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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1273-1279, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970598

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the chemical material basis of Rhododendron nivale, this study comprehensively used various chromatographic techniques to isolate and obtain five new meroterpenoid enantiomers(1a/1b-5a/5b) from the ethyl acetate extract of R. nivale. A variety of spectral analytical methods, such as high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(NMR), and infrared(IR) spectrum, were used to evaluate the structure, combined with the measurement and calculation of electronic circular dichroism(ECD). The new compounds 1a/1b-4a/4b were named as(±)-nivalones A-B(1a/1b-2a/2b) and(±)-nivalnoids C-D(3a/3b-4a/4b), along with one known enantiomer(±)-anthoponoid G(5a/5b). Human neuroblastoma cells(SH-SY5Y cells) induced by hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) were used as oxidative stress models to evaluate the protective activity of the isolated compounds against oxidative damage to nerve cells. It was found that compounds 2a and 3a had a certain protective effect on nerve cells against H_2O_2-induced oxidative damage at concentrations of 50 μmol·L~(-1), which increased the cell survival rate from 44.02%±2.30% to 67.82%±1.12% and 62.20%±1.87%, respectively. Other compounds did not show a significant ability to protect cells from oxidative damage. These findings enrich the chemical constituents of R. nivale and provide valuable information for identifying the structure of its meroterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rhododendron/chemistry , Neuroblastoma , Oxidative Stress , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Stereoisomerism , Molecular Structure
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 210-214, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929253

ABSTRACT

Two new neolignans and one new lignan (1-3) were obtained from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 1 was a racemic mixture and successfully resolved into the anticipated enantiomers via chiral-phase HPLC. Compound 3 demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against human carboxylesterase 2A1 (hCES2A1) with an IC50 value of 7.28 ± 0.94 μmol·-1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lignans/chemistry , Paeonia , Plant Roots/chemistry , Stereoisomerism
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4145-4149, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888074

ABSTRACT

With repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica(ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, normal-phase and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), etc., a pair of new enantiomers and 5 known compounds were separated from the 95% ethanol extract of Chloranthus multistachys. These compounds were identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(including 1 D-NMR and 2 D-NMR), single-crystal X-ray diffraction, circular dichroism(CD) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry(MS), and some other methods as(1R,4R,5R,8S,10R)-chloraeudolide H(1 a),(1S,4S,5S,8R,10S)-chloraeudolide H(1 b), hydroxyisogermafurenolide(2), 4α-hydroxy-5α,8β(H)-eudesm-7(11)-en-8,12-olide(3), chloraniolide A(4), chlorantene D(5), 4α,8β-dihydroxy-5α(H)-eudesm-7(11)-en-8,12-olide(6). Compounds 1 a and 1 b are a pair of new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene enantiomers, and compounds 2-4 were isolated from C. multistachys for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Sesquiterpenes , Stereoisomerism
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 337-343, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985019

ABSTRACT

Methamphetamine (MAMP) is a kind of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) which contains one chiral carbon atom in its structure. Therefore a pair of enantiomers, S-(+)-MAMP and R-(-)-MAMP exist. R type and S type methamphetamines possess similar physicochemical properties, but has largely different pharmacological and toxic effects. S-(+)-MAMP is the main component of addictive drug "Ice" at present, seriously affecting human health and public safety. The separation analysis and mechanism of toxic effects discussions on MAMP are the current research focuses. This paper reviews the research progress of separation analysis methods and toxic effects of methamphetamine enantiomers to provide reference for forensic study and forensic practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Methamphetamine/chemistry , Stereoisomerism , Substance Abuse Detection
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 63-69, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773638

ABSTRACT

Two cyclopeptides, celogentin L (1) and its epimer lyciumin A (2) were firstly isolated from Celosia argentea L.. The planar structures of the two compounds were fully determined by spectroscopic data, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI/MS. The absolute configurations of amino acid components were assigned via chiral-phase HPLC analyses after acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the configuration of C-N linkage at the glycine Cα was elucidated by extensive analyses of 2D-NMR and comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Cytotoxicity of the two compounds against human alveolar epithelial A549, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and cervical cancer Hela cell lines was assayed. Although both of them were inactive in these cells, the present findings add new facets for the chemistry of Celosia argentea.


Subject(s)
Humans , A549 Cells , Cell Survival , Celosia , Chemistry , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Peptides, Cyclic , Chemistry , Toxicity , Seeds , Chemistry , Stereoisomerism
6.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 63-69, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812428

ABSTRACT

Two cyclopeptides, celogentin L (1) and its epimer lyciumin A (2) were firstly isolated from Celosia argentea L.. The planar structures of the two compounds were fully determined by spectroscopic data, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI/MS. The absolute configurations of amino acid components were assigned via chiral-phase HPLC analyses after acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the configuration of C-N linkage at the glycine Cα was elucidated by extensive analyses of 2D-NMR and comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Cytotoxicity of the two compounds against human alveolar epithelial A549, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and cervical cancer Hela cell lines was assayed. Although both of them were inactive in these cells, the present findings add new facets for the chemistry of Celosia argentea.


Subject(s)
Humans , A549 Cells , Cell Survival , Celosia , Chemistry , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Peptides, Cyclic , Chemistry , Toxicity , Seeds , Chemistry , Stereoisomerism
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 203-212, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Aeromonas hydrophila/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Ocimum/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Acyclic Monoterpenes
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 65-71, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886616

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new lactone, 7-epi-griffonilide (1), and six known compounds, 2, 3a - 3c, 4a and 4b, were isolated from the leaves of Bauhinia pentandra (Fabaceae). The structures elucidation of 1 and 2 were based on detailed 2D NMR techniques and spectral comparison with related compounds, leading to complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/chemistry , Bauhinia/chemistry , Lactones/isolation & purification , Lactones/chemistry , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Molecular Structure , Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
9.
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; (12): 333-338, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328307

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of natural type ginsenoside Rg2 (Rg2) and its stereoisomers [20 (R)-Rg2 and 20 (S)-Rg2] at different concentrations on oxygen-glucose deprivation/ reperfusion (OGD/R) induced cortical neuronal injury model in vitro, and to explore the mechanism, and compare their differences of action.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cortical neurons after 7-day culture were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the control group, the model group, the Rg2 group, 20 (R) -Rg2 group, and 20 (S) - Rg2 group. Cortical neurons in the Rg2 group, 20 (R)-Rg2 group, and 20(S)-Rg2 group were pretreated with 20, 40, and 80 μmol/L Rg2, 20 (R) -Rg2, and 20 (S) -Rg2 for 24 h to prepare OGD/R model. The cell survival rate, the activity of Caspase-3, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected 24 h later.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the control group, cell survival rates and activities of SOD obviously decreased, the activity of Caspase-3, Ca2+ fluorescent optical gray value, and contents of MDA significantly increased with statistical difference (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, cell survival rates and activities of SOD obviously increased, the activity of Caspase-3, Ca2+ fluorescent optical gray value, and contents of MDA significantly decreased in 20 μmol/L Rg2 group, 40 μmol/L 20 (R) -Rg2 group, and 80 μmol/L 20 (S) -Rg2 group (P < 0.05). Compared with 20(S)-Rg2 group, cell survival rates increased and contents of MDA significantly decreased in 20, 40, and 80 μmol/L Rg2 and 20 (R)-Rg2 groups (P < 0.05). The activity of Caspase-3 decreased and contents of SOD increased in 80 μmol/L 20 (R)-Rg2 group, and 40, 80 μmol/L Rg2 groups (P < 0.05). Ca2+ fluorescent optical gray value decreased in 40, 80 μmol/L Rg2 and 20 (R)-Rg2 groups (P < 0.05). Compared with 20 (R)-Rg2 group, Ca2+ fluorescent optical gray value decreased in 80 μmol/L Rg2 group (P < 0.05); contents of SOD increased in 40 and 80 μmol/L Rg2 groups (P < 0.05); contents of MDA decreased in 20, 40, and 80 μmol/L Rg2 groups (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Rg2 and its stereoisomers could improve cell vitality of cortical neurons against OGD/R induced injury. This might be related to improving anti-apoptotic capacities and antioxidant abilities, and reducing Ca2+ inflow. Besides, the neuroprotective effect of 20 (R) -Rg2 was better than that of 20 (S) -Rg2, but inferior to that of Rg2.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Apoptosis , Calcium , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Glucose , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Oxygen , Random Allocation , Reperfusion Injury , Stereoisomerism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
10.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 107-110, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221217

ABSTRACT

A new stereoisomeric monoterpene glycoside and five already-known compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH soluble fraction of Clematis heracleifolia leaves. On the basis of spectral data, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), aesculin (4), (6Z)-9-hydroxylinaloyl glucoside (5), and 9-hydroxylinaloyl glucoside (6) and these were isolated for the first time from this plant. Among these compounds, (6Z)-9-hydroxylinaloyl glucoside (5) is a newly isolated from plant source.


Subject(s)
Clematis , Esculin , Plants , Stereoisomerism
11.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 939-945, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812537

ABSTRACT

The regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylations of two ingenane diterpenoids, 20-deoxyingenol (1) and 13-oxyingenol dodecanoat (2), by the filamentous fungi Mortierella ramanniana and Gibberella fujikuroi were investigated in the present study. Four undescribed metabolites (3-6) of substrate 1 and two undescribed metabolites (7 and 8) of substrate 2 were isolated. All the metabolites were identified as hydroxylated ingenane derivatives by extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS data analyses. All the biotransformed compounds and the substrates were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines, including human colon cancer Caco-2, breast cancer MCF-7, and adriamycin (ADM)-resistant MCF-7/ADM cell lines. All ingenane alcohols (1, and 3-6) displayed no significant cytotoxic activities. The substrate 13-oxyingenol dodecanoat (2) showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC values being 35.59 ± 5.37 μmol·L (Caco-2), 24.04 ± 4.70 μmol·L (MCF-7), and 22.24 ± 5.19 μmol·L (MCF-7/ADM). However, metabolites 7 and 8 displayed no significant cytotoxicity. These results indicated that the hydroxylation at the C-13 aliphatic acid ester of substrate 2 can significantly reduce the cytotoxic activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Metabolism , Biotransformation , Cell Line, Tumor , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Gibberella , Metabolism , Hydroxylation , Molecular Structure , Mortierella , Metabolism , Stereoisomerism
12.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 55-61, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289906

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the permeation-enhancing effect of dl-linalool, d-linalool, and l-linalool on model drugs across excised rat skin and the effect of linalool on the ceramides in stratum corneum lipids.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In vitro skin permeation studies were performed with Valia-Chien diffusion cells, and the permeation samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with chiral stationary phase. Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of linalool on stratum corneum lipids.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>When the donor vehicles added with 1% dl-linalool, 1% d-linalool, or 1% l-linalool, the steady-state skin permeation rate of naproxen was (2.47±0.63), (1.53±0.54), (1.73±0.48) μg·cm(-2)·h(-1), respectively, which is 2.49, 1.55, and 1.75 times (all P<0.05) compared with control group [(0.99±0.42)μg·cm(-2)·h(-1)], and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). The permeation-enhancing effect of dl-linalool on naproxen was found significantly greater than that of d-linalool and l-linalool (both P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the stratum corneum treated with dl-linalool shifted to higher wave number on 2.09 cm(-1) of asymmetric CH2 stretching vibrations in attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. However, stratum corneum treated with d-linalool and l-linalool did not display this phenomenon.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The disturbing degree of dl-linalool on stratum corneum lipids (ceramides) is different from that of linalool enantiomers, suggesting their different enhancing effect on the same drug.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Lipids , Monoterpenes , Naproxen , Skin , Skin Absorption , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Stereoisomerism
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(7): 484-490, 07/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-754985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study racemic bupivacaine, non-racemic bupivacaine and ropivacaine on myocardial contractility. METHODS: Isolated Wistar papillary muscles were submitted to 50 and 100 mM racemic bupivacaine (B50 and B100), non-racemic bupivacaine (NR50 and NR100) and ropivacaine (R50 and R100) intoxication. Isometric contraction data were obtained in basal condition (0.2 Hz), after increasing the frequency of stimulation to 1.0 Hz and after 5, 10 and 15 min of local anesthetic intoxication. Data were analyzed as relative changes of variation. RESULTS: Developed tension was higher with R100 than B100 at D1 (4.3 ± 41.1 vs -57.9 ± 48.1). Resting tension was altered with B50 (-10.6 ± 23.8 vs -4.7 ± 5.0) and R50 (-14.0 ± 20.5 vs -0.5 ± 7.1) between D1 and D3. Maximum rate of tension development was lower with B100 (-56.6 ± 38.0) than R50 (-6.3 ± 37.9) and R100 (-1.9 ± 37.2) in D1. B50, B100 and NR100 modified the maximum rate of tension decline from D1 through D2. Time to peak tension was changed with NR50 between D1 and D2. CONCLUSIONS: Racemic bupivacaine depressed myocardial contractile force more than non-racemic bupivacaine and ropivacaine. Non-racemic and racemic bupivacaine caused myocardial relaxation impairment more than ropivacaine. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Amides/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Bupivacaine/chemistry , Depression, Chemical , Muscle Tonus/drug effects , Muscle Tonus/physiology , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Papillary Muscles/drug effects , Papillary Muscles/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 479-490, fev. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742228

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo tem por objetivo avaliar associação entre fatores de risco cardiovascular (FRCV) e indicadores antropométricos em amostra de base populacional de universitários de São Luís/MA. Estudo transversal com 968 universitários, mediana de 22 anos. Glicemia, triglicerídeos (TGL), HDL-c, tabagismo, consumo de álcool, sedentarismo, síndrome metabólica (SM–critérios do Joint Interim Statement) e resistência insulínica (RI), foram associados e correlacionados com os indicadores antropométricos Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC), Circunferência da Cintura (CC), Relação Cintura Quadril (RCQ) e Relação Cintura Altura (RCA). Encontraram-se associações entre TGL, HAS, SM e maiores valores de todas as variáveis antropométricas. RI associou-se a maiores valores IMC e RCA em homens e mulheres. Baixo HDL-c foi associado a maiores valores de todas as variáveis antropométricas em mulheres. Consumo de álcool associou-se a valores mais elevados de IMC e CC em mulheres e RCQ e RCA em homens. Fumo associou-se a maiores valores de RCA em ambos os sexos. Sedentarismo foi associado a maiores valores de RCQ apenas em homens. As correlações mais altas foram estabelecidas para mulheres entre TGL e IMC, CC, RCQ e RCA. Os indicadores que mais se associaram aos FRCV foram IMC, CC e RCA em mulheres e RCQ e RCA em homens.


The article aims to evaluate the relation between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and anthropometric indicators in a sample of university students from São Luís-MA, Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study conducted with 968 university students, with median age of 22. Glycemia, triglycerides, HDL-c, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome (Joint Interim Statement criteria) and insulin resistance (IR), were associated and correlated with anthropometric indicators such as BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR. Associations were found between TGL, SH, SM and higher values of all anthropometric variables. The RI was associated with higher BMI values and WHtR in men and women. The low HDL-c was associated with higher values of all anthropometric variables in women. Consumption of alcohol was associated with higher values of BMI and WC in women and WHR in men and WHtR. Smoking was associated with higher values of WHtR in both sexes. Physical inactivity was associated with higher values of WHR in men only. The highest correlations were established for women between TGL and BMI CC, WHR and WHtR. The indicators most associated with CVRF were BMI, WC and WHtR in females and WHR and WHtR in men.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Design , Norwalk virus/enzymology , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Stereoisomerism , Structure-Activity Relationship
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 86-94, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741617

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Discovery , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nootropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Vitis/chemistry , Agriculture/economics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Benzofurans/analysis , Benzofurans/chemistry , Benzofurans/economics , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , France , Industrial Waste/economics , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/economics , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Nootropic Agents/chemistry , Nootropic Agents/economics , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Protein Aggregation, Pathological , Peptide Fragments/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/economics , Plant Extracts/economics , Protein Aggregates/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Stereoisomerism , Stilbenes/analysis , Stilbenes/chemistry , Stilbenes/economics , Stilbenes/pharmacology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 114-124, 03/02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741621

ABSTRACT

This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC) and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz). These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic), their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the performance of studies in all clinical phases and are prepared for the development of new vaccines products and processes. We recommend national policy strategies to overcome existing regulatory and financing constraints.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed/adverse effects , Dietary Proteins/chemistry , Models, Biological , Proanthocyanidins/chemistry , Rumen/metabolism , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Chemical Precipitation , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Fermentation , Fabaceae/adverse effects , Fabaceae/chemistry , Fruit/adverse effects , Fruit/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Molecular Weight , Osmolar Concentration , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Proanthocyanidins/adverse effects , Proanthocyanidins/metabolism , Ruminants , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/chemistry , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/metabolism , Rumen/microbiology , Solubility , Stereoisomerism , Serum Albumin, Bovine/chemistry , Serum Albumin, Bovine/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 583-593, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349563

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Human myxovirus resistant protein A (MxA), encoded by the myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) gene, is an interferon (IFN)-triggered dynamin-like multi-domain GTPase involved in innate immune responses against viral infections. Recent studies suggest that MxA is associated with several human cancers and may be a tumor suppressor and a promising biomarker for IFN therapy. Mx1 gene mutations in the coding region for MxA have been discovered in many types of cancer, suggesting potential biological associations between mutations in MxA protein and corresponding cancers. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis based on the crystal structures of MxA and elucidated how these mutations specifically affect the structure and therefore the function of MxA protein.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cancer-associated Mx1 mutations were collected and screened from the COSMIC database. Twenty-two unique mutations that cause single amino acid alterations in the MxA protein were chosen for the analysis. Amino acid sequence alignment was performed using Clustal W to check the conservation level of mutation sites in Mx proteins and dynamins. Structural analysis of the mutants was carried out with Coot. Structural models of selected mutants were generated by the SWISS-MODEL server for comparison with the corresponding non-mutated structures. All structural figures were generated using PyMOL.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We analyzed the conservation level of the single-point mutation sites and mapped them on different domains of MxA. Through individual structural analysis, we found that some mutations severely affect the stability and function of MxA either by disrupting the intra-/inter-molecular interactions supported by the original residues or by incurring unfavorable configuration alterations, whereas other mutations lead to gentle or no interference to the protein stability and function because of positions or polarity features. The potential clinical value of the mutations that lead to drastic influence on MxA protein is also assessed.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Among all of the reported tumor-associated single-point mutations, seven of them notably affect the structure and function of MxA and therefore deserve more attention with respect to potential clinical applications. Our research provides an example for systematic analysis and consequence evaluation of single-point mutations on a given cancer-related protein.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Genetics , Crystallography, X-Ray , Databases, Genetic , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Genetics , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Neoplasms , Genetics , Point Mutation , Protein Domains , Genetics , Protein Folding , Sequence Alignment , Stereoisomerism , Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 220-230, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345512

ABSTRACT

In this study, a fast carbonyl reductases colorimetric screening method for discovering stereoselective carbonyl reductases was established by combining the reverse alcohol oxidation with the azoreductase-catalyzed reduction of azo dye. When azo dye (Orange I , 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo) benzenesulfonic acid) and azoreductase (AzoB) were added into the reaction system of alcohol oxidation catalyzed by carbonyl reductase, the produced NAD(P)H served as electron donor for the azoreductase to reduce the azo dye, resulting the color fade. Hence, the carbonyl reductases can be screened by the obvious color change. When chiral alcohol was used as the substrate, the activity and stereoselectivity of carbonyl reductases can be screened at the same time.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Oxidoreductases , Chemistry , Alcohols , Chemistry , Azo Compounds , Chemistry , Coloring Agents , Chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases , Chemistry , NADP , Chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , Stereoisomerism
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1607-1612, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320035

ABSTRACT

A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. It was used to study the pharmacokinetics in the Beagle dog after intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen. Ketoprofen was chosen as the internal standard. After a simple precipitation using methanol as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and IS were separated on a Kromasil 100-5CHI-TBB chiral column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with isocratic elution using acetonitrile - 20 mmol x L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, containing 5% methanol) (6 : 4) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 220 nm. Liner calibration curves for both of the ibuprofen enantiomers were over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 μg x mL(-1), the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 7%. The recovery rate was 93.1% to 100.4%. The experiments proved that the method was simple, rapid and sensitive. It can be used in the quantitative determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. The method was used to determine the concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen (9 mg x kg(-1)) and the pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated based on the concentration-time curves. The C(max) of S-ibuprofen in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen were 30.8 ± 4.7, 46.1 ± 5.9 and 20.0 ± 2.6 μg x mL(-1), respectively. In terms of the exposure of active ingredient, it revealed a significant difference between the administration of S-ibuprofen and the other two groups. The systematical R- to S- chiral inversion was discussed. Comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters at different doses, chiral inversion were 70.1% ± 36.6% and 76.4% ± 36.2%, respectively, after intravenous administration of racemic- and R-ibuprofen. This study provides a theoretical basis for the safety of ibuprofen formula of injection drug.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ibuprofen , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Stereoisomerism
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 486-491, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251752

ABSTRACT

A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Administration, Oral , Area Under Curve , Asian People , Chromatography, Liquid , Cyclohexanols , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Delayed-Action Preparations , Desvenlafaxine Succinate , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Healthy Volunteers , Plasma , Chemistry , Stereoisomerism , Tablets , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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