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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Cyprinidae , Soybeans , Seafood , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tospovirus , Plant Diseases , Soybeans , Incidence , Urticaceae , Egypt/epidemiology , Plant Weeds , Necrosis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256933, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364505

ABSTRACT

Anticarsia gemmatalis Hünber, 1818 is one of the main defoliating species in the soybean crop. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1915, is a bacterium used in the biological control of this pest species. Resistant populations and their sublethal effects caused by the use of the bacteria have already been reported; however, there are no studies on phenotypic plasticity in adulthood exposed to Bt-based bioinsecticide sub-doses. This study aimed to evaluate the morphometry of A. gemmatalis adults under laboratory conditions submitted to the Bt-based bioinsecticide Dipel® over the three generations. The body segments mensuread were width, length, and area of the anterior and posterior wings, the weight of the integument, chest, abdomen, wings, and the whole adult of males and females. Among the treatments, LC5 in the first generation and LC10 in the second generation were those with lower thresholds in relation to the weight of the chest and abdomen, considering the proportions of the body smaller than the females. The female's weight adulthood was reduced by 10% about males, and, only in the first generation. Males have larger body size and more pronounced phenotypic plasticity than females. Here, we demonstrate the first study assessing the phenotypic plasticity of A. gemmatalis adults.


Anticarsia gemmatalis Hünber, 1818 é uma das principais espécies desfolhadoras da cultura da soja. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1915, é uma bactéria utilizada no controle biológico dessa espécie de praga. Populações resistentes e seus efeitos subletais causados pelo uso da bactéria já foram relatados, no entanto, não há estudos sobre a plasticidade fenotípica na idade adulta exposta a subdoses de bioinseticida à base de Bt. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a morfometria de adultos de A. gemmatalis em condições de laboratório submetidos ao bioinseticida Dipel® ao longo de três gerações. Os segmentos corporais mensuráveis eram largura, comprimento e área das asas anterior e posterior, o peso do tegumento, tórax, abdômen, asas e todo o adulto de machos e fêmeas. Dentre os tratamentos, CL5 na primeira geração e CL10 na segunda geração foram aqueles com limiares mais baixos em relação ao peso do tórax e abdômen, considerando as proporções do corpo menores que as do sexo feminino. O peso da fêmea na idade adulta foi reduzido em 10% em relação aos machos e, apenas na primeira geração. Os machos têm tamanho corporal maior e plasticidade fenotípica mais pronunciada do que as fêmeas. Este estudo demonstra o primeiro estudo avaliando a plasticidade fenotípica de adultos de A. gemmatalis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phenotype , Soybeans , Bacillus thuringiensis , Pest Control, Biological
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 19-31, mar. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427723

ABSTRACT

Las barras de cereal (BC), se comercializan como un snack saludable, no obstante, su calidad nutricional es baja. Una alternativa para mejorar esto, es la incorporación de ingredientes como pseudocereales, germinados y subproductos de fruta. Objetivo. Evaluar el contenido nutricional y propiedades tecnofuncionales de una barra de cereal formulada a partir de pseudocereales, germinados de soya y subproductos del procesamiento de frutas. Materiales y Métodos. Se desarrollaron 6 formulaciones (F0-F5). Se determinó el contenido de proteína y fibra cruda, se seleccionó la formulación que presentó el mayor contenido de estos componentes. A la BC seleccionada se le determinó la digestibilidad in-vitro de la proteína, las propiedades tecnofuncionales potencial prebiótico y actividad inhibitoria de ECA-I. Resultados. La formulación seleccionada fue F1 (13,6 g/100 g p.s. proteína y 13,1 g/100 g p.s. fibra cruda). La digestibilidad de la proteína fue del 69 %, el cual es cercano a valores reportados para algunos componentes de la BC. La capacidad de hinchamiento y retención de agua fue 2,55 ml/g; 12,74 %, respectivamente. El crecimiento de L. brevis en medio MRS modificado con BC no presentó diferencias estadísticas con el medio control, indicando el potencial prebiótico presente en la BC. La barra de cereal tuvo un 39% de actividad inhibitoria de ECA-I, demostrando la acción de los compuestos bioactivos posiblemente liberados durante la digestión de la BC. Conclusión. La formulación desarrollada presenta propiedades funcionales importantes y podría generar beneficios para la salud(AU)


Introduction. Cereal bars (CB) are marketed as a healthy snack; however, their nutritional quality is low. An alternative to improve this is the incorporation of ingredients such as soybean sprouts, which have a higher protein content than some seeds; as well as fruit by-products that contain important bioactive compounds. Objective. To evaluate the nutritional content and techno-functional properties of a cereal bar formulated from pseudocereals, soybean sprouts, and fruit processing by-products. Materials and Methods. 6 formulations (F0-F5) were developed. The content of protein and crude fiber was determined, the formulation that presented the highest content of these components was selected. The in-vitro digestibility of the protein, the technofunctional properties, potential prebiotic and inhibitory activity of ACE-I were determined for the selected BC. Results. The selected formulation was F1 (13.6g/100g p.s. protein and 13.1g/100 g p.s. crude fiber). Protein digestibility was 69%, which is close to reported values for some CB components. The swelling and water retention capacity was 2.55 ml/g; 12.74%, respectively. The growth of L. brevis in modified MRS medium with CB did not present statistical differences with the control medium, indicating the prebiotic potential present in CB. The cereal bar had 39% ACE-I inhibitory activity, demonstrating the action of bioactive compounds possibly released during CB digestion. Conclusion. The developed formulation has important functional properties and could generate health benefits(AU)


Subject(s)
Edible Grain , Snacks , Nutritive Value , Soybeans , Proteins , Nutrients , Mangifera , Pomegranate
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism that mediates the effect of soybean isoflavones (SI) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in light of the regulation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), ferroptosis, inflammatory response and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 male SD rats were equally randomized into sham-operated group (Sham group), cerebral I/R injury group and SI pretreatment group (SI group). Focal cerebral I/R injury was induced in the latter two groups using a modified monofilament occlusion technique, and the intraoperative changes of real-time cerebral cortex blood flow were monitored using a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF). The postoperative changes of cerebral pathological morphology and the ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were observed with optical and transmission electron microscopy. The neurological deficits of the rats was assessed, and the severities of cerebral infarction, brain edema and BBB disruption were quantified. The contents of Fe2+, GSH, MDA and MPO in the ischemic penumbra were determined with spectrophotometric tests. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1βwere analyzed using ELISA, and the expressions of GPX4, MMP-9 and occludin around the lesion were detected with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#The rCBF was sharply reduced in the rats in I/R group and SI group after successful insertion of the monofilament. Compared with those in Sham group, the rats in I/R group showed significantly increased neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarction volume, brain water content and Evans blue permeability (P < 0.01), decreased Fe2+ level, increased MDA level, decreased GSH content and GPX4 expression (P < 0.01), increased MPO content and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β (P < 0.01), increased MMP-9 expression and lowered occludin expression (P < 0.01). All these changes were significantly ameliorated in rats pretreated with IS prior to I/R injury (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#SI preconditioning reduces cerebral I/R injury in rats possibly by improving rCBF, inhibiting ferroptosis and inflammatory response and protecting the BBB.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Soybeans/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Blood-Brain Barrier/ultrastructure , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 90: e00102022, 2023. graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1447285

ABSTRACT

The obstacles in Phakopsora pachyrhizi management result especially from susceptible soybean genotypes and resistant fungal strains. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the applicability of the emission of extremely low and specific frequencies by Effatha technology in the soybean Asian rust control, nutrition, and its impact on yield. The in-vivo test followed the detached leaves method, with six treatments: frequencies 1 and 2 individually and in association; the conventional chemical treatment (fungicide azoxystrobin + benzovindiflupyr); and witnesses in presence and absence of the fungus. Frequency 1 relates to inhibition of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase and 2 to ubiquinone oxidase. In the field, frequencies 1 and 2 associated (with the same fungicidal action of the in-vivo study); nutritional frequency; application of azoxystrobin + benzovindiflupyr + mancozeb, and control without application were evaluated. In vivo, the fungicide provided 85% control of the disease symptoms, against 65% of frequencies 1 and 2 in association, which showed a higher efficiency compared to the isolated frequencies. In the field, the rate of increase of symptoms were reduced by all treatments compared to the control. At the end of the soybean cycle, the conventional fungicide resulted in 33% severity against 56% of frequencies 1 and 2 associated, and 69.2% of the control. The emission of the frequency for increased nutrient efficiency stood out positively on yield in relation to all the other ones. The conventional application provided the highest weight of 1,000 grains, possibly a direct reflection of the better control of the disease.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Satellite Imagery/methods , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 586-602, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970393

