Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.097
Filter
1.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(3): 101-4, jul-set. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291194

ABSTRACT

Contexto: O fibrohistiocitoma maligno é um sarcoma de tecidos moles muito agressivo, com rara apresentação limitada à pele e tecido subcutâneo em face. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico com auxílio da imuno-histoquímica. Descrição do caso: Este artigo relata o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de fibrohistiocitoma maligno restrito à face com boa resposta terapêutica após exérese cirúrgica. Discussão: Tendo em vista a raridade dessa afecção, dificuldade diagnóstica devido ao quadro inespecífico e com rápida evolução, é importante lembrar desse possível diagnóstico e atuar precocemente. Conclusões: O diagnóstico precoce interfere de forma significativa na evolução do quadro, sendo necessária a manutenção do acompanhamento oncológico e dermatológico com o intuito de detectar precocemente recidivas locais e metástases a distância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/pathology , Face , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Immunohistochemistry , Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous/surgery
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(6): 485-489, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153089

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report a series of cases of solitary fibrofolliculoma, a lesion seldom observed in the lids. Demographics, as well as clinical and histological aspects of the lesion were evaluated. Methods: This was a retrospective case series spanning a period of 18 years. All the included patients were diagnosed with solitary fibrofolliculoma confirmed by histological examination. Data regarding patient demographics, signs, and symptoms, course of the disease, location of the lesion, clinical and histological diagnosis, and outcome were collected. Results: Eleven cases of solitary fibrofolliculoma were diagnosed in the study period. The median age of patients was 51 ± 16.3 years (range: 27-78 years). Most patients were females (7/11; 64%). Five of the patients (45%) were asymptomatic; four (36%) reported bleeding, one (9%) had referred itching, and one (9%) rubbing of the lesion. The lesion occurred in a wide range of locations; one of them was located in the lids. The diagnosis for all lesions was histological based on characteristic findings of a hair follicle occasionally dilated and containing keratin material surrounded by a moderately well-circumscribed thick mantle of fibrous tissue. The infundibular follicular epithelium extended out into this fibrous mantle forming epithelial strands or cords. There were no relapses after exeresis. Conclusion: Solitary fibrofolliculoma is a rare lesion, seldom affecting the eyelids. We reported 11 cases, and the third case reported thus far in the literature affecting the lids. Diagnosis may be easily missed due to the nonspecific symptoms and clinical appearance. Therefore, it is necessary to perform excisional biopsy and histological examination for the recognition of this lesion.


RESUMO Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar uma série de casos de fibrofoliculoma solitário, uma lesão raramente observada nas pálpebras. Demografia, bem como aspectos clínicos e histológicos da lesão foram avaliados. Métodos: Trata-se de uma série de casos retrospectivos, com um período de 18 anos. Todos os pacientes incluídos foram diagnosticados com fibrofoliculoma solitário confirmado por exame histológico. Foram coletados dados referentes à demografia, sinais e sintomas dos pacientes, evolução da doença, localização da lesão, diagnóstico clínico e histológico e desfecho. Resultados: Onze casos de fibrofoliculoma solitário foram diagnosticados no período do estudo. A média de idade dos pacientes de 51 ± 16,3 anos (variação: 27-78 anos). A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (7/11, 64%). Cinco dos pacientes (45%) eram assintomáticos; quatro (36%) relataram sangramento, um (9%) referiu coceira e um (9%) fricção da lesão. A lesão ocorreu em luma ampla variedade de locais; um deles sendo nas pálpebras. O diagnóstico de todas as lesões foi histológico com base nos achados característicos de um folículo piloso ocasionalmente dilatado e contendo material de queratina, cercado por um manto espesso de tecido fibroso moderadamente bem circunscrito. O epitélio infundibular folicular se estendeu até esse manto fibroso, formando cordões ou cordões epiteliais. Não houve recaídas após exérese. Conclusão: Fibrofoliculoma solitário é uma lesão rara, mais ainda quando afeta as pálpebras. Relatamos 11 casos, e o terceiro relatado até o momento na literatura que afeta as pálpebras. O diagnóstico pode ser facilmente esquecido devido a sintomas inespecíficos e aparência clínica. Portanto, é necessário realizar biópsia excisional e exame histológico para o reconhecimento dessa lesão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms , Hair Follicle , Hair Diseases , Skin , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
3.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 464-467, oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138740

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: El melanoma cutáneo presenta un alto potencial metastásico y constituye la fuente extraabdominal más frecuente de lesión del intestino delgado. El diagnóstico de metástasis gastrointestinales es a menudo una expresión de enfermedad avanzada, con una supervivencia media de entre 6 y 9 meses. Materiales y Método: Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 63 años diagnosticado de melanoma cutáneo que acudió a urgencias por dolor abdominal y estreñimiento. Se realizó una TC abdominal donde se informó de la existencia de 2 lesiones metastásicas a nivel de intestino delgado que condicionaban oclusión intestinal. Resultados: El paciente fue intervenido quirúrgicamente bajo abordaje laparoscópico con resección de los dos segmentos intestinales afectos y anastomosis intracorpórea. El informe histopatológico confirmó que se trataban de metástasis de melanoma. Discusión: La oclusión intestinal por metástasis de melanoma maligno es muy infrecuente. La cirugía es el tratamiento de elección en pacientes con metástasis intestinales de melanoma. El tratamiento quirúrgico puede mejorar el pronóstico y estaría indicado casos de metástasis únicas o pacientes sintomáticos con intención paliativa. El abordaje mínimamente invasivo ofrece resultados oncológicos similares a la laparotomía.


Aim: Cutaneous melanoma has a high metastatic potential, being the most frequent extra-abdominal source of small bowel metastasis. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastases is often an expression of advanced disease, with an average survival of 6-9 months. Materials and Method: We herein present the case of a 63-year-old male patient diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma who arrived to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain and constipation. An abdominal CT scan was performed, it revealed two metastatic lesions in the small bowel which marked the mechanical obstruction. Results: Patient underwent a laparoscopy and both involved segments were removed. Pathology exam confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma metastases. Discussion: Surgery excision is the treatment of choice in patients with small bowel metastases from melanoma. Surgical management can improve the prognosis and it would be indicated in cases of single metastases or symptomatic patients with a palliative intention. Minimally invasive approach provides similar oncological results as conventional laparotomy. Small bowel obstruction due to metastases of malignant melanoma is extremely rare.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Laparoscopy , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/secondary , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Melanoma/pathology
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 280-284, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125080

ABSTRACT

El melanoma desmoplásico es una variedad infrecuente de melanoma que se distingue por su presentación clínico-patológica y su comportamiento biológico. El diagnóstico temprano es un desafío por su presentación clínica variable, con predominio del componente dérmico y la frecuente ausencia de pigmento. En la histología se lo divide en puro y mixto y esta clasificación tiene importantes implicancias pronósticas. El espesor de Breslow promedio al momento del diagnóstico es mayor que en otras variantes de melanoma, sin embargo, la tendencia a generar metástasis ganglionares es menor.


Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma with a different clinical behavior compared to other histological variants. Its diagnosis in early stages is a challenge due to its variable clinical presentation, with a predominant dermal component and the frequent absence of pigment. Its histology is divided into pure and mixed type, and this classification has important prognostic implications. The average Breslow thickness at diagnosis is higher than in other melanoma variants. However, the tendency to lymph node metastasis is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/pathology , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(3): 200-208, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126938

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En Guantánamo no se ha caracterizado el cáncer de piel en los adultos mayores. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes ingresados en los hogares de ancianos "Caridad Jaca" y "San José" de la ciudad de Guantánamo con diagnóstico de cáncer de piel en el periodo 2017-2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo y transversal con todos los ancianos (n=256) con cáncer de piel (n=15). Se estudiaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, lugar de nacimiento y donde vivió, antecedentes patológicos personales, fototipo cutáneo, características de la lesión, diagnóstico clínico, dermatoscópico e histopatológico. Resultados: En el 5,9 % de los ancianos se diagnosticó un cáncer de piel. Fue más común en hombres (53,4 %), con 60 a 79 años (53,4 %), nacidos o que vivieron en áreas urbanas y fototipo cutáneo III (40,0 %). El 100,0 % se expuso a la luz solar, el 86,7 % sin medios de fotoprotección. El cáncer se localizó más en la cara (66,7 %), tenían entre 3 y 4 años de evolución (60,0 %) y el carcinoma basocelular (46,6 %) fue el más frecuente. En el 80,0 % de los casos se apreció correlación diagnóstico clínico, dermatoscópico e histopatológico. Conclusiones: Es baja la frecuencia del cáncer de piel en los ancianos, sin embargo, se requiere prestar más atención al aseguramiento del diagnóstico precoz de esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Skin cancer in elderly has not been characterized in Guantanamo. Objective: Characterize the patients admitted to the nursing homes "Caridad Jaca" and "San José" in the city of Guantánamo with a diagnosis of skin cancer in the period 2017-2019. Method: It was conducted an observational, prospective and cross-sectional study with all the elderly (n=256) with skin cancer (n=15). Studied variables: age, sex, place of birth and lived, personal pathological history, skin phototype, characteristics of the lesion, clinical dermatoscopic and histopathological diagnosis. Results: 5.9% of the elderly were diagnosed with skin cancer. It was more common in men (53.4%), range age from 60 to 79 (53.4%), were born or lived in urban areas and with skin phototype III (40.0%). 100.0% of the patients were exposed to sunlight, 86.7% without photo-protection means. The cancer was more localized in the face area (66.7%), had between 3 and 4 years of evolution (60.0%) and basal cell carcinoma (46.6%) was the most frequent. Clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological diagnosis correlation was observed in 80.0 % of the cases. Conclusions: The rate of skin cancers in erderly is low, however, more attention is needed to ensure early diagnosis of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 99-104, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092793

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El tumor de Bednar es un sarcoma de bajo grado, infrecuente, considerado como la variante pigmen tada del dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, histopatológicas, el tratamiento y la evolución de un caso pediátrico de esta infrecuente neoplasia. Caso Clínico: escolar de 9 años que consultó por una pápula indurada asintomática, de dos años de evolución en el dorso del cuarto dedo del pie izquierdo. La biopsia incisional de la lesión fue com patibles con un DFSP pigmentado. El estudio inmunohistoquímico mostró positividad intensa para CD34 en toda la lesión, con factor XIIIa negativo. Se complementó el estudio de la pieza histológica con citogenética molecular FISH para el gen PDGFB (22q13.1) el cual reflejó un patrón anómalo en las células tumorales, no así en los melanocitos ni en la piel peritumoral. Se realizó cirugía micrográfica de Mohs diferida con cobertura mediante sustituto dérmico, sin recidiva ni recurrencia tumoral a los 5 años de seguimiento. Conclusiones: El DFSP pigmentado es un sarcoma de bajo grado, que muy infrecuentemente se presenta en pacientes pediátricos. Las variantes clásica y pigmentada deben ser sospechadas ante una lesión papulonodular única, de crecimiento lento y progresivo, con presencia de células fusiformes con patrón estoriforme en la biopsia y con estudio inmunohistoquímico positi vo para CD34. Es una entidad con buen pronóstico, con escaso riesgo de recurrencia y metástasis, si se logra la realización de una extirpación completa.


