalmente en el rostrum, número de fontanelas, orientación de las cápsulas nasales y en la condición y desarrollo de los procesos pre y postorbitales. Las variaciones presentes en las especies estudiadas nos permitieron agrupar a los cráneos en tres morfotipos. El primero incluye a Narcine bancroftii; este morfotipo presenta características únicas, como son un rostrum cuadrado y cartílagos anterorbitarios ramificados; no presentan procesos preorbitales y postorbitales, cresta supraorbital ni apéndice rostral. El segundo morfotipo está formado por Rostroraja texana y Pseudobatus lentiginosus, los cuales tienen un rostrum bien desarrollado con un apéndice rostral en la región anterior, dos fontanelas, arcos yugales en la región occipital y procesos preorbitales y postorbitales poco desarrollados. El tercer morfotipo incluye a las especies de miliobatoideos los cuales tienen un rostrum reducido o ausente, un apéndice rostral separado del cráneo, con una fontanela y procesos preorbitales y postobitales desarrollados. La mayoría de las especies presentan variaciones morfológicas a lo largo de su desarrollo, por lo que al llevar a cabo estudios filogenéticos es importante utilizar caracteres de organismos adultos.


SUMMARY: Systematics and anatomy studies have revealed that characteristics of the batoids skeleton show significant variability and provide relevant information on the phylogenetic relationships of this group. Within this framework, our objective is describing the neurocranium morphology in eight species of batoids. Large variations were found, mainly in the rostrum, number of fontanelles, orientation of nasal capsules, and the condition and development of the pre- and post-orbital processes. These variations allowed us to group these craniums in three morphotypes. The first, including Narcine bancroftii, has unique characteristics, such as a squared rostrum and branched anterorbital cartilages; there are no pre-or post- orbital processes, supraorbital crest or rostral appendix. The second morphotype includes Rostroraja texana and Pseudobatus lentiginosus, which have a well-developed rostrum with a rostral appendix in the anterior region, two fontanelles, jugal arches in the occipital region, and pre- and post-orbital processes poorly developed. The third morphotype includes myliobatoids species, which have small or absent rostrum, rostral appendix separated from the cranium, one fontanelle, and developed pre- and post-orbital processes. Most species have morphological variations throughout their development; therefore, when conducting phylogenetic studies, using characters from adult specimens is fundamental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Skeleton/anatomy & histology
4.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 148-154, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929245

ABSTRACT

Four new sesquiterpene quinone meroterpenoids, dysideanones F-G (1-2) and dysiherbols D-E (3-4), were isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara collected from the South China Sea. The new structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data including HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and their absolute configurations were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD calculations. Anti-inflammatory evaluation showed that dysiherbols D-E (3-4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity on TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in human HEK-293T cells with IC50 values of 10.2 and 8.6 μmol·L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dysidea/chemistry , Porifera , Quinones/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Skeleton
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 909-914, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405228

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El Puma concolor es uno de los carnívoros más grandes presentes en Chile, aunque su tamaño varía según la zona geográfica en la que se encuentra. Cada vez es más común encontrarlos fuera de su hábitat y más en nuestro entorno. Se conocen sus aspectos ecológicos, reproductivos y nutricionales, pero muy poco de su anatomía, lo que genera un desafío en el área morfológica veterinaria que necesita fortalecimiento. El presente estudio consistió en una descripción anatómica del esqueleto apendicular de tres ejemplares adultos de Puma concolor (3 machos) en el laboratorio de anatomía veterinaria de la Universidad San Sebastián, sede de la Patagonia Puerto Montt, lo que permitió un estudio detallado de la conformación del esqueleto de cada estructura presente en el esqueleto apendicular torácico de estos ejemplares. Esto nos permitió lograr resultados de interés morfológico y profundizar en la anatomía de esta especie.


SUMMARY: The Puma concolor is one of the largest carnivores present in Chile, although its size varies according to the geographical area in which it is found. It is increasingly common to find them outside their habitat and more in our environment. Its ecological, reproductive and nutritional aspects are known, but very little is known about its anatomy, which creates a challenge in the veterinary morphological area that needs strengthening. The present study consisted of an anatomical description of the appendicular skeleton of three adult specimens of Puma concolor (3 males) in the veterinary anatomy laboratory of the Universidad San Sebastián, headquarters of Patagonia Puerto Montt, which allowed a detailed study of the conformation of the skeleton of each structure present in the thoracic appendicular skeleton of these specimens. This allowed us to achieve results of morphological interest and delve into the anatomy of this species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Thorax/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Skeleton/anatomy & histology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1386-1394, 2022. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405299

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Sri Lanka, an island off the tip of the Southeast of the Indian subcontinent processes the earliest skeletal evidence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens (37,000 B.P.) and the best human skeletal record sequence in the South Asian region. Adding another to the list, the skeletal remains, which belong to Mesolithic culture were found at Pallemalala shell midden in Southern Sri Lanka during scientific archaeological exploration by Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya. Sri Lanka. The aim of the study was to determine the minimum number of human individuals, age, sex, and pathological conditions related to the ancient Pallemalala commiunity. For the primary analysis, 426 bone fragments were available. Out of those, 233 bones were identified as human bones which represent 7 minimum number of individuals. The rest of the collection comprises some animal bones and shell species. The community was predominated by the female population. The identified age categories were around 20 years, between 35-45 years, and over 45 years. The encountered pathological lesions were bone thickening, alveolar resorption, dental abscesses, dental caries, antemorterm tooth loss, calculus deposits and brown colour stains on teeth. Regarding the dietary pattern, it was evident that their diet may have consisted of coarse foodstuffs with an extremely basic dietary chemistry.


RESUMEN: Sri Lanka es una isla en la punta del sureste del subcontinente indio que procesa la evidencia esquelética más antigua del Homo sapiens anatómicamente moderno (37.000 AP) y la mejor secuencia de registros esqueléticos humanos en la región del sur de Asia. Agregando otro elemento a la lista, los restos óseos, que pertenecen a la cultura mesolítica, se encontraron en el vertedero de conchas de Pallemalala en el sur de Sri Lanka durante la exploración arqueológica científica realizada por el Instituto de Postgrado de Arqueología de la Universidad de Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el número mínimo de individuos humanos, edad, sexo y condiciones patológicas relacionadas con la antigua comunidad Pallemalala. Para el análisis se dispuso de 426 fragmentos óseos. De esos, 233 huesos fueron identificados como huesos humanos que representan un número mínimo de 7 individuos. El resto de la colección se componía de algunos huesos de animales y especies de conchas. La comunidad estaba dominada por la población femenina. Las categorías de edad identificadas fueron alrededor de 20 años, entre 35-45 años y mayores de 45 años. Las lesiones patológicas encontradas fueron engrosamiento óseo, reabsorción alveolar, abscesos dentales, caries dental, pérdida de dientes antemortem, depósitos de cálculo y manchas de color marrón en los dientes. En cuanto al patrón dietético, era evidente que su dieta pudo haber consistido en alimentos toscos con una química dietética extremadamente básica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Skeleton/anatomy & histology , Body Remains/anatomy & histology , Archaeology , Skeleton/pathology , Sri Lanka , Weirs , Body Remains/pathology , Fossils
7.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e4245, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289615

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El crecimiento de los tejidos esqueléticos constituye una respuesta secundaria, compensatoria y mecánicamente obligada a cambiar las matrices funcionales. Cuando por alguna razón las matrices funcionales se ven afectadas en su crecimiento, los tejidos esqueléticos responden también con un grado de afectación dependiendo del momento en que esta se produzca. Entonces la mandíbula como parte del viscerocráneo debe presentar esa relación con el hueso hioides de forma directa. Objetivos: Asociar el comportamiento morfológico del hueso hioides con variables morfológicas de la mandíbula y verificar sí la morfología de los huesos pertenecientes a los esqueletos estudiados está determinada por el conjunto de tejidos blandos que los rodea y marcan el ritmo del proceso de remodelación de crecimiento. Material y Métodos: Se realizó la continuación del estudio osteológico en una muestra ósea de 82 esqueletos con mediciones morfométricas del hueso hioides y la mandíbula. Para evaluar la relación de la morfología del hueso hioides con respecto a la mandíbula, se utilizaron matrices de coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson en SPSS versión 22 de Window. Resultados: Se corrobora la relación de la morfología del hueso hioides con el crecimiento del viscerocráneo, debido a la correlación positiva y significativa entre varias variables morfológicas del hioides que se obtuvo, -tanto a nivel de su cuerpo como sus astas o cuernos mayores-, con la mandíbula. Conclusiones: Existe una asociación de la morfología del hueso hioides con respecto a la morfología de la mandíbula(AU)


Introduction: The growth of skeletal tissues constitutes a secondary, compensatory and mechanically obliged response to change the functional matrixes. When the growth of functional matrixes is affected for any reason, the skeletal tissues also respond with a degree of affectation depending on the moment in which it occurs. Then the mandible, as part of the viscerocranium, must present that relationship with the hyoid bone directly. Objective: To associate the morphological behavior of the hyoid bone with the morphological variables of the mandible and verify if the morphology of the bones belonging to the skeletons studied is determined by the set of soft tissues that surround them and set the pace of the growth remodeling process. Material and Methods: The continuation of the osteological study was carried out in a bone sample of 82 skulls by performing morphometric measurements of the hyoid bone and the mandible. Pearson's linear correlation coefficient matrices in SPSS Version 22 were used to evaluate the relationship between the morphology of the hyoid bone and the bones of the mandible. Results: The relationship between the morphology of the hyoid bone and the growth of the viscerocranium is corroborated by the positive and significant correlation between several morphological variables of the hyoid bone obtained - both at the level of its body and its greater horns -, and the mandible. Conclusions: These findings corroborate the association between the morphology of the hyoid bone and the growth of the mandible(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skeleton/metabolism , Hyoid Bone/growth & development , Mandible/growth & development
8.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e303, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | UY-BNMED, LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1248720

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las fracturas metafisarias de radio distal son las fracturas más frecuentes en la edad pediátrica, siendo 30% del total de las mismas. Mantener la reducción de las fracturas desplazadas no siempre es posible: el re-desplazamiento es la principal complicación de estas lesiones. Clásicamente se realizó tratamiento con maniobra y yeso, aunque en los últimos años se asoció fijación con Kirschner wire (Kw) en búsqueda de disminuir el re-desplazamiento. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es identificar factores de riesgo en búsqueda de realizar el mejor tratamiento siendo lo menos agresivo posible. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistematizada a través del buscador electrónico PubMed. La misma alcanzó un total de 4594 artículos, que de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 15 trabajos para realizar nuestra revisión bibliográfica. Resultados: Se destaca que la mayoría de los artículos encontrados son de nivel de evidencia III y IV. Nuestra búsqueda refleja un índice de re-desplazamiento entre 20-39% mediante yeso a las 2 semanas; asi como un índice de re-manipulación entre el 5-10 % del total de las fracturas desplazadas. La mayoría de los estudios analizados intentan identificar los factores de riesgo más importantes para el re-desplazamiento de las fracturas, de lo que se destacan el grado de desplazamiento inicial de la fractura y la reducción lograda de la misma. A su vez, otros artículos valoran los resultados del tratamiento mediante estabilización con yeso o fijación mediante Kirschner wire. Conclusión: el desplazamiento inicial de la fractura y la reducción lograda en block quirúrgico (BQ) son los factores de riesgo más importantes para el re-desplazamiento. Si bien la técnica de enyesado no es considerado una variable estadísticamente significativa, es considerada una variable importante en cuanto al pronóstico de la lesión, destacando al moldeado de 3 puntos como principal índice a considerar. Se considera aconsejable asociar un Kw en aquellas fracturas cabalgadas en las que no se logra una reducción anatómica en block quirúrgico.


Introduction: Distal radius metaphyseal fractures are the most frequent fractures in pediatric age, accounting for 30% of the total. Maintaining the reduction of displaced fractures is not always possible: re-displacement is the main complication of these injuries. Classically, treatment was performed with a maneuver and a cast, although in recent years fixation with Kirschner wire (Kw) has been associated in search of reducing re-displacement. The objective of our work is to identify risk factors in search of the best treatment while being the least aggressive possible. Materials and methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PubMed electronic search engine. It reached a total of 4594 articles, which according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 papers were selected for our bibliographic review. Results: It should be noted that most of the articles found are level of evidence III and IV. Our search reflects a re-displacement rate between 20-39% using a cast at 2 weeks; as well as a re-manipulation index between 5-10% of all displaced fractures. Most of the studies analyzed attempt to identify the most important risk factors for the re-displacement of fractures, of which the degree of initial displacement of the fracture and the reduction achieved are highlighted. In turn, other articles assess the results of treatment by stabilization with plaster or fixation with Kirschner wire. Conclusion: the initial displacement of the fracture and the reduction achieved in the surgical block (BQ) are the most important risk factors for re-displacement. Although the casting technique is not considered a statistically significant variable, it is considered an important variable in terms of the prognosis of the injury, highlighting the 3-point casting as the main index to be considered. It is considered advisable to associate a Kw in those mounted fractures in which an anatomical reduction in surgical block is not achieved.


Introdução: As fraturas metafisárias do rádio distal são as mais frequentes na idade pediátrica, correspondendo a 30% do total. Manter a redução das fraturas desviadas nem sempre é possível: o deslocamento é a principal complicação dessas lesões. Classicamente, o tratamento era realizado com manobra e gesso, embora nos últimos anos a fixação com fio de Kirschner (Kw) tenha sido associada na busca pela redução do deslocamento. O objetivo do nosso trabalho é identificar os fatores de risco em busca do melhor tratamento sendo o menos agressivo possível. Materiais e métodos: uma busca sistemática foi realizada usando o mecanismo de busca eletrônico PubMed. Chegou-se a um total de 4.594 artigos, que de acordo com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 15 artigos para nossa revisão bibliográfica. Resultados: Ressalta-se que a maioria dos artigos encontrados são de nível de evidência III e IV. Nossa pesquisa reflete uma taxa de re-deslocamento entre 20-39% usando um gesso em 2 semanas; bem como um índice de remanipulação entre 5-10% de todas as fraturas deslocadas. A maioria dos estudos analisados ​​busca identificar os fatores de risco mais importantes para o deslocamento das fraturas, que incluem o grau de deslocamento inicial da fratura e a redução alcançada. Por sua vez, outros artigos avaliam os resultados do tratamento com estabilização gessada ou fixação com fio de Kirschner. Conclusão: o deslocamento inicial da fratura e a redução alcançada no bloqueio cirúrgico (QB) são os fatores de risco mais importantes para o deslocamento. Embora a técnica de gesso não seja considerada uma variável estatisticamente significativa, é considerada uma variável importante em termos de prognóstico da lesão, destacando-se o gesso em 3 pontos como o principal índice a ser considerado. Considera-se aconselhável associar um Kw nas fraturas montadas em que não se consegue redução anatômica no bloqueio cirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radius Fractures/surgery , Radius Fractures/complications , Wrist Injuries/surgery , Wrist Injuries/complications , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Skeleton/growth & development , Risk Factors
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(supl. 1)mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1507747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The deep-sea asteroid species of Brisingida have a nearly global distribution but have remained poorly understood due to their deep bathymetric distributions and fragile skeletons. Objective: To describe the external and internal morphology of Midgardia xandaros including the skeletal arrangement, through multifocal and SEM techniques. Methods: We examined a total of 21 specimens, including 27 arm fragments, from the Gulf of Mexico and Honduras. Two specimens were dissected. Results: Detailed descriptions of pedicellariae, abactinal, intercostal, inferomarginal, adambulacral, ambulacral, odontophore, and oral ossicles, and their spines are provided, emphasizing the articulations and muscle attachments. C-shaped valves pedicellariae and small pedicellariae valves with shorter denticulation areas were recognized. Conclusions: The morphological description of M. xandaros is expanded, providing the most extensive description of abactinal, first adambulacral, first and subsequent inferomarginal ossicles, abactinal spines, and C-shaped, crossed pedicellariae, as well as the distal arm plates, for a brisingid species using SEM to date.


Introducción: Las estrellas de mar de profundidad del orden Brisingida tienen una distribución casi global, sin embargo, han sido poco estudiadas debido a su profunda distribución batimétrica y esqueleto frágil. Objetivo: Describir la morfología externa e interna de Midgardia xandaros incluyendo el arreglo de las placas del esqueleto mediante técnicas de microscopía multifocal y electrónica de barrido (MEB). Métodos: Se examinó un total de 21 ejemplares, incluyendo 27 fragmentos de brazos, provenientes del Golfo de México y Honduras. Dos de estos ejemplares fueron disectados. Resultados: Se presenta la descripción de pedicelarios; placas abactinales, intercostales, inferomarginales, adambulacrales, ambulacrales, orales y odontóforo, y sus espinas, enfatizando los sitios de articulaciones e inserción de músculos. Se reconocieron pedicelarios con valvas con forma de C, y pequeños pedicelarios cuyas valvas poseen áreas de denticulación cortas. Conclusiones: La descripción morfológica de M. xandaros es ampliada, presentado por primera vez la morfología de las placas abactinales, primera adambulacrales, primera y subsecuentes inferomarginales, espinas abactinales y pedicelarios con valvas con forma de "C", así como las placas distales de los brazos para una especie del orden Brisingida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skeleton/growth & development , Starfish/anatomy & histology , Honduras , Mexico
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37081, Jan.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359265

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to estimate the phenotypic associations between residual food intake (RFI) and carcass traits, evaluated by ultrasonography, of young Nellore bulls. Information about 53 young Nelore bulls, pure origin (PO), participants in the Individual Performance Test of Nelore Bulls, carried out at the Capim Branco experimental farm of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU) were used for this purpose. It was evaluated the characteristics of residual feed intake (RFI), rib eye area (REA), marbling (MAR) and fat thickness (FT). In order to estimate the Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, the SAS program was used. Regarding the influence of the RFI classes (low RFI, medium RFI and high RFI) on carcass traits, an out analysis of variance was carried out using the least squares method. It was verified that there was no phenotypic association between RFI and the characteristics of REA and MAR, but the relation between FT and the phenotypic association revealed a medium magnitude. However, when evaluating the RFI classes, it was observed that there were no significant differences of the RFI classes with the carcass traits (REA, FT and MAR). It is recommended that new studies are carried out to verify if the selection for RFI does not result in damages to the finishing of carcass in Nelore cattle.


Subject(s)
Phenotype , Skeleton/diagnostic imaging , Cattle , Eating
11.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 1-13, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811189

ABSTRACT

Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) disturbs mineral homeostasis leading to mineral and bone disorders (MBD). Serum calcium and phosphate (Pi) remain normal until the late stages of CKD at the expense of elevate fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), a phosphaturic hormone, followed by reduced 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) and finally elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). Pi retention is thought to be the initial cause of CKD-MBD. The management of MBD is a huge clinical challenge because the effectiveness of current therapeutic regimens to prevent and treat MBD is limited. An intermittent regimen of PTH, when administered at the early stages of CKD, through its phosphaturic action, could prevent FGF-23 increases, the drop of 1,25(OH)2D, and the development of renal osteodystrophy, including secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and its catabolic effects on the skeleton. Even in more advanced stages of CKD that have not progressed to tertiary HPT, could be beneficial. Therapeutic effects could be achieved in vascular calcification as well. Limited experimental/clinical data support the effectiveness of PTH in CKD-MBD. Its safety, has been established only when it is used for the treatment of osteoporosis, including patients with CKD. The proposed intermittent PTH administration is biologically plausible but its effectiveness and safety has to be critically assessed in long term prospective studies in patients with CKD-MBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Fibroblasts , Homeostasis , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Miners , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder , Skeleton , Therapeutic Uses , Vascular Calcification
12.
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 188-210, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253839

ABSTRACT

Los micro-ARNs (miARNs) son pequeñas moléculas de ARN no codificante (de aproximadamente 15-25 nucleótidos), que regulan la expresión de genes involucrados en numerosas funciones biológicas, a través de la inhibición o degradación de un ARN mensajero diana. La homeostasis ósea se mantiene por el balance entre la formación osteoblástica y la resorción osteoclástica. La sobreexpresión o inhibición de miARNs específicos afecta la proliferación, diferenciación y actividad de osteoblastos, osteocitos y osteoclastos. Estas acciones son llevadas a cabo modulando la expresión de distintos factores transcripcionales y moléculas de señalización de las vías esenciales para la osteoblastogénesis u osteoclastogénesis. Estos efectos modifican el balance entre la formación y la resorción, determinando cambios en la homeostasis ósea. Esta revisión enumera una serie de miARNs que participan en la homeostasis ósea. Profundizando en el conocimiento de los mecanismos por medio de los cuales los miARNs actúan sobre el hueso, podrían revelarse nuevos usos potenciales futuros, entre los que se encuentran su utilidad como nuevos biomarcadores óseos o como agentes terapéuticos para el tratamiento de trastornos metabólicos óseos, pérdida de masa ósea o enfermedades óseas. (AU)


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding RNA molecules (of approximately 15­25 nucleotides), which regulate the expression of genes controlling numerous biological functions, through the inhibition or degradation of the target messenger RNA. Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. The overexpression or inhibition of specific miRNAs affects cell proliferation, differentiation and activity of osteoblast, osteocytes and osteoclast. This action is done by modulating the expression of different transcription factors and signaling molecules of the most relevant pathways of osteoblastogenesis or osteoclastogenesis. This effect is able to modify the balance between bone formation and resorption, determining changes in bone homeostasis. The present review is an overview of a series of miRNAs involved in bone homeostasis. An in depth knowledge of the mechanisms by which miRNAs act on bone may reveal potential uses in the future as new bone biomarkers or therapeutic agents for treating metabolic bone disorders, bone loss and bone diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Remodeling , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteocytes , Skeleton/metabolism , Bone Diseases/therapy , Bone Resorption/therapy , Biomarkers , MicroRNAs/physiology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control
13.
Med. UIS ; 32(3): 49-54, Sep.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114976

ABSTRACT

Resumen La luxación temporomandibular es infrecuente, pero genera gran repercusión en el esqueleto facial. En ocasiones el cuadro clínico inicial es inespecífico y puede confundirse con otras patologías si no se tiene un adecuado conocimiento del tema, o se realiza una anamnesis incorrecta. Este artículo presenta el caso de una paciente que consultó al servicio de urgencias por disartria y desviación de la comisura labial hacia la izquierda, asociado a dolor severo y parestesia en hemicara derecha. No obstante, al ingreso la paciente refirió síntomas ambiguos, que para el médico evaluador sugirieron una causa neurológica. Durante la observación se solicitó valoración por servicio de cirugía plástica, se logró orientación de la anamnesis y examen físico, obteniendo una impresión diagnóstica de luxación de articulación temporomandibular derecha, confirmada por imagenología, y por ende un tratamiento oportuno con reducción e inmovilización en el servicio de urgencias. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):49-54


Abstract The temporomandibular joint dislocation is uncommon, but it causes a great repercussion on the facial skeleton. Occasionally, the initial symptoms can be unspecific and confuse with other pathologies if there are not an adequate knowledge of the topic and the anamnesis is incorrect. This article presents a clinical case of a patient with dysarthria and left deviation of the labial commissure, associated with severe pain and paresthesia in the right side of the face. Nevertheless, the patient initially referred ambiguous symptoms, suggesting a neurological cause. During observation in the emergency room, plastic surgery service valorated the patient, with subsequent orientation of the anamnesis and physical examination, achieving a satisfactory management of the acute dislocation. MÉD.UIS.2019;32(3):49-54


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Joint Dislocations , Pain , Paresthesia , Pathology , Physical Examination , Printing , Skeleton , Surgery, Plastic , Temporomandibular Joint , Dysarthria , Face , Immobilization , Medical History Taking
14.
Actual. osteol ; 15(2): 78-93, mayo - ago. 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048450

ABSTRACT

Los hallazgos osteológicos se intensi!caron en los últimos años. Se demostró que el esqueleto se comporta, además de sus funciones clásicas, como un órgano de secreción endocrina que sintetiza al menos dos hormonas: el factor de crecimiento de !broblastos 23 (FGF-23) y la osteocalcina (Ocn). La Ocn es un péptido pequeño que contiene 3 residuos de ácido glutámico. Estos residuos se carboxilan postraduccionalmente, quedando retenida en la matriz ósea. La forma decarboxilada en el primer residuo de ácido glutámico (GluOcn) fue reportada por poseer efectos biológicos; la resorción ósea es el mecanismo clave para su bioactivación. La presente revisión se centra en los conocimientos actuales sobre la función hormonal de la Ocn. A la fecha se reporta que la Ocn regularía el metabolismo energético aumentando la proliferación de células ` pancreáticas, y la secreción de insulina y de adiponectina. Sobre el músculo esquelético actuaría favoreciendo la absorción y el catabolismo de nutrientes. La función reproductiva masculina estaría regulada mediante el estímulo a las células de Leydig para sintetizar testosterona; en el desarrollo cerebral y la cognición, la Ocn aumentaría la síntesis de neurotransmisores monoaminados y disminuiría el neurotransmisor inhibidor GABA. Si bien son indispensables mayores evidencias para dilucidar los mecanismos reguladores por medio de los cuales actuaría la Ocn, los resultados enumerados en los distintos estudios experimentales establecen la importancia de este novedoso integrante molecular. Dilucidar su rol dentro de estos procesos interrelacionados en seres humanos abriría la posibilidad de utilizar a la Ocn en el tratamiento de enfermedades endocrino-metabólicas. (AU)


Osteological !ndings have intensi!ed in recent years. The skeleton behaves as an endocrine secretion organ that synthesizes at least two hormones: osteocalcin (Ocn) and !broblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). Ocn is a small peptide that contains 3 glutamic acid residues. After translation, these residues are carboxylated to make possible its retention into the bone matrix. Decarboxylation on the !rst glutamic acid residue (GluOcn) has been reported to have biological effects. Bone resorption is the key mechanism for its bioactivation. This review focuses on current knowledge on Ocn hormonal function. It has been reported that Ocn regulates energy metabolism by increasing the proliferation of pancreatic ` cells, and the secretion of insulin and adiponectin. On the skeletal muscle, it may act by favoring the absorption and catabolism of nutrients. Male reproductive function might be regulated by stimulating Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone. Regarding brain development and cognition, Ocn would increase monoamine neurotransmitters synthesis and decrease inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Although more evidence is needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of Ocn, different experimental studies establish the importance of this novel molecular mediator. Clarifying its role within interrelated processes in humans, might open the possibility of using Ocn in different treatments of endocrine-metabolic diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Osteocalcin/therapeutic use , Skeleton/physiology , Skeleton/metabolism , Skeleton/pathology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Osteocalcin/biosynthesis , Osteocalcin/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/physiology , Fertility , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Genitalia, Male/metabolism , Infertility/prevention & control , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/prevention & control
15.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 29-38, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Latest tissue engineering strategies for musculoskeletal tissues regeneration focus on creating a biomimetic microenvironment closely resembling the natural topology of extracellular matrix. This paper presents a novel musculoskeletal tissue scaffold fabricated by hybrid additive manufacturing method. METHODS: The skeleton of the scaffold was 3D printed by fused deposition modeling, and a layer of random or aligned polycaprolactone nanofibers were embedded between two frames. A parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of process parameters on nanofiber morphology. A compression test was performed to study the mechanical properties of the scaffold. Human fibroblast cells were cultured in the scaffold for 7 days to evaluate the effect of scaffold microstructure on cell growth. RESULTS: The tip-to-collector distance showed a positive correlation with the fiber alignment, and the electrospinning time showed a negative correlation with the fiber density. With reinforced nanofibers, the hybrid scaffold demonstrated superior compression strength compared to conventional 3D-printed scaffold. The hybrid scaffold with aligned nanofibers led to higher cell attachment and proliferation rates, and a directional cell organization. In addition, there was a nonlinear relationship between the fiber diameter/density and the cell actinfilament density. CONCLUSION: This hybrid biofabrication process can be established as a highly efficient and scalable platform to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds with patterned fibrous microstructure, and will facilitate future development of clinical solutions for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomimetics , Extracellular Matrix , Fibroblasts , Methods , Microtechnology , Nanofibers , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Regeneration , Skeleton , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e107-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chordomas are aggressive bone tumors that have a predilection for the axial skeleton including the skull base and spinal/sacral bones. However, the histopathological and clinical differences between skull base chordoma (SBC) and sacral/spinal chordoma (SC) are unclear as previous studies have been focused on patient prognosis and treatment outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of chordoma according to its location. METHODS: Patients with chordomas were enrolled, and the histopathologic features were compared according to the tumor location. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were enrolled. SBCs had more abundant chondroid matrix and diffuse growth pattern, while SCs had non-chondroid, myxoid matrix and a lobulating pattern, typical of chordoma. Old age and residual tumors were risk factors for shorter overall survival in SBCs. The chondroid matrix was an independent risk factor for shorter disease-free survival in the overall population. CONCLUSION: Chordomas have different histopathologic features depending on the anatomical location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms , Brain Neoplasms , Chordoma , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm, Residual , Notochord , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Skeleton , Skull Base , Skull Base Neoplasms , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Treatment Outcome
17.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 186-190, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762766

ABSTRACT

Myxomas can be divided into two groups: those derived from the facial skeleton, and those derived from external skeletal soft tissue. Soft tissue myxomas of the head and neck are uncommon, with fewer than 50 cases reported. In any form and location, myxoma of parotid gland is rare. We report a case of myxoma arising from the left superficial lobe of the parotid gland with good long-term follow-up after superficial parotidectomy with tumor excision. A 49-year-old man was referred to our department of plastic and reconstructive surgery with a painless palpable mass that had persisted in the left mandible angle region for 2 years. Excision of the facial mass and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. The biopsy result was myxoma. Long-term follow-up for 22 months showed favorable results without evidence of recurrence but with temporary facial nerve weakness right after the surgery. Myxoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when benign tumor of the parotid gland is being considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Facial Nerve , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Mandible , Myxoma , Neck , Parotid Gland , Plastics , Recurrence , Skeleton , Soft Tissue Neoplasms
18.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 130-133, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762748

ABSTRACT

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder of collagen biosynthesis and structure, characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, aberrant scars, and tissue friability. Besides the skin, skeleton (joint) and vessels, other organs such as the eyes and the intestine can be affected in this syndrome. Accordingly, interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary for a successful treatment. Three basic surgical problems are arising due to an EDS: decreased the strength of the tissue causes making the wound dehiscence, increased bleeding tendency due to the blood vessel fragility, and delayed wound healing period. Surgery patients with an EDS require an experienced surgeon in treating EDS patients; the treatment process requires careful tissue handling and a long postoperative care. A surgeon should also recognize whether the patient shows a resistance to local anesthetics and a high risk of hematoma formation. This report describes a patient with a wide open wound on the foot dorsum and delayed wound healing after the primary approximation of the wound margins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthetics, Local , Blood Vessels , Cicatrix , Collagen , Connective Tissue Diseases , Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome , Foot , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Intestines , Joint Instability , Postoperative Care , Skeleton , Skin , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
19.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 34-42, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Various bone graft substitute materials are used to enhance bone regeneration in the maxillofacial skeleton. In the recent past, synthetic graft materials have been produced using various synthetic and natural calcium precursors. Very recently, eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite (EHA) has been evaluated as a synthetic bone graft substitute. To assess bone regeneration using EHA in cystic and/or apicectomy defects of the jaws through clinical and radiographic evaluations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study protocol (CTRI/2014/12/005340) and were followed up at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks to assess the amount of osseous fill through digital radiographs/cone-beam computed tomography along with clinical parameters and complications. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, means, percentages and standard deviations were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sizes of the lesions in the study ranged from 1 to 4 cm and involved one to four teeth. The study showed significant changes in the formation of bone, the merging of material and the surgical site margins from the first week to the first month in all patients (age range, 15-50 years) irrespective of the size of the lesions and the number of teeth involved. Bone formation was statistically significant from the fourth to the eighth week, and the trabecular pattern was observed by the end of 12 weeks with uneventful wound healing. CONCLUSION: EHA showed enhancement of bone regeneration, and healing was complete by the end of 12 weeks with a trabecular pattern in all patients irrespective of the size of the lesion involved. The study showed enhancement of bone regeneration in the early bone formative stage within 12 weeks after grafting. EHA is cost effective and production is environment friendly with no disease transfer risks. Thus, natural bioceramics will play an important role in the reduction of costs involved in grafting and reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apicoectomy , Bone Regeneration , Calcium , Durapatite , Jaw , Osteogenesis , Skeleton , Tooth , Transplants , Wound Healing
20.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 47-51, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766200

ABSTRACT

Skull base chordomas are rare, malignant tumors arising from primitive notochord remnants of the axial skeleton and comprise approximately 25–35% of all chordoma cases. Nasal endoscopy in previous case reports has characterized nasopharyngeal chordomas as firm, semi-translucent masses protruding from the posterior nasopharyngeal wall with a pink, “meaty” appearance. However, the nasopharyngeal chordoma in the present case had a soft, cystic appearance, unlike the tumors previously described. Herein, an unusual case of an incidentally discovered nasopharyngeal chordoma is reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer; the discovered chordoma had a benign cystic appearance with no abnormal positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) uptake.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chordoma , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Electrons , Endoscopy , Notochord , Skeleton , Skull Base , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
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