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1.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533504

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la necrosis laminar cortical es un término radiológico que describe la presencia de lesiones hiperdensas de localización cerebral, las cuales siguen una distribución giriforme y se observan con mayor sensibilidad en los estudios de resonancia magnética cerebral (RM). Esta condición patológica, que afecta a la corteza del cerebro, suele ser secundaria a una depleción de sus fuentes energéticas como consecuencia de hipoxia cerebral, alteraciones metabólicas, hipoglicemia, falla renal o hepática, intoxicaciones o infecciones. Presentación del caso: se reporta el caso de un hombre de 23 años, con antecedente de consumo crónico de alcohol, quien ingresó al servicio de urgencias de nuestra institución con un estado epiléptico. El estudio de resonancia magnética cerebral demostró la presencia de una necrosis laminar cortical con posterior déficit neurocognitivo y funcional. Conclusión: si se consideran las secuelas neurológicas potenciales asociadas a un estado epiléptico, relacionadas con necrosis laminar cortical cerebral, es necesario hacer un diagnóstico etiológico precoz, así como una atención terapéutica temprana a los pacientes.


Introduction: Cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) is radiologically defined as high-intensity cortical lesions on T1-weighted MRI images that follow a gyral distribution in the brain. Histopathologically, this pathological condition is characterized by necrosis of the cortex involving neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is usually triggered by hypoxia, metabolic alterations, drugs, intoxications, or infections. Case description: We report the case of a 23-year-old man with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was admitted to our institution with status epilepticus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging performed on this patient showed cortical laminar necrosis associated with subsequent neurocognitive deficits. Conclusion: Due to the potential neurological sequelae secondary to status epilepticus in relation to cortical laminar necrosis as permanent brain damage, it is necessary to provide early diagnosis and treatment for these patients.


Subject(s)
Status Epilepticus , Hypoxia, Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Neuroimaging
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202696, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418352

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El estado epiléptico constituye la emergencia neurológica más frecuente. Si bien la mortalidad en niños es baja, su morbilidad puede superar el 20 %. Objetivo. Conocer las pautas de manejo del estado epiléptico referidas por médicos pediatras que atienden esta patología en forma habitual. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal, basado en una encuesta a médicos de tres hospitales pediátricos monovalentes de gestión pública de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Resultados. Se administraron 292 encuestas (la tasa de respuesta completa alcanzó el 86 %); el 77 % se administró a pediatras y el 16 %, a especialistas en cuidados intensivos. Un 47 % de los participantes refiere indicar la primera benzodiacepina en el tiempo correcto; el 56 % utilizar diazepam intrarrectal en ausencia de un acceso intravenoso; el 95 % elige lorazepam como benzodiacepina inicial en caso de contar con acceso intravenoso; el 58 % refiere iniciar la etapa de fármacos de segunda línea en tiempo adecuado; el 84 % opta por fenitoína como fármaco inicial de segunda línea, un 33 % no cronometra el tiempo durante el tratamiento. La adherencia global a las recomendaciones internacionales fue del 17 %. Conclusiones. Nuestro estudio advierte una baja adherencia referida de los pediatras a las guías internacionales, en particular en las decisiones tiempo-dependientes. También se observó mayor heterogeneidad en las conductas terapéuticas a medida que se avanza en el algoritmo de tratamiento.


Introduction. Status epilepticus is the most common neurological emergency. Although mortality in children is low, morbidity may exceed 20%. Objective. To evaluate the management of status epilepticus by pediatricians who usually treat this condition. Population and methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a survey administered to physicians from 3 pediatric hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires. Results. A total of 292 surveys were administered (complete response rate as high as 86%); 77% were administered to pediatricians and 16% to intensive care specialists. Forty-seven percent of the participants reported that they administer the first dose of a benzodiazepine within the correct timeframe; 56% use intrarectal diazepam when intravenous access is not available; 95% choose lorazepam as the initial benzodiazepine if an intravenous access is available; 58% initiate the administration of a second-line drug within the correct timeframe; 84% administer phenytoin as the first-choice, second-line drug; and 33% do not measure treatment time. Overall adherence to international recommendations was 17%. Conclusions. Our study highlights poor adherence of pediatricians to international guidelines, particularly in time-dependent decisions. Greater heterogeneity was observed in treatment approaches as the treatment algorithm progressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diazepam/therapeutic use , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
3.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 989-994, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013213

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical and imaging features of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion(AESD) in children. Methods: For the case series study, 21 children with AESD from Peking University First Hospital, Provincial Children's Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, and Shanxi Children's Hospital who were diagnosed and treated from October 2021 to July 2023 were selected. Clinical data were collected to summarize their clinical information, imaging, and laboratory tests, as well as treatment and prognostic characteristics. Descriptive statistical analysis was applicated. Results: Of the 21 cases with AESD, 11 were males and 10 were females, with the age of onset of 2 years and 6 months (1 year and 7 months, 3 years and 6 months). Of the 21 cases, 18 were typical cases with biphasic seizures. All typical cases had early seizures within 24 hours before or after fever onset. Among them, 16 cases had generalized seizures, 2 cases had focal seizures, and 7 cases reached the status epilepticus. Of the 21 cases, 3 atypical cases had late seizures in biphasic only. The late seizures in the 21 cases occurred on days 3 to 9. The types of late seizures included focal seizures in 12 cases, generalized seizures in 6 cases, and both focal and generalized seizures in 3 cases. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) test on days 3 to 11 showed reduced diffusion of subcortical white matter which was named "bright tree sign" in all cases. The diffuse cerebral atrophy predominantly presented in the front-parietal-temporal lobes was found in 19 cases between day 12 and 3 months after the onset of the disease. Among 21 cases, 20 had been misdiagnosed as autoimmune encephalitis, central nervous system infection, febrile convulsions, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. All the cases received high-dose gammaglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy with poor therapeutic effect. By July 2023, 18 cases were under follow-up. Among them, 17 cases were left with varying degrees of neurologic sequelae, including 11 cases with post-encephalopathic epilepsy; 1 recovered completely. Conclusions: AESD is characterized by biphasic seizures clinically and "bright tree sign" on DWI images. Symptomatic and supportive treatments are recommended. The immunotherapy is ineffective. The prognosis of AESD is poor, with a high incidence of neurological sequelae and a low mortality.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Seizures/etiology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Status Epilepticus , Seizures, Febrile/diagnostic imaging
4.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 24-29, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980416

ABSTRACT

Background@#Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency requiring prompt evaluation and management to prevent disease refractoriness associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Thus, estimating costs attributable to the treatment of SE is important because of the severity of this disease. In the Philippines, healthcare provisions are mostly out-of-pocket expenses; hence the cost of treatment is a critical determinant for disease management. Unfortunately, the availability of data regarding the cost of illness of SE in developing countries is limited.@*Objectives@#To determine the frequently used anticonvulsant drug regimen and direct inpatient costs of acute treatment for status epilepticus within five years in a private tertiary hospital in the Philippines.@*Methods@#Records from patients diagnosed with SE who were admitted under or referred to the Adult Neurology Service in a private tertiary hospital from January 2015 to December 2019 were retrospectively evaluated. The SE type was classified as non-refractory (NRSE), refractory (RSE), and super refractory (SRSE). Demographic data, clinical features, SE type, etiology, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and anesthetic drugs used, total cost of AEDs and anesthetic drugs, total cost of 5-day hospitalization, and total cost of entire length of stay were recorded.@*Results@#We retrieved the records of 61 patients admitted for SE. Of these patients, 23 were classified as nonrefractory, 20 as refractory, and 18 as super refractory. Diazepam was given to all SE patients as first-line treatment. Valproic acid and levetiracetam were used as second-line treatments. The most frequently given anesthetic drug was midazolam. The mean hospitalization cost per patient was ₱52,0982.3 for SE, ₱659,638.7 for RSE, and ₱134,1451 for SRSE. The mean cost of 5-day hospitalization was ₱193,572.3 for NRSE, ₱358,808.5 for RSE, and ₱652,781 for SRSE. The mean cost of medications was ₱18,546 for NRSE, ₱30,780 for RSE, and ₱128,263 for SRSE.@*Conclusion@#The direct cost of SE varied depending on subtype and response to treatment. Costs increased with disease refractoriness. Direct inpatient treatment costs for SRSE were twice as high as that of NRSE and RSE.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Status Epilepticus , Hospitalization
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e237412, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355854

ABSTRACT

Abstract Only few studies have focus on animals that received Pilocarpine (Pilo) and did not develop behavioral status epilepticus (SE) and, whether they may become epileptic in the model's chronic phase. Previews works observed mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of Non-SE (NSE) rats, while others observed spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRS) 6 - 8 months after animals received Pilo. It is known that neuronal excitability is influenced by female hormones, as well as, the occurrence of SE in castrated and non-castrated female rats. However, it is not known whether females that received Pilo and did not show SE, may have SRS. The aim of this work was to investigate whether castrated and non-castrated female rats that did not show behavioral SE after Pilo, will develop SRS in the following one-year. For that, animals received 360 mg/kg of Pilo and were video monitored for 12 months. SE females from castrated and non-castrated groups became epileptic since the first month after drug injection. Epileptic behaviors were identified watching video monitoring recordings in the fast speed. Castrated and Non-castrated NSE animals showed behaviors resembling seizures described by Racine Scale stages 1 - 3. Motor alterations showed by NSE groups could be observed only when recordings were analyzed in slow speed. In addition, behavioral manifestations as, rhythmic head movements, sudden head movements, whole body movements and immobility were also observed in both, SE and NSE groups. We concluded that NSE female rats may have become epileptic. Adding to it, slow speed analysis of motor alterations was essential for the observation of NSE findings, which suggests that possibly many motor alterations have been underestimated in epilepsy experimental research.


Resumo Poucos são os estudos com foco em animais que receberam Pilocarpina (Pilo) e não desenvolveram status epilepticus (SE) comportamental e, se os mesmos se tornarão epilépticos na fase crônica do modelo. Autores observaram o brotamento das fibras musgosas no hipocampo de ratos Não-SE (NSE), enquanto outros observaram crises espontâneas e recorrentes (CER) 6 - 8 meses após receberam a droga. A excitabilidade neuronal é influenciada pelos hormônios femininos e, da mesma forma, a ocorrência de SE em ratas castradas e não-castradas. Entretanto, não é sabido se as fêmeas que não apresentam SE terão CER. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se fêmeas castradas e não castradas que não tiveram SE comportamental após a injeção de Pilo desenvolverão CER dentro de um ano. Para isto, os animais receberam 360 mg/kg de Pilo e foram videomonitorados por 12 meses. As fêmeas SE castradas e não-castradas se tornaram epilépticas desde o primeiro mês pós Pilo. O comportamento epiléptico foi identificado assistindo as gravações na velocidade rápida. As fêmeas NSE castradas e não-castradas apresentaram comportamentos similares aos estágios 1 - 3 da Escala de Racine. As alterações motoras nestes grupos (NSE) foram observadas apenas quando as videomonitoração foi analisada na velocidade lenta. Além destas, manifestações comportamentais como movimentos rítmicos da cabeça, movimentos súbitos da cabeça, movimentos de todo o corpo e imobilidade também foram observadas em ambos grupos, SE e NSE. Concluímos que as fêmeas NE podem ter se tornado epilépticas. Adicionado a isto, a análise das alterações motoras na velocidade lenta foi essencial para a observação dos achados das fêmeas NSE, o que sugere que possivelmente muitas alterações motoras têm sido subestimados na pesquisa em epilepsia experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Seizures/chemically induced , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar , Muscarinic Agonists/toxicity , Models, Theoretical
6.
Med. lab ; 26(2): 187-197, 2022. Tabs, ilus, Grafs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412307

ABSTRACT

El estado epiléptico refractario de inicio reciente (NORSE) es una emergencia neurológica que conlleva una elevada morbimortalidad, y como tal, genera altos costos debido a su complejo plan terapéutico y al requerimiento de una evaluación rápida y secuencial. Es una entidad clínica de mal pronóstico y su principal etiología es la encefalitis autoinmune, sin embargo, es de difícil diagnóstico y en ocasiones no se logra establecer una causa clara. Se describe el caso de una paciente joven sin antecedentes clínicos de importancia, quien presentó múltiples episodios convulsivos refractarios a anticonvulsivantes y sedación profunda, sin tolerar retiro de la sedoanalgesia por reaparición de crisis en el electroencefalograma. Presentó estudios de líquido cefalorraquídeo, infecciosos, neuroimágenes y de autoinmunidad sin alteraciones. Cursó con neumonía asociada al cuidado de la salud, que evolucionó a disfunción orgánica múltiple y fallecimiento. No se encontraron alteraciones anatomopatológicas post mortem que explicaran la causa del estado epiléptico. El estado epiléptico refractario de inicio reciente es una condición que representa un reto tanto diagnóstico como terapéutico. Se describe su abordaje diagnóstico y las opciones de tratamiento, además, se realiza una revisión corta de la literatura disponible hasta el momento


New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a neurological emergency with high morbidity and mortality, that results in elevated costs due to its complex therapeutic management and the requirement for a rapid and sequential evaluation. It is a condition with a poor prognosis and its main etiology is autoimmune encephalitis. However, it is difficult to diagnose and sometimes a clear cause cannot be established. The case of a young female with no relevant medical history is described. She presented multiple seizure episodes refractory to anticonvulsants and deep sedation, without tolerating withdrawal of sedoanalgesia due to reappearance of seizures in the electroencephalogram. She presented studies of cerebrospinal fluid, infections, neuroimaging and autoimmunity without alterations. She had healthcare-associated pneumonia, which progressed to multiple organ dysfunction and death. No post-mortem anatomopathological alterations were found to explain the cause of the status epilepticus. New-onset refractory status epilepticus is a condition that represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Its diagnostic approach and treatment options are described, as well as a brief review of the available literature


Subject(s)
Humans , Status Epilepticus , Autoimmune Diseases , Epilepsy , Anticonvulsants
7.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 140-148, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382146

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estado epiléptico es una emergencia con serias implicaciones a nivel social y económico, cuando no se maneja de manera adecuada puede llevar a la muerte. Debe abordarse por el primer especialista que tenga contacto con el paciente. En Colombia no hay estudios acerca de la adherencia a guías de práctica clínica. Objetivo: evaluar cuál es el conocimiento acerca del estado epiléptico en residentes de especialidades médico quirúrgicas en Colombia. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal descriptivo. Se aplicó una encuesta por medio de formulario google, diseñada con base en las guías de práctica clínica rutinaria para el manejo de esta patología. Resultados: respondieron la encuesta 76 residentes de neurología, medicina interna, medicina de urgencias y cuidado crítico, la edad más frecuente fue 26 a 31 años, con una relación hombre mujer de 46/54%. Discusión: las preguntas concernientes a las definiciones operativas y a los tiempos de acción fueron las que tuvieron una mejor consistencia al responderse, hay una importante falencia en la selección y uso de medicamentos anticrisis en el contexto del estado epiléptico, por lo que es importante fortalecer la educación médica en éstos aspectos académicos.


Introduction: status epilepticus is a medical emergency associated with serious social and economic implications. When not managed appropriately it may lead to death. It should be addressed promptly by the first specialist who has contact with the patient. There are no studies investigating adherence to clinical practice guidelines in Colombia. Objective: to evaluate the knowledge regarding status epilepticus among medical-surgical specialties residents in Colombia. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study. A survey was applied by means of a google form developed based on the routine status epilepticus clinical practice guidelines. Results: 76 neurology, internal medicine, emergency medicine and critical care residents responded to the survey. The most common age was 26 to 31 years, with a male to female ratio of 46/54%. Discussion: the questions about operational definitions and times of action were answered in a more consistent manner. There is an important limitation in the selection and use of antiseizure medications in the context of status epilepticus, so it is important to strengthen medical education in these academic aspects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Status Epilepticus , Specialties, Surgical , Health Personnel , Education
8.
Philippine Journal of Neurology ; : 28-35, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964893

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#We performed a case series of all five (5) confirmed adult Filipino cases of Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (anti-NMDA-R) encephalitis in a tertiary government hospital in the Philippines admitted in the past three years. Two cases were identified with unique features: (1) a 23-year old female who presented with combined refractory seizures and persistent chorea and orofacial dyskinesias; and (2) a 22-year old male who presented with refractory epilepsia partialis continuua. The rest of the patients were hereby presented.@*BACKGROUND@#In the past years, anti-NMDA-R encephalitis has been considered a diagnosis of exclusion in lieu of other infectious causes of encephalitis. It is rare and an emerging disease with an incidence estimated at approximately 2-3 cases per million. Recent literature recorded severe cases of anti-NMDA-R encephalitis that presented as intractable first onset seizures, combined with hyperkinetic movement disorders, acute psychosis without a premorbid condition, and dysautonomia. @*OBJECTIVES@#To present the clinicodemographic profile and to discuss the management and outcomes of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a tertiary hospital in the Philippines.@*RESULTS@#Here, we report five confirmed cases of anti-NMDA-R encephalitis admitted in 2019-2021. The mean age is 23 years old, with 4:1 female to male ratio with a median length of hospitalization of 58 days. All patients presented with acute psychiatric symptoms without premorbid condition, focal and generalized seizures, decreased consciousness, dyskinesias, and autonomic instability. Four patients needed airway support for central hypoventilation, one had first onset seizure that developed into refractory epilepsia partialis continuua, one had persistent chorea and orofacial dyskinesia. Imaging studies of the brain included contrast-enhanced CT Scan and MRI with unremarkable findings. No female patients had an ovarian teratoma as revealed in the whole abdominal ultrasound. All CSF analysis for anti-NMDA-receptor was done in the same laboratory outside the hospital which revealed positive for NMDA-receptor antibodies, while CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis was only seen in 1/5 and protein elevation in 4/5. All of the patients underwent electroencephalogram (EEG) studies which revealed diffuse delta-theta slowing without epileptiform discharges. The patient who had persistent chorea and orofacial dyskinesias showed extreme delta brush, while one had normal EEG findings. They all received high-dose steroid and intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg); three patients were able to undergo Rituximab infusion. Only one female patient had mild deficits, one female was discharged fully functional and ambulatory from being weaned off from the mechanical ventilator, one female had aborted cardiac arrest and was discharged bedridden at GCS 10, and two died due to the other concomitant medical conditions. The Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) and Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE) were used to assess the neurological and functional outcomes of our patients. @*CONCLUSION@#Anti-NMDA-R encephalitis is an emerging neurological disorder that warrants early identification as it impacts timeliness of management and long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Status Epilepticus
9.
In. Pedemonti, Adriana; González Brandi, Nancy. Manejo de las urgencias y emergencias pediátricas: incluye casos clínicos. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2022. p.277-286, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1525473
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 635-639, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357187

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Define-se estado epiléptico super-refratário como ocorrência de crises epilépticas persistentes ou que ressurgem em condições de infusão endovenosa de anestésicos por mais de 24 horas. Nos últimos anos, chamou-se a atenção para os potenciais benefícios de uma dieta cetogênica para o controle de tais pacientes. Contudo, o papel específico dessa estratégia na população adulta, assim como o mecanismo de ação, a melhor ocasião para iniciar e o manejo das complicações, permanece como assunto amplamente debatível. Relatamos uma série de casos com três pacientes que foram internados em unidade de terapia intensiva em razão de estado epiléptico super-refratário e tratados com utilização de dieta cetogênica; também propomos uma abordagem clínica para início, transição e manejo das intercorrências clínicas desta intervenção.


Abstract Super-refractory status epilepticus is defined as seizures that persist or reemerge in the setting of an intravenous anesthetic infusion for more than 24 hours. In recent years, attention has been driven to the potential benefits of a ketogenic diet in the management of these patients. However, the specific role of this strategy in the adult population, as well as its underlying mechanism of action and optimal time for the initiation and management of complications, remain widely debatable. We report a case series of three patients admitted to an intensive care unit due to super-refractory status epilepticus who were managed with a ketogenic diet and propose a clinical approach to its initiation, transition, and management of clinical intercurrences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Status Epilepticus , Diet, Ketogenic , Seizures , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 440-444, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347288

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar evidências atuais sobre topiramato para o estado de mal epiléptico refratário. Métodos: Foi revisada a literatura para investigar a eficácia do topiramato no tratamento de estado de mal epiléptico refratário. Os termos de busca utilizados foram: "status epilepticus", "refractory", "treatment" e "topiramate". Não se empregaram restrições. Resultados: A busca identificou 487 artigos que descreviam o uso de topiramato para tratamento de estado de mal epiléptico refratário e seus resultados. Relatos de caso, revisões e experimentos em animais foram excluídos. Após exclusão de duplicatas e aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, restaram nove estudos. Realizaram-se análises descritivas e qualitativas, com os seguintes resultados: as taxas de resposta, definidas como término de crises até 72 horas após administração de topiramato, variaram entre 27% e 100%. A mortalidade variou de 5,9% a 68%. Desfechos funcionais positivos, definidos como alta hospitalar, volta à funcionalidade basal ou reabilitação, foram documentados por sete estudos, e as taxas variaram entre 4% e 55%. A maioria dos estudos reportou apenas efeitos colaterais leves ou ausentes. Conclusão: Topiramato foi efetivo em abortar estado de mal epiléptico refratário, apresentando baixa mortalidade e boa tolerabilidade. Portanto, topiramato poderia ser uma boa opção como terceira linha para estado de mal epiléptico refratário, porém mais estudos são necessários.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify current evidence on the use of topiramate for refractory status epilepticus. Methods: We reviewed the literature to investigate the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus. The search terms used were "status epilepticus", "refractory", "treatment" and "topiramate". No restrictions were used. Results: The search yielded 487 articles that reported using topiramate as a treatment for refractory status epilepticus and its outcomes. Case reports, review articles, and animal experiments were excluded. After excluding duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine studies were included for analyses. Descriptive and qualitative analyses were performed, and the results were as follows: response rates (defined as termination in-hospital until 72 hours after the administration of topiramate) varied from 27% to 100%. The mortality rate varied from 5.9% to 68%. Positive functional long-term outcomes, defined as discharge, back to baseline or rehabilitation, were documented by seven studies, and the rates ranged between 4% and 55%. Most studies reported no or mild adverse effects. Conclusion: Topiramate was effective in terminating refractory status epilepticus, presented relatively low mortality and was well tolerated. Therefore, topiramate could be a good option as a third-line therapy for refractory status epilepticus, but further studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Topiramate/adverse effects
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(5): 384-389, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a condition that needs timely diagnosis and treatment. It has insignificant clinical features and presents high risk of misdiagnosis. Objective: To investigate NCSE among patients with stroke, given that stroke plays an important role in the etiology of NCSE. Methods: In this retrospective study, acute stroke patients who were admitted and followed up at a stroke outpatient clinic between January 2013 and March 2016 were included. Patients with previous histories of epilepsy, brain tumor, head trauma, hypertensive encephalopathy, arteriovenous malformation, subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral venous thrombosis were excluded. Demographic properties, stroke etiology, imaging method, EEG findings, stroke severity according to the NIHSS score, functional disability and modified Rankin Scale were recorded for all patients. Results: Thirty-nine out of 792 stoke patients experienced NCSE. The mean age of the study population was 70±1.2 years (min-max: 46‒90). The study population was composed of 28 females (71.8%) and 11 males (28.2%). NCSE had early onset in 23 patients (59%) and late onset in 16 (41%). The early-onset NCSE patients were older and this was statistically significant between the groups (early onset: 73.5±11.5; late onset: 65.9±12.1; p=0.04). A history of previous stroke was more frequent in the late-onset NCSE group (14; 87,5%) than in the early-onset group (11; 47.8%) (p=0.01). The prognosis was worse in the early-onset group, but without statistical significance. Conclusion: Changes in mental status in the early stages of stroke are mostly attributed to stroke itself, but NCSE should be suspected in the right clinical setting, such as in older patients with suspicious anatomical and clinical associations.


RESUMO Introdução: O Estado de Mal Não-Convulsivo (EMNC) é uma condição que necessita de diagnóstico e tratamento oportunos. Possui características clínicas insignificantes e apresenta alto risco de diagnóstico incorreto. Objetivo: Investigar o EMNC entre pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), visto que ele desempenha um papel importante na etiologia do EMNC. Métodos: Neste estudo retrospectivo, pacientes com AVC agudo que foram admitidos e acompanhados em um ambulatório de AVC entre janeiro de 2013 e março de 2016 foram incluídos. Pacientes com história prévia de epilepsia, tumor cerebral, traumatismo cranioencefálico, encefalopatia hipertensiva, malformação arteriovenosa, hemorragia subaracnóidea ou trombose venosa cerebral foram excluídos. Propriedades demográficas, etiologia do AVC, método de imagem, achados de EEG, gravidade do AVC pela escala NIHSS, incapacidade funcional e escala de Rankin modificada foram registrados para todos os pacientes. Resultados: Um total de 39 dos 792 pacientes com AVC experimentaram EMNC. A idade média da população do estudo foi de 70±1,2 anos (mín-máx: 46‒90). A população do estudo foi composta por 28 mulheres (71,8%) e 11 homens (28,2%). O EMNC teve início precoce em 23 pacientes (59%) e início tardio em 16 (41%). Os pacientes com EMNC de início precoce eram mais velhos, o que foi estatisticamente significativo entre os grupos (início precoce: 73,5±11,5; início tardio: 65,9±12,1; p=0,04). Um histórico de AVC prévio foi mais frequente no grupo com EMNC de início tardio (14; 87,5%) do que no grupo de início precoce (11; 47,8%) (p=0,01). O prognóstico foi pior no grupo de início precoce, mas sem significância estatística. Conclusão: As alterações no estado mental nos estágios iniciais do AVC são atribuídas principalmente ao próprio AVC, mas deve-se suspeitar de EMNC com diagnóstico clínico correto, como em pacientes mais velhos com associações anatômicas e clínicas suspeitas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Status Epilepticus , Stroke , Epilepsy , Retrospective Studies , Electroencephalography
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 343-345, Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278378

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, better known as Caligula, (12 CE to 41 CE) was the third Roman emperor and ruled only four years. Throughout his life he experienced several traumatic events, and, in addition, historians mention some premorbid conditions that could cause him to become the monster that most historians know today. When Caligula was 25 years old, he suffered a near-fatal illness that turned his story around. One possible cause was lead poisoning due to the high consumption of wine, which contained lead, by Roman patricians. On the other hand, it is plausible that Caligula experienced epilepsy that began in childhood, later experienced status epilepticus in 37 CE, which triggered an epileptic psychosis with the consequent psychopathic and paranoid changes that led him to the madness noted by historians.


RESUMEN Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, mejor conocido como Calígula, (12 C.E. - 41 C.E.), fue el tercer emperador romano y gobernó durante apenas cuatro años. A lo largo de su vida, experimentó diferentes eventos traumáticos y, adicionalmente, algunos historiadores mencionan condiciones premórbidas que pudieron causar que se convirtiera en el monstruo que los historiadores conocen hoy. Cuando Calígula tenía 25 años, sufrió una enfermedad casi fatal que le dio un giro considerable a su historia. Una posible causa es intoxicación por plomo, debido al excesivo consumo de vino, el cual contenía considerables niveles de este metal. Por otro lado, es posible que Calígula cursara con crisis epilépticas de inicio en la infancia. Posteriormente, en el año 37 C.E. experimentara un estado epiléptico, el cual desencadenaría una psicosis epiléptica, dejando secuelas que iban a desencadenar la locura de la que muchos historiadores hablan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Psychotic Disorders , Status Epilepticus , Epilepsy , Seizures
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 209-215, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285350

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Few studies have evaluated the incidence, predisposing factors and impact of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in relation to outcomes among patients with status epilepticus (SE). Objective: To investigate the variables associated with development of HCAIs among patients with SE and the impact of factors relating to HCAIs on mortality at three months. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis on our prospectively collected dataset, from November 2015 to January 2019. The sample included all consecutive patients diagnosed with SE who were treated at Hospital Eugenio Espejo during that period. In total, 74 patients were included. Clinical variables such as age, etiology of SE, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), hospital length of stay, refractory SE (RSE) and outcomes were analyzed. Results: HCAIs were diagnosed in 38 patients (51.4%), with a preponderance of respiratory tract infection (19; 25.7%). Prolonged hospital length of stay (OR=1.09; 95%CI 1.03-1.15) and CCI≥2 (OR=5.50; 95%CI 1.37-22.10) were shown to be independent variables relating to HCAIs. HCAIs were associated with an increased risk of mortality at three months, according to Cox regression analysis (OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.08-4.58), and with infection caused by Gram-negative microorganisms (OR=3.17; 95%CI 1.20-8.39). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis demonstrated that HCAIs had a negative impact on the survival rate at three months (log rank=0.025). Conclusions: HCAIs are a common complication among Ecuadorian patients with SE and were related to a lower survival rate at three months. Prolonged hospital length of stay, RSE and CCI≥2 were associated with the risk of developing HCAIs.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: Pocos estudios han evaluado la incidencia, los factores predisponentes y el impacto de las infecciones asociadas a los cuidados de salud (IACS) en pacientes con Estatus Epiléptico (EE). Objetivo: Evaluar los factores predisponentes de IACS en pacientes con EE y su impacto evolutivo después de tres meses. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los datos recogidos prospectivamente en nuestra base de datos, desde noviembre de 2015 hasta enero de 2019. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes diagnosticados y consecutivamente tratados con EE, en el Hospital Eugenio Espejo, durante ese periodo. En total, 74 pacientes fueron incluidos. Se analizaron variables clínicas y evolutivas. Resultados: Las IACS fueron identificadas en 38 pacientes (51,4%), con predominio de infecciones respiratorias (25,7%). Los factores asociados con el desarrollo IACS fueron la estadía hospitalaria prolongada (OR=1,09, IC95% 1,03-1,15) y el índice de Charlson (ICH)≥2 (OR=5,50, IC95% 1,37-22,10). La regresión de Cox demostró un incremento significativo de la mortalidad en los pacientes con IACS (OR=2,23, IC95% 1,08-4,58) y en las causadas por gérmenes gram-negativos (OR=3,17, IC95% 1,20-8,39). La curva de Kaplan Meier evidenció el impacto desfavorable de las IACS (log rank=0.025) en la evolución de los pacientes después de los tres meses. Conclusiones: Las IACS fueron complicaciones frecuentes en los pacientes ecuatorianos con EE y fueron asociadas con una menor supervivencia después de los tres meses. Las variables como la estadía hospitalaria prolongada, el EE refractario y el ICH≥2 fueron identificados como factores de riesgo para sufrir una IACS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Status Epilepticus/epidemiology , Incidence , Causality , Retrospective Studies , Delivery of Health Care
15.
Repert.Med.Cir ; 30(3): 242-247, 2021. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363508

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estado epiléptico (EE) es una afección potencialmente mortal con una morbilidad significativa en quienes sobreviven a esta entidad. Pacientes y métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo de corte analítico con el objetivo de describir la prevalencia y la relación con variables sociodemográficas, electroencefalográficas, imagenológicas y desenlaces clínicos en los pacientes hospitalizados que fueron monitorizado por videoelectroencefalograma (VEEG), en el Hospital de San José de Bogotá, Colombia, entre agosto 2017 y agosto 2019. Resultados: de los 135 pacientes monitorizados por VEEG, 27,47% cumplieron con los criterios para EE. La edad promedio fue 48 (DE: 19,56) años, 54,05% (n=20) de sexo masculino y 75,67% (n=28) sin antecedentes de epilepsia. Predominaron las manifestaciones motoras (70,27%, n=26), en 59,46% en el puntaje STESS fue desfavorable, 64,86% (n=24) requirió inducción a coma y monitorización en la unidad de cuidados intensivos(UCI) y 37,84% (n=14) fallecieron durante su estancia intrahospitalaria. Se encontró una relación entre EE, requerimiento de UCI y muerte intrahospitalaria. Conclusiones: la prevalencia del EE en pacientes hospitalizados monitorizados por VEEG fue cercana a 28%, lo que sugiere una relación entre EE, requerimiento de UCI y muerte intrahospitalaria.


Introduction: status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening disorder associated with high morbidity in SE survivors. Patients and methods: descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study with the aim to characterize the prevalence and relation with socio-demographic, electroencephalography and neuro-image variables as well as clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients who received video-electroencephalogram (video-EEG) monitoring, at Hospital de San José in Bogotá, Colombia, between August 2017 and August 2019. Results: of the 135 patients who received video-EEG monitoring, 27.47% met the criteria for SE. The median age was 48 (SD: 19.56) years, 54.05% (n=20) were men and 75.67% (n=28) had no history of epilepsy. There was a predominance of motor manifestations (70.27%, n=26), 59.46% had an unfavorable STESS score, while 64.86% (n=24) required induced coma and monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 37.84 % (n=14) died during their hospital stay. A relationship was found between SE, requiring admission to the ICU and in-hospital death. Conclusions: the prevalence of SE in hospitalized patients monitored by video-EEG was close to 28%, and a relationship between SE, requiring ICU admission and in-hospital death is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Seizures , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Status Epilepticus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography , Monitoring Stations
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 356-362, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) versus phenytoin (PHT) as second-line drugs for the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) in children.@*METHODS@#English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for the randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of LEV and PHT as second-line drugs for the treatment of childhood CSE. RevMan 5.3 software was used for data analysis.@*RESULTS@#Seven studies with 1 434 children were included. The Meta analysis showed that compared with the PHT group, the LEV group achieved a significantly higher control rate of CSE (@*CONCLUSIONS@#LEV has a better clinical effect than PHT in the treatment of children with CSE and does not increase the incidence rate of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 848-853, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888492

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of gap junction blockers, quinine (QUIN) and carbenoxolone (CBX), on hippocampal ripple energy expression in rats with status epilepticus (SE).@*METHODS@#A total of 24 rats were randomly divided into four groups: model, QUIN, valproic acid (VPA), and CBX (@*RESULTS@#Ripple expression was observed in the hippocampal CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions of normal rats. After 10 minutes of PILO injection, all groups had a gradual increase in mean ripple energy expression compared with 1 day before modeling, with the highest expression level before chloral hydrate injection in the model, VPA and CBX groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The change in ripple energy can be used as a quantitative indicator for early warning of seizures, while it cannot predict seizures in the interictal period. Gap junction blockers can reduce ripple energy during seizures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Gap Junctions , Hippocampus , Pilocarpine , Seizures , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1427-1440, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922652

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a brain condition characterized by the recurrence of unprovoked seizures. Recent studies have shown that complement component 3 (C3) aggravate the neuronal injury in epilepsy. And our previous studies revealed that TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) is involved in epilepsy. Whether complement C3 regulation of neuronal injury is related to the activation of TRPV1 during epilepsy is not fully understood. We found that in a mouse model of status epilepticus (SE), complement C3 derived from astrocytes was increased and aggravated neuronal injury, and that TRPV1-knockout rescued neurons from the injury induced by complement C3. Circular RNAs are abundant in the brain, and the reduction of circRad52 caused by complement C3 promoted the expression of TRPV1 and exacerbated neuronal injury. Mechanistically, disorders of neuron-glia interaction mediated by the C3-TRPV1 signaling pathway may be important for the induction of neuronal injury. This study provides support for the hypothesis that the C3-TRPV1 pathway is involved in the prevention and treatment of neuronal injury and cognitive disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Astrocytes/metabolism , Complement C3/metabolism , Epilepsy , Neurons/pathology , Status Epilepticus , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism
19.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 133-137, Diciembre 2020. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1148492

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los errores de medicación (EM) causan una elevada morbimortalidad y generan costos innecesarios. El servicio de emergencias (SE) presenta un mayor riesgo de EM que otras áreas. El desarrollo de una herramienta que estandarice el uso de fármacos podría mejorar la seguridad y el proceso de medicación. Objetivos: Evaluar las mejoras en el proceso de medicación mediante el uso de tablas de medicación (TM) durante la atención del estado epiléptico (EE). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo antes y después no controlado. La intervención fue el desarrollo e implementación de TM. Se relevó in situ la prescripción, preparación y administración de fármacos incluidos en las TM durante segunda quincena de Octubre y mes de Noviembre 2016, previo a la implementación de la herramienta, y en el mismo período de 2017, luego de la inducción e implementación de las tablas. Se registraron los EM y se categorizaron de acuerdo a la etapa del proceso en que ocurrieron. Resultados: En el período pre-intervención se realizaron 14 registros, 86% (12) tenía al menos un error; 57% (8) errores en la etapa de prescripción, 57% (8) en la de preparación y 21% (3) en la de administración. En el período post-intervención se realizaron 17 registros, 12% (2) tenía por lo menos un EM. No se registraron errores en la fase de prescripción, hubo 12% (2) de errores de preparación y 6% (1) de administración. Conclusión: La implementación de las TM para la estandarización del uso de fármacos en EE resultó una medida muy positiva, mejorando la seguridad en el proceso de medicación (AU)


Introduction: Medication errors (ME) are associated with high morbidity mortality and lead to unnecessary costs. The risk of ME is higher at the emergency department (ED) than in other areas. Developing a tool that standardizes drug use may improve safety and medication processes. Objectives: To evaluate improvements in the medication process by using medication cards (MCs) during status epilepticus (SE) care. Materials and methods: An uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted. The intervention was the development and implementation of MCs. The in situ prescription, preparation, and administration of drugs included in the MCs was recorded during the second half of October and November 2016, prior to the implementation of the tool, and in the same period of 2017, after the introduction and implementation of the MCs. ME were recorded and categorized according to the stage of the process in which they occurred. Results: In the pre-intervention period 14 episodes were recorded; in 86% (12) at least one error occurred; 57% (8) were ME in the prescription stage, 57% (8) were ME in the preparation stage, and 21% (3) were ME in the administration stage. In the post-intervention period 17 errors were recorded, in 12% (2) at least one ME occurred. No errors were recorded in the prescription stage, 12% (2) were preparation errors, and 6% (1) administration errors. Conclusion: The implementation of MCs for the standardization of medications used in the RU was successful, improving safety in the medication process (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Status Epilepticus/drug therapy , Hospital Rapid Response Team/statistics & numerical data , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Medication Systems, Hospital/organization & administration , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Quality Improvement , Patient Safety
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(6): 356-360, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131711

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Generalized periodic discharges (GPDs) are rare patterns that can be found in long-term electroencephalographic monitoring in critical patients. These patterns have been correlated with non-seizure crisis and non-convulsive status epilepticus, associated with poor prognosis. Objective: To compare the outcome between patients who developed GPDs and patients with other abnormalities in long-term electroencephalographic monitoring. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by analyzing the medical records of 112 patients over 18 years who developed GPDs during long-term electroencephalographic monitoring (12‒16 hours of monitoring) in the intensive care unit of a general hospital, compared with a group that had only nonspecific abnormalities in the monitoring. Results: Age and cardiorespiratory arrest (CA) were risk factors for death - OR 1.04 (95% CI 1,02 - 1,07) and p<0.001; OR 3.00 (95% CI 1,01 - 8,92) and p=0.046, respectively. It was not possible to evaluate if GPDs alone were associated with an unfavorable outcome or would be a bias for the development of CA in these patients. However, of the six isolated GPDs cases, 2/3 evolved to death, showing a tendency to worse prognosis. A significant difference (p=0.031) was observed for a worse outcome when comparing the group of 28 patients who presented GPD or CA with the other group which did not present any of these variables; of these 28 patients, 20 (71.4%) died. Conclusions: The presence of post-CA GPDs was associated with worse prognosis, but it was not clear whether these patterns are independent factors of an unfavorable evolution.


RESUMO Introdução: As descargas periódicas generalizadas (DPG) são padrões raros que podem ser encontrados durante monitorização eletroencefalográfica prolongada (MEP) em pacientes críticos. Esses padrões têm sido correlacionados com crises não convulsivas e estado de mal epiléptico não convulsivo, associados a um pior prognóstico. Objetivo: Comparar o desfecho entre pacientes que desenvolveram DPG e pacientes com anormalidades inespecíficas na MEP. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo através da análise dos prontuários de 112 pacientes acima de 18 anos que desenvolveram DPG durante MEP (de 12‒16 horas de monitorização) na unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital geral, comparando com um grupo que apresentou apenas anormalidades inespecíficas na MEP. Resultados: As variáveis idade e parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) se mostraram como fatores de risco estatisticamente significativos para óbito - OR 1,04 (IC 95% 1,02 - 1,07) e p<0,001; OR 3,00 (IC 95% 1,01 - 8,92) e p=0,046, respectivamente. Não foi possível avaliar se DPG isoladamente se associaram a um desfecho desfavorável ou seriam um viés para o desenvolvimento de PCR nesses pacientes. Porém, dos seis casos de DPG isoladas, 2/3 evoluíram para óbito, o que revela uma tendência a pior prognóstico. Foi observada diferença significativa (p=0,031) para pior desfecho ao comparar o grupo de 28 pacientes que apresentou DPG ou PCR com o outro grupo que não apresentou nenhuma dessas variáveis, sendo que desses 28 pacientes, 20 (71,4%) foram a óbito. Conclusões: A presença de DPG pós-PCR está associada a pior prognóstico, porém não ficou claro se esses padrões são fatores independentes de evolução desfavorável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Discharge , Status Epilepticus , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Electroencephalography/methods
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