Abstract: Introduction: Bednar tumor is a rare low-grade sarcoma considered the pigmented variant of dermatofibrosarco ma protuberans (DFSP). Objective: To describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics, treatment and evolution of this rare neoplasm. Clinical Case: A 9-year old female presented with a 2-year history of an indurated, asymptomatic papule on the back of her fourth left toe. The incisio nal biopsy was compatible with pigmented DFSP. The immunohistochemical study showed intense positivity for CD34 throughout the lesion, with negative factor XIIIa. We complemented the study with molecular cytogenetics (FISH) for PDGFB gene (22q13.1) which showed an abnormal pattern in tumor cells, but not in the melanocytes or the peritumoral skin. Delayed Mohs surgery and skin substitute dressing were performed without neoplastic recurrence at 5 years of follow up. Conclu sion: Pigmented DFSP is a low-grade sarcoma that is very rare in pediatric patients. The classical and pigmented variants should be suspected in the presence of a single papulonodular lesion of slow and progressive growth, with presence of spindle cells with storiform pattern in the biopsy and positive immunohistochemical study for CD34. It is an entity with good prognosis, with little risk of recurren ce and metastasis, if complete excision is achieved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Dermatofibrosarcoma/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Dermatofibrosarcoma/surgery , Dermatofibrosarcoma/pathology
7.
Dermatol. argent ; 26(1): 23-25, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146359

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: En la octava edición del manual de estadificación del cáncer del American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), se introdujeron cambios importantes en las categorías T, N y M. Al entrar en vigencia la octava guía de la AJCC, se modificó no solo el T, sino también la indicación de biopsia del ganglio centinela (BGC). Entre los cambios más significativos en la estadificación se encuentran: la exclusión del índice mitótico (IM) de la categoría T en los melanomas finos (de hasta 1 mm de espesor) y el cambio del punto de corte para el espesor tumoral para discriminar un T1a (< 0,8 mm sin ulceración) de un T1b (≥ 0,8 mm). Objetivo: Comparar la estadificación inicial de los melanomas finos según el criterio utilizado en la séptima edición, con la que tendrían de acuerdo con la perspectiva actual del AJCC, con especial atención en el índice mitótico. Diseño y métodos: Estudio observacional, de corte transversal, realizado mediante la recolección de datos de las historias clínicas desde el 1 de enero de 2000 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2017. Resultados: De 131 melanomas finos incluidos, 28 tendrían cambios en su estadificación. Al considerar el nuevo punto de corte para el espesor tumoral, 22 melanomas T1a pasarían a T1b. Asimismo, se detectaron 20 melanomas con un IM ≥ 1 mitosis/mm2, de los cuales solo 6 tuvieron indicación de BGC por este criterio exclusivamente y serían clasificados como T1a en la actualidad. De estos, en 2 no se realizó la BGC por autodeterminación de los pacientes y en los 4 restantes el resultado fue negativo. Conclusiones: Veintiocho de nuestros pacientes tendrían hoy diferencias en la indicación de BGC: 22 serían considerados con mayor riesgo de metástasis ganglionares y serían candidatos a su pesquisa. Los otros 6 pacientes ya no tendrían indicación de ese estudio por la baja posibilidad de encontrar metástasis ocultas, lo cual coincide con el resultado negativo de la BGC en los 4 pacientes que se sometieron al procedimiento. (AU)


Background: In the 8th edition of the cancer staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), important changes were made in the T, N and M categories. When the 8th guideline of the AJCC came into effect, not only was the T stage modified, but also the indication for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The most significant changes in staging included: the exclusion of the mitotic index (MI) as a determinant of the T category and the change of the threshold of tumor thickness to discriminate a T1a (< 0.8 mm without ulceration) from a T1b (≥ 0.8 mm). Objective: To compare the initial staging of thin melanomas according to the criteria used in the 7th edition, with the one that would have been used according to the current AJCC recommendations, with special focus on MI. Design and methods: Observational, cross-sectional study, carried out through the collection of data from medical records from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2017. Results: There were 131 thin melanomas included, 28 of which would have had changes in their staging. When considering the modified threshold for tumor thickness, 22 T1a melanomas would be classified as T1b. Among 20 thin melanomas with a MI ≥ 1, only 6 had an indication for SLNB solely due to the MI criterion and would be now classified as T1a. Two of these did not undergo SLNB because they rejected the procedure, and in the remaining 4, there were no SLN metastasis. Conclusions: Nowadays, 28 of our patients would have differences in the indication for SLNB: 22 would be considered to be at greater risk of lymph node metastasis and would be candidates for screening. The other 6 patients would no longer have an indication for this procedure due to the low probability of clinically occult metastases, which seems to concur with the negative result of SLNB in the 4 patients who underwent the procedure. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Melanoma/pathology , Mitotic Index , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/diagnosis
8.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(4): 218-222, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cutaneous neoplasms are the most common cancers in the world, and have high morbidity rates. A definitive diagnosis can only be obtained after histopathological evaluation of the lesions. To develop an artificial intelligence program to establish the histopathological diagnosis of cutaneous lesions.Methods: A deep learning program was built using three neural network architectures: MobileNet, Inception and convolutional networks. A database was constructed using 2732 images of melanomas, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, and normal skin. The validation set consisted of 284 images from all 4 categories, allowing for the calculation of sensitivity and specificity. All images were provided by the Path Presenter website.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the MobileNet model were 92% (95%CI, 83-100%) and 97% (95%CI, 90-100%), respectively; corresponding figures for the Inception model were 98.3% (95%CI, 86-100%) and 98.8% (95%CI, 98.2-100%); lastly, the sensitivity and specificity of the convolutional network model were 91.6% (95%CI, 73.8-100%) and 95.7% (95%CI, 94.4-97.2%). The maximum sensitivity for the differentiation of malignant conditions was 91%, and specificity was 95.4%.Conclusion: The program developed in the present study can efficiently distinguish between the main types of skin cancer with high sensitivity and specificity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Algorithms , Artificial Intelligence , Software Validation , Software , Sensitivity and Specificity , Databases as Topic
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e8457, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098118

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate whether the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) could enhance the anti-tumor efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in epidermoid carcinoma cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Cell viability, apoptosis, invasion, and migration were determined by MTT assay, flow cytometry, transwell invasion assay, and migration assay, respectively. Singlet oxygen generation was detected by the singlet oxygen sensor green reagent assay. Our results showed that PDT with 5-ALA and GNPs-conjugated 5-ALA (5-ALA-GNPs) significantly suppressed cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and singlet oxygen generation in both HaCat and A431 cells, and PDT with 5-ALA and 5-ALA-GNPs had more profound effects in A431 cells than that in HaCat cells. More importantly, 5-ALA-GNPs treatment potentiated the effects of PDT on cell viability, cell apoptosis, and singlet oxygen generation in A431 cells compared to 5-ALA treatment. Further in vitro assays showed that PDT with 5-ALA-GNPs significantly decreased expression of STAT3 and Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax in A431 cells compared with PDT with 5-ALA. In addition, 5-ALA-GNPs treatment enhanced the inhibitory effects of PDT on cell invasion and migration and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activities in A431 cells compared to 5-ALA treatment. In conclusion, our results suggested that GNPs conjugated to 5-ALA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of PDT in A431 cells, which may represent a better strategy to improve the outcomes of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Levulinic Acids/pharmacology , Photochemotherapy , RNA, Neoplasm , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202441, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136569

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar características do melanoma em idosos. Método: Pesquisa retrospectiva mediante revisão de prontuários de idosos diagnosticados com melanoma cutâneo primário, no período de 2013 a 2017, atendidos no Hospital Erasto Gaertner, em Curitiba-Paraná. Resultados: Amostra com 139 pacientes, mulheres (52,5%), média de 70,3 anos de idade, com lesão em membro superior ou membro inferior (32,3%) e cabeça (24,4%), sinais de ulceração (33,8%) e classificação em tipo histológico nodular (29,5%), extensivo superficial (27,3%) e acral (11,5%). Média do índice de Breslow de 3,7 mm. Metástases ocorreram em 33% dos pacientes, para linfonodos (36%) e sistema nervoso central (20%). Pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela foi realizada em 41,7% e tratamento cirúrgico isolado em 70% dos casos. Houve recidiva em 34,5% pacientes e 17,9% evoluíram com óbito. Esses achados apontam características prognósticas sombrias relacionadas ao diagnóstico e tratamento tardio da neoplasia. Conclusões: Melanoma em membros e cabeça, índice de Breslow intermediário, metastático para linfonodos e sistema nervoso central, recidiva e tem desfecho fatal. Há necessidade de direcionar estratégias para melhor abordagem da doença em idosos, como prevenção, detecção precoce e oferta de tratamento uniforme e adequado.


ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluates melanoma characteristics in the elderly. Methods: A retrospective descriptive analytical study was carried out by reviewing the medical records of patients aged 60 years or older, diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma, and treated at Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, Paraná, from 2013 to 2017. Results: We studied 139 patients aged 60-98 years (average, 70.3 years) and found melanoma to be more common in women (52.5%) than in men. Lesions mainly affected the limbs (32.3%) and head (24.4%), showed signs of ulceration (33.8%), and could be classified into the nodular histological (29%), extensive superficial (27%), and acral (12%) types. The average Breslow index was 1.2 mm. Metastasis occurred in 33% of the patients and mainly affected lymph nodes (36%) and the central nervous system (CNS, 20%). The first procedure conducted in 79% of the cases was surgical resection. Sentinel node mapping was carried out in 41.7% of the cases, and surgical treatment alone was indicated in 70% of the patients. The disease recurred in 34.5% of the patients, and 17.9% succumbed to the disease. These results indicate that the elderly have poorer prognosis when cancer treatment is delayed. Conclusion: Melanoma of the limbs and head, intermediate Breslow index, metastatic lymph node and CNS metastases, and relapse result in fatal outcomes. Direct strategies, such as prevention and early detection, as well as uniform and adequate treatment, are needed to improve disease management in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/classification , Retrospective Studies , Melanoma/classification , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 698-703, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1054877

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A skin field cancerization is a cutaneous area with subclinical changes resultant from chronic sun exposure, with a higher predisposition to development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. So far, there are no well-defined objective parameters that can indicate their degree of activity. Objectives: To describe and compare morphometric aspects and expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis (AK), in both photoexposed and photoprotected epidermis. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with actinic keratosis in the forearms, biopsied at two points: the actinic keratosis and the axillary region. The biopsies of the actinic keratosis, perilesional area, and axilla were evaluated through keratinocyte intraepithelial neoplasia (KIN), and immunohistochemistry of p53, survivin, and Ki67. Nuclear morphometry of basal layer cells was performed through digital image analysis: entropy, area, perimeter, Ra, fractal dimension, circularity, color intensity, and largest diameter. Results: There were 13 patients included and 38 actinic keratosis biopsied. In morphometry, 1039 nuclei were analyzed, of which 228 represented axillary skin, 396 demonstrated actinic keratosis, and 415 represented the perilesional area to the actinic keratosis. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in all variables tested for the topographies evaluated. A significant correlation was identified between nucellar morphometric elements, KIN, proliferation markers, and apoptosis. Joint patterns of p53, Ki67, and KIN discriminated the topographies sampled. Study limitations: This was a cross-sectional study with a small number of patients. Conclusions: There are patterns of proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and different cellular morphometrics between photoprotected skin and photoexposed skin. The joint expression of p53, Ki67, and KIN can characterize skin field cancerization activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Keratosis, Actinic/pathology , Skin/anatomy & histology , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 717-720, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud is a rare dermatosis with onset during puberty, more prevalent in females than in males. The pathogenesis is unknown, but some theories suggest either a keratinization or endocrine disorder. The lesions are verrucous, brownish, hyperkeratotic papules or spots that coalesce in a confluent and/or reticulated pattern. This report presents a case with extensive cutaneous involvement associated with acanthosis nigricans and good response to treatment with methotrexate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Papilloma/pathology , Papilloma/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Erythema/pathology
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 671-676, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054890

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mohs micrographic surgery is a surgical technique for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Surgery begins by removing the visible tumor before excision of the tissue specimens for evaluation of the tumor margins. Objectives: To present a new way to evaluate the material obtained from debulking, by horizontal histological analysis of the fragment. Methods: Descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study based on the medical records and histological lamellae of patients with primary basal cell carcinomas smaller than 1.5 cm submitted to Mohs micrographic surgery and who had the visible tumor analyzed by horizontal histological sections. Results: The sample evaluated included 16 patients with lesions located on the face. Comparing the histopathological examinations of incisional biopsy in vertical sections and debulking in horizontal sections, there was agreement in seven cases. The histological analysis performed in horizontal sections allowed identification of the tumor site in 13 cases, and the relation between tumor and margin showed that in 11 cases, the lateral margin was compromised.Study limitations: The technique was better-applied in lesions smaller than 2 cm. Conclusion: Horizontal histological analysis of debulking has advantages for Mohs surgery, since it allows visualization of almost all tumor extension in the same view plane of the dermatoscopy, allowing better definition of the histological subtype, tumor site, and tumor/margin of lesions less than 1.5 cm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/pathology , Mohs Surgery/methods , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dermoscopy , Tumor Burden
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 721-723, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Primary male genital melanomas are very rare; they are associated with high mortality and late detection. Scrotal melanoma is the least common presentation and only 23 cases have been reported. Herein, the authors present a 30-year-old patient with stage IIIC (T4b, N2a, M0) scrotal melanoma in order to report the characteristics, treatment, and outcome, as well as to emphasize the importance of examination of the genitals, education of patients about self-examination and destigmatizing genital lesions to increase the likelihood of earlier detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Scrotum/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Genital Neoplasms, Male/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Biopsy , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Genital Neoplasms, Male/drug therapy , Melanoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 747-750, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054880

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanoacanthoma is a rare variant of seborrheic keratosis, which is notable for dark pigmentation and fast radial growth, making it difficult to distinguish from melanoma. Histologically, it is characterized by proliferation of keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The authors report a scalp lesion, fast growing, suspected by dermoscopy and confocal microscopy examination, with dendritic cells distributed throughout the lesion. Based on these findings, it was not possible to classify this lesion as clearly benign, so it was excised. Histopathologic evaluation and immunostain were consistent with melanoacanthoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Scalp Dermatoses/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Keratosis, Seborrheic/pathology , Acanthoma/pathology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Dermoscopy , Melanocytes/pathology
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 637-657, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Actinic keratoses are dysplastic proliferations of keratinocytes with potential for malignant transformation. Clinically, actinic keratoses present as macules, papules, or hyperkeratotic plaques with an erythematous background that occur on photoexposed areas. At initial stages, they may be better identified by palpation rather than by visual inspection. They may also be pigmented and show variable degrees of infiltration; when multiple they then constitute the so-called field cancerization. Their prevalence ranges from 11% to 60% in Caucasian individuals above 40 years. Ultraviolet radiation is the main factor involved in pathogenesis, but individual factors also play a role in the predisposing to lesions appearance. Diagnosis of lesions is based on clinical and dermoscopic examination, but in some situations histopathological analysis may be necessary. The risk of transformation into squamous cell carcinoma is the major concern regarding actinic keratoses. Therapeutic modalities for actinic keratoses include topical medications, and ablative and surgical methods; the best treatment option should always be individualized according to the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dermoscopy/methods , Keratosis, Actinic/therapy , Keratosis, Actinic/diagnostic imaging , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Keratosis, Actinic/pathology
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1346-1349, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058604

ABSTRACT

Atypical Fibroxanthoma is an unusual dermal mesenchymal tumor. It especially affects older adults and occurs in areas of sun exposure. We report a 75 years old male with a history of sun exposure without using a hat presenting with a scalp nodule. An incisional biopsy showed an atypical fibroxantoma. In a new surgical procedure, the tumor was completely excised. The tumor relapsed in two occasions after subsequent excisions and the patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy avoiding new relapses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Scalp/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Xanthomatosis/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Biopsy , Xanthomatosis/radiotherapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 590-593, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054865

ABSTRACT

Abstract The correct identification of pigmented nodular lesions of the scalp is often challenging. Despite the importance of clinical patterns and dermoscopy, important adjuvant tools that are usually helpful, their interpretation sometimes is not clear-cut. Here, the authors discuss a case of sebaceoma mimicking a malignant pigmented neoplasia, with conclusive histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Scalp/pathology , Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL