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Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-10, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145375


Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of the polishing procedure and surface sealant application on the fluoride release of restorative materials. Material and Methods: The groups were consisted of using five different restorative materials were employed: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer and Fuji IX GP. 30 disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) were prepared from each material. Each group was subdivided into three groups considering finishing procedures: Mylar strip, polishing with Super-Snap discs, G-Coat Plus application after polishing with Super-Snap discs. The amount of fluoride released into distilled water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours, followed by measurement on days 3, 7, 15, 21, and 28. Surface analysis of the materials was performed with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). The data were statistically analyzed using two-way repeated measure ANOVA and LSD test (p=0.05). Results: The highest amount of fluoride released was measured after the first 24 h for all materials. Beautifil II released less fluoride than other materials in all measurement periods (p<0.05). After polishing, the amount of fluoride released from all materials except Beautifil II increased (p<0.05). The application of G-Coat Plus did not impact the amount of fluoride release of any materials (p>0.05). EDS analysis showed the most percentage of oxygen in all materials. Conclusion: The polishing procedure might induce an increase in fluoride release of glass ionomer-based materials, and the application of G-Coat Plus cannot affect the amount of fluoride release. (AU)

Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do procedimento de polimento e aplicação de selante superficial na liberação de flúor de materiais restauradores. Material e Métodos: Os grupos consistiram na utilização de cinco materiais restauradores diferentes: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer e Fuji IX GP. Trinta espécimes em forma de disco (8x2 mm) foram preparados a partir de cada material. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três grupos considerando os procedimentos de acabamento: tira Mylar, polimento com discos Super-Snap, aplicação de G-Coat Plus após polimento com discos Super-Snap. A quantidade de flúor liberada na água destilada foi medida usando um eletrodo íon-seletivo de fluoreto e analisador de íons após 24 horas, seguido pela medição nos dias 3, 7, 15, 21 e 28. A análise da superfície dos materiais foi realizada com MEV (Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura) e EDS (Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva de Raios-X). Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente usando ANOVA de dois fatores com medidas repetidas e teste LSD (p = 0,05). Resultados: A maior quantidade de flúor liberado foi medida após as primeiras 24 horas para todos os materiais. O Beautifil II liberou menos flúor do que outros materiais em todos os períodos avaliados (p <0,05). Após o polimento, a quantidade de flúor liberada de todos os materiais, exceto Beautifil II, aumentou (p <0,05). A aplicação de G-Coat Plus não afetou a quantidade de liberação de flúor de nenhum material (p> 0,05). A análise por EDS revelou a maior porcentagem de oxigênio em todos os materiais. Conclusão: O procedimento de polimento pode induzir um aumento na liberação de flúor de materiais à base de ionômero de vidro, e a aplicação de G-Coat Plus não pode afetar a quantidade de liberação de flúor (AU)

Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Fluorides , Glass Ionomer Cements
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18440, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249159


In this study, naftifine (a topical antifungal drug) loaded poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) nanofibrous mats were prepared using the single-needle electrospinning technique. The produced nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapor. The morphology and diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed the smoothness of the nanofibers and indicated that the fiber diameter increased with crosslinking and drug loading. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the uniform production of the scaffolds, and elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the uniform distribution of the drug within the nanofibers. An attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy study demonstrated that naftifine has sufficient secondary interactions with the polymer blend. The crosslinking treatment decreased the burst drug release effectively and the release mechanism followed Korsmeyer-Peppas Super Case-II transport. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of naftifine-loaded PVA/SA nanofibers as a topical antifungal drug delivery system.

Administration, Topical , Nanofibers/analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Microscopy, Atomic Force/instrumentation , Alginates/adverse effects , Drug Liberation
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055521


Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on fluoride release, surface roughness, flexural strength, and surface chemical composition of the materials. The study groups comprised five different restorative materials: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer, and Fuji IX GP. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) for fluoride release and 20 bar-shaped specimens (25 x 2x 2 mm) for flexural strength were prepared from each material. Each material group was divided into two subgroups: irradiated (IR) and non-irradiated (Non-IR). The specimens from IR groups were irradiated with 1.8 Gy/day for 39 days (total IR = 70.2 Gy). The amount of fluoride released into deionized water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours and on days 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 39 (n = 10). The flexural strength was evaluated using the three-point bending test (n = 10). After the period of measurement of fluoride release, seven specimens (n = 7) from each group were randomly selected to evaluate surface roughness using AFM and one specimen was randomly selected for the SEM and EDS analyses. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). The irradiation significantly increased fluoride release and surface roughness for Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer groups (p < 0.05). No significant change in flexural strength of the materials was observed after irradiation (p > 0.05). The ionizing radiation altered the amount of fluoride release and surface roughness of only Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer. The effect could be related to the chemical compositions of materials.

Apatites/radiation effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/radiation effects , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/radiation effects , Apatites/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Time Factors , Zirconium/radiation effects , Zirconium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Flexural Strength , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 933-941, Dec. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056925


Bovine periodontitis is a multifactorial disease primarily associated with a potentially pathogenic microbiota housed in the oral biofilm of animals. Biofilms are organized structures, in which the constituents coexist in symbiosis, already described as a predisposing factor to periodontitis in other species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the structure and chemical aspects of the bovine black pigmented supragingival biofilm using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, and determine its relationship with bovine periodontitis. Eleven premolar teeth from different animals were evaluated; five non-pigmented samples and six samples with black pigmented biofilms were initially submitted to SEM, and three areas of these samples were selected for EDS. The structure of the pigmented biofilm was more complex and irregular because of a higher content of mineral elements. The semi-quantitative EDS data indicated an association of iron (p<0.014) and magnesium (p<0.001) with the occurrence of periodontitis, whereas carbon, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, sodium, and potassium were not associated with the disease. Carbon (p<0.039), manganese (p<0.007), and iron (p<0.015) were associated with pigmentation, whereas phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium were not associated with it. Spearman correlation test showed the relationships between calcium and phosphorus, and iron and silicon. The strong association of iron in the pigmented supragingival biofilm and with the occurrence of periodontitis suggests the presence of microorganisms that use this element in their metabolism and that are also associated with bovine periodontitis. This study suggests that the pigmented deposits in the crown of the teeth of cattle are an true biofilm with the deposition of iron, and it indicates that the presence of iron and magnesium in these formations may be involved in the metabolism of some microorganisms associated with the etiology of bovine periodontitis.(AU)

A periodontite bovina é uma infecção multifatorial associada primariamente à microbiota potencialmente patogênica presente no biofilme bucal. Biofilmes são estruturas organizadas, nas quais os constituintes convivem em simbiose, descritos em outras espécies como um fator predisponente à periodontite. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar estrutural e quimicamente o biofilme supragengival pigmentado de preto em bovinos, utilizando-se as técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e espectroscopia de dispersão de energia (EDS), respectivamente, correlacionando os elementos identificados à ocorrência de periodontite e pigmentação. Foram avaliados 11 dentes primeiro-molares; cinco amostras sem pigmentação visível e seis amostras com biofilme pigmentado de preto, que foram submetidas inicialmente à MEV; posteriormente foram selecionadas três áreas aleatórias de cada dente para realização da EDS. A estrutura do biofilme pigmentado revelou formações irregulares e mais complexas, provavelmente devido ao maior acúmulo de elementos minerais. Os resultados semi-quantitativos da EDS apontaram associações entre a presença de ferro (p<0,014) e magnésio (p<0,001) com a ocorrência de periodontite. Carbono, fósforo, cálcio, manganês, sódio e potássio não apresentaram associação com a periodontite. Em relação à pigmentação, carbono (p<0,039), manganês (p<0,007) e ferro (p<0,015) foram os elementos estatisticamente significantes, enquanto fósforo, cálcio e magnésio não apresentaram associação com a pigmentação. O teste de correlação de Spearman demonstrou associações entre os elementos cálcio e fósforo, e ferro e silício. A forte associação do ferro presente no biofilme supragengival com a ocorrência de periodontite, sugere a presença de micro-organismos que utilizam este elemento em seu metabolismo e que possivelmente tenham envolvimento com o desenvolvimento da periodontite bovina. Os resultados inéditos do presente trabalho sugerem que os depósitos pigmentados que se formam na coroa dos dentes de bovinos são um biofilme verdadeiro com deposição de ferro, e indicam que a presença de ferro e magnésio nestas formações pode estar envolvida no metabolismo de alguns dos principais micro-organismos associados à etiologia da periodontite bovina.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/veterinary , Dental Plaque/etiology , Dental Plaque/veterinary , Dental Plaque/chemistry , Periodontitis/microbiology , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary , Iron , Magnesium
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(3): 94-102, oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058206


Resumen: Se presenta una aplicación basada en Microsoft Excel llamada Xpektrin para el cálculo de dosis en radiología general. La aplicación permite simular espectros de rayos X en radiología general utilizando el modelo TASMICS a partir de mediciones del kerma en aire (Kair) y de la capa Hemirreductora (HVL). Tiene implementado el cálculo de magnitudes radiométricas y dosimétricas, como el kerma en aire en la superficie de entrada (Ke) y la dosis en piel (Dskin), en función de la elección arbitraria de los factores de exposición, el tipo y grosor de filtro, la distancia foco-piel y el tamaño de campo. Xpektrin fue validado con la herramienta computacional SPEKTR 3.0, utilizando mediciones de dosis y de HVL de tubos de rayos X de tres recintos hospitalarios. Se encontró buena correlación en ambas aplicaciones entre las mediciones experimentales y los valores calculados de HVL y con coeficientes de Pearson R² ≥ 0.99 en todos los casos. Sin embargo, se obtuvo mejor concordancia con los valores experimentales de HVL con Xpektrin (mediana de diferencias -0.43%, -0.04% y 0.01%) que con SPEKTR 3.0 (mediana de diferencias -3.31%, 0.10% y -7.85%), en particular para el tubo con mayor filtración. Xpektrin está optimizada para ser utilizada en los departamentos de radiología para la determinación de dosis de pacientes individuales en función de los parámetros utilizados durante la exposición, por lo que puede ser utilizada como parte de un sistema de registro dosimétrico o como apoyo para el establecimiento de niveles de referencia para diagnóstico (NRD), siendo particularmente útil en servicios con equipos sin registros automáticos de dosis. Además, debido a sus características de simulador, puede ser útil como herramienta pedagógica. El uso de Excel permite que sea altamente distribuible y fácil de usar, sin necesidad de conocimientos de programación.

Abstract: Xpektrin, an easy to use and highly distributable X-Ray Spectra Simulator in General Radiography. An application based on Microsoft Excel called Xpektrin is presented for dose calculation in general radiology. The application was developed to simulate X-ray spectra in general radiography using the TASMICS model. Using as inputs air kerma (Kair) and Half-value layer (HVL) measurements, Xpektrin allows the calculation of several radiometric and dosimetric quantities, such as the entrance surface air kerma (Ke) and the skin dose (Dskin), depending on the exposure factors, filter material type, filter thickness, focus-skin distance and field size. Xpektrin was validated against the Matlab toolkit SPEKTR 3.0, using dose and HVL measurements of X-ray tubes from three different hospitals. It was found good correlation in both applications between the experimental measurements and the calculated HVL and Kair values with Pearson coefficients R² ≥ 0.99 in all cases. However, experimental and calculated HVL have better agreement with Xpektrin (median percent difference -0.43%, -0.04% and 0.01%) than SPEKTR 3.0 (median percent difference -3.31%, 0.10% and -7.85%), particularly for the tube with greater filtration thickness. Xpektrin is optimized to be used in radiology departments for patient dose determination depending on the exposure parameters and may be used as part of a dosimetric record system or as a support for the determination of Diagnostic Reference Levels, which may be useful when no automatic dose records are available. In addition, due to its simulator characteristics, it can be useful as a pedagogical tool. Using Excel allows Xpektrin to be highly distributable and easy to use, without the need for programming skills.

Humans , Radiology/methods , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/methods , Computer Simulation , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/standards , Software , Monte Carlo Method , Diagnostic Reference Levels
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180233, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975899


Abstract Objective: To analyze color change, microhardness and chemical composition of enamel bleached with in-office bleaching agent with different desensitizing application protocols. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventeen polished anterior human enamel surfaces were obtained and randomly divided into nine groups (n = 13). After recording initial color, microhardness and chemical composition, the bleaching treatments were performed as G1: Signal Professional White Now POWDER&LIQUID FAST 38% Hydrogen peroxide(S); G2: S+Flor Opal/0.5% fluoride ion(F); G3: S+GC Tooth Mousse/Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste(TM); G4: S+UltraEZ/3% potassium nitrate&0.11% fluoride(U); G5: S+Signal Professional SENSITIVE PHASE 1/30% Nano-Hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) suspension(SP); G6: S-F mixture; G7: S-TM mixture; G8: S-U mixture; G9: S-SP mixture. Color, microhardness and chemical composition measurements were repeated after 1 and 14 days. The percentage of microhardness loss (PML) was calculated 1 and 14 days after bleaching. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Welch ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett T3 tests (p<0.05). Results: Color change was observed in all groups. The highest ΔE was observed at G7 after 1 day, and ΔE at G8 was the highest after 14 days (p<0.05). A decrease in microhardness was observed in all groups except G6 and G7 after 1 day. The microhardness of all groups increased after 14 days in comparison with 1 day after bleaching (p>0.05). PML was observed in all groups except G6 and G7 after bleaching and none of the groups showed PML after 14 days. No significant changes were observed after bleaching at Ca and P levels and Ca/P ratios at 1 or 14 days after bleaching (p>0.05). F mass increased only in G2 and G6, 1 day after bleaching (p<0.05). Conclusions: The use of desensitizing agents containing fluoride, CPP-ACP, potassium nitrate or n-HAP after in-office bleaching or mixed in bleaching agent did not inhibit the bleaching effect. However, they all recovered microhardness of enamel 14 days after in-office bleaching.

Humans , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin Desensitizing Agents/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Caseins/chemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Color , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Nitrates/chemistry
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e015, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989477


Abstract We assessed the effect of a new coating material based on resin-modified glass-ionomer with calcium (Ca) in inhibiting the demineralization of underlying and adjacent areas surrounding caries-like lesions in enamel. The measures used were surface hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH). Thirty-six bovine enamel specimens (3 × 6 × 2 mm) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): No treatment (NT); resin-modified glass-ionomer with Ca (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE) (CL), and fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) (DU). The specimens were subjected to alternated immersions in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solutions (18 h) for 7 days. SH measurements were conducted at standard distances of 150, 300, and 450 µm from the treatment area. CSH evaluated the mean hardness profile over the depth of the enamel surface and at standard distances from the materials. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the demineralization bands created on the sublayer by % of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F). Ca/P weight ratio was also calculated. Based on SH and CSH measurements, there was no difference between groups at the distances 150 µm (p = 0.882), 300 µm (p = 0.995), and 450 µm (p = 0.998). Up to 50 µm depth (at 150 µm from the treatment area), CL showed better performance than DU ( p< 0.05). NT presented higher loss of Ca and P than CL and DU (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the % of F ion among the three groups. The new coating material was similar to F varnish in attenuating enamel demineralization.

Animals , Cattle , Calcium/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Random Allocation , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180266, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055379


Abstract Phytochemical content of plant extracts can be used effectively to reduce the metal ions to nanoparticles in one-step green synthesis process. In this study, six plant extracts were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biologically synthesized AgNPs was characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The individual and combined effects of AgNPs and tetracycline against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were assessed. Ginger, onion and sidr extracts supported AgNPs formation while arak, garlic and mint extracts failed to convert the silver ions to AgNPs. The present findings revealed significant differences between the tested plant extracts in supporting AgNPs synthesis. AgNPs synthesized by ginger showed the highest individual and combined activity against tested strains followed by AgNPs prepared by sidr then that synthesized by onion. AgNPs significantly enhanced tetracycline activity (p≤0.05) against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that the combination of tetracycline and biologically synthesized AgNPs presented a useful therapeutically method for the treatment of bacterial infection and counterattacking bacterial resistance.

Silver/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tetracycline/biosynthesis , Plant Extracts/biosynthesis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Spectrophotometers/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764043


In the present study, rutile phase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (R-TiO₂ NPs) were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in an aqueous solution followed by calcination at 900℃. The composition of R-TiO₂ NPs was determined by the analysis of X-ray diffraction data, and the characteristic features of R-TiO₂ NPs such as the surface functional group, particle size, shape, surface topography, and morphological behavior were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. The average size of the prepared R-TiO₂ NPs was 76 nm, the surface area was 19 m²/g, zeta potential was −20.8 mV, and average hydrodynamic diameter in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)–H₂O solution was 550 nm. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and morphological observations revealed that R-TiO₂ NPs were cytocompatible with oral cancer cells, with no inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. This suggests the efficacy of R-TiO₂ NPs for the aesthetic white pigmentation of teeth.

Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Dynamic Light Scattering , Hydrodynamics , Hydrolysis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mouth Neoplasms , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Pigmentation , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrum Analysis , Titanium , Tooth , X-Ray Diffraction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741304


PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical manifestations and properties of remnant particles in the subconjunctival space after high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgery for conjunctivochalasis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational case series with in vitro experimental imaging in nine eyes from eight patients who presented with small dark-gray lesions during follow-up after high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgery for conjunctivochalasis. General examination including slit-lamp examination and visual acuity testing was performed preoperatively and postoperatively. During follow-up, we evaluated remnant particles and any other complications including granuloma or conjunctival injection with slit-lamp photography and anterior optical coherence tomography. Coagulation tips were investigated with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to analyze the insulating electrode and assess changes to tips after repeated use. RESULTS: None of the patients included in this study experienced any change in visual acuity or major complications postoperatively. Small dark-gray lesions (0.3 to 0.5 mm in size) were observed in the inferior bulbar sub-conjunctival space in the location where high-frequency radio-wave electrosurgery had been performed. Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography images revealed focal hyper-reflection with a posterior shadow, suggesting foreign particles. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy imaging analysis revealed peaks of carbon and fluorine complexes, consistent with the polytetrafluoroethylene coating on the electrode. CONCLUSIONS: There were no instances of inflammatory reaction, particle migration, or major complications due to particles. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of remnant polytetrafluoroethylene particles in subconjunctival tissue when using insulated coagulation tips subjected to repeat sterilization.

Carbon , Electrodes , Electrosurgery , Fluorine , Follow-Up Studies , Granuloma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Photography , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Retrospective Studies , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Sterilization , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity
Annals of Dermatology ; : 666-668, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762389


Localized cutaneous argyria is a rare condition in which the skin changes into blue-grey spots due to the absorption of silver. The lesions need to be differentiated from other pigmentary disorders and require radiographic and histological examination for more accurate diagnosis. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy can be a confirmatory tool in the evaluation of silver elements in biopsy tissue. This report shows the localized cutaneous argyria in earlobe of a 21-year-old woman who wears silver earrings for 10 years.

Absorption , Argyria , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Ear , Female , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nevus, Blue , Silver , Skin , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Young Adult
Odovtos (En línea) ; 20(2): 81-89, May.-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091449


Abstract Trans-endodontic implants are an artificial extension through root apex anchored in periradicular bone tissue. The aim is to improve the crown-root ratio and to provide stability to dental organ present. Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is a material of great technological importance, having good natural color, high strength, high toughness, high chemical stability, does not suffer any corrosion, chemical and microbial resistance and excellent esthetic properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and microscopy of surface conditions of ZrO2 trans-endodontic implant. Materials and Methods: A blocks of ZrO2 were manufactured for produce trans-endodontic implants and divided in two groups: monoclinic and tetragonal phase. They were evaluated using Scanning Electroning Microscope (SEM), EnergyDispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Vickers Micro hardness. Results: The Monoclinic phase through AFM analysis showed roughness Ra = 0.320μm, whereas in the Tetragonal phase was 0.126μm, SEM/EDX indicated that the phases are not properly uniform and the addition of the Yttrium to favor the stabilization of the Tetragonal phase. The Vickers hardness analysis showed a value of 1500HV. Conclusion: The characterization of the surface of trans-endodontic zirconium oxide implants provides a guideline to know the surface characteristics of the material, since a greater roughness on the surface of the implant will favor the Osseo-integration capacity.

Resumen Los implantes trans-endodónticos son una extensión artificial a través del ápice radicular anclado en el tejido óseo periradicular. El objetivo es mejorar la relación corona-raíz y proporcionar estabilidad al órgano dental presente. El óxido de zirconio (ZrO2) es un material de gran importancia tecnológica, con buen color natural, alta resistencia, alta tenacidad, alta estabilidad química, no sufre corrosión, resistencia química y microbiana y excelentes propiedades estéticas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las condiciones superficiales de ZrO2 para su aplicación clínica a los implantes transendodónticos. Materiales y Métodos: se trituraron bloques de ZrO2 en implantes trans-endodónticos y se dividieron en: monoclínico y tetragonal. Luego se evaluaron mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM), espectroscopia de rayos X de energía dispersiva (EDS) y microscopio de fuerza atómica (AFM) y microdureza vickers. Resultados: La fase monoclínica a través del análisis AFM presenta Ra = 0.320 μm, mientras que en la fase Tetragonal es 0.126 μm, SEM / EDS muestra que las fases no son adecuadamente uniformes y la adición del Ytrio para favorecer la estabilización de la fase tetragonal. El análisis de microdureza mostro un valor de 1500HV. Conclusión: La caracterización de la superficie de los implantes trans-endodónticos de óxido de zirconio, brinda una pauta para conocer las características superficiales del material, ya que al haber una mayor rugosidad en la superficie del implante se verá favorecida la capacidad de oseointegración.

Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Zirconium/therapeutic use , Dental Implants/microbiology
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 275-281, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951546


Abstract This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multi-mode adhesive (SBU-Scotch Bond Universal/3M) as a substitute for silica coating and silane application on the bonding of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. One-hundred and twenty sintered zirconia ceramic blocks (5 x 5 x 5 mm) were obtained, finished by grounding with silicon carbide paper (#600, #800, #1000 and #1200) and randomly divided into 12 groups (n=10) in accordance with the factors "surface treatment" (ScSi - silicatization + silanization; ScSBU - silicatization + SBU; SBU - SBU without photoactivation and SBUp - SBU photoactivated) and "ceramic" (Lava / 3M ESPE, Ceramill Zirconia / Amann Girrbach and Zirkonzahn / Zirkonzahn). Dual resin cement cylinders (RelyX Ultimate/3M ESPE) were subsequently produced in the center of each block using a silicon matrix (Ø=2 mm, h=5 mm) and photoactivated for 40 s (1200 mW/cm2). The samples were stored for 30 days in distilled water (37ºC) and submitted to shear bond strength test (1 mm/min, 100 KgF). Data (MPa) were analyzed under ANOVA (2 levels) and Tukey test (5%). Complementary analyzes were also performed. ANOVA revealed that only the factor "surface treatment" was significant (p=0.0001). The ScSi treatment (14.28A) promoted statistically higher bond strength values than the other ScSBU (9.03B), SBU (8.47B) and SBUp (7.82B), which were similar to each other (Tukey). Failure analysis revealed that 100% of the failures were mixed. The silica coating followed by the silanization promoted higher bond strength values of resin cement and ceramic, regardless of the zirconia ceramic or SBU.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a efetividade de um adesivo "multi-mode" (Single Bond Universal/3M) como um substituto para a silicatização e aplicação do silano na resistência de união das cerâmicas de zircônia e um cimento resinoso. Para isso, 120 blocos cerâmicos sinterizados de zircônia nas dimensões de (5 x 5 x 5 mm) foram obtidos, lixados com lixas de granulação decrescente (#600, #800, #1000 e #1200) e divididos aleatoriamente em 12 grupos (n = 10), de acordo com os fatores "tratamento de superfície" (ScSi - silicatização + silanização; ScSBU - silicatização + Single Bond; SBU - SBU sem fotoativação e SBUp - SBU com fotoativação) e "cerâmica" (Lava/3M ESPE, Ceramill Zircônia/ Amann Girrbach e Zirkonzahn/Zirkonzahn). Posteriormente, cilindros de cimento resinoso dual (RelyX Ultimate/3M ESPE) foram confeccionados no centro de cada bloco com auxílio de uma matriz de silicone (Ø=2 mm; h=5 mm) e fotopolimerizados por 40 s (1200 mW/ cm²). Em seguida, as amostras foram armazenadas durante trinta dias em água destilada (37 °C) e submetidas ao ensaio de resistência de união ao cisalhamento (1 mm/min, 100 kgF). Os dados (MPa) foram analisados sob ANOVA (2 fatores) e teste de Tukey (5%). Análises complementares também foram realizadas. ANOVA revelou que apenas o fator "tratamento de superfície" foi significativo (p=0,0001). O tratamento ScSi (14.28A) promoveu valores de adesão estatisticamente superiores aos demais ScSBU (9.03B), SBU (8.47B) e SBUp (7.82B), os quais foram semelhantes entre si (Tukey). A Análise de falhas revelou que 100% da falhas que ocorreram foram mistas. A silicatização seguida da silanização promoveu a melhor resistência de união entre cimento resinoso e a cerâmica, independentemente do tipo da cerâmica ou do SBU.

Silanes/chemistry , Yttrium , Zirconium , Silicates/chemistry , Dental Cements , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Tensile Strength , X-Ray Diffraction , Dental Bonding , Wettability , Resin Cements/chemistry , Equipment Failure Analysis , Shear Strength , Dental Stress Analysis
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 117-127, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951529


Article This study evaluated comparatively two configurations (powder and putty) of a composite biomaterial based on PLGA (Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/nanoescale hydroxyapatite (ReOss®, Intra-Lock International) through microscopic morphology, in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and in vivo response as a bone substitute. SEM and EDS characterized the biomaterials before/after grafting. Cytocompatibility was assessed with murine pre-osteoblasts. Osteoconductivity and biocompatibility were evaluated in White New Zealand rabbits. Both configurations were implanted in the calvaria of eighteen animals in non-critical size defects, with blood clot as the control group. After 30, 60 and 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the fragments containing the biomaterials and controls were harvested. Bone blocks were embedded in paraffin (n=15) aiming at histological and histomorphometric analysis, and in resin (n=3) aiming at SEM and EDS. Before implantation, the putty configuration showed both a porous and a fibrous morphological phase. Powder revealed porous particles with variable granulometry. EDS showed calcium, carbon, and oxygen in putty configuration, while powder also showed phosphorus. After implantation EDS revealed calcium, carbon, and oxygen in both configurations. The materials were considered cytotoxic by the XTT test. Histological analysis showed new bone formation and no inflammatory reaction at implant sites. However, the histomorphometric analysis indicated that the amount of newly formed bone was not statistically different between experimental groups. Although both materials presented in vitro cytotoxicity, they were biocompatible and osteoconductive. The configuration of ReOss® affected morphological characteristics and the in vitro cytocompatibility but did not impact on the in vivo biological response, as measured by the present model.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou comparativamente duas configurações (pó e massa) de um biomaterial composto com base de PLGA (Poli(láctico-co-glicólico)/hidroxiapatita em nanoescala (ReOss®, Intra-Lock International) através da morfologia microscópica, citotoxicidade in vitro, biocompatibilidade e resposta in vivo como substituto ósseo. MEV e EDS caracterizaram os biomateriais antes/após o enxerto. A citocompatibilidade foi avaliada em pré-osteoblastos murinos. A osteocondutividade e a biocompatibilidade foram avaliadas em coelhos Branco da Nova Zelândia. Ambas as configurações foram implantadas na calvária de dezoito animais em defeitos não-críticos, com coágulo sanguíneo como grupo controle. Após 30, 60 e 90 dias, os animais foram eutanasiados e os fragmentos contendo os biomateriais e controles coletados. Blocos ósseos foram embebidos em parafina (n=15) destinados às análises histológica e histomorfométrica, e em resina (n=3) destinadas à MEV e EDS. Antes da implantação, a configuração massa mostrou ambas fases morfológicas porosa e fibrosa. O pó revelou partículas porosas com granulometria variável. EDS mostrou cálcio, carbono e oxigênio na configuração massa, enquanto o pó mostrou também fósforo. Após a implantação a EDS revelou cálcio, carbono e oxigênio em ambas configurações. Os materiais foram considerados citotóxicos pelo teste XTT. A análise histológica mostrou nova formação óssea e nenhuma reação inflamatória nos sítios de implante. Entretanto, a análise histomorfométrica indicou que a quantidade de osso neoformado não foi estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos experimentais. Embora ambos os materiais tenham apresentado citotoxicidade in vitro, foram biocompatíveis e osteocondutores. A configuração do ReOss® afetou as características morfológicas e a citocompatibilidade in vitro, porém não impactou a resposta biológica in vivo, como medido pelo presente modelo.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Bone Substitutes , Osteoblasts/cytology , Powders , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Bone Regeneration , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Durapatite/chemistry , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170589, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954496


Abstract High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can cause adverse effects on composition and structure of teeth. However, the addition of calcium and fluoride in bleaching agents may reduce enamel demineralization. Objective: To evaluate chemical changes of sound and demineralized enamels submitted to high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide containing fluoride (F) or calcium (Ca). Material and Methods: Enamel blocks of bovine incisors with standard dimensions were obtained and half of them were submitted to pH-cycling to promote initial enamel caries lesions. Sound and demineralized enamel samples were divided into (n=10): (C) Control (no whitening treatment); (HP) 35% hydrogen peroxide; and two experimental groups: (HPF) 35% HP+0.2% F and (HPC) 35% HP+0.2% Ca. Experimental groups were submitted to two in-office bleaching sessions and agents were applied 3 times for 15 min to each session. The control group was kept in remineralizing solution at 37°C during the bleaching treatment. The surface mineral content of sound and demineralized enamels was determined through Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), Energy dispersive Micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-EDXRF); and the subsurface, through cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH). In addition, polarized light microscopy (PLM) images of enamel subsurface were observed. Results: According to three-way (FT-Raman and μ-EDXRF analyses) or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (CSMH) and Tukey test (α=5%), the calcium or fluoride added to high-concentrated bleaching agents increased phosphate and carbonate concentrations on sound and demineralized enamels (p<0.05). However, HPC and HPF were unable to completely reverse the subsurface mineral loss promoted by bleaching on sound and demineralized enamels. The calcium/ phosphate (Ca/P) ratio of sound enamel decreased after HP treatment (p<0.001). Conclusion: Even though experimental bleaching agents with Ca or F reduced mineral loss for both sound and demineralized enamel surfaces, these agents were unable to reverse the enamel subsurface demineralization.

Animals , Cattle , Calcium/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Phosphates/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Materials Testing , Carbonates/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e107, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974451


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect, degree of conversion (% DC), Vickers hardness (VH), and surface morphology of composite resins. Eleven resins, nine bulk-fill resins, and two conventional resins were evaluated. Each material was sampled to evaluate DC (using FTIR), VH, cytotoxicity (using MTT and Neutral Red - NR test), surface morphology (using SEM and AFM), and organic filler (using EDS). All statistical tests were performed with SPSS and the level of significance was set at 0.05. MTT revealed that the materials presented low or no cytotoxic potential in relation to the control. Opus was the resin with the lowest cell viability at a 1:2 concentration at 72 h (32%) and at 7 days (43%), but that significantly increased when the NR test was applied at a 1:2 concentration after 7 days. Thickness and surface subjected to polymerization had no influence on DC, and differences were observed only between the materials. In the microhardness test, statistical differences were observed between the evaluated thicknesses. The bulk-fill resins analyzed in this study exhibited low and/or no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, except for Opus, which showed moderate cytotoxicity according to the MTT assay. When the NR test was used, results were not satisfactory for all composites, indicating the need for different methodologies to evaluate the properties of these materials. The assessed resins demonstrated acceptable physicomechanical properties.

Animals , Mice , Composite Resins/toxicity , Composite Resins/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Polymerization , Hardness Tests
Braz. j. oral sci ; 17: e18371, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-963971


Aim: This study characterized the implant surfaces available on the Brazilian market in terms of topography, chemical composition, and roughness. Methods: The following brands were selected according to their surfaces: Kopp (Ko), Signo Vinces (Sv), Neodent (Ne), Osseotite (Os) NanoTite (Nt), SIN (Si), Titanium Fix (Tf), conventional Straumann (Str), Active SLA (SLA). The morphological analysis and the alloy impurities and implant surface contaminants were analyzed by SEM-EDS. Surface roughness parameters and 3-D reconstructions were obtained by laser microscopy (20x). Two distinct areas were evaluated: i) the cervical portion (no surface treatment), and ii) the middle third (treated surface). Results: The characterization of the implant surfaces by SEM showed morphological differences between the thread geometries and surface morphology at 800x and 2000x magnification. The EDS elemental analysis showed a predominance of titanium (Ti) for all implants. The SLA surface showed only peaks of Ti while other implants brands showed traces of impurities and contaminants including Al, C, PR, F, Mg, Na, Ni, O, P, and SR. The implant surface roughness in the cervical portion did not exceed Ra 0.5­1.0 µm, constituting a minimally rough surface and obtaining acceptable standards for this region. Only Nt, Str, and SLA presented Ra above 2 µm in the middle third area showing a rough surface favorable for osseointegration. Conclusion: This study concluded that there is no established standard for morphology, chemical composition and implant surface roughness that allows a safe comparison between the available dental implant surfaces. National implant brands generally contain more impurities and surface contaminants than their international counterparts and were consequently more sensitive to the surface treatment techniques

Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties , Dental Implants
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e25, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889489


Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects, including surface morphological characteristics and chemical elemental properties, of different mouthwash formulations on enamel and dental restorative materials, simulating up to 6 months of daily use. Human enamel samples, hydroxyapatite, composite resin, and ceramic surfaces were exposed to 3 different mouthwashes according to label directions — Listerine® Cool Mint®, Listerine® Total Care, and Listerine® Whitening — versus control (hydroalcohol solution) to simulate daily use for up to 6 months. The samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectrophotometry (µ-Fourier transform infrared microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and color analysis before and after exposure. No relevant changes were observed in the morphological characteristics of the surfaces using SEM techniques. The physical and chemical aspects of the enamel surfaces were evaluated using mid-infrared spectroscopy, and EDX fluorescence was used to evaluate the elemental aspects of each surface. There was no variation in the relative concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in enamel, silicon and barium in composite resin, and silicon and aluminum in the ceramic material before and after treatment. No relevant changes were detected in the biochemical and color properties of any specimen, except with Listerine® Whitening mouthwash, which demonstrated a whitening effect on enamel surfaces. Long-term exposure to low pH, alcohol-containing, and peroxide-containing mouthwash formulations caused no ultra-structural or chemical elemental changes in human enamel or dental restorative materials in vitro.

Humans , Ceramics , Composite Resins , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Durapatite , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Salicylates , Terpenes , Color , Colorimetry , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Immersion , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717783


PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of glass infiltration treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconia core and ultra low-fusing porcelain veneer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The zirconia specimens were classified into 4 groups (n = 12): Untreated zirconia (group Z), zirconia coated ZirLiner (group ZL), glass-infiltrated zirconia (group ZG), glass-infiltrated and sandblasted zirconia (group ZGS). A cylinder of ultra low-fusing veneer porcelain was build up on each disk (6 mm × 3 mm). SBS was measured using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to evaluate the surface of zirconia and failure pattern after SBS. RESULTS: SBS value of group ZGS was significantly lower than that of other groups (P < .05). No significant differences were detected among group ZL, group Z and group ZG. CONCLUSION: Glass infiltration is not effective to the bond strength between zirconia and ultra low-fusing porcelain veneer. Sandblasting also dramatically decreased the bonding strength.

Dental Porcelain , Glass , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740067


Nonthermal atmospheric plasma has been studied for its many biomedical effects, such as tooth bleaching, wound healing, and coagulation. In this study, the effects of dentinal tubules occlusion were investigated using fluoride-carboxymethyl cellulose (F-CMC) gel, nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA), and nonthermal atmospheric plasma. Human dentin specimens were divided to 5 groups (group C, HA, HAF, HAP, and HAFP). Group HA was treated with n-HA, group HAF was treated with n-HA after a F-CMC gel application, group HAP was treated with n-HA after a plasma treatment and group HAFP was treated with n-HA after a plasma and F-CMC gel treatment. The occlusion of dentinal tubules was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which shows Ca/P ratio. In the EDS results, a higher Ca/P ratio was shown in the groups including n-HA than in the control group. The specimens of group HAP and HAFP had a higher Ca/P ratio in retentivity. In the SEM results, there was not a significant difference in the amount of times applied. Therefore, this study suggests F-CMC gel and n-HA treatment using nonthermal atmospheric plasma will be a new treatment method for decreasing hypersensitivity.

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Cellulose , Dentin Sensitivity , Dentin , Durapatite , Fluorides , Humans , Hydroxyapatites , Hypersensitivity , Methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plasma Gases , Plasma , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Tooth Bleaching , Wound Healing