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for material degradation and recycling in eukaryote cells, and plays important roles in growth, development, stress tolerance and immune responses. ATG10 plays a key role in autophagosome formation. To understand the function of ATG10 in soybean, two homologous GmATG10 genes, namely GmATG10a and GmATG10b, were silenced simultaneously by bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) induced gene silencing. The carbon starvation induced by dark treatment and Western blotting analysis of GmATG8 accumulation level indicated that concurrent silencing GmATG10a/10b resulted in the impairment of autophagy in soybean; disease resistance and kinase assays demonstrated that GmATG10a/10b participated in the immune responses by negatively regulating the activation of GmMPK3/6, indicating that GmATG10a/10b plays a negative regulatory role in immune response in soybean.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/genetics , Immunity
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 107 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437843

ABSTRACT

Atualmente a agricultura ocupa um papel de extrema importância na conjuntura global e nacional e está inserida em um contexto de enormes desafios devido ao aumento da população mundial e maior demanda por alimentos. Ao mesmo tempo, é o setor mais afetado pelos impactos negativos das mudanças climáticas, que têm espalhado suas consequências de maneira cada vez mais frequente e intensa. Um dos principais efeitos é a alteração do regime de chuvas ao redor do globo, ocasionando estiagens intensas e duradouras, capazes de reduzir a produtividade de safras e comprometer a produção alimentícia. As abordagens atualmente existentes no mercado para mitigar as consequências negativas da escassez hídrica demandam alto investimento de implementação e manutenção, ou possuem um perfil ecotoxicológico insatisfatório. Polímeros de origem natural modificados quimicamente foram avaliados em termos de desempenho e capacidade de prover às plantas uma maior disponibilidade de água através de retenção hídrica. Os resultados alcançados demonstraram que os polímeros modificados com grupos iônicos foram capazes de promover um melhor gerenciamento hídrico no microambiente ao redor de sementes e entregar ganhos de produtividade a lavouras de soja. O mecanismo de ação da tecnologia estudada foi elucidado através de ensaios de determinação de capacidade de campo, análise de elipsometria, microscopia de força atômica, ensaios de germinação de soja sob estresse hídrico e implementação de áreas de soja a céu aberto a partir da aplicação em tratamento de sementes e sulco de plantio. As interações intra e intermoleculares entre as partículas de solo, moléculas de polímero e de água se mostraram ponto chave para a mudança de patamar de desempenho de polímeros naturais modificados utilizados na agricultura, quando comparados com os grupos controle. A tecnologia aqui estudada é, portanto, recomendada para utilização na agricultura, com capacidade de potencializar o efeito de tecnologias dependentes de água, resultando em maior produtividade na colheita


Nowadays agriculture occupies an extremely important role both in the global and national scenarios. Its included in a very challenging context due to the forecast of increased world population and consequent higher demand for food. At the same time, it is the most affected economic sector by the climate change effects, which have been causing frequent and harsh impacts. One of the main effects is the change in the rainfall pattern worldwide, which causes severe and long-lasting droughts, responsible for causing crops to fail and therefore putting food production at risk. The current available mitigation measures to address hydric scarcity require a huge investment for implementation and maintenance or do not present a satisfactory and safe ecotoxicological profile. Chemically modified natural polymers have been evaluated in terms of performance and ability to provide the plants with higher water availability through hydric retention. The results obtained show that such ionic group modified polymers are able to promote better water management in a given microenvironment surrounding the seeds and ultimately delivery a higher yield to soy crops. The technology's mode of action has been elucidated through field capacity determination trials, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, soy germination trials under hydric stress and, finally, implementation of soy areas under actual field conditions by applying the polymers via seed treatment and in-furrow methods. Both intra- and intermolecular interaction between soil particles, polymer and water molecules have been proven as key to understanding the agricultural performance improvement of the modified polymers when compared to the control. The technology is recommended for agricultural applications due to its ability to boost the effect of water-dependent technologies, promoting higher yields


Subject(s)
Polymers/analysis , Dehydration/complications , Agriculture/classification , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Soil , Soybeans/growth & development , Water , Efficiency/classification , Food/classification
10.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(2): 1-9, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1410721

ABSTRACT

The soybean looper (SBL), Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a soybean and cotton pest in South America countries. Field-evolved resistance of SBL to inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis has been reported in Brazil; however, this mode of action is still widely used against SBL. On this basis, we conducted laboratory bioassays to investigate if adjuvants (Nimbus®, TA 35®, Break-Thru® S 240, and Rizospray Extremo®) added to the teflubenzuron spray increase the mortality of SBL strains (resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible to chitin biosynthesis inhibitors). Using chromatography analysis, we also evaluated the amount of teflubenzuron on soybean leaves when applied alone or in combination with adjuvants. In laboratory bioassays, the biological activity of teflubenzuron increased against the susceptible SBL strain when adjuvants were added. In contrast, no relevant effects of adjuvants added to the teflubenzuron spray against heterozygous and resistant SBL larvae were detected. In leaf bioassays, even leaves from the upper third part of the plants containing a significantly higher amount of teflubenzuron (3.4 mg/kg vs 1.7 and 0.6 mg/kg); the mortality of SBL strains was similar when teflubenzuron was applied alone or in mixture with adjuvants. Our findings indicated that adjuvants added to teflubenzuron spray do not provide a substantial increase in the mortality of SBL strains resistant to chitin biosynthesis inhibitors. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the use of this mode-ofaction insecticide against SBL and to give preference to other insecticides or control tactic.


A lagarta falsa-medideira, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), é uma praga da soja e do algodão nos países da América do Sul. A resistência de C. includens a inibidores da biossíntese de quitina tem sido relatada no Brasil. Entretanto, esse modo de ação ainda é amplamente utilizado para controle de C. includens. Com base nisso, conduzimos bioensaios em laboratório para investigar se adjuvantes (Nimbus®, TA 35®, Break-Thru® S 240 e Rizospray Extremo®) adicionados à calda inseticida de teflubenzuron aumentam a mortalidade de linhagens de C. includens (resistentes, heterozigotos e suscetíveis a inibidores da biossíntese de quitina). Usando análise cromatográfica, também avaliamos a quantidade de teflubenzuron em folhas de soja quando aplicado isolado ou em combinação com adjuvantes. Em bioensaios de laboratório, a atividade biológica do teflubenzuron aumentou para a linhagem suscetível quando os adjuvantes foram adicionados à calda inseticida. Em contraste, nenhum efeito relevante de adjuvantes adicionados ao teflubenzuron foi detectado para os heterozigotos e resistentes. Em bioensaios de folhas, mesmo naquelas do terço superior das plantas, as quais apresentaram uma maior deposição de teflubenzuron (3,4 mg/kg vs 1,7 e 0,6 mg/kg); a mortalidade das linhagens de C. includens foi semelhante quando o teflubenzuron foi aplicado isolado ou com adjuvantes. Nossos resultados indicam que os adjuvantes adicionados ao teflubenzuron não fornecem um aumento substancial na mortalidade de linhagens de C. includens resistentes aos inibidores da biossíntese de quitina. Portanto, é necessário reduzir o uso desse modo de ação para o manejo de C. includens e dar preferência a outros inseticidas ou tática de controle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soybeans , Pest Control , Insecticides
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2762-2771, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981231

ABSTRACT

Galactinol synthase (GolS) genes play important roles in plant response to abiotic stress. In this research, the plant expression vector of soybean GmGolS2-2 gene was constructed and transformed into tobacco to study the drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco. A GmGolS2-2 gene with 975 bp coding sequence was cloned from soybean leaves by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GmGolS2-2 was linked to the plant expression vector pRI101 by restriction enzyme sites Nde Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ, and transformed into tobacco by leaf disc method. Genomic DNA PCR and real-time PCR showed that three GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco plants were obtained. The growth status of GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco under drought stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco. After drought stress treatment, the electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content of transgenic tobacco were lower than those of wild-type tobacco, but the proline content and soluble sugar content were higher than those of wild-type tobacco. The results of real-time PCR showed that the heterologous expression of GmGolS2-2 increased the expression of stress-related genes NtERD10C and NtAQP1 in transgenic tobacco. The above results indicated that GmGolS2-2 improved drought resistance of transgenic tobacco.


Subject(s)
Drought Resistance , Tobacco/genetics , Soybeans/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39024, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425135

ABSTRACT

Whiteflies are a severe threat to soybean production in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soybean resistance level of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in controlled and uncontrolled environments that is associated with plant age, damage intensity, and trichome density. The research was conducted under two conditions: non-sprayed (NS) and sprayed (SP). This study used 50 soybean genotypes arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The whitefly population was derived from natural infestations. The results showed that the highest wild population of B. tabaci occurred at 40 days after planting (DAP), i.e., 126.08 adults/plant in the NS environment and 22.57 adults/plant in the SP environment. The peak damage intensity occurred at 50 DAP, 20.71% in the NS environment, and 17.15% in the SP environment. In the NS environment, there were six resistant genotypes (including the resistant control G100H), 25 moderate, and 19 susceptible genotypes. In the SP environment, 19 genotypes were resistant, 22 genotypes were moderate, and nine genotypes were susceptible, respectively. Six soybean genotypes showed consistent resistance to B. tabaci in NS and SP environments. The low density of leaf trichomes in soybean may influence the high resistance to B. tabaci. The resistant genotypes identified in this study could be utilized in breeding programs for B. tabaci resistance.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Plant Immunity , Hemiptera , Plant Breeding
13.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 7-7, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396590

ABSTRACT

Homeopathy is a technique approved by the MAPA for organic production systems. Experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of homeopathy in agriculture are essential. Aims: To evaluate the effects of homeopathic treatment on soybean seed germination. Methodology: The experiment was performed in MS-Brazil. An area of 70 m² was used, divided into two comparison plots of 30 m² each. The soil of plot 1 (treated group) was treated with 5.25 kg of powdered Lithothamniummixed with 250 ml of 30% hydroalcoholic solution (HS) containing homeopathic ingredients. The soil of plot 2 (control group) was treated with thesame preparationbutwithout homeopathic ingredients. Additionally, the 400 seeds assigned toplot 1 were treated with 0,3 ml of a solution made up of 10 ml of 30% HS with homeopathic ingredients dilutedin 300 ml of water. The 400 seeds assigned toplot 2 were treated with 0.3 ml of a solutionmade up of 10 ml of HS without homeopathic ingredients diluted in 300 ml of water. The homeopathic ingredients Sulph 9C, Mag-c12C, and Calc-p 9C were used on soil and seed treatment. The selection and prescription of those ingredients followed Materia Medica instructions. The experiment was conducted using randomized design and 400 seeds per group were sown. Results and discussion: In plot 1, anaverage of 11 seeds per m² germinated, adding up to 330 germinated seeds at a percentage of 82.5%. In plot 2, an average of 7 seeds per m² germinated, adding up to 210 germinated seeds at a percentage of 52.5%. The frequency of seed germinationin both groups was assessed by the Chi-square test to check for significant differences(p<0.05). There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) in the seed germination in the treated group (n=330) compared to the control group (n=210). Conclusion:Homeopathic compounds can be used as a viable treatment for soybean germination.


Subject(s)
Quantum Theory , Soybeans , Germination , Sustainable Agriculture , Homeopathy
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38036, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395953

ABSTRACT

Organic fertilizers increase soil aeration, water and nutrient holding capacity, improve seed germination and encourage the production of thicker roots, increase the yield and quality of the crop. This study was aimed to determine the effects of organic fertilizer (vermicompost, sheep manure, cattle manure, poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer as control) applications on the root and plant development of soybean during two growth stages, namely third trifoliate stage (V3) and beginning of flowering of the plants (R1) in the pot condition. The experiment was established with a two-factorial randomized plot design with four replications. The fertilizer applications had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the V3 and R1 growth stages of soybean. The highest plant height (36.78 cm) and root length (41.18 cm) were achieved with vermicompost, and the lowest plant height (21.73 cm) was recorded with inorganic fertilizer. The number of nodules was highest for vermicompost and cattle manure applications (17.16 plant-1 and 16.76 plant-1, respectively), and lowest for poultry manure (0.22 plant-1). In the R1 growth stage, poultry manure produced the highest biological fresh and dry weights, root dry weight at 25.08 g plant-1 and 5.67 g plant-1, 3.99 g plant-1 respectively. As a result, it was demonstrated that vermicompost and poultry manure applications promote strong root and plant development due to high organic matter and phosphorus and can be used successfully without inorganic fertilize application in soybean farming.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Worm Composting
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38073, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397075

ABSTRACT

The fluctuations in yield and consequently in production occurred due to climatic adversities in the main producing states of Brazil. Farming has changed over time, and past scenarios have shown high exploitation of natural resources focusing on soil tillage and conventional seeding methods. This study aimed to determine the yield performance of soybean grown under 10 consolidated crop succession systems. The experiment was conducted during the 2018/2019 crop season, before the research project entitled "Sustainable production systems with better use of biological and natural resources, with treatments arranged in a randomized block design and four replications". The treatments consisted of the following predecessor crops: Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Raphanus sativus, Avena strigosa + Raphanus sativus + Vicia sativa, Fallow, Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum, and Triticum aestivum ­ Fodder. Soybean was subsequently sown across winter crops. The succession that showed superior yield was Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum. This attribute was established by associating taller plants with the maximization of the number of grains per pod, hundred-grain mass, grain mass, and plant dry mass; in contrast, there was a lower emphasis on plant residue. The determining attributes for soybean yield were plant stand, plant height, the number of pods per plant, and total grain mass, with contrasts among groups composed of the succession of Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale, and Brassica napus, distanced from Raphanus sativus, Avena strigosa + Raphanus sativus + Vicia sativa, Fallow, Avena strigosa + Lolium multiflorum, and Triticum aestivum - Fodder.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Agricultural Cultivation
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38074, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397076

ABSTRACT

Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV) is one of the problems that can decrease soybean production. The research was conducted on the combined effects of corn in the barrier crop with plant extracts against CpMMV infecting soybean in the field. The field data was conducted using a Completely Randomized Design. The mean of disease incidence and disease severity is measured from total plants in each replicate plot on each treatment. Planting one or two of corn lines were grown at the edge four weeks before planting soybeans. Cashew nut shell (CNS), pagoda leaf, and rhizome of ginger extracts were applied using the sprayer and applied at 24 h before virus acquisition and transmission by whiteflies. The result showed that the virus incubation period ranged from 9−38 days after transmission longer than the untreated control. Planting two corn lines at the edge with CNS extract as bioactivator on soybean was the most extended incubation period of the virus and the lowest absorbance value DAS-ELISA of 0.20. There was a 73.11 % increase in the relative inhibition level of the virus. Planting corn at the edge with CNS extract proved to be more effective than soybean monoculture with CNS extract. However, soybean monoculture with CNS extract provides a better relative inhibition level of the virus (64.32 %) than planting two rows of corn on the edge combined with ginger of rhizome extract and planting two rows of corn on the edge with pagoda leaf extract as bioactivator on a soybean plant.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Flexiviridae/pathogenicity , Phytochemicals , Hemiptera/pathogenicity
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38066, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396895

ABSTRACT

A wide range of soybean cultivars is available on the market and understanding the physiological response and yield of these materials is fundamental to develop new management systems. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess ecophysiological parameters and yield of soybean cultivars under field conditions. The experiment was carried out on a farm located in the municipality of Açailândia, Maranhão, Brazil. Three commercial cultivars were used (SC1, SC2 and SC3), and gas exchanges, SPAD index, Fv/Fm, photosynthesis index (PI), instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) and intrinsic instantaneous of the use of water (iWUE) were assessed during the vegetative (V5) and reproductive (R5) stages. In addition, the biomass and production components were obtained. A randomized complete block design was used, with three cultivars and six replications. SC2 obtained the best mean for the photochemical variables. SC2 was more efficient at both development stages in WUE, but the maximum iWUE values were obtained in SC3. The SC2 cultivar obtained the best responses in the main variables analyzed, resulting in a higher yield.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Chlorophyll , Efficient Water Use , Fluorescence
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38076, Jan.-Dec. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397159

ABSTRACT

The question of the spray volume for applying agrochemicals to plants has and still demands studies to continuously search for guiding parameters for technicians due to the several variables involving application technology. This experiment aimed to determine the best spray volume for applying pesticides with a boom sprayer to soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops. The experiment had a completely randomized blocks design with five treatments and five replications. In soybean (crop year 2011/12), the treatments were the control (no pesticide application) and spray volume applications of 50, 100, 150, and 200 L ha-1. For wheat (crop year 2012), the treatments were the control and spray volumes of 75, 100, 125, and 150 L ha-1. The variables analyzed were the yield components. The study concluded the need for applying foliar fertilizers and performing the chemical control of diseases and pests in soybean and wheat crops. The spray volumes of 50 L ha-1 for soybeans and 75 L ha-1 for wheat were satisfactory for spraying agrochemicals with a ground bar sprayer on plants.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Triticum , Pesticide Utilization
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38013, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361651

ABSTRACT

This research was aimed at obtaining varieties of soybean adaptive to acid soils and to obtain Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolates that can improve the agronomic characteristics of soybean and increase the ultisols fertility. This research was conducted in two-stages research on Sampali Village, Percut Sei Tuan sub-District, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia from August 2019 until March 2020. The first stage (adaptive varieties screening) using the non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the varieties of Argomulyo, Wilis, Kaba, Dena-1, Devon-1, Dega-1, Demas-1, Burangrang, Detam-1, and Kipas Merah. The second stage (application of PGPR isolates singly and in combinations) using the factorial RBD, the first factor of applicative single and the combination of PGPR isolates, the second factor of adaptive varieties including Detam-1 and Wilis. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and followed by DMRT at P<0.05. The results showed that the Detam-1 and Wilis varieties had significantly higher yield per plant of 14.73 g and 14.54 g, respectively, than other varieties. The applications of a single and combination of PGPR isolates significantly increased the number of branches, stem diameter, plant height, yield per plant, soil pH, organic-C, available-P, and total-N and decreased the soil C/N. The Detam-1 variety had the higher in yield per plant compared to Wilis variety. The isolates combination of Rhizobium leguminosarum+Rhizobium sp2+Bacillus sp+Burkholderia sp for Detam-1 and Wilis varieties can be recommended to support the growth and yield of soybean on ultisols.


Subject(s)
Rhizobium , Soybeans/growth & development , Soil Acidity , Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38024, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395413

ABSTRACT

The biophysical characteristics of vegetative canopies, such as biomass, height, and canopy diameter, are of paramount importance for the study of the development and productive behavior of crops. Faced with a scarcity of studies aimed at estimating these parameters, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of artificial neural networks (ANNs) applied to Proximal Remote Sensing (PRS) to estimate biophysical characteristics of soybean culture. The data used to train and validate the ANNs came from an experiment composed of 65 plots with 30 x 30 m mesh, its development was carried out in the 2016/2017 crop in the Brazilian agricultural area. The evaluations were carried out at 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after sowing (DAS), monitoring the spatial and temporal variability of the biophysical characteristics of the soybean crop. Vegetation indexes were collected using canopy sensors. The accuracy and precision were determined by the coefficient of determination (R2) and the error of the forecasts by MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error). PRS and ANNs showed high potential for application in agriculture, since they obtained good performance in the estimation of height (R2 = 0.89) and canopy diameter (R2 = 0.96), being fresh biomass (R2 =0.98) and dry biomass (R2 = 0.97) were the best-estimated variables.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/anatomy & histology , Neural Networks, Computer , Machine Learning
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