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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 180-184, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bowel preparation with mannitol is a well-established method in Brazil. However, factors that interfere with the gastric emptying time period are yet to be known. Knowing these factors may favor the examination scheduling logistics and the individualized orientation for each patient. OBJECTIVE: Know the factors that can contribute to the gastric emptying time after intestinal preparation with express mannitol. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study to know factors that may contribute on the gastric emptying timing: predominant type of diet, comorbidities, medication usage, previous surgeries, number of evacuation per week, bearer of bowel obstipation, fecal type, diet type, number of evacuations after the home usage of bisacodyl before the ingestion of mannitol and number of evacuations after the ingestion of mannitol until reaching a proper bowel preparation. Before starting the colonoscopy exam, an upper digestive endoscopy exam was made to aspirate the gastric content. RESULTS: Sample was composed of 103 patients, 55 (53.4%) women, medium age 61 (±12.1) years, medium weight 75.3 (±14.1) kg, medium height 1.7 (±10) m and medium BMI of 26.6 (±3.9) kg/m2. Average gastric residual volume was 120.9 (0-900) mL. Gastric residual volume (GRV) below 100 mL (GRV ≤100 mL) occurred in 45 (43.6%) patients, 24 (53.3%) women, medium age of 61.0 years and medium BMI of 26.7 kg/m2. Gastric residual volume above 100 mL (GRV >100 mL) occurred on 58 (56.3%) patients, 29 (50%) women, medium age of 61.0 years and medium BMI of 26.2 kg/m2. Comparing both groups, average fasting time period after the ingestion of mannitol was significantly higher on the group with GRV ≤100 mL than group with GRV >100 mL, 123.1 (60-246) vs 95.3 (55-195) minutes, respectively. There was also statistical significance concerning the usage of ezetimibe 6 (13.7%) in the group with GRV ≤100 mL and statistical significance in the group with GRV >100 mL concerning the usage of paroxetine 3 (6.7%) and tadalafil 3 (6.7%) and surgical history of prostatectomy 3 (6.7%) and bridle withdrawal 3 (6.7%). CONCLUSION: We may conclude in this study that the usage of ezetimibe and fasting above 2 hours after the ingestion of mannitol decrease significantly the incidence of a GRV >100 mL. The usage of paroxetine, tadalafil and surgical history of prostatectomy or bridle withdrawal may contribute to increase de incidence of a GRV >100 mL.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O preparo intestinal com manitol é um método bem estabelecido no Brasil. No entanto, os fatores que interferem no tempo de esvaziamento gástrico ainda não são conhecidos. O conhecimento desses fatores pode favorecer a logística de agendamento do exame e a orientação individualizada para cada paciente. OBJETIVO: Estudar os fatores que podem contribuir para o tempo de esvaziamento gástrico após o preparo intestinal com manitol expresso. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional prospectivo com o objetivo de conhecer os seguintes fatores que podem contribuir no tempo de esvaziamento gástrico: tipo de dieta predominante, comorbidades, uso de medicamentos, cirurgias anteriores, número de evacuações por semana, portador de obstipação intestinal, tipo fecal, tipo de dieta, número de evacuações após o uso domiciliar de bisacodil antes da ingestão de manitol e número de evacuações após a ingestão de manitol até atingir o preparo intestinal adequado. Antes de iniciar o preparo intestinal, os pacientes responderam a um questionário clínico. O endoscópio foi introduzido para aspirar o conteúdo gástrico, antes de iniciar a colonoscopia. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 103 pacientes, sendo 55 mulheres, com média de idade de 61 anos, peso médio de 75,3 kg, altura média de 1,7 m e IMC médio de 26,6 kg/m2. O volume residual gástrico médio medido foi 120,9 (0-900) mL. Volume residual gástrico inferior a 100 mL (VRG ≤100 mL) foi encontrado em 45 (43,6%) pacientes, sendo 24 (53,3%) mulheres, com média de idade de 61,0 anos e IMC médio de 26,7 kg/m2. Volume residual gástrico acima de 100 mL (VRG >100 mL) ocorreu em 58 (56,3%) pacientes, sendo 29 (50%) mulheres, com idade média de 61,0 anos e IMC médio de 26,2 kg/m2. Comparando os dois grupos, notou-se que o tempo médio de jejum após a ingestão de manitol foi significativamente maior no grupo com VRG ≤100 mL do que no grupo com VRG> 100 mL, 123,1 (60-246) vs 95,3 (55-195) minutos, respectivamente. Também houve significância estatística em relação ao uso de ezetimiba 6 (13,7%), sendo maior no grupo com VRG ≤100 mL. Além disso, houve significância estatística no grupo com VRG >100 mL quanto ao uso de paroxetina 3 (6,7%) e tadalafil 3 (6,7%) e história cirúrgica de prostatectomia 3 (6,7%) e retirada de bridas 3 (6,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Podemos concluir neste estudo que o uso de ezetimiba e o jejum acima de 2 horas após a ingestão de manitol diminuem significativamente a incidência de um VRG> 100 mL. O uso de paroxetina, tadalafil e história cirúrgica de prostatectomia ou retirada de bridas podem contribuir para o aumento da incidência de um VRG >100 mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stomach , Mannitol , Residual Volume , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Contents , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 117-120, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288181

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La resección gástrica atípica ha demostrado ser beneficiosa para tumores submucosos. La técnica pre senta mayor riesgo cuando estos se desarrollan próximos a la unión esófago-gástrica (UEG). Para esta limitación se propuso la resección intragástrica mediante una técnica mixta combinando laparoscopia y endoscopia. En nuestro medio no existen publicaciones al respecto. Se trata de una mujer de 42 años, con lesión subepitelial-subcardial de 2 cm, evaluada mediante videoendoscopia alta (VEDA), compa tible con tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST) evaluado mediante ecoendoscopia. La lesión fue resecada mediante abordaje combinado laparoendoscópico. Bajo visión laparoscópica se introdujeron en cavidad abdominal trocares con balón, y bajo visión endoscópica intragástrica se introdujeron estos en el estómago y se fijó la pared gástrica a la pared abdominal insuflando dichos balones. Posterior mente se realizó la resección de la lesión con sutura mecánica. El abordaje combinado es seguro y eficaz, simple en manos entrenadas, pero constituye una opción reproducible en casos seleccionados.


ABSTRACT Atypical gastric resection has proved to be beneficial to treat submucosal tumors. The technique is more difficult when these tumors develop next to the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Intragastric resection combining endoscopic and laparoscopic approach was proposed to solve this limitation. There are no publications about this technique in our environment. A 42-year-old female patients with a 2-mm subepithelial tumor below the cardia evaluated by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) videoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound suggestive of a gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST) underwent resection using the combined laparo-endoscopic approach. Under laparoscopic guidance, balloon-tipped trocars were introduced in the abdominal cavity and then into the stomach using endoscopic view. The balloons were inflated to fix the gastirc wall to the abdominal wall. The lesion was resected using mechanical stapler. The combined approach is safe and efficient, and simple to perform for trained professionals, constituting a reproducible option in selected cases.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction , Neoplasms , Patients , Stomach , Surgical Instruments , Vision, Ocular , Women , Wounds and Injuries , Cardia , Endosonography , Mechanics , Abdominal Cavity , Endoscopy , Environment , Hand , Methods
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 144-149, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150536

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Se conoce como escudo de Blumer al engrosamiento neoplásico del fondo de saco de Douglas, palpable al tacto rectal como una protrusión en forma de resalte, presente en pacientes afectados por carcinomas con infiltración difusa. A pesar de haber sido descrito hace más de un siglo, se trata de un proceso diagnosticado infrecuentemente y con escasa mención en la literatura científica. Es preciso tener un alto nivel de sospecha clínica para correlacionar los síntomas pélvicos con la presencia de un tumor, habitualmente gástrico. Casos clínicos. Presentamos dos pacientes con hallazgo de escudo de Blumer, asociado a cáncer gástrico difuso, uno como diagnóstico primario de enfermedad metastásica y otro como recidiva de la enfermedad, meses después de ser operado. Ambos casos presentan un complejo proceso diagnóstico, en el que prima la sospecha clínica, apoyado sobre pruebas de imagen como tomografía computarizada y resonancia nuclear magnética, ya que tanto las biopsias obtenidas por endoscopia, como las biopsias intraoperatorias fueron negativas. Discusión. En el escudo de Blumer, las células tumorales infiltran el fondo de saco de Douglas de forma difusa por debajo de la serosa, sin necesidad de que existan implantes macroscópicamente visibles en el peritoneo visceral. La infiltración tumoral puede afectar extrínsecamente al recto, causando una estenosis del mismo, lo que produce sintomatología pélvica inespecífica, como tenesmo rectal y proctalgia. Por lo tanto, este ominoso proceso debe ser sospechado en pacientes con sintomatología pélvica, que presenten o hayan presentado cáncer gástrico


Introduction. The neoplastic thickening of the cul-de-sac of Douglas is known as "Blumer's shelf". It is palpable on rectal examination as a protrusion in the form of a projection, and it presents in patients affected by carcinomas with diffuse infiltration. Despite being described more than a century ago, it is a rare process with little mention in the scientific literature. A high level of clinical suspicion is required to correlate pelvic symptoms with the presence of a typically gastric tumor.Clinical cases. We present two patients with a Blumer's shelf finding associated with diffuse gastric cancer, one as a primary diagnosis of metastatic disease and the other as a recurrence of the disease, months after being operated on. Both cases present a complex diagnostic process, in which clinical suspicion prevails, supported by imaging tests such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, since both endoscopic biopsies and intraoperative biopsies were negative.Discussion. In Blumer's shelf, tumor cells infiltrate the cul-de-sac of Douglas in a diffuse and subserous manner, without the need for macroscopically visible implants in the visceral peritoneum. Tumor infiltration can extrinsically affect the rectum, causing its stenosis, which produces nonspecific pelvic symptoms such as rectal tenesmus and proctalgia. Therefore, this ominous process should be suspected in patients with pelvic symptoms, who present or have presented gastric cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach , Adenocarcinoma , Linitis Plastica
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879190

ABSTRACT

Child Compound Endothelium Corneum(CCEC)has the effects in invigorating the spleen and appetizing the appetite, and dissolving the accumulation of food. The recent studies have proved that it could improve gastrointestinal motility, restore physiological gastrointestinal peristalsis, increase gastrointestinal digestive motility, and enhance appetite. This trial aimed to evaluate its clinical efficacy and safety in the treatment of children's anorexia(spleen-stomach disharmony). A total of 240 children with anorexia in line with the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 120 in each group. Patients in the experimental group took CCEC and Erpixing Granules simulant. Patients in the control group took Erpi-xing Granules and CCEC simulant. After 21 days of treatment, there was no statistical difference in the recovery rate of anorexia, reduced food intake, eating time, weight change, traditional Chinese medicine syndrome effect, single symptom effect, and trace element Zn recovery rate between the two groups. Based on the non-inferiority test, the experimental group was not inferior to the control group in efficacy. How-ever, the effect of CCEC in reducing appetite in children with anorexia was better than that of control drugs(P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events and adverse reactions between the two groups during the trial. This experiment confirmed the efficacy and safety of CCEC in the treatment of children's anorexia(spleen-stomach disharmony), with a safety and re-liability in clinical application. In addition, it was a better choice for children with anorexia who were mainly manifested by reduced appetite. Meanwhile, compared with granule, chewable tablets were more convenient to take in clinic. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of CCEC for the treatment of children's anorexia(spleen-stomach disharmony) were not inferior to those of Erpixing Granules, with a safety and reliability in clnic. However, due to the small sample size of this trial, the efficacy results only show a trend. It is suggested to further carry out a large-sample-size clinical study to define the clinical advantages of CCEC.


Subject(s)
Anorexia/drug therapy , Child , Double-Blind Method , Endothelium , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Spleen , Stomach , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879074

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicine for nourishing Yin and benefiting stomach. Its superfine powder has many advantages, such as good dissolution, high utilization rate, strong integrity and easy to use. However, the researches on effect of D. officinale superfine powder on stomach Yin deficiency model are still not sufficient. In this experiment, we explored the effect of D. officinale superfine powder in mice model with stomach Yin deficiency caused by "spicy overeating", and provided certain reference value for its application in gastrointestinal diseases. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Yiweitang group, omeprazole group, and D. officinale superfine powder high, medium and low dose groups. The mixture of wine and pepper liquid was given by gavage administration for 30 d, and the corresponding drug was given for 60 d while the model was conti-nued. The body weight, food intake, water intake, fecal moisture content and particle number, foot temperature of mice were measured. The levels of serum gastrin(Gas), motilin(MTL) and somatostatin(SS) were measured by ELISA. Gastric histomorpho-logy was observed by HE staining. The expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) were determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) in gastric tissues were detected by Western blot. The results showed that D. officinale superfine powder could increase the food intake, water intake, fecal moisture content and particle number, reduce the foot temperature, improve the pathological changes of gastric mucosa, reduce the expression of NF-κB, COX-2 protein in gastric tissues, and increase the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. D. officinale superfine powder can "nourish Yin and benefit the stomach", improve the syndrome of stomach Yin deficiency, such as "hunger but not want to eat, dry mouth but not want to drink, hand and feet hot, constipation", and reduce the damage of gastric mucosa. The mechanism may be related to regulating the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones, inhibiting the inflammation of gastric tissues and promoting the apoptosis of abnormal cells in gastric tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dendrobium , Hyperphagia , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Powders , Stomach , Yin Deficiency
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877648

