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1.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-101239, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291145

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O melanoma cutâneo é um tumor com grande capacidade de metastização. Um dos quadros possíveis, mas bastante raro, é quando a metástase se aloja em peritônio (carcinomatose peritoneal). Relato do caso: Paciente feminina, 61 anos, encaminhada por massa inguinal esquerda suspeita e lesão hipercrômica de 2 cm, com área de regressão em membro inferior esquerdo. A paciente foi submetida à linfadenectomia inguinal esquerda e ressecção da lesão de pele, que evidenciou melanoma maligno cutâneo extensivo superficial invasor, de espessura de Breslow 1,2 mm, e nível de Clark II, bem como metástase linfonodal. O tratamento adjuvante incluiu radioterapia e quimioterapia. Durante follow-up, oito meses depois, ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada de abdome evidenciaram imagem nodular sólida hipoecoica, heterogênea e bosselada, mal definida e mal delimitada em projeção para-aórtica à esquerda, com 12,7x6,7x4,8 cm. Em laparotomia exploradora, encontrou-se massa volumosa retroperitoneal em flanco esquerdo, com envolvimento do ângulo de Treitz e presença de carcinomatose peritoneal. O laudo anatomopatológico evidenciou neoplasia maligna pouco diferenciada epitelioide infiltrativa, compatível com história clínica de melanoma. A paciente evoluiu a óbito após consulta com oncologia clínica. Conclusão:Existem poucos casos de metástase peritoneal de melanoma relatados na literatura. Contudo, deve-se levar em consideração sua possibilidade de ocorrência e as opções terapêuticas disponíveis, além de também compreender seu impacto no prognóstico do paciente. Apesar de rara, a carcinomatose peritoneal deve ser considerada quando pacientes com histórico pessoal de melanoma apresentarem queixas abdominais inespecíficas, como a paciente do caso relatado.


Introduction: Cutaneous melanoma is a tumor with great capacity for metastasis. One of the possible but quite rare scenarios is when the metastasis is lodged in the peritoneum (peritoneal carcinomatosis). Case report:61-year-old female patient, referred by a suspected left inguinal mass and 2 cm hyperchromic lesion, with regression area in the left lower limb. The patient underwent left inguinal lymphadenectomy and resection of the skin lesion, which revealed invasive extensive superficial cutaneous malignant melanoma, Breslow depth 1.2 mm and Clark II level, as well as lymph node metastasis. Adjuvant treatment included radiotherapy and chemotherapy. During follow-up, 8 months later, abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography showed hypoechoic, heterogeneous, and beveled solid nodular image, poorly defined and delimited in left para-aortic projection, with 12.7x6.7x4.8 cm. In exploratory laparotomy, a large retroperitoneal mass was found on the left flank, involving the Treitz angle, and revealed the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The anatomopathological report showed a poorly differentiated malignant infiltrative epithelioid neoplasm, compatible with the clinical history of melanoma. The patient died after consultation with clinical oncology. Conclusion: There are few cases of peritoneal metastasis of melanoma reported in the literature. However, its possibility of occurrence and the therapeutic options available must be taken into account, in addition to understanding its impact on the patient's prognosis. Although rare, peritoneal carcinomatosis should be considered when patients with a personal history of melanoma have non-specific abdominal complaints, such as the patient in the case reported.


Introducción: El melanoma cutáneo es un tumor con gran capacidad de metástasis. Una de las situaciones posibles, pero bastante rara, es cuando la metástasis se aloja en el peritoneo. Relato del caso: paciente femenina de 61 años, remitida por sospecha de masa inguinal izquierda y lesión hipercrómica de 2 cm, con área de regresión, en miembro inferior izquierdo. La paciente fue sometida a linfadenectomía inguinal izquierda y resección de la lesión cutánea, que demonstró melanoma maligno cutáneo superficial extenso invasivo, Breslow 1,2 mm y nivel de Clark II, así como metástasis ganglionares. El tratamiento adyuvante incluyó radioterapia y quimioterapia. Durante el seguimiento, 8 meses después, la ecografía y la tomografía computarizada de abdomen mostraron una imagen nodular sólida hipoecoica, heterogénea y biselada, mal definida y delimitada en proyección para-aórtica izquierda, con 12,7x6,7x4,8 cm. En la laparotomía exploradora se encontró una gran masa retroperitoneal en el flanco izquierdo, involucrando el ángulo de Treitz y presencia de carcinomatosis peritoneal. El informe anatomopatológico mostró una neoplasia epitelioide infiltrativa maligna mal diferenciada, compatible con la historia clínica de melanoma. El paciente falleció tras consulta con oncología clínica. Conclusión: Hay pocos casos de metástasis peritoneal de melanoma reportados en la literatura. Sin embargo, se debe tener en cuenta su posibilidad de ocurrencia y las opciones terapéuticas disponibles, además de comprender su impacto en el pronóstico del paciente. Aunque es poco común, la carcinomatosis peritoneal debe considerarse cuando los pacientes con antecedentes personales de melanoma tienen molestias abdominales inespecíficas, como la paciente del caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Peritoneal Neoplasms/secondary , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Peritoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Peritoneal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 485-489, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153089

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report a series of cases of solitary fibrofolliculoma, a lesion seldom observed in the lids. Demographics, as well as clinical and histological aspects of the lesion were evaluated. Methods: This was a retrospective case series spanning a period of 18 years. All the included patients were diagnosed with solitary fibrofolliculoma confirmed by histological examination. Data regarding patient demographics, signs, and symptoms, course of the disease, location of the lesion, clinical and histological diagnosis, and outcome were collected. Results: Eleven cases of solitary fibrofolliculoma were diagnosed in the study period. The median age of patients was 51 ± 16.3 years (range: 27-78 years). Most patients were females (7/11; 64%). Five of the patients (45%) were asymptomatic; four (36%) reported bleeding, one (9%) had referred itching, and one (9%) rubbing of the lesion. The lesion occurred in a wide range of locations; one of them was located in the lids. The diagnosis for all lesions was histological based on characteristic findings of a hair follicle occasionally dilated and containing keratin material surrounded by a moderately well-circumscribed thick mantle of fibrous tissue. The infundibular follicular epithelium extended out into this fibrous mantle forming epithelial strands or cords. There were no relapses after exeresis. Conclusion: Solitary fibrofolliculoma is a rare lesion, seldom affecting the eyelids. We reported 11 cases, and the third case reported thus far in the literature affecting the lids. Diagnosis may be easily missed due to the nonspecific symptoms and clinical appearance. Therefore, it is necessary to perform excisional biopsy and histological examination for the recognition of this lesion.


RESUMO Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar uma série de casos de fibrofoliculoma solitário, uma lesão raramente observada nas pálpebras. Demografia, bem como aspectos clínicos e histológicos da lesão foram avaliados. Métodos: Trata-se de uma série de casos retrospectivos, com um período de 18 anos. Todos os pacientes incluídos foram diagnosticados com fibrofoliculoma solitário confirmado por exame histológico. Foram coletados dados referentes à demografia, sinais e sintomas dos pacientes, evolução da doença, localização da lesão, diagnóstico clínico e histológico e desfecho. Resultados: Onze casos de fibrofoliculoma solitário foram diagnosticados no período do estudo. A média de idade dos pacientes de 51 ± 16,3 anos (variação: 27-78 anos). A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (7/11, 64%). Cinco dos pacientes (45%) eram assintomáticos; quatro (36%) relataram sangramento, um (9%) referiu coceira e um (9%) fricção da lesão. A lesão ocorreu em luma ampla variedade de locais; um deles sendo nas pálpebras. O diagnóstico de todas as lesões foi histológico com base nos achados característicos de um folículo piloso ocasionalmente dilatado e contendo material de queratina, cercado por um manto espesso de tecido fibroso moderadamente bem circunscrito. O epitélio infundibular folicular se estendeu até esse manto fibroso, formando cordões ou cordões epiteliais. Não houve recaídas após exérese. Conclusão: Fibrofoliculoma solitário é uma lesão rara, mais ainda quando afeta as pálpebras. Relatamos 11 casos, e o terceiro relatado até o momento na literatura que afeta as pálpebras. O diagnóstico pode ser facilmente esquecido devido a sintomas inespecíficos e aparência clínica. Portanto, é necessário realizar biópsia excisional e exame histológico para o reconhecimento dessa lesão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms , Hair Follicle , Hair Diseases , Skin , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
3.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 464-467, oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138740

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: El melanoma cutáneo presenta un alto potencial metastásico y constituye la fuente extraabdominal más frecuente de lesión del intestino delgado. El diagnóstico de metástasis gastrointestinales es a menudo una expresión de enfermedad avanzada, con una supervivencia media de entre 6 y 9 meses. Materiales y Método: Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 63 años diagnosticado de melanoma cutáneo que acudió a urgencias por dolor abdominal y estreñimiento. Se realizó una TC abdominal donde se informó de la existencia de 2 lesiones metastásicas a nivel de intestino delgado que condicionaban oclusión intestinal. Resultados: El paciente fue intervenido quirúrgicamente bajo abordaje laparoscópico con resección de los dos segmentos intestinales afectos y anastomosis intracorpórea. El informe histopatológico confirmó que se trataban de metástasis de melanoma. Discusión: La oclusión intestinal por metástasis de melanoma maligno es muy infrecuente. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección en pacientes con metástasis intestinales de melanoma. El tratamiento quirúrgico puede mejorar el pronóstico y estaría indicado casos de metástasis únicas o pacientes sintomáticos con intención paliativa. El abordaje mínimamente invasivo ofrece resultados oncológicos similares a la laparotomía.


Aim: Cutaneous melanoma has a high metastatic potential, being the most frequent extra-abdominal source of small bowel metastasis. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastases is often an expression of advanced disease, with an average survival of 6-9 months. Materials and Method: We herein present the case of a 63-year-old male patient diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma who arrived to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain and constipation. An abdominal CT scan was performed, it revealed two metastatic lesions in the small bowel which marked the mechanical obstruction. Results: Patient underwent a laparoscopy and both involved segments were removed. Pathology exam confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma metastases. Discussion: Surgery excision is the treatment of choice in patients with small bowel metastases from melanoma. Surgical management can improve the prognosis and it would be indicated in cases of single metastases or symptomatic patients with a palliative intention. Minimally invasive approach provides similar oncological results as conventional laparotomy. Small bowel obstruction due to metastases of malignant melanoma is extremely rare.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Laparoscopy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/secondary , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Melanoma/pathology
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 280-284, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125080

ABSTRACT

El melanoma desmoplásico es una variedad infrecuente de melanoma que se distingue por su presentación clínico-patológica y su comportamiento biológico. El diagnóstico temprano es un desafío por su presentación clínica variable, con predominio del componente dérmico y la frecuente ausencia de pigmento. En la histología se lo divide en puro y mixto y esta clasificación tiene importantes implicancias pronósticas. El espesor de Breslow promedio al momento del diagnóstico es mayor que en otras variantes de melanoma, sin embargo, la tendencia a generar metástasis ganglionares es menor.


Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma with a different clinical behavior compared to other histological variants. Its diagnosis in early stages is a challenge due to its variable clinical presentation, with a predominant dermal component and the frequent absence of pigment. Its histology is divided into pure and mixed type, and this classification has important prognostic implications. The average Breslow thickness at diagnosis is higher than in other melanoma variants. However, the tendency to lymph node metastasis is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/pathology , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Medisan ; 24(3)mayo.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125126

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un anciano de 72 años de edad, quien presentaba un tumor cutáneo dorsal maligno, por lo cual fue atendido de forma multidisciplinaria en 2 hospitales de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. Dado el diagnóstico preoperatorio de epitelioma basocelular de piel se procedió a la extirpación del tumor de forma ambulatoria. El resultado del estudio anatomopatológico no confirmó dicho diagnóstico, pero sí corroboró que se trataba de un fibroxantoma atípico. Con los márgenes quirúrgicos de seguridad amplios se logró la curación del paciente.


The case report of a 72 years old man who presented a dorsal cutaneous neoplasm is described, reason why he was assisted in a multidisciplinary way in 2 hospitals from Santiago de Cuba. Given the preoperative diagnosis of skin basal cell epithelioma the tumor was removed in an ambulatory way. The result of the pathologic study didn't confirm this diagnosis, but it corroborated that it was an atypical fibroxanthoma. With the wide surgical margins of security the patient's cure was achieved.


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Aged , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/diagnosis
6.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(3): 200-208, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126938

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En Guantánamo no se ha caracterizado el cáncer de piel en los adultos mayores. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes ingresados en los hogares de ancianos "Caridad Jaca" y "San José" de la ciudad de Guantánamo con diagnóstico de cáncer de piel en el periodo 2017-2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo y transversal con todos los ancianos (n=256) con cáncer de piel (n=15). Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, lugar de nacimiento y donde vivió, antecedentes patológicos personales, fototipo cutáneo, características de la lesión, diagnóstico clínico, dermatoscópico e histopatológico. Resultados: En el 5,9 % de los ancianos se diagnosticó un cáncer de piel. Fue más común en hombres (53,4 %), con 60 a 79 años (53,4 %), nacidos o que vivieron en áreas urbanas y fototipo cutáneo III (40,0 %). El 100,0 % se expuso a la luz solar, el 86,7 % sin medios de fotoprotección. El cáncer se localizó más en la cara (66,7 %), tenían entre 3 y 4 años de evolución (60,0 %) y el carcinoma basocelular (46,6 %) fue el más frecuente. En el 80,0 % de los casos se apreció correlación diagnóstico clínico, dermatoscópico e histopatológico. Conclusiones: Es baja la frecuencia del cáncer de piel en los ancianos, sin embargo, se requiere prestar más atención al aseguramiento del diagnóstico precoz de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Skin cancer in elderly has not been characterized in Guantanamo. Objective: Characterize the patients admitted to the nursing homes "Caridad Jaca" and "San José" in the city of Guantánamo with a diagnosis of skin cancer in the period 2017-2019. Method: It was conducted an observational, prospective and cross-sectional study with all the elderly (n=256) with skin cancer (n=15). Studied variables: age, sex, place of birth and lived, personal pathological history, skin phototype, characteristics of the lesion, clinical dermatoscopic and histopathological diagnosis. Results: 5.9% of the elderly were diagnosed with skin cancer. It was more common in men (53.4%), range age from 60 to 79 (53.4%), were born or lived in urban areas and with skin phototype III (40.0%). 100.0% of the patients were exposed to sunlight, 86.7% without photo-protection means. The cancer was more localized in the face area (66.7%), had between 3 and 4 years of evolution (60.0%) and basal cell carcinoma (46.6%) was the most frequent. Clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological diagnosis correlation was observed in 80.0 % of the cases. Conclusions: The rate of skin cancers in erderly is low, however, more attention is needed to ensure early diagnosis of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration
7.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 31-40, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092407

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las metástasis cutáneas (MC) constituyen una manifestación infrecuente de neoplasias internas. Su diagnóstico requiere un alto índice de sospecha clínica, pues los hallazgos pueden ser sutiles. Estas ponen de manifiesto la presencia de un tumor maligno diseminado y pueden permitir el diagnóstico de neoplasias internas no conocidas, o indicar la diseminación o recurrencia de otras ya diagnosticadas. La MC del carcinoma de ovario suele aparecer en enfermedad avanzada e indican un mal pronóstico.Su reconocimiento temprano puede llevar a un diagnóstico preciso y rápido, con el consiguiente tratamiento oportuno, aunque en la mayoría de los casos son indicativas de un pronóstico infausto.


SUMMARY Cutaneous metastases are an infrequent manifestation of internal neoplasms. Its diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion, since the findings can be subtle. These reveal the presence of a disseminated malignant tumor and can allow the diagnosis of unknown internal neoplasms, or indicate the dissemination or recurrence of others already diagnosed. MC of ovarian carcinoma usually appears in advanced disease and may indicate a poor prognosis. Early recovery can carry out an accurate and rapid diagnosis, with timely emergency treatment, although in most cases they are indicators of an unfortunate prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/complications
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 99-104, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092793

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El tumor de Bednar es un sarcoma de bajo grado, infrecuente, considerado como la variante pigmen tada del dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, histopatológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución de un caso pediátrico de esta infrecuente neoplasia. Caso Clínico: escolar de 9 años que consultó por una pápula indurada asintomática, de dos años de evolución en el dorso del cuarto dedo del pie izquierdo. La biopsia incisional de la lesión fue com patibles con un DFSP pigmentado. El estudio inmunohistoquímico mostró positividad intensa para CD34 en toda la lesión, con factor XIIIa negativo. Se complementó el estudio de la pieza histológica con citogenética molecular FISH para el gen PDGFB (22q13.1) el cual reflejó un patrón anómalo en las células tumorales, no así en los melanocitos ni en la piel peritumoral. Se realizó cirugía micrográfica de Mohs diferida con cobertura mediante sustituto dérmico, sin recidiva ni recurrencia tumoral a los 5 años de seguimiento. Conclusiones: El DFSP pigmentado es un sarcoma de bajo grado, que muy infrecuentemente se presenta en pacientes pediátricos. Las variantes clásica y pigmentada deben ser sospechadas ante una lesión papulonodular única, de crecimiento lento y progresivo, con presencia de células fusiformes con patrón estoriforme en la biopsia y con estudio inmunohistoquímico positi vo para CD34. Es una entidad con buen pronóstico, con escaso riesgo de recurrencia y metástasis, si se logra la realización de una extirpación completa.


Abstract: Introduction: Bednar tumor is a rare low-grade sarcoma considered the pigmented variant of dermatofibrosarco ma protuberans (DFSP). Objective: To describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics, treatment and evolution of this rare neoplasm. Clinical Case: A 9-year old female presented with a 2-year history of an indurated, asymptomatic papule on the back of her fourth left toe. The incisio nal biopsy was compatible with pigmented DFSP. The immunohistochemical study showed intense positivity for CD34 throughout the lesion, with negative factor XIIIa. We complemented the study with molecular cytogenetics (FISH) for PDGFB gene (22q13.1) which showed an abnormal pattern in tumor cells, but not in the melanocytes or the peritumoral skin. Delayed Mohs surgery and skin substitute dressing were performed without neoplastic recurrence at 5 years of follow up. Conclu sion: Pigmented DFSP is a low-grade sarcoma that is very rare in pediatric patients. The classical and pigmented variants should be suspected in the presence of a single papulonodular lesion of slow and progressive growth, with presence of spindle cells with storiform pattern in the biopsy and positive immunohistochemical study for CD34. It is an entity with good prognosis, with little risk of recurren ce and metastasis, if complete excision is achieved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Dermatofibrosarcoma/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Dermatofibrosarcoma/surgery , Dermatofibrosarcoma/pathology
9.
Dermatol. argent ; 26(1): 23-25, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146359

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: En la octava edición del manual de estadificación del cáncer del American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), se introdujeron cambios importantes en las categorías T, N y M. Al entrar en vigencia la octava guía de la AJCC, se modificó no solo el T, sino también la indicación de biopsia del ganglio centinela (BGC). Entre los cambios más significativos en la estadificación se encuentran: la exclusión del índice mitótico (IM) de la categoría T en los melanomas finos (de hasta 1 mm de espesor) y el cambio del punto de corte para el espesor tumoral para discriminar un T1a (< 0,8 mm sin ulceración) de un T1b (≥ 0,8 mm). Objetivo: Comparar la estadificación inicial de los melanomas finos según el criterio utilizado en la séptima edición, con la que tendrían de acuerdo con la perspectiva actual del AJCC, con especial atención en el índice mitótico. Diseño y métodos: Estudio observacional, de corte transversal, realizado mediante la recolección de datos de las historias clínicas desde el 1 de enero de 2000 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2017. Resultados: De 131 melanomas finos incluidos, 28 tendrían cambios en su estadificación. Al considerar el nuevo punto de corte para el espesor tumoral, 22 melanomas T1a pasarían a T1b. Asimismo, se detectaron 20 melanomas con un IM ≥ 1 mitosis/mm2, de los cuales solo 6 tuvieron indicación de BGC por este criterio exclusivamente y serían clasificados como T1a en la actualidad. De estos, en 2 no se realizó la BGC por autodeterminación de los pacientes y en los 4 restantes el resultado fue negativo. Conclusiones: Veintiocho de nuestros pacientes tendrían hoy diferencias en la indicación de BGC: 22 serían considerados con mayor riesgo de metástasis ganglionares y serían candidatos a su pesquisa. Los otros 6 pacientes ya no tendrían indicación de ese estudio por la baja posibilidad de encontrar metástasis ocultas, lo cual coincide con el resultado negativo de la BGC en los 4 pacientes que se sometieron al procedimiento. (AU)


Background: In the 8th edition of the cancer staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), important changes were made in the T, N and M categories. When the 8th guideline of the AJCC came into effect, not only was the T stage modified, but also the indication for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The most significant changes in staging included: the exclusion of the mitotic index (MI) as a determinant of the T category and the change of the threshold of tumor thickness to discriminate a T1a (< 0.8 mm without ulceration) from a T1b (≥ 0.8 mm). Objective: To compare the initial staging of thin melanomas according to the criteria used in the 7th edition, with the one that would have been used according to the current AJCC recommendations, with special focus on MI. Design and methods: Observational, cross-sectional study, carried out through the collection of data from medical records from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2017. Results: There were 131 thin melanomas included, 28 of which would have had changes in their staging. When considering the modified threshold for tumor thickness, 22 T1a melanomas would be classified as T1b. Among 20 thin melanomas with a MI ≥ 1, only 6 had an indication for SLNB solely due to the MI criterion and would be now classified as T1a. Two of these did not undergo SLNB because they rejected the procedure, and in the remaining 4, there were no SLN metastasis. Conclusions: Nowadays, 28 of our patients would have differences in the indication for SLNB: 22 would be considered to be at greater risk of lymph node metastasis and would be candidates for screening. The other 6 patients would no longer have an indication for this procedure due to the low probability of clinically occult metastases, which seems to concur with the negative result of SLNB in the 4 patients who underwent the procedure. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Melanoma/pathology , Mitotic Index , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/diagnosis
10.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(4): 218-222, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cutaneous neoplasms are the most common cancers in the world, and have high morbidity rates. A definitive diagnosis can only be obtained after histopathological evaluation of the lesions. To develop an artificial intelligence program to establish the histopathological diagnosis of cutaneous lesions.Methods: A deep learning program was built using three neural network architectures: MobileNet, Inception and convolutional networks. A database was constructed using 2732 images of melanomas, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, and normal skin. The validation set consisted of 284 images from all 4 categories, allowing for the calculation of sensitivity and specificity. All images were provided by the Path Presenter website.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the MobileNet model were 92% (95%CI, 83-100%) and 97% (95%CI, 90-100%), respectively; corresponding figures for the Inception model were 98.3% (95%CI, 86-100%) and 98.8% (95%CI, 98.2-100%); lastly, the sensitivity and specificity of the convolutional network model were 91.6% (95%CI, 73.8-100%) and 95.7% (95%CI, 94.4-97.2%). The maximum sensitivity for the differentiation of malignant conditions was 91%, and specificity was 95.4%.Conclusion: The program developed in the present study can efficiently distinguish between the main types of skin cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Software Validation , Software , Sensitivity and Specificity , Databases as Topic
11.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(3): 1-4, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121019

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As metástases cutâneas são as neoplasias que acometem a derme ou o tecido celular subcutâneo e podem ser um indicador de neoplasia desconhecida de mau prognóstico. Metástases cutâneas em adenocarcinoma de reto são consideradas raras. Relato do caso: Mulher de 80 anos de idade, hipertensa e diabética, apresentou dor abdominal e hematoquezia, relatando histórico familiar de câncer. Realizou colonoscopia com resultado de biópsia para adenocarcinoma. Um ano depois, recebeu terapia neoadjuvante e radioterapia concomitante por quatro meses, com boa resposta ao tratamento. Porém, relatou lesão mandibular de crescimento rápido, com o trato gastrointestinal como sítio primário de acordo com a biópsia. Em tomografias de reavaliação, foram diagnosticados também vários nódulos diminutos em tecido subcutâneo de abdome inferior, mama e pulmão. Foi realizada nova biópsia dos nódulos de mama e imuno--histoquímica, procedimentos que sugeriram o reto como sítio primário das lesões. Sendo assim, foi iniciada quimioterapia paliativa e a paciente apresentou resposta satisfatória das lesões cutâneas logo no segundo ciclo do tratamento antineoplásico. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Hospital Pompeia sob número de parecer 311.052. Conclusão: Este caso enfatiza que lesões na pele de crescimento progressivo ou sem resposta após terapia convencional podem ser a primeira manifestação de câncer visceral avançado e devem ser apropriadamente investigadas. Dessa forma, fica claro que, por meio de um diagnóstico precoce, é possível mudar o prognóstico da doença e o seu tratamento.


Introduction: Skin metastases are neoplasms that affect the dermis or subcutaneous cell tissue and may be an indicator of an unknown neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Skin metastases in rectal adenocarcinoma are considered rare. Case report: An 80-year-old woman, hypertensive and diabetic, had abdominal pain and hematochezia, reporting a family history of cancer. Colonoscopy was performed with biopsy results for adenocarcinoma. One year later, she received neoadjuvant therapy and concomitant radiation therapy for four months, with good response to treatment. However, she reported a fast-growing mandibular lesion, with the gastrointestinal tract as the primary site according to the biopsy. In reassessment CT scans, several small nodules in subcutaneous tissue of the lower abdomen, breast and lung were also diagnosed. A new biopsy of the breast nodules and immunohistochemistry were performed, procedures that suggested the rectum as the primary site of the lesions. Therefore, palliative chemotherapy was started and the patient presented a satisfactory response to skin lesions in the second cycle of antineoplastic treatment. The project was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Hospital Pompeia through report the opinion nº 311.052. Conclusion: This case emphasizes that progressive or unresponsive skin lesions after conventional therapy can be the first manifestation of advanced visceral cancer and should be properly investigated. Thus, it is clear that, through an early diagnosis, it is possible to change the prognosis of the disease and its treatment.


Introducción: Las metástasis cutáneas son neoplasias que afectan la dermis o el tejido subcutáneo y pueden ser un indicador de neoplasia desconocida con mal pronóstico. Las metástasis cutáneas en el adenocarcinoma rectal se consideran raras. Relato del caso: Una mujer de 80 años, hipertensa y diabética, presentaba dolor abdominal y hematoquecia, e informaba antecedentes familiares de cáncer. La colonoscopia se realizó con resultados de biopsia para adenocarcinoma. Un año después, recibió terapia neoadyuvante y radioterapia concomitante durante cuatro meses, con buena respuesta al tratamiento. Sin embargo, informó una lesión mandibular de rápido crecimiento, con el tracto gastrointestinal como el sitio primario según la biopsia. En las tomografías de reevaluación, también se diagnosticaron varios nódulos pequeños en el tejido subcutáneo de la parte inferior del abdomen, mama y pulmón. Se realizó una nueva biopsia de los nódulos mamarios y la inmunohistoquímica, procedimientos que sugirieron el recto como el sitio primario de las lesiones. Por lo tanto, se inició la quimioterapia paliativa y el paciente presentó una respuesta satisfactoria a las lesiones cutáneas en el segundo ciclo de tratamiento antineoplásico. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética e Investigación del Hospital Pompéia a través del dictamen número 311.052. Conclusión: Este caso enfatiza que las lesiones cutáneas progresivas o que no responden después de la terapia convencional pueden ser la primera manifestación de cáncer visceral avanzado y deben investigarse adecuadamente. Por lo tanto, está claro que, a través de un diagnóstico temprano, es posible cambiar el pronóstico de la enfermedad y su tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis
12.
Dermatol. argent ; 26(1): 2-10, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146328

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Sézary (SS) es una rara y agresiva variante leucémica del linfoma cutáneo de células T, de pronóstico ominoso. Se caracteriza por presentar la tríada eritrodermia, linfadenopatías y linfocitos T neoplásicos circulantes. El diagnóstico está dado por la clínica, el estudio histopatológico, la citometría de flujo y el reordenamiento genético del receptor del linfocito T. En esta revisión se analizan la presentación clínica, la histopatología, el diagnóstico y el pronóstico de este síndrome. (AU)


Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare and aggressive leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis. Is characterized by a triad of erythroderma, lymphadenopathy and circulating neoplastic T cells. Diagnosis is made by clinical features, histopathology, flow cytometry and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. In this review we will analyze clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnosis and prognosis of SS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sezary Syndrome/diagnosis , Prognosis , Mycosis Fungoides/diagnosis , Dermatitis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
14.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 132(4): 4-8, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087163

ABSTRACT

El dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) es un tumor cutáneo, de baja frecuencia, fibrohistiocítico, infiltrante, de lento crecimiento, de agresividad local, de malignidad intermedia; con escasas probabilidades de metástasis pero con alto índice de recurrencia local. El diagnóstico debe sospecharse y confirmarse con histología e inmunohistoquímica. El tratamiento de elección es con cirugía convencional y/o cirugía micrográfica de Mohs, con márgenes de 2-4 cm. Se considera que la prevalencia del DFSP en la edad pediátrica es baja, debido al escaso índice de sospecha. En el presente trabajo compartimos cinco casos de DFSP en la edad pediátrica, estudiados en el Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde. (AU)


Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a cutaneous, low frequency, fibrohistiocytic, infiltrating, slow growing, local aggressiveness, intermediate malignancy tumor; with little chance of metastasis but with a high rate of local recurrence. The diagnosis should be suspected and confirmed with histology and immunohistochemistry. The treatment of choice is with conventional surgery and / or Mohs micrographic surgery, with margins of 2-4 cm. The prevalence of DFSP in pediatric age is considered to be low, due to the low index of suspicion. In this paper we share five cases of DFSP in the pediatric age, studied at the Pedro de Elizalde Children's General Hospital. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Dermatofibrosarcoma/surgery , Dermatofibrosarcoma/diagnosis , Pediatrics , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Dermatofibrosarcoma/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 698-703, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1054877

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A skin field cancerization is a cutaneous area with subclinical changes resultant from chronic sun exposure, with a higher predisposition to development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. So far, there are no well-defined objective parameters that can indicate their degree of activity. Objectives: To describe and compare morphometric aspects and expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis (AK), in both photoexposed and photoprotected epidermis. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with actinic keratosis in the forearms, biopsied at two points: the actinic keratosis and the axillary region. The biopsies of the actinic keratosis, perilesional area, and axilla were evaluated through keratinocyte intraepithelial neoplasia (KIN), and immunohistochemistry of p53, survivin, and Ki67. Nuclear morphometry of basal layer cells was performed through digital image analysis: entropy, area, perimeter, Ra, fractal dimension, circularity, color intensity, and largest diameter. Results: There were 13 patients included and 38 actinic keratosis biopsied. In morphometry, 1039 nuclei were analyzed, of which 228 represented axillary skin, 396 demonstrated actinic keratosis, and 415 represented the perilesional area to the actinic keratosis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in all variables tested for the topographies evaluated. A significant correlation was identified between nucellar morphometric elements, KIN, proliferation markers, and apoptosis. Joint patterns of p53, Ki67, and KIN discriminated the topographies sampled. Study limitations: This was a cross-sectional study with a small number of patients. Conclusions: There are patterns of proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and different cellular morphometrics between photoprotected skin and photoexposed skin. The joint expression of p53, Ki67, and KIN can characterize skin field cancerization activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Keratosis, Actinic/pathology , Skin/anatomy & histology , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 590-593, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054865

ABSTRACT

Abstract The correct identification of pigmented nodular lesions of the scalp is often challenging. Despite the importance of clinical patterns and dermoscopy, important adjuvant tools that are usually helpful, their interpretation sometimes is not clear-cut. Here, the authors discuss a case of sebaceoma mimicking a malignant pigmented neoplasia, with conclusive histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Scalp/pathology , Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 928-931, jul. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058623

ABSTRACT

Lhermitte phenomenon is a neurological symptom described as a sensation of electric shock that radiates from the back towards the extremities, which appears when a patient flexes the neck. A transient myelopathy as a late complication of radiotherapy is associated with this symptom. It appears two to four months after treatment and disappears spontaneously. We report a 45 years old female with a neck malignant melanoma treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. She experienced the Lhermitte phenomenon that was triggered by heat. This phenomenon must be differentiated from the Uhthoff phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain/etiology , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Melanoma/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Melanoma/surgery , Melanoma/radiotherapy
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 883-888, May-June 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1011322

ABSTRACT

Reticulose pagetoide é a expressão utilizada para uma das mais raras formas de linfoma descritas em cães. Trata-se de um distúrbio linfoproliferativo cutâneo que emerge de linfócitos T intraepidérmicos. Descreve-se aqui um caso de reticulose pagetoide com apresentação localizada, muito semelhante à doença de Woringer-Kolopp dos humanos, que acometeu um cão, Boxer, fêmea de 10 anos de idade. O paciente foi atendido devido ao aparecimento de um nódulo na região nasolabial, com evolução clínica de cerca de 30 dias. Histologicamente o nódulo era composto por uma proliferação linfoide intraepidérmica e anexal. Os linfócitos neoplásicos, células T confirmadas por meio da imunomarcação positiva para CD3 e negativa para CD79, eram grandes células redondas e monomórficas. Apesar de rara, a reticulose pagetoide é um distúrbio linfoproliferativo de fácil suspeita com base apenas na morfologia celular. Esse neoplasma deverá ser lembrado sempre que um padrão linfoide intraepidérmico estiver presente.(AU)


Reticulosis pagetoide is an expression used for one of the rare forms of lymphoma described in dogs. It is a cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder that emerges from intraepidermal T-cells. We describe a case of pagetoid reticulosis with localized presentation, very similar to Woringer-Kolopp's disease in humans, which affected a 10-year-old Boxer female. The patient was seen due to the appearance of a nodule in the nasolabial region with clinical evolution of about 30 days. Histologically, it was composed of an intraepidermal and annexal lymphoid proliferation. Neoplastic lymphocytes, T-cells confirmed by CD3-positive and CD79-negative immunolabeling, were large, round, and monomorphic cells. Although rare, pagetoid reticulosis is an easily suspected lymphoproliferative disorder based only on cell morphology. This neoplasm should be remembered whenever an intraepidermal lymphoid pattern is present.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/veterinary , Dog Diseases , Pagetoid Reticulosis/diagnosis , Pagetoid Reticulosis/veterinary
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