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1.
Vive (El Alto) ; 6(18): 802-814, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530573

ABSTRACT

La contaminación por arsénico del agua de consumo humano, es un problema de salud pública, porque produce diversas enfermedades cancerígenas y de piel. Objetivo. Determinar niveles de arsénico en el agua de pozos, y evaluar el grado de conocimiento y actitud sobre el consumo del agua familiar. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 96 muestras del agua de pozos del distrito de Juliaca. Las cuales se analizaron en laboratorio de Unidad de Servicios de Análisis Químicos de la Facultad de Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos-Lima, mediante la técnica Espectrofotometría de Absorción Atómica con Horno de Grafito. Los datos de arsénico fueron procesados estadísticamente mediante el diseño completamente al azar. Asimismo, la descripción del conocimiento y actitud del consumo de agua familiar se realizó aplicando la técnica de la encuesta y el instrumento fue un cuestionario de 11 ítems para la variable conocimiento y 7 para la variable actitud, con respuestas de alto, medio y bajo para conocimiento y buena, regular y mala calificadas con escala de Likert. Resultados. La concentración promedio fue 0.031 mg de As/L de agua y entre zonas hubo semejanza (p>0.05). En el grado de conocimiento sobre contaminación con arsénico en el agua de consumo humano respondieron el 40.81 % con calificación alta y el 59.19% están entre medio y bajo; en actitud, la calificación buena obtuvo menos del 50 % de encuestados y el resto están entre regular y mala. Conclusiones. El contenido arsenical en el agua de pozos supera los límites máximos permisibles según Organización Mundial de Salud y más del 50% se exponen al agua contaminada.


Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a public health problem, because it causes various carcinogenic and skin diseases. Objective. To determine arsenic levels in well water, and to evaluate the degree of knowledge and attitude about family water consumption. Materials and methods. Ninety-six samples of well water from the district of Juliaca were used. These were analyzed in the laboratory of the Chemical Analysis Services Unit of the Faculty of Chemistry - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos-Lima, using the technique Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with Graphite Furnace. The arsenic data were statistically processed using a completely randomized design. Likewise, the description of the knowledge and attitude of family water consumption was carried out by applying the survey technique and the instrument was a questionnaire of 11 items for the knowledge variable and 7 for the attitude variable, with answers of high, medium and low for knowledge and good, regular and bad rated with a Likert scale. Results. The average concentration was 0.031 mg As/L water and there was similarity between zones (p>0.05). In the degree of knowledge about arsenic contamination in drinking water, 40.81% responded with high qualification and 59.19% were between medium and low; in attitude, the good qualification obtained less than 50% of respondents and the rest were between regular and bad. Conclusions. The arsenic content in well water exceeds the maximum permissible limits according to the World Health Organization and more than 50% are exposed to contaminated water.


A contaminação da água potável por arsênico é um problema de saúde pública, pois causa várias doenças de pele e carcinogênicas. Objetivo. Determinar os níveis de arsênico na água de poço e avaliar o grau de conhecimento e atitude em relação ao consumo doméstico de água. Materiais e métodos. Foram utilizadas 96 amostras de água de poço do distrito de Juliaca. Elas foram analisadas no laboratório da Unidade de Serviços de Análises Químicas da Faculdade de Química da Universidade Nacional Mayor de San Marcos-Lima, usando a técnica de Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica com Forno de Grafite. Os dados sobre arsênico foram processados estatisticamente usando um desenho completamente aleatório. Da mesma forma, a descrição do conhecimento e da atitude do consumo familiar de água foi realizada aplicando a técnica de pesquisa e o instrumento foi um questionário de 11 itens para a variável conhecimento e 7 para a variável atitude, com respostas de alto, médio e baixo para o conhecimento e classificado como bom, regular e ruim em uma escala Likert. Resultados. A concentração média foi de 0,031 mg As/L de água e houve similaridade entre as zonas (p>0,05). Quanto ao grau de conhecimento sobre a contaminação por arsênico na água potável, 40,81% responderam com uma pontuação alta e 59,19% ficaram entre médio e baixo; quanto à atitude, a pontuação boa foi obtida por menos de 50% dos entrevistados e o restante ficou entre regular e ruim. Conclusões. O teor de arsênico na água de poço excede os limites máximos permitidos de acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde e mais de 50% estão expostos à água contaminada.


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Spectrum Analysis/methods
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21265, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439543

ABSTRACT

Abstract Piper nigrum (black pepper) is used in Indian traditional medicine and its main alkaloid, Piperine (PIP), presents antioxidant, antitumor and neuroprotective pharmacological properties. This substance is insoluble in aqueous media and can irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Aiming to avoid these inconvenient characteristics and enable PIP oral administration, this study suggested the PIP microencapsulation through the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and the preparation of microparticulated tablets by direct compression. An UV-spectroscopy method was validated to quantify PIP. Microparticles and microparticulated tablets were successfully obtained and the microparticles exhibited excellent flow. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that PIP microparticles were intact after compression. The in vitro release showed a controlled release of PIP from microparticles and PIP microparticles from tablets in comparison to PIP and PIP tablets. The release profiles of PIP microparticles and the microparticulated tablets were similar. Therefore, tablets containing PIP microparticles are promising multiparticulated dosage forms because a tablet allows microparticles administration and the intact ones promote a controlled release, decreasing its irritating potential on the mucosa.


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Piper nigrum/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Tablets/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Alkaloids/adverse effects , Medicine, Traditional/instrumentation , Antioxidants/adverse effects
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22111, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease is a neglected parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, whose treatment has remained unsatisfactory for over 50 years, given that it is limited to two drugs. Benznidazole (BZN) is an efficient antichagasic drug used as the first choice, although its poor water-solubility, irregular oral absorption, low efficacy in the chronic phase, and various associated adverse effects are limiting factors for treatment. Incorporating drugs with such characteristics into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) is a promising alternative to overcome these limiting obstacles, enhancing drug efficacy and bioavailability while reducing toxicity. Therefore, this study proposed NLC-BZN formulations in different compositions prepared by hot-melt homogenization followed by ultrasound, and the optimized formulation was characterized by FTIR, DRX, DSC, and thermogravimetry. Biological activities included in vitro membrane toxicity (red blood cells), fibroblast cell cytotoxicity, and trypanocidal activity against epimastigotes of the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. The optimized NLC-BZN had a small size (110 nm), negative zeta potential (-18.0 mV), and high encapsulation (1.64% of drug loading), as shown by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. The NLC-BZN also promoted lower in vitro membrane toxicity (<3% hemolysis), and 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) for NLC-BZN in L929 fibroblast cells (110.7 µg/mL) was twice the value as the free BZN (51.3 µg/mL). Our findings showed that the NLC-BZN had higher trypanocidal activity than free BZN against the epimastigotes of the resistant Colombian strain, and this novel NLC-BZN formulation proved to be a promising tool in treating Chagas disease and considered suitable for oral and parenteral administration


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Chagas Disease/pathology , Neglected Diseases/classification , Parasitic Diseases/pathology , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Sprains and Strains/classification , Thermogravimetry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21114, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429958

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, orodispersible films formed from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E6 (2, 2.5, and 3%) and plasticizers ((glycerin (Gly), propylene glycol (PP), or polyethylene glycol (PEG)), containing doxazosin mesylate, were prepared by the solvent casting method and characterized. Design of experiments (DoE) was used as a statistical tool to facilitate the interpretation of the experimental data and allow the identification of optimal levels of factors for maximum formulation performance. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) diffractograms showed doxazosin mesylate amorphization, probably due to complexation with the polymer (HPMC E6), and the glass transition temperature of the polymer was reduced by adding a plasticizer. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed that the chemical structure of doxazosin mesylate was preserved when introduced into the polymer matrix, and the plasticizers, glycerin and PEG, affected the polymer matrix with high intensity. The addition of plasticizers increased the elongation at break and adhesiveness (Gly > PEG > PP), confirming the greater plasticizer effect of Gly observed in DSC and FTIR studies. Greater transparency was observed for the orodispersible films prepared using PP. The addition of citric acid as a pH modifier was fundamental for the release of doxazosin mesylate, and the desirability formulation had a release profile similar to that of the reference product


Subject(s)
Mechanical Tests/instrumentation , Motion Pictures/classification , Plasticizers/classification , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Adhesiveness , Doxazosin/adverse effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Hypromellose Derivatives/adverse effects
5.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 371-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986016

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of trace cobalt and tungsten in human urine. Methods: The authors used 1% nitric acid solution as diluent in October-December 2021, the sample dilution factor and internal standard element were optimized by single factor rotation experiment, and the difference between the working curve and the standard curve was compared. Results: The method uses working curve to determine cobalt and tungsten in urine, the linear range of this method was 0.0~10.0 μg/L, the correlation coefficient was 0.999 9, the detection limits respectively were 0.005 μg/L (cobalt) and 0.09 μg/L (tungsten), the recoveries of samples respectively were 87.0%~100.2% (cobalt) and 89.4%~104.8% (tungsten), the relative standard deviations respectively were 0.4%~4.4% (cobalt) and 0.6%~3.8% (tungsten) . Conclusion: A simple and rapid method for determination of cobalt and tungsten in urine has been established. This method has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity, low detection limit and good stability. It is suitable for determination of cobalt and tungsten in urine of all kinds of people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cobalt/analysis , Tungsten/analysis , Spectrum Analysis , Nitric Acid , Mass Spectrometry
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3508-3515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981483

ABSTRACT

Corydalis hendersonii(CH) is a Tibetan folk medicine with the functions of clearing heat, detoxifying, cooling blood, checking diarrhea, and lowering blood pressure. It is often used to treat high altitude polycythemia, vasculitis, peptic ulcer, and diarrhea. Nine compounds were separated from the ethanol extract of CH by silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as hendersine H(1),hendersine I(2), dehydrocheilanthifoline(3), protopine(4), izmirine(5), 6,7-methylenedioxy-1(2H)-isoquinolinone(6), icariside D_2(7), ethyl 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxybenzoate(8), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid(9), respectively, by the spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with those in the literature. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 are new isoquinoline alkaloids, and compounds 7-9 are reported the first time for Corydalis. The hypoglycemic model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes and the inflammatory model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by conditional supernatant were employed to determine the activities of the above compounds. The results showed that 20 μmol·L~(-1) compound 1 had a protective effect on H9c2 cardiomyocytes and 10 μmol·L~(-1) compounds 4 and 5 inhibited H9c2 cardiomyocyte inflammation induced by conditional supernatant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Corydalis/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Inflammation , Spectrum Analysis , Isoquinolines/pharmacology
7.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 21-22, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396710

ABSTRACT

Spectroscopy has been shown to bea useful method to study the physicochemical properties of homeopathic preparations. Aim: In this pilot study, we comparedtwo methods (photon scattering and visible-light spectroscopy) in the physicalevaluation of Silicea terra200cH. Methodology: Italian test: Two sampleshave been examinedand compared: Silicea terra200cH and Sac lac200cH, both preparedin water solution, diluted and succussed according to German Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia(Cemon Lab, Italy).Lactose was includedbecause the first 3 potencies of Silicea terraaremadeby trituration in lactosepowder.Measurements were made using an innovative Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera developedby Daniele Gullà, called MIRA/CORA(proprietary name). Slight variations in chrominance and luminance due to micro-vibrational 3D phenomenawere analyzed.Allmeasurements have been performed in a dark room at a constant temperature of 22°C +/-0,2°C usingafilter with very narrow spectral bands (10 nm).The measurements have been repeated three times on both Silicea terra200cH and Sac lac200cHwithin a few minutes aftereach other.Brazilian test: In the second test, performed in Brazil, variations in absorbance were used to identify Silicea terra200cH compared with Sac lac200cH andcompared withanother control solution of non-succussed 30% alcohol, using six solvatochromic dyes, following the method developed by Cartwright [1,2]. Both homeopathic samples were imported from Italy(the same sample bottles used in the Italian test),in Brazil they have beendiluted 1:100 in 30% hydro-alcoholic solution, and submitted to 100 succussions using an automatic mechanical arm (Denise, AUTIC, Brazil) prior to being tested. Samples were inserted into dyes solutions and evaluated by visible spectroscopy (FEMTO Spectrophotometer, Brazil). Dyes were prepared in ethanol P.A., according to previous established methods [3]. Three series in triplicate were performed and the results were analyzed by ANOVA / Tukey, comparing both samples and the unsuccussed 30% hydroalcoholic control solution.Results: Italian test: Measurements of the mean entropy of the signals, statistically elaborated with T Student test,yielded a two tailed p value < 0.05, where the entropy of the signal recorded from the Silicea terra200cHsample was statistically lower than the 200cH Sac lacsample.Brazilian test: Among all tested dyes, only BDN(4-(Bis-(4-(dimethylamino)-phenyl)methylene)-1(4H)-naphthalenone) showed aninteraction with Silicea terra200cH, reproducing the conclusions obtained in [3].Conclusions: Two different spectroscopic methods were able to show signal differences betweenSilicea terra200cH andSac lac200cH, suggesting that changes in solvent organization could be involved in the homeopathic signaling process, along withchanges in dipole moments of solvent and dyes. The results are potentially in line witha recent publishedpaper [4], that supportsthe propositionthatthe lower entropy of the verum signal compared with controls could beexplained by increased coherent vibrations of the verum sample, as theoretically explained in previous literature [5].


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis , Dynamization , Silicea Terra/analysis
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20992, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420434

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, it was aimed to investigate the amount of antioxidant, protective properties against DNA damage and antibacterial properties against various pathogens after the interaction of Ag metal (Ag NPs/Sa) of Sophora alopecuroides L. (S. alopecuroides L) plant seed, which is grown in Igdir and used in the treatment of many diseases. The DPPH radical quenching activity of Ag NPs/Sa was performed by using Blois method, DNA damage prevention activity by gel electrophoresis and antibacterial property by disk diffusion method. With the green synthesis method, AgNPs obtained as a result of the reaction of the plant and Ag metal are UV visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). DPPH radical quenching activity of Ag NPs/Sa was investigated in the concentration range of 25-250 µg/ml. The radical quenching activity at a concentration of 250 µg/ml was 85,215 ± 0,101%, while this value was 93,018% for the positive control BHA. It has been observed that the protective property of pBR322 plasmid DNA damage against OH radicals originating from H2O2 increases with concentration. It has been observed that Ag NPs/Sa has significant antimicrobial properties against some pathogens (B. subtilis ATCC 6633 E. coli ATCC 25952, B. cereus ATCC 10876, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. faecalis ATCC 29212, S. aureus ATTC 29213 and C. albicans ATTC 90028) that cause disease and even some pathogens are more effective than antibiotics


Subject(s)
Seeds/anatomy & histology , Sophora/metabolism , Fabaceae/adverse effects , Plants/adverse effects , Spectrum Analysis/methods , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Nanoparticles/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/classification , Antioxidants/classification
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20740, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420448

ABSTRACT

Abstract The acid dissociation constant of drug active compounds (arylpropionic and aryl acetic acids) were determined in acetonitrile and water binary mixtures (corresponding volume fractions of 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, and 0.55) by using a multi-wavelength spectrophotometric method. Drug active compounds, which were slightly soluble in water, were studied in these binary mixtures. The dissociation constants of drug active compounds are important in drug design studies and in any research of the biopharmaceutical and physicochemical properties of drugs. The STAR program was used for the determination of dissociation constants. The acidity constants of arylpropionic and aryl acetic acids were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft solvaatochromic parameters. Aqueous pKa values of these arylpropionic and aryl acetic acids were determined from pKa values obtained from acetonitrile and water binary mixtures with varying volume fractions. The studied drugs had a pKa value corresponding to base functional group. Results showed that the acid dissociation constant values of the drug active compounds increased with an increase in acetonitrile content in the medium.


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Acids/agonists , Acetates/agonists , Biological Products/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21131, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420447

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study is aimed to develop a monolithic controlled matrix transdermal patches containing Metoclopramide as a model drug by solvent casting method. Eudragit L100, Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, and Methylcellulose were used in different ratios and Polyethylene glycol 400 added as a plasticizer. Resulting patches were evaluated for their physicochemical characters like organoleptic characters, weight variation, folding endurance, thickness, swelling index, flatness, drug content, swelling index, percentage erosion, moisture content, water vapor transmission rate and moisture uptake. Formed patches were also evaluated through Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results of SEM unveiled smooth surface of drug-loaded patches. In-vitro dissolution studies were conducted by using dissolution medium phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. Effect of natural permeation enhancers was elucidated on two optimized formulations (Z4 and Z9). Different concentrations (5%-10 %) of permeation enhancers i.e. Olive oil, Castor oil and Eucalyptus oil were evaluated on Franz diffusion cell using excised abdominal rat skin. Z4-O2 (Olive oil 10%) had enhanced sustain effect and flux value (310.72) close to the desired flux value. Z4-O2 followed Higuchi release model (R2= 0.9833) with non-fickian diffusion release mechanism (n=0.612)


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Metoclopramide/agonists , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397184

ABSTRACT

A Doença de Huntington (Huntington's disease - HD) trata-se de uma patologia neurodegenerativa hereditária caracteriza por meio da expressão das proteínas huntingtinas mutantes (mHtt), das mortes dos neurônios espinhais médios (medium spiny neurons MSNs) GABAérgicos D2-positivos do striatum e da hipercinesia. Uma hipótese se refere à função das mHtts de potencializarem os efeitos excitotóxicos das estimulações dos receptores de NMDA (NMDAR) por meio da inibição da succinato desidrogenase, resultando em desequilibrio das [Ca2+]i, estresse oxidativo e apoptose. A adenosina agonista dos receptores purinérgicos P1 tem sido descrita por conta das suas funções neuroprotetoras e neuromodulatórias. Assim, estabelecemos dois modelos in vitro da HD fundamentados nas neurodiferenciações das linhagens murinas de célula-tronco embrionárias E14-TG2a e progenitoras neurais do hipocampo HT-22; seguidas pelos tratamentos com ácido quinolínico (QA) agonista seletivo dos NMDARs , na ausência e na presença do ácido 3-nitropropiônico (3-NP) inibidor irreversível da succinato desidrogenase. Estes modelos foram utilizados nas avaliações das funções neuroprotetoras da adenosina. Os neurônios pós-mitóticos das culturas de E14-TG2a diferenciadas foram caracterizados conforme os MSNs GABAérgicos do striatum; enquanto os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados foram caracterizados de modo inespecífico. Metodologia: imunofluorescência (microscopia e citometria); PCR em tempo real; análise das variações dos potenciais das membranas plasmáticas e das variações transientes das [Ca2+]i por microfluorimetria; e quantificações das reduções do AlamarBlue® (% de sobrevida celular) e das atividades extracelulares de LDH (U/L) (necrose) por espectrometria. Avaliamos a capacidade do 3-NP de potencializar os efeitos excitotóxicos do QA comparando dois grupos de neurônios HT-22 diferenciados: QA 8mM (EC50) (controle); e 3-NP 5mM/QA 8mM. Avaliarmos o potencial neuroprotetor da adenosina comparando quatro grupos de neurônios HT-22 diferenciados: QA 8mM; adenosina 250µM/QA 8mM; 3-NP 5mM/QA 8mM; 3-NP 5mM/adenosina 250µM/QA 8mM. Os neurônios pós-mitóticos derivados das E14TG2a foram classificados como MSNsGABAérgicos do striatum integrantes de uma cultura neuronal heterogênea semelhante às conexões nigroestriatais, corticoestriatais, striatonigral e striatopallidal. Os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados perfaziam uma cultura neuronal heterogênea, não totalmente madura, composta por neurônios glutamatérgicos, dopaminérgicos, colinérgicos e GABAérgicos. Os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados 3-NP 5mM apresentaram menores % de sobrevida celular após os tratamentos com QA 8mM por 24h (p<0.05); e maiores amplitudes das variações das [Ca2+]i dependentes do QA 8mM (p<0.05) (cinética 6 minutos). Por outro lado, os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados pré- tratados com 3-NP 5mM apresentaram menores atividades extracelulares de LDH após o tratamento com QA 8mM por 24h menor proporção de necrose. Os pré-tratamentos com adenosina 250µM indicaram uma tendência dos efeitos neuroprotetores (p>0.05) maiores % de sobrevida celular; menores atividades extracelulares de LDH; e menores amplitudes das variações transientes das [Ca2+]i. Em conjunto, nossos resultados indicam que a inibição da succinato desidrogenase potencializa os efeitos excitotóxicos dos NMDARs por meio da alteração das [Ca2+]i e, provavelmente, dos mecanismos de morte celular; enquanto a adenosina apenas tendeu à neuroproteção


Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative pathology characterized by mutant huntingtin proteins (mHtt) expression, striatum D2-positive GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) cell death and hyperkinetic motor symptoms development. One hypothesis refers to the principle that mHtt potentiates the excitotoxic effects of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation by the inhibition of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, resulting in [Ca2+]i imbalance, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Adenosine P1 purinergic receptor agonist is related to neuroprotective and neuromodulatory functions. Thus, we established two in vitro HD models based on the neurodifferentiation of murine embryonic stem cell lines E14-TG2a and hippocampal neuroprogenitor cell line HT-22 followed by treatment with quinolinic acid (QA) selective agonist of NMDARs , in the absence and in the presence of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. These models were used to assess the neuroprotective functions of adenosine. Post-mitotic neurons from differentiated E14-TG2a cultures were characterized according to striatum's GABAergic MSNs; while the differentiated HT-22 neurons were characterized in a non-specific way. Methodology included immunofluorescence (microscopy and cytometry); real-time PCR; analysis of variations in the plasma membrane potentials and of transient variations in the [Ca2+]i by microfluorimetry; and quantification of AlamarBlue® reductions (% cell survival) and of extracellular LDH activity (U/L) (necrosis) by spectrometry. We evaluated the ability of 3-NP to potentiate the excitotoxic effects of QA by comparing two groups of differentiated HT-22 neurons: 8mM QA (control); and 5mM 3-NP/8mM QA. We evaluated the neuroprotective potential of adenosine comparing four groups of differentiated HT-22 neurons: QA 8mM; 250µM adenosine/8mM QA; 5mM 3-NP/8mM QA; 5mM 3-NP/250µM adenosine/8mM QA. Postmitotic neurons derived from E14TG2a were classified as striatums GABAergic MSNs that are part of a heterogeneous neuronal culture similar to nigrostriatal, corticostriatal, striatonigral, and striatopallidal connections. Differentiated HT-22 neurons consisted of a heterogeneous neuronal culture and not fully mature glutamatergic,dopaminergic, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Differentiated HT-22 neurons following 5mM 3-NP treatment showed lower % cell survival after treatments with 8mM QA for 24h (p<0.05); and higher amplitudes of the variations of [Ca2+]i induced by 8mM QA (p<0.05) (kinetics 6 minutes). On the other hand, differentiated HT-22 neurons 5mM 3-NP showed lower extracellular LDH activities after treatment with 8mM QA for 24h indicating a lower proportion of necrotic cells. Pretreatments with 250µM adenosine indicated a trend towards neuroprotective effects, such as higher percentages of cell survival; lower extracellular LDH activities; and lower amplitudes of transient variations of [Ca2+]i. Taken together, our results indicate that succinate dehydrogenase inhibition potentiated the excitotoxic effects of NMDARs by altering [Ca2+]i and, probably, cell death mechanisms, while adenosine only to neuroprotection


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Quinolinic Acid/adverse effects , Huntington Disease/pathology , Models, Anatomic , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Adenosine/agonists , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Absenteeism , Purinergic Agonists/adverse effects
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191133, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394030

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study is aimed at investigating the functional physicochemical and solid state characteristics of food-grade Tetracarpidium conophorum (T. conophorum) oil for possible application in the pharmaceutical industry for drug delivery. The oil was obtained by cold hexane extraction and its physicochemical properties including viscosity, pH, peroxide, acid, and thiobarbituric acid values, nutrient content, and fatty acid profile were determined. Admixtures of the oil with Softisan®154, a hydrogenated solid lipid from palm oil, were prepared to obtain matrices which were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. Data from the study showed that T. conophorum oil had Newtonian flow behaviour, acidic pH, insignificant presence of hyperperoxides and malondialdehyde, contains minerals including calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, iron, selenium, and potassium, vitamins including niacin (B3), thiamine (B1), cyanocobalamine (B12), ascorbic acid (C), and tocopherol (E), and long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids including n-hexadecanoic acid, 9(Z)-octadecenoic acid, and cis-13-octadecenoic acid. The lipid matrices had low crystallinity and enthalpy values with increased amorphicity, and showed no destructive intermolecular interaction or incompatibility between T. conophorum oil and Softisan® 154. In conclusion, the results have shown that, in addition to T. conophorum oil being useful as food, it will also be an important excipient for the development of novel, safe, and effective lipid-based drug delivery systems.


Subject(s)
Oils/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chemistry, Physical/instrumentation , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Food/classification
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19731, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394038

ABSTRACT

Abstract Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as the antifungal drug griseofulvin (GF), exhibit limited bioavailability, despite their high membrane permeability. Several technological approaches have been proposed to enhance the water solubility and bioavailability of GF, including micellar solubilization. Poloxamers are amphiphilic block copolymers that increase drug solubility by forming micelles and supra-micellar structures via molecular self-association. In this regard, the aim of this study was to evaluate the water solubility increment of GF by poloxamer 407 (P407) and its effect on the antifungal activity against three Trichophyton mentagrophytes and two T. rubrum isolates. The GF water solubility profile with P407 revealed a non-linear behavior, well-fitted by the sigmoid model of Morgan-Mercer-Flodin. The polymer promoted an 8-fold increase in GF water solubility. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR Roesy) spectroscopy suggested a GF-P407 interaction, which occurs in the GF cyclohexene ring. These results were supported by an increase in the water solubility of the GF impurities with the same molecular structure. The MIC values recorded for GF ranged from 0.0028 to 0.0172 mM, except for T. Mentagrophytes TME34. Notably, the micellar solubilization of GF did not increase its antifungal activity, which could be related to the high binding constant between GF and P407.


Subject(s)
Solubility , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Trichophyton/classification , Poloxamer/analogs & derivatives , Griseofulvin/agonists , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Biological Availability , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Molecular Structure , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20013, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394062

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to improve the solubility and antimicrobial activity of 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin by formulating its inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin in solution and in solid state. The phase solubility study was used to investigate the interactions between 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and to estimate the molar ratio between them. The structural characterization of binary systems (prepared by physical mixing, kneading and solvent evaporation methods) was analysed using the FTIR-ATM spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin and inclusion complexes prepared by solvent evaporation method was tested by the diffusion and dilution methods on various strains of microorganisms. The results of phase solubility studies showed that 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin formed the inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin of AP type. The solubility of 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin was increased 64.05-fold with 50% w/w of 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin at 37 oC. The inclusion complexes in solid state, prepared by the solvent evaporation method, showed higher solubility in purified water and in phosphate buffer solutions in comparison with 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin alone. The inclusion complexes prepared by solvent evaporation method showed higher activity on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus compared to uncomplexed 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin due to improved aqueous solubility, thus increasing the amount of available 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin that crosses the bacterial membrane.


Subject(s)
Solubility , Cyclodextrins/agonists , Anti-Infective Agents , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Bacillus subtilis/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Dilution
15.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210090, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1386800

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of four commercially available NiTi orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Twelve NiTi orthodontic wires, round, 0.016-in, three per brand, were selected and divided into four groups: G1 - Heat-activated NiTi, G2 - Superelastic NiTi, G3 - Therma-Ti, and G4 - CopperNiTi. The atomic absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the chemical composition of investigated NiTi wires. We also performed a fatigue test at three-point bending using a universal testing machine for 1000 cycles in a 35 °C water bath. For the first and thousandth cycle, the average plateau load and the plateau length were determined in the unloading area of the force versus displacement diagram. In addition, we calculated the difference between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycle (∆F), as well as the difference between the plateau length of both cases (∆L). Results: According to our results, there were no significant differences between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycles of each group (p>0.05) and in the plateau length of the first and thousandth cycles of the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups changing the superelasticity property after high-cycle fatigue.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontics , Stress, Mechanical , Dental Instruments , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19967, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384000

ABSTRACT

Abstract Red lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus Linn) Family Fabaceae, has been modified by succinylation and annealing, and used as intra- and extra-granular disintegrants at concentrations of 5 and 10 %w/w in paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with corn starch BP. The starches were characterised using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, proximate analysis, physicochemical and functional properties. FT-IR spectrometry revealed characteristic peaks at 1575.53 and 1713.99 cm-1 for the succinylated starch while the annealed showed no significant difference from the native starch. Modifications did not alter the ovoid shape of the native starch but reduced the particle size. Succinylation improved water absorption capacity, solubility and swelling of lima bean starch but annealing reduced the parameters. Tablets with disintegrants of lima bean starches generally had higher crushing strengths and lower friability than tablets with corn starch. Modifications reduced the disintegration time of the tablets when the starches were incorporated intra-granularly, which suggested particle-particle bond interruption and destruction of hydrogen bonds as mechanism of disintegration. Tablets containing 10 %w/w succinylated red lima bean starch incorporated intra-granularly had the highest disintegration efficiency ratio, DER, indicating a great balance between mechanical and disintegration properties. Modified red lima bean starches incorporated intra-granularly into paracetamol tablets led to faster disintegration and could efficiently substitute corn starch as disintegrant.


Subject(s)
Tablets/pharmacology , Abrus/classification , Starch and Fecula , Acetaminophen/classification , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19753, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384012

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study is aimed to assess the compatibility of bilberry leaf powder extract (BLPE) with six excipients selected for sustained-release (SR) tablet formulation. The BLPE was obtained with the addition of L-arginine and Myo-inositol as the carriers. Thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), supported by Pearson correlation analysis, were applied to detect possible interactions in the binary mixtures (1:1) of the BLPE with each excipient. The TG-DTG showed some deviations in the thermal behavior of the BLPE / excipient mixtures. However, only the thermal behavior of magnesium stearate in the mixture significantly differed from individual samples, which suggested chemical interaction for this excipient. The FTIR analysis confirmed that the BLPE is compatible with Eudragit L100, Methocel K4M, Methocel K100LV, Avicel PH-101, and Plasdone S-630. Whereas it undergoes solid-state chemical interaction in the binary mixture with magnesium stearate. According to the FTIR-spectra, it is suggested that this interaction results in the formation of stearic acid and alkalization of the medium. These findings evidence for the possibility of using TG-DTG analysis as an independent thermal technique for compatibility studies and also confirm the earlier reported interaction of basic lubricants, e.g., stearic salts, with active ingredients containing amino groups.


Subject(s)
Behavior , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Vaccinium myrtillus/adverse effects , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolism , Delayed-Action Preparations/analysis , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Thermogravimetry/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20180, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403759

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which covers the white part of the eyeball. It can be caused by allergies, bacterial or viral infection. In situ hydrogels are three-dimensional hydrophilic cross-linked network of polymers. In situ hydrogel provided better therapeutic index when compared to conventional treatment. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of ofloxacin and dexamethasone based on the concept of pH triggered in situ gelation. Carbopol 934p was used as the gelling agent in combination with HPMC, as a viscosity-enhancing agent, benzalkonium chloride as preservative, sodium chloride as tonicity adjusting agent. The prepared formulations were liquid at the low pH and underwent rapid transition into viscous gel at the pH of the tear fluid. Formulations were evaluated for various rheological, in vitro and in vivo release characteristics. Infrared spectroscopy studies showed that there were no interactions between the drug and polymers. Viscosity of the prepared hydrogels lies in the optimum range and drug was released up to 85 % as the end of 13 h. The prepared in situ hydrogel was sterile, non-irritant to the eye. The present study indicated that it is possible to develop safe and physiologically effective in situ hydrogel which is patient compliant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Ofloxacin/therapeutic use , Conjunctivitis/drug therapy , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Spectrum Analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19233, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374569

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, the metabolite profiling of methanolic extract from aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, as an endemic medicinal plant from Iran, was evaluated using HPLC-PDA-ESI. Then, the main compound from the extract was isolated and purified by using extensive chromatographic techniques. In addition, the structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated using 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectrometry, upon which 22 compounds were identified. The antibacterial activity of diosmetin 7-rutinoside (6) and linarin (13) in combination with carvacrol as a major compound of the essential oil was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus through disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results indicated that the linarin, when mixed with carvacrol as the main compounds in the essential oil of the plant, has a satisfactory activity against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 0.16 and 0.18 µg/mL, respectively. Further, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index indicated that this compound had synergism with carvacrol.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Satureja/classification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
20.
Afr. j. prim. health care fam. med. (Online) ; 14(1): 1-8, 2022. tables,figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390803

ABSTRACT

Background: Few data are available on the presence and characteristics of transgender populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which makes the provision of health services for key populations difficult. Aim: This study aimed to ascertain the presence and characteristics of trans women in seven cities in Tanzania, East Africa.Setting: Tanzania, East Africa. Methods: Outreach to men who have sex with men (MSM) in seven large cities in Tanzania was carried out by non-governmental organisation (NGO) staff familiar with this community. Survey questions administered via interviews were used to identify participants who self-identify as trans. From the self-identification data, an estimate of the relative size of the trans women population in this sample was calculated. Results: In the sample of 300 participants, 17.0% of participants were identified as 'transsexual or transgender' (survey wording); 70.1% of these trans participants indicated that they identify themselves as a woman. Of those identifying themselves as transsexual or transgender, 43.1% reported living part- or full-time as a woman and eight (15.0%) reported hormone use. The highest percentage of hormone use (40.0%) was found in those living as a woman full-time. Notably, there was significant ignorance amongst the sample of the terms 'transsexual and transgender' or their explanation in Swahili, reported by interviewers. Conclusion: In this study, it is clear that trans women populations exist in Tanzania, with high levels of stigmatisation and threats to their lives. They should be included in health outreach and services to key populations. One in six self-identified as trans women, although the lack of knowledge of this concept in Swahili or English may have inaccurately represented numbers.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Transgender Persons , Sex , Spectrum Analysis , Prevalence , Gender Identity
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