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of wheat grain moxibustion and warming acupuncture on chronic superficial gastritis of spleen-stomach deficiency and cold.@*METHODS@#A total of 200 patients with chronic superficial gastritis of spleen-stomach deficiency and cold were randomly divided into a wheat grain moxibustion group (100 cases, 13 cases dropped off ) and a warming acupuncture group (100 cases, 16 cases dropped off ). The acupoints of Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Qihai (CV 6), Liangqiu (ST 34) and Zusanli (ST 36) were selected in both groups. The patients in the wheat grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat grain moxibustion, and 5 cone were given on every acupoint each time. Moxibustion was performed after acupuncture in the warming acupuncture group, and 3 cone each acupoint. Both groups were treated every other day for 15 times. The scores of clinical symptoms and signs, scores of physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of quality of life in the two groups were recorded before and after treatment and during follow-up 1 month after treatment, and the clinical effects of the two groups were evaluated after treatment and during follow-up.@*RESULTS@#After treatment and during follow-up, the scores of clinical symptoms and signs of the two groups were lower than before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#The wheat grain moxibustion can effectively improve the clinical symptoms, signs and quality of life in patients with chronic superficial gastritis of spleen-stomach deficiency and cold, and its long-term effect is better than warming acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Moxibustion , Quality of Life , Spleen , Stomach , Triticum
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 506-518, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156332

ABSTRACT

Resumen La endosonografía es un método diagnóstico que viene revolucionando el abordaje de los pacientes con tumores del tracto gastrointestinal y de otros órganos y estructuras extradigestivas. En la actualidad, se viene posicionando como un método de elección en la evaluación de lesiones subepiteliales gastrointestinales y en la estadificación de muchos tumores gastrointestinales como de esófago, estómago, recto y páncreas. Por lo anterior pretendemos hacer una revisión de tema mostrando la evidencia de la endosonografía en indicaciones clásicas y aplicaciones actuales en tumores gastrointestinales.


Abstract Endosonography is a diagnostic method that has revolutionized the way to approach patients with tumors in the gastrointestinal tract and other extra-digestive organs and structures. Currently, it is a method of choice to assess subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and to classify gastrointestinal tumors in the esophagus, stomach, rectum, and pancreas. Therefore, this literature review presents evidence on the classical indications of endosonography, as well as current applications to approach gastrointestinal tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endosonography , Gastrointestinal Tract , Neoplasms , Pancreas , Rectum , Stomach , Esophagus , Methods
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 428-433, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Electrogastrography (EGG) is a noninvasive technique for the assessment of gastric myoelectrical activity using electrodes placed on the abdominal surface. Changes in gastric myoelectrical activity may be associated with diseases such as gastroparesis, functional dyspepsia, nausea, and recurrent vomiting. In Brazil, no studies to date have assessed gastric myoelectrical activity using multichannel EGG in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVE: To establish normal values of transcutaneous multichannel EGG in healthy Brazilian individuals. METHODS: This was a prospective study including 20 healthy individuals who underwent EGG. Recording was performed during two periods: a preprandial recording was performed for 30 minutes, and a postprandial recording was performed for 30 minutes after a soft-solid meal of 400 kcal (20 grams of proteins, 60 grams of carbohydrates, and 9 grams of fat). RESULTS: We assessed dominant frequency (DF) parameters, %DF distribution, the instability coefficient, and the power ratio (PR). A total of 20 individuals (11 women and 9 men) with a mean age of 39.5±7.4 years were included. Mean DF (95%CI) ranged from 2.4 to 3.1 cpm in the resting phase and 2.6 to 3.2 cpm in the postprandial period. The %DF in normogastria range was >70% in all healthy individuals. We identified that only one individual did not present a positive response to the test meal, and the other 19 individuals showed a PR greater than 1. The instability coefficient did not change significantly with meal intake. CONCLUSION: Multichannel EGG may be applied in future studies to evaluate gastric motility disorders in the Brazilian population.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Eletrogastrografia (EGG) é técnica não invasiva que avalia a atividade miolétrica gástrica utilizando eletrodos localizados na superfície abdominal. Alterações na atividade miolétrica gástrica podem estar associadas a distúrbios como gastroparesia, dispepsia funcional, náuseas e vômitos recorrentes. No Brasil, não há estudos até o momento que tenham avaliado a atividade miolétrica gástrica pela EGG multicanal transcutânea em indivíduos saudáveis. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer valores de normalidade da EGG multicanal transcutânea em indivíduos brasileiros saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo prospectivo, incluindo 20 indivíduos saudáveis submetidos a EGG. O registro foi realizado em dois períodos: um período pré-prandial foi registrado por 30 minutos, e um período pós-prandial por 30 minutos após a ingesta de uma dieta de prova com consistência sólida e pastosa de 400 kcal (20 gramas de proteínas, 60 gramas de carboidratos e 9 gramas de gordura). RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados os parâmetros de frequência dominante (FD), distribuição da % de FD, coeficiente de instabilidade e "power ratio" (PR). Foram incluídos 20 indivíduos (11 mulheres e 9 homens) com idade média de 39,5 +/- 7,4 anos. A FD média (95%CI) variou de 2,4 a 3,1 cpm no período de basal (pré-prandial) e de 2,6 a 3,2 cpm no período pós-prandial. A % da FD na faixa de normogastria foi >70% em todos os indivíduos saudáveis. Identificamos que apenas um indivíduo não apresentou resposta positiva a refeição de prova, e os outros 19 indivíduos apresentaram PR>1. O coeficiente de instabilidade não mudou significativamente com a ingesta da refeição de prova. CONCLUSÃO: A EGG multicanal transcutânea pode ser aplicada em estudos futuros para a avaliar distúrbios da motilidade gástrica na população brasileira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Electromyography , Stomach , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Dyspepsia , Gastric Emptying , Middle Aged
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1662-1667, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134495

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The celiac trunk is the first major unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta found at the twelfth vertebral level (T12). It gives off branches supplying the spleen, liver and the stomach. However, the branching patterns of the celiac trunk tend to vary by population throughout the world. We sought to investigate the branching patterns of the celiac trunk in a South African Caucasian sample. The celiac trunk was assessed by visual observation in 66 dissected bodies comprised of both males (n= 30) and females (n=36). These samples were obtained at the School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. The celiac trunk arose directly from the abdominal aorta in all cases, with none connected to the superior mesenteric artery. We observed celiac trunk trifurcation in 84.84 % of the sample, although a celiac trunk with four branches was observed in 10.61 %. Bifurcation into the common hepatic and splenic arteries forming a hepatosplenic trunk (2 females) or into the left gastric artery and splenic artery forming a splenogastric trunk (1 male) was also observed. The results are largely comparable with other studies in Caucasians, showing a high rate of celiac trunk trifurcation (above 75 %). Our sample exhibited fewer variations than reported in previous studies worldwide. Therefore, a larger study with more samples may be required in the future to ascertain all the existing celiac trunk branching patterns in the South African Caucasian population.


RESUMEN: El tronco celíaco es la primera rama principal de la parte abdominal de la aorta en el nivel de la duodécima vértebra torácica (T12), con ramas que irrigan el bazo, el hígado y el estómago. Sin embargo a nivel mundial, las ramificaciones del tronco celíaco tienden a variar según la población. En este estudio se investigaron los patrones de ramificación del tronco celíaco en una muestra caucásica sudafricana. El tronco celíaco se analizó mediante observación visual en 66 cuerpos disecados compuestos por hombres (n = 30) y mujeres (n = 36). Estas muestras se obtuvieron en la Facultad de Ciencias Anatómicas de la Universidad de Witwatersrand, Johannesburgo. El tronco celíaco surgió directamente de la parte abdominal de la aorta en todos los casos, sin que ninguno estuviera unido a la arteria mesentérica superior. Se observó trifurcación del tronco celíaco en el 84,84 % de la muestra, aunque en el 10,61 % se observó un tronco celíaco con cuatro ramas. También se observó bifurcación en las arterias hepática y esplénica común formando un tronco hepatoesplénico (2 mujeres) o en la arteria gástrica izquierda y la arteria esplénica formando un tronco esplenogástrico (1 hombre). Los resultados son comparables con otros estudios en caucásicos que muestran una alta tasa de trifurcación del tronco celíaco (mayor al 75%). Nuestra muestra presentó menos variaciones que las reportadas en estudios previos. Por lo tanto, es posible que se requieran estudios más amplios con más muestras en el futuro, para determinar todos los patrones de ramificación del tronco celíaco en la población caucásica sudafricana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Celiac Artery/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Aorta, Abdominal , South Africa , Splenic Artery , Stomach/blood supply , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Liver/blood supply
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 940-946, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124880

ABSTRACT

Solanum nigrum (SLN), commonly known as African nightshade, is used as a vegetable as well as in the management and treatment of various ailments including gastric ulcers. We analyzed, both grossly and microscopically using H&E, Masson's trichrome and PSA staining methods, the protective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of three Kenyan SLN genotypes namely S. scabrum (SSB), S. sarrachoides (SSR) and S. villosum (SVL) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. There was evidence of gastro-protection by all the three genotypes with the SSB showing the highest ulcer inhibition score (76.37 %) followed by SSR (72.51 %) and SVL (63.30 %). SLN-pretreated rats showed less areas of gastric mucosal surface erosion. Additionally in the pretreated animals, the depth of the ulcers were markedly reduced, reaching only the gastric pit region except in those treated with SVL where the ulcers penetrated slightly more deeply to affect the gastric glands. Compared with controls, the mean microscopic ulcer index decreased 5.07, 3.55 and 2.37-fold in rats pretreated with SSB, SSR and SVL extracts respectively. Results of this work show extracts of the three SLN genotypes to have antiulcerogenic potential but at varied strengths, thus confirming earlier reports that phytoconstituents and hence the efficacy of a medicinal plant may be influenced by genetic factors.


Solanum nigrum (SLN), comúnmente conocida como la solanácea africana, se usa como vegetal, para el tratamiento de diversas dolencias incluyendo las úlceras gástricas. Analizamos de forma macro y microscópica, de forma macroscópica y microscópica, utilizando para ello tinciones de H&E, tricrómico de Masson y PSA los efectos protectores de extractos acuosos de hojas de tres genotipos SLN de Kenia: S. scabrum (SSB), S. sarrachoides (SSR) and S. villosum (SVL) en lesiones gástricas inducidas por etanol en ratas. Hubo evidencia de gastroprotección por parte de los tres genotipos con el SSB mostrando el puntaje más alto de inhibición de la úlcera (76,37 %) seguido de SSR (72,51 %) y SVL (63,30 %). Las ratas tratadas previamente con SLN mostraron menos áreas de erosión de la superficie de la mucosa gástrica. Además, en los animales pretratados, la profundidad de las úlceras se redujo notablemente, llegando solo a la región del fondo gástrico, excepto en aquellos tratados con SVL donde las úlceras penetraron un poco más profundamente para afectar las glándulas gástricas. En comparación con los controles, el índice medio de úlcera microscópica disminuyó 5,07, 3,55 y 2,37 veces en ratas pretratadas con extractos de SSB, SSR y SVL, respectivamente. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que los extractos de los tres genotipos de SLN tienen potencial antiulcerogénico en diferentes concentraciones, lo que confirma informes anteriores que los fitoconstituyentes y la eficacia de una planta medicinal pueden estar influenciados por factores genéticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Solanum nigrum/chemistry , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Stomach/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Kenya , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 677-682, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098306

ABSTRACT

Given the importance of the Golden kingklip (Genypterus blacodes) as an alternative to the production of salmonid species for worldwide diversification of aquaculture this study researched the morpho-histology of the digestive canal, providing a uniform nomenclature and basic information to support their nutritional management in captive conditions. The objective was to describe the normal morphology of the digestive canal. Twelve wild specimens were collected and dissected. Samples of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pyloric blind and intestines were obtained. An anatomical and histological description was performed. The digestive canal presented a short tubular esophagus, a slightly dilated, J-shaped stomach and thick walls. The stomach had a cardiac region that ended in a pyloric sphincter from which the intestine of thin walls. The intestine presented an anterior, middle and posterior segment. The anterior region of the first segment of the middle intestine presented 4-5 pairs of pyloric cecum. The middle intestine represented approximately 30 % of the total length of the digestive canal, with a smaller diameter compared to the first segment. The posterior intestine was separated from the middle intestine by a thick and powerful sphincter. The liver was large and elongated, and located in the peritoneal cavity located to the left plane and ventral to the swim bladder. The gallbladder was located lateral to the hepatic anterior wolf. The bile duct led to the duodenal region of the anterior intestine. Ventrally, the rectum ended in the anus, located in front of the anal fin. In general, the histological structures were variable according to the segment studied, a mucous tunic was recognized that presented a simple columnar epithelium, a lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue, a muscular layer of the mucosa composed of smooth muscle tissue and a submucosal layer composed of loose connective tissue, a circular and longitudinal stratum of muscular tunic, which had striated musculature and an adventitial tunic composed of a simple squamous epithelium. In conclusion, Golden kingklip (Genypterus blacodes) presents a digestive system typical of a carnivorous benthic fish adapted to feed on fish and crustaceans.


Dada la importancia del Congrio colorado (Genypterus blacodes) como alternativa a la producción de especies salmonídeas para la diversificación mundial de la acuicultura, el objetivo del presente estudio es describir la morfología normal del canal digestivo de esta especie, proporcionando una nomenclatura uniforme e información básica para apoyar su manejo nutricional en condiciones de cautiverio. Doce especímenes silvestres fueron colectados y disecados. Se obtuvo muestras del esófago, estómago, hígado, ciego pilórico e intestinos. Se realizó una descripción anatómica e histológica. El canal digestivo presentó un esófago tubular corto, un estómago ligeramente dilatado, con forma de J y paredes gruesas. El estómago presentaba una región cardíaca que terminaba en un esfínter pilórico desde el cual el intestino de paredes delgadas. El intestino presentaba un segmento anterior, medio y posterior. La región anterior del primer segmento del intestino medio presentó 4-5 pares de ciegos pilóricos. El intestino medio representó aproximadamente el 30 % de la longitud total del canal digestivo, con un diámetro menor en comparación con el primer segmento. El intestino posterior estaba separado del intestino medio por un esfínter grueso y poderoso. El hígado era grande y alargado, y ubicado en la cavidad peritoneal ubicado al plano izquierdo y ventral a la vejiga natatoria. La vesícula biliar se ubicó lateral al lobo anterior hepático. El ducto biliar desembocó en la región duodenal del intestino anterior. Ventralmente, el recto terminó en el ano, ubicado frente a la aleta anal. En general, las estructuras histológicas fueron variables según el segmento estudiado, se reconoció una túnica mucosa que presentaba un epitelio columnar simple, una lámina propia de la mucosa compuesta por tejido conectivo laxo, una capa muscular de la mucosa compuesta por músculo liso tejido y una capa submucosa compuesta de tejido conectivo laxo, un estrato circular y longitudinal de túnica muscular, que tenía musculatura estriada y una túnica adventicia compuesta por un epitelio plano simple. En conclusión, Congrio colorado (Genypterus blacodes) presenta un sistema digestivo típico de un pez bentónico carnívoro adaptado para alimentarse de peces y crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Digestive System/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Intestines/anatomy & histology
14.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(2): 155-159, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092908

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Reportar el caso clínico de un quiste de duplicación gástrica en un paciente adulto. Materiales y Método Paciente de sexo masculino de 70 años con una tumoración quística supramesocólica, con síntomas digestivos inespecíficos. La imagenología solicitada no determinó la etiología ni origen de la misma planteándose múltiples diagnósticos diferenciales. Se realizó una laparotomía exploradora. Resultados La laparotomía confirmó el origen gástrico de la tumoración. Se realizó la resección completa de la misma con resección gástrica en forma de gastrectomía atípica. El estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza confirmó un quiste de duplicación gástrica. Discusión Los quistes de duplicación gástrica son una enfermedad congénita rara, se diagnostican principalmente en la etapa neonatal, siendo raro en el adulto. La mayoría son lesiones únicas, no comunicantes, asintomáticas y de difícil diagnóstico preoperatorio siendo habitual el diagnostico definitivo en el intraoperatorio y con el estudio histológico de la pieza. Conclusión El quiste de duplicación gástrica debe tenerse en cuenta en los diagnósticos diferenciales de toda lesión quística supramesocólica. Son lesiones potencialmente malignas siendo la resección completa la que brinda el diagnóstico y tratamiento definitivo.


Aim To report the clinical case of a gastric duplication cyst in an adult patient. Materials and Method 70 year old male patient with a symptomatic supramesocolic cystic lesion. Preoperative imagenology was not able to determine the exact origin or etiology. Several differential diagnosis were made and finally an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Results The laparotomy determined the gastric origin and a complete resection including gastric wall was done. The anatomopathological study confirmed it was a gastric duplication cyst. Discussion Gastric duplication cysts are a rare congenital disease, diagnosed mainly in the neonatal stage, with rare presentation in the adult stage. Most of these lesions are unique, non-communicating, usually asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, with definitive diagnosis being common in intraoperative and histological study of the piece. Conclusion The gastric duplication cyst must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of any supramesocolic cystic lesion. They are potentially malignant lesions, and complete resection provides the definitive diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Stomach/abnormalities , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Digestive System Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography , Cysts/congenital
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826716

ABSTRACT

"" is a word describing the syndrome of cold sensation, which is one of the foot- stomach-meridian syndromes. The lesions of stomach and meridian could cause changes of and superficial symptoms of the interior syndrome, leading to "". In this study, the specific manifestation of the "" is analyzed from the aspect of word meaning, and the relationship between the "" and stomach is further discussed through the perspectives of and the exterior-interior relationship. In addition, combined with typical clinical case, it is suggested that attention should be paid on the relationship between exterior and interior syndromes, and the clinical application of and method (activating and promoting circulation of organs) should be strengthened, which could expand the new thinking of clinical treatments for viscera diseases through acupuncture and moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians , Stomach , Stomach Diseases , Therapeutics , Syndrome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827969

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid on intestinal barrier functions in rats with dampness obstructing spleen-stomach syndrome and primarily explore the mechanism. The rat model of dampness obstructing spleen-stomach syndrome was established, and then the modeled rats were randomly divided into the model control group, Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid high and low dose groups, and natural recovery group according to gender and body weight, with 10 rats in each group. Another 10 rats were taken as blank control group. After each group received the corresponding treatment for 7 days, rat serum was isolated. D-lactic acid content was detected by the MTT method, and diamine oxidase(DAO) activity was detected by the rate method. Colon tissues of the rats were isolated to detect Na~+-K~+-ATPase activity and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase activity by phosphate determination method, glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) activity was detected by spectrophotometry, catalase(CAT) activity was detected by ammonium molybdate, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity was detected by hydroxylamine, the expression of occludin protein and ZO-1 protein was detected by immunofluorescence, and the expression levels of occludin protein and ZO-1 protein were detected by Western blot. RESULTS:: showed that low dose Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid could improve the body weight, diet, stool and urine state of rats with dampness obstructing spleen-stomach syndrome obviously. The D-lactic acid content and the DAO activity in the serum of rats with dampness obstructing spleen-stomach syndrome were reduced obviously. The activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase, Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD in rat colon tissues were increased obviously. The occludin proteins and ZO-1 protein expression levels in rat colon tissues were raised obviously. The differences in the above indexes between Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid group and the model control group were statistically significant(P<0.05). Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid could effectively restore the intestinal barrier function in rats with dampness obstructing spleen-stomach syndrome and its mechanism may be related to the repair of intestinal mechanical barrier function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Intestinal Mucosa , Rats , Spleen , Stomach
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787135

ABSTRACT

Although microscopic analysis of tissue slides has been the basis for disease diagnosis for decades, intra- and inter-observer variabilities remain issues to be resolved. The recent introduction of digital scanners has allowed for using deep learning in the analysis of tissue images because many whole slide images (WSIs) are accessible to researchers. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of a deep learning-based, fully automated, computer-aided diagnosis system with WSIs from a stomach adenocarcinoma dataset. Three different convolutional neural network architectures were tested to determine the better architecture for tissue classifier. Each network was trained to classify small tissue patches into normal or tumor. Based on the patch-level classification, tumor probability heatmaps can be overlaid on tissue images. We observed three different tissue patterns, including clear normal, clear tumor and ambiguous cases. We suggest that longer inspection time can be assigned to ambiguous cases compared to clear normal cases, increasing the accuracy and efficiency of histopathologic diagnosis by pre-evaluating the status of the WSIs. When the classifier was tested with completely different WSI dataset, the performance was not optimal because of the different tissue preparation quality. By including a small amount of data from the new dataset for training, the performance for the new dataset was much enhanced. These results indicated that WSI dataset should include tissues prepared from many different preparation conditions to construct a generalized tissue classifier. Thus, multi-national/multi-center dataset should be built for the application of deep learning in the real world medical practice.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Classification , Dataset , Diagnosis , Learning , Observer Variation , Stomach
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1319-1321, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877534

ABSTRACT

The pivot effect of Tianshu (ST 25) was analyzed, which was explored from 5 aspects, named the ascending and descending of spleen and stomach


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Liver , Spleen , Stomach
19.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(2): e1506, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130535

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Acid inhibition from chronic proton pump inhibitor use and a possible increase in gastrin can lead to changes in the regulation of hydrochloric acid production. However, it has not known whether such chronic use changes the presence of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in the stomach or the relationship between gastrin and delta cells. Aim: To analyze the number of gastrin-producing gastrin cells, somatostatin-producing cells, and histamine-producing cells in patients who were chronic users of proton pump inhibitor, with or without related Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: Biopsies from 105 patients, including 81 chronic proton pump inhibitor users (experimental group) and 24 controls, were processed immunohistochemically and subjected to counting of gastrin, delta, and enterochromaffin-like cells in high-magnification microscopic fields and in 10 glands. Results: Gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cells counts were similar across the groups and appeared to be unaffected by Helicobacter pylori infection. The ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells was higher in the chronic users of proton pump inhibitor group than in controls. Conclusion: Chronic users of proton pump inhibitor does not affect gastrin cell, delta cell, and enterochromaffin-like cell counts significantly, but may alter the ratio between gastrin cells and delta cells.


RESUMO Racional: A inibição ácida pelo uso crônico de inibidores de bomba de prótons e o possível aumento da gastrina podem ser seguidos de alterações na regulação da produção do ácido clorídrico. Ainda não está definido se o uso crônico altera a quantidade de células G, D e ECL no estômago ou a razão células G/D. Objetivo: Avaliar o número de células G - produtoras de gastrina -, células D - produtoras de somatostatina - e células ECL - produtoras de histamina -, em pacientes com uso crônico de inibidores de bomba de prótons, com ou sem infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori. Método: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo avaliando 105 pacientes, 81 usadores crônicos de inibidores de bomba de prótons e 24 controles, através de biópsias com contagem das células G, D e ECL por estudo imunoistoquímico, de forma quantitativa onde havia maior número de células positivas por campo microscópico de grande aumento e em 10 glândulas. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatística comparando-se o número de células G, D e ECL. A razão entre as células G e D foi maior nos pacientes usadores crônicos de inibidores de bomba de prótons. Conclusão: O uso crônico de inibidores de prótons parece não interferir na contagem das células G, D e ECL, porém, interfere na razão entre as células G e D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrins/blood , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/therapy , Proton Pumps/metabolism , Enterochromaffin-like Cells/metabolism , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stomach , Stomach Diseases/blood , Gastrins/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Enterochromaffin-like Cells/drug effects , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1124133

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las lesiones subepiteliales (LSE) son hallazgos incidentales en las endoscopias. Algunas tienen potencial maligno. Objetivos: Valorar la prevalencia, características endoscópicas y manejo diagnóstico/terapéutico de LSE en video-gastroscopias (VGC). Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron todas las VGC del periodo enero 2011-junio 2018. Los casos con datos faltantes fueron excluidos. