Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 3.542
Filter
1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 215-223, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395235

ABSTRACT

Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with synthetic pesticides in Bolivia has become increasingly inefficient due to the development of resistance in the insects. In the Chaco region of Bolivia, guaraní populations have approached the problem by fumigating their houses with the smoke of native plants. Through interviews and field work with local guides, the main plant used by the guaraníes was collected and later identified as Capsicum baccatumL. var. baccatum (Solanaceae). In choice bioassays, filter papers exposed to the smoke of the plant repelled nymphs of T. infestans. Activity remained significant after storing the exposed filter papers for 9 days. Chemical analysis of smoke and literature data suggested that capsaicinoids present in the smoke were responsible for the repellent effect. The data presented provide a rationale for the use of C. baccatumvar. baccatumto control the Chagas vector bythe guaraní populations.


El control del vector de la enfermedad de Chagas, Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) con plaguicidas sintéticos en Bolivia se ha vuelto cada vez más ineficiente debido al desarrollo de resistencias en los insectos. En la región del Chaco de Bolivia, las poblaciones guaraníes han abordado el problema fumigando sus casas con el humo de las plantas nativas. A través de entrevistas y trabajo de campo con guías locales, se recogió la principal planta utilizada por los guaraníes y posteriormente se identificó como Capsicum baccatumL. var. baccatum (Solanaceae). En bioensayos selectos, los papeles de filtro expuestos al humo de la planta repelieron a las ninfas de T. infestans. La actividad siguió siendo significativa después de almacenar los papeles de filtro expuestos durante 9 días. El análisis químico del humo y los datos de la literatura sugieren que los capsaicinoides presentes en el humo eran responsables del efecto repelente. Los datos presentados proporcionan una justificación para el uso de C. baccatum var. baccatum para el control del vector Chagas por las poblaciones guaraníes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoke/analysis , Triatoma , Capsicum/chemistry , Pest Control, Biological , Fumigation/methods , Indigenous Peoples , Biological Assay , Bolivia , Capsaicin/analysis , Interviews as Topic , Chagas Disease , Solanaceae/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Hemiptera , Insect Repellents/chemistry
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(2): 1-8, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1369986

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate color and surface gloss stability of bis-acryl resins and resin composites, submitted to artificial staining with cigarette smoke. Material and Methods: Specimens of each material were prepared (n=15). Two resin composites (GrandioSO [RCG], Filtek Supreme [RCZ]) and five bis-acryl resins (Luxatemp Star [BisLUX], Protemp4 [BisPRO], Structor3 [BisSTR], Visalys Temp [BisVIS] and Yprov [BisYPR]) were tested. Initial color was assessed using a spectrophotometer and surface gloss with a glossmeter. Samples were submitted to smoke exposure (10 cigarettes under 8 minutes per cycle). After 3 and 6 cycles, color and gloss were reassessed. Final readings were performed after brush prophylaxis. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: Differences and interaction of factors (p<0.01) were detected for both color and gloss readings. Resin composites were the least affected by aging, with gloss reduction after prophylaxis. Differences were detected among bis-acryl resins, with better results for BisLUX and BisPRO. BisPRO and BisSTR, showed reduction in gloss after 60 cigarettes, while BisYPR gloss decreased at all evaluated periods. Conclusion: Resin composites are less susceptible to changes after smoke exposure, while bis-acryl resins results are brand-dependent. Prophylaxis negatively influenced the surface gloss of most of the tested materials (AU)


Objetivo: Avaliar a estabilidade de cor e brilho superficial de resinas compostas e bisacrílicas, submetidos ao manchamento artificial por fumaça de cigarro. Material e Métodos: Foram preparados espécimes de cada material (n=15). Duas resinas compostas (GrandioSO [RCG], Filtek Supreme [RCZ]) e cinco resinas bisacrílicas (Luxatemp Star [BisLUX], Protemp4 [BisPRO], Structor3 [BisSTR], Visalys Temp [BisVIS] e Yprov [BisYPR]) foram testados. A cor inicial foi avaliada usando um espectrofotômetro e o brilho de superfície com um medidor de brilho. As amostras foram submetidas à exposição de fumaça de cigarro (10 cigarros com até 8 minutos por ciclo). Após 3 e 6 ciclos, a cor e o brilho foram reavaliados. As leituras finais foram realizadas após a profilaxia escova de robinson. Os dados foram analisados usando de medidas repetidas e teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Resultados: Foram detectadas diferenças e interação de fatores (p<0,01) tanto para leituras de cor quanto para leituras de brilho. As resinas compostas foram as menos afetados pelo envelhecimento, com redução do brilho após a profilaxia. Foram detectadas diferenças entre as resinas bisacrílicas, com melhores resultados para BisLUX e BisPRO. BisPRO e BisSTR, mostraram redução de brilho após 60 cigarros, enquanto que o brilho da BisYPR diminuiu em todos os períodos avaliados. Conclusão: As resinas compostas são as menos suscetíveis a mudanças após a exposição à fumaça, enquanto os resultados das resinas bisacrílicas são dependentes da marca. A profilaxia influenciou negativamente o brilho de superfície da maioria dos materiais testados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Smoke , Color , Composite Resins , Dental Restoration, Temporary
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927404

ABSTRACT

The paper gives a consideration on the development of the national standard, Pure Moxa Stick. It is proposed that the principle and requirements for the development of product standard should be adhered to, while focusing on the applicability and safety of pure moxa stick. In terms of quality, the specific requirements should be developed on the ratio of moxa floss, wrapping paper and adhesives. Regarding the specifications, either the market demands or the resource waste prevention should be considered. In safety, the combustion temperature and moxa smoke control are the key issues.


Subject(s)
Moxibustion , Smoke/analysis , Temperature
5.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(3): 127-132, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374205

ABSTRACT

Resumen Dentro de las formas alternativas de consumo de tabaco, se describe el uso de pipas de agua (también llamadas hookah, shisha o narguile) como implementos de uso. Esta forma de uso es una forma emergente en nuestro medio, con uso en estudiantes universitarios y secundarios. Debido a que utiliza carbón para quemar el tabaco, junto a largos períodos de uso, presenta riesgo de intoxicación por monóxido de carbono, especialmente si se utiliza en ambientes cerrados. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 19 años, quién fue traída al hospital con una intoxicación grave por monóxi do de carbono secundaria a uso de pipa de agua, requiriendo tratamiento con oxígeno en cámara hiperbárica. Realizamos una revisión de la bibliografía.


Abstract Amongst the alternative ways of tobacco use, water pipes (also called hookah, shisha or narghile) have been used as implements. This type of use is an emergent one in our environment, being used by high school and college students. Due to the use of charcoal as a way to burn the tobacco, and the long using times it presents, the users are at risk of being poisoned by carbon monoxide, especially if they smoke in enclosed spaces. In this paper, we present the case of a 19-year-old female patient, who was brought to the hospital with a severe case of carbon monoxide poisoning, requiring treatment with oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber. We make a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/complications , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/diagnosis , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/therapy , Smoking Water Pipes , Smoke/adverse effects , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/prevention & control , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/epidemiology
6.
SOBECC ; 26(3): 189-196, 30-09-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1343230

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar as evidências científicas disponíveis na literatura sobre os sinais e sintomas relacionados à exposição à fumaça cirúrgica em trabalhadores do bloco operatório. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura, com busca nas seguintes bases de dados: Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Web Of Science e SCOPUS. Resultados: Foram 1.351 estudos pré-selecionados, sendo 4 por busca manual. Ao fim, obtiveram-se cinco artigos para análise. Os sinais e sintomas encontrados foram: tosse, ardência de faringe, espirros, rinite, lesão nasofaringe, sensação de corpo estranho na garganta, congestão nasal, inflamação das vias aéreas, lacrimejamento dos olhos, náuseas, vômitos, dor abdominal, fraqueza, cãibra, cefaleia, sonolência, tonturas, irritabilidade, desconforto (como mau cheiro na roupa). Conclusão: Observaram-se grandes avanços nas pesquisas propostas, estudos que embasam a intensidade dos sinais e sintomas e orientação dos riscos nocivos que proporcionem aos gestores conhecimento e fundamentação científica para futuras intervenções tanto contra a proteção ao trabalhador como para prevenção de risco no ambiente de trabalho.


Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence available in the literature on signs and symptoms related to surgical smoke exposure among surgical block workers. Method: This integrative literature review searched the following databases: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Web of Science, and Scopus. Results: A total of 1,351 studies were pre-selected, 4 of which were found by manual search. In the end, five articles were analyzed. The signs and symptoms identified were: cough, burning sensation in the pharynx, sneezing, rhinitis, nasopharyngeal lesion, foreign body sensation in the throat, nasal congestion, airway inflammation, lacrimation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness, muscle cramp, headache, drowsiness, lightheadedness, irritability, discomfort (such as unpleasant smell in clothes). Conclusion: Great advances have been detected in the studies proposed. These investigations lay the foundation for the intensity of signs and symptoms and the orientation regarding harmful risks, providing managers with the knowledge and scientific basis for future interventions, both to protect the team and to prevent risks in the work environment.


Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia científica disponible en la literatura sobre signos y síntomas relacionados con la exposición al humo quirúrgico en trabajadores de quirófano. Método: Revisión integrativa de la literatura, buscando en las siguientes bases de datos: Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Web Of Science y SCOPUS. Resultados: Hubo 1.351 estudios preseleccionados, cuatro por búsqueda manual. Al final, se obtuvieron cinco artículos para su análisis. Los signos y síntomas encontrados fueron: tos, ardor faríngeo, estornudos, rinitis, lesión nasofaríngea, sensación de cuerpo extraño en la garganta, congestión nasal, inflamación de las vías respiratorias, lagrimeo de los ojos, náuseas, vómitos, dolor abdominal, debilidad, calambres, dolor de cabeza, somnolencia, mareos, irritabilidad, malestar como mal olor en la ropa. Conclusión: Hubo grandes avances en la investigación propuesta, estudios que apoyan la intensidad de los signos y síntomas y orientaciones sobre riesgos nocivos que brinden a los gestores conocimiento y fundamento científico para futuras intervenciones, tanto contra la protección del trabajador como para la prevención de riesgos en el entorno laboral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health , Electrocoagulation , Electrosurgery , Operating Rooms , Smoke , Workplace
7.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e55482, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356116

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: verificar os desconfortos apresentados por trabalhadores que necessitam utilizar a máscara N95 durante as suas atividades laborais. Método: pesquisa descritiva com delineamento transversal, desenvolvida no Centro Cirúrgico de um hospital de ensino localizado na região Sul do Brasil, no período de junho a agosto de 2019, durante o turno de trabalho diurno. Realizou-se o estudo com os profissionais de enfermagem que estavam expostos à fumaça cirúrgica no período de trabalho. Para a coleta dos dados, utilizou-se um instrumento com detalhamento sociodemográfico e ocupacional dos participantes e entregou-se uma máscara N95 aos profissionais para ser utilizada durante a cirurgia, a fim de verificar o tempo de uso da N95 e os motivos pelos quais os trabalhadores retiraram a máscara durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico. Resultados: o maior número de trabalhadores (27,7%) utilizou a máscara até 3 horas durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico, sendo que esse tempo foi relacionado com algumas queixas (p=0,037), tais como incômoda (27,8%), apertada (44,4%) eenjoo (5,6%). A retirada da máscara N95 (p=0,022) por esses profissionais antes do término da cirurgia foi relacionada a essas queixas. Conclusão: os trabalhadores apresentam queixas, como desconforto, máscara apertada e enjoo, sendo que estas estão relacionadas com o tempo de uso, o que precisa ser avaliado por gestores para a utilização da N95.


RESUMEN Objetivo: verificar las molestias presentadas por trabajadores que necesitan usar la mascarilla N95 durante sus actividades laborales. Método: investigación descriptiva con delineamiento transversal, desarrollada en el Centro Quirúrgico de un hospital de enseñanza ubicado en la región Sur de Brasil, en el período de junio a agosto de 2019, durante el turno de trabajo diurno. Se realizó el estudio con los profesionales de enfermería que estaban expuestos al humo quirúrgico en el período de trabajo. Para la recolección de los datos, se utilizó un instrumento con detalle sociodemográfico y ocupacional de los participantes y se entregó una mascarilla N95 a los profesionales para ser utilizada durante la cirugía, con el fin de verificar el tiempo de uso de la N95 y las razones por las que los trabajadores la quitaron durante el acto anestésico-quirúrgico. Resultados: el mayor número de trabajadores (27,7%) la utilizó hasta 3 horas durante el acto anestésico-quirúrgico, siendo que ese tiempo fue relacionado con algunas quejas (p=0,037), tales como: incómoda (27,8%), apretada (44,4%) y mareos (5,6%). El hecho de quitarse la mascarilla N95 (p=0,022), por estos profesionales, antes de la finalización de la cirugía se relacionó con estas quejas. Conclusión: los trabajadores presentan quejas, como incomodidad, mascarilla apretada y mareos, siendo que estas están relacionadas con el tiempo de uso, lo que necesita ser evaluado por gestores para la utilización de la N95.


ABSTRACT Objective: to check the discomfort presented by workers who need to use the N95 mask during their work activities. Method: descriptive and cross-sectional research, developed in the Surgical Center of a teaching hospital located in Southern Brazil, from June to August 2019, during the daytime work shift. The study was conducted with nursing professionals who were exposed to surgical smoke during their work period. In order to collect data, an instrument was used with sociodemographic and occupational details of the participants and a N95 mask was given to professionals to be used during surgery, in order to check the time of use of the N95 and the reasons why the workers removed the mask during the anesthetic-surgical procedure. Results: the largest number of workers (27.7%) used the mask for up to 3 hours during the anesthetic-surgical procedure, and this time was related to some complaints (p=0.037), such as discomfort (27.8%), tightness (44.4%) and nausea (5.6%). The removal of the N95 mask (p=0.022) by these professionals before the end of the surgery was related to these complaints. Conclusion: workers have complaints such as discomfort, tight mask and nausea, and these are related to the time of use, which needs to be assessed by managers for the use of N95.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Smoke , N95 Respirators , Masks , Nurses, Male , Respiratory Protective Devices , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Work , Health Personnel , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Personal Protective Equipment , Nausea , Nurse Practitioners
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877573

ABSTRACT

In view of the limitations of the existing moxibustion instruments, i.e. possible accidental injury when using moxibustion instruments, the negative effects of products from moxibustion instruments on treatment efficacy and health of medical staff and patients, a moxibustion instrument with multi-jointed manipulator is designed. This moxibustion instrument could accurately control the temperature, maintain a safe moxibustion distance, automatically process the burning ashes of moxa and selectively handle moxa smoke. The experimental results shows that this instrument could maintain the constant temperature of target acupoint, reduce the risk of empyrosis, and reasonably deal with the products of moxibustion. The purification rate of moxa smoke is 44.9%, which not only ensures the therapeutic effect of moxa smoke, but also reduces the negative effects of high-concentration moxa smoke on the health of medical staff and patients.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Humans , Moxibustion , Smoke/analysis , Temperature
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In recent years, heated tobacco products (HTPs), which are widely used in Japan, have been sold by various brands using additives such as flavors. It has been reported that the components of mainstream smoke are different from those of conventional cigarettes. In this study, we established an analytical method for furans and pyridines in the mainstream smoke, which are characteristic of HTPs and particularly harmful among the generated components, and investigated the amount of component to which the smokers are exposed.@*METHODS@#We established a simple analytical method for simultaneous analysis of gaseous and particulate compounds in the mainstream smoke of HTPs (IQOS, glo, ploom S) in Japan by combining a sorbent cartridge and glass fiber filter (Cambridge filter pad (CFP)). Both the sorbent cartridge and CFP were extracted using 2-propanol and analyzed via GC-MS/MS to determine the concentration of furans and pyridines generated from each HTP.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that the levels of target furans such as furfural, 2-furanmethanol, 2(5H)-furanone, and 5-methylfurfural tended to be higher in the mainstream smoke of glo than in standard cigarettes (3R4F). Pyridine, which is generated at a high level in 3R4F as a combustion component, and 4-ethenylpyridine (EP), which is a known marker of environmental tobacco smoke, were detected. Among these components, 2-furanmethanol and pyridine are classified as Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Therefore, it is possible that they will contribute to the health effects caused by use of HTPs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Using the new collection and analytical method for furans and pyridines in the mainstream smoke of HTPs, the level of each compound to which smokers are exposed could be clarified. By comprehensively combining information on the amount of ingredients and toxicity, it will be possible to perform a more detailed calculation of the health risks of using HTPs. In addition, the components detected in this study may be the causative substances of indoor pollution through exhaled smoke and sidestream smoke; therefore, environmental research on the chemicals generated from HTPs would be warranted in future studies.


Subject(s)
Furans/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Japan , Pyridines/analysis , Smoke/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tobacco Products
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of long-term moxa smoke exposure of different concentrations on olfactory function in rats, and provide experimental basis of safety study of moxa smoke produced by moxibustion.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a low-concentration moxa smoke group, a moderate-concentration moxa smoke group and a high-concentration moxa smoke group, 10 rats in each one. The rats in the moxa smoke groups were put into three plexiglass moxibustion boxes with different moxa smoke concentrations, 4 hours per times, twice a day for 90 days. The general state of rats was evaluated before and during the experiment. After the intervention, the olfactory function was evaluated by two-bottle experiment (TBE); the morphology of nasal mucosa was observed by HE staining; the apoptosis of olfactory epithelial cells in nasal mucosa was detected by TUNEL method; the serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by ELISA method.@*RESULTS@#In the late stage of moxa smoke exposure (45-90 days into intervention), the behavioral activity of rats in the moderate-concentration moxa smoke group and the high-concentration moxa smoke group was weaker than that in the normal control group, and their response to stimulation was strong, and their mental state was worse. After intervention, the drinking rate of vinegar-water mixture in the moderate-concentration moxa smoke group and the high-concentration moxa smoke group was higher than that in the normal control group and the low-concentration moxa smoke group (@*CONCLUSION@#The long-term exposure to low, moderate and high concentrations of moxa smoke could cause pathological changes in nasal mucosa and increase the serum levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α; the moderate and high concentrations of moxa smoke exposure could cause a series of damage to olfactory function and reduce olfactory sensitivity in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Smoke/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(5): e20210219, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346401

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This review study aimed to determine the relationship between exposure to smoke from biomass burning in the Amazon rain forest and its implications on human health in that region in Brazil. A nonsystematic review was carried out by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO, and EMBASE databases for articles published between 2005 and 2021, either in Portuguese or in English, using the search terms "biomass burning" OR "Amazon" OR "burned" AND "human health." The review showed that the negative health effects of exposure to smoke from biomass burning in the Amazon have been poorly studied in that region. There is an urgent need to identify effective public health interventions that can help improve the behavior of vulnerable populations exposed to smoke from biomass burning, reducing morbidity and mortality related to that exposure.


RESUMO Este estudo de revisão teve como objetivo determinar a relação entre a exposição à fumaça da queima de biomassa na Floresta Amazônica e suas implicações para a saúde humana nessa região do Brasil. Foi realizada uma revisão não sistemática por meio de buscas nas bases de dados PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO e EMBASE de artigos publicados entre 2005 e 2021, em português ou inglês, utilizando os termos de busca "biomass burning" OU "Amazon" OU "burned" E "human health". A revisão mostrou que os efeitos negativos para a saúde resultantes da exposição à fumaça da queima de biomassa na Amazônia foram pouco estudados na região. Há uma necessidade urgente de identificar intervenções efetivas de saúde pública que possam ajudar a melhorar o comportamento das populações vulneráveis expostas à fumaça da queima de biomassa, reduzindo a morbimortalidade relacionada a essa exposição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoke/adverse effects , Rainforest , Brazil , Biomass
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Wood , Analysis of Variance , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Heating , Lung/pathology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Fires/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
14.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 5(2): 50-55, May-Aug. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253996

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of dental enamel exposed to cigarette smoke after orthodontic debonding. Methods: Thirty-two bovine incisors were allocated into control (C1 and C2) and experimental groups (n=8) according to distinct bonding protocols: with adhesive (B1) and without adhesive (B2) and exposure to cigarette smoke. Samples from B1, B2 and C2 were exposed to ten cycles of smoke in a specific and hermetic chamber while the C1 remained stored in artificial saliva. Color analysis was performed with a spectrophotometer according to the L*a*b* system. Intergroup comparisons and effect of time were estimated with ANOVA/Tukey and paired Student t tests, respectively (a=0.05). Results: Statistically significant color changes have not been observed in C1 (L*: -0.69 ± 0.80; a*: 0.36 ± 0.23; b*: 0.17 ± 0.50) and without adhesive (B2) (L*: -3.74 ± 2.85; a*: 0.93 ± 0,73; b*: 1.13 ± 1.16) through the study time (p>0,05). However, the group with adhesive (B1) presented significant color changes in L*:-5.55 ± 2.28, a*: 2.33 ± 0.77 and b*: 3.30 ± 1.37, what means, darker, greener and more yellow, respectively (p<0,05) and the control group that was exposed to the cigarette smoke (C2) presented significant color changes in L*: -1.72 ± 0.28 e b*: 1.82 ± 0.22, what means, darker and more yellow, respectively. Conclusion: Enamel color stability was affected by exposure to cigarette smoke after orthodontic debonding, especially when bonding protocolcomprised the application of primer adhesive.


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a estabilidade da cor do esmalte dentário exposto à fumaça de cigarro após a descolagem ortodôntica. Métodos: Trinta e dois incisivos bovinos foram alocados nos grupos controle (C1 and C2) e experimental (n = 8) de acordo com protocolos de colagem ortodôntica distintos: com adesivo (B1) e sem adesivo (B2) e expostos à fumaça de cigarro. Amostras do B1, B2 e C2 foram expostas a dez ciclos de fumaça em uma câmara específica e hermética, enquanto o C1 permaneceu armazenado em saliva artificial. A análise da estabilidade de cor foi realizada com um espectrofotômetro de acordo com osistema L* a* b*. As comparações intergrupos e o efeito do tempo foram verificados com ANOVA / Tukey e testes t de Student, respectivamente (a=0,05). Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações de cor estatisticamente significativas no C1 (L*: -0,69 ± 0,80; a*: 0,36 ± 0,23; b*: 0,17 ± 0.50) e sem adesivo (B2) (L*: -3,74 ± 2,85; a*: 0,93 ± 0,73; b *: 1,13 ± 1,16) durante o tempo de estudo (p>0,05). No entanto, o grupo com adesivo (B1) apresentou alterações significativas de cor em L*: - 5,55 ± 2,28, a*: 2,33 ± 0,77 eb*: 3,30 ± 1,37, o que significa, mais escuro, mais verde e mais amarelo, respectivamente (p<0,05) e o grupo controle exposto à fumaça de cigarro (C2) apresentou alterações significativas de cor em L*: -1,72 ± 0,28 e b*: 1, 82 ± 0,22, o que significa, mais escuro e mais amarelo, respectivamente. Conclusão: A estabilidade da cor do esmalte foi afetada pela exposição à fumaça de cigarro após a descolagem ortodôntica, principalmente quando o protocolo de colagem incluía a aplicação de adesivo.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics , Smoke , Dental Debonding , Color , Dental Enamel , Tobacco Products
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated associations between perirenal fat thickness and atherosclerotic calcification in six different vascular beds.METHODS: Using a community-based cohort (n=3,919), perirenal fat thickness was estimated from computed tomography scans. It was classified as Q1 (the lowest quartile) to Q4 (the highest quartile) in each sex. Calcification in the carotid arteries, coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, and renal arteries was evaluated.RESULTS: Perirenal fat thickness was associated with older age (P<0.01) and a higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (P<0.01 for all). Perirenal fat thickness was independently associated with renal arterial calcification even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and family history of heart diseases in first-degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] per quartile of perirenal fat thickness, 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.44). Compared to Q1, the odds of renal arterial calcification in Q4 was about two times higher (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.25). After adjustment for renal arterial calcification and atherosclerotic risk factors, the only other vascular bed where perirenal fat thickness showed a significant association with calcification was the abdominal aorta (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23; P=0.045).CONCLUSION: Perirenal fat thickness was independently associated with vascular calcification in the renal artery and abdominal aorta.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Aorta, Thoracic , Atherosclerosis , Body Mass Index , Carotid Arteries , Cohort Studies , Coronary Vessels , Dyslipidemias , Heart Diseases , Humans , Hypertension , Iliac Artery , Obesity , Prevalence , Renal Artery , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Vascular Calcification
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826654

ABSTRACT

In the view of the defects of the commonly used moxibustion instruments and moxa heating instruments, such as the moxa ash cannot be removed automatically, the temperature of moxibustion and moxibustion smoke is difficult to be stabilized and adjusted, and the instruments are complex and expensive, a moxibustion device with separated moxibustion smoke and heat is designed. This device can automatically remove the moxa ash and keep it on the isolation net; the temperature of the moxibustion outlet is maintained at 43-48 ℃ (effective moxibustion temperature) for more than 40 minutes, and there is no visible moxa smoke; the temperature of the moxa smoke outlet is controlled between 28-75 ℃, and the effective discharge of moxa smoke can be realized without external power equipment. This device has the advantages of stable and controllable temperature of moxibustion outlet and moxa smoke outlet, automatic removal and collection of moxa ash, separation of moxa smoke without additional power, etc., which can be used in clinical and animal experiments for moxa heating, moxa smoke removal, etc.


Subject(s)
Equipment Design , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Smoke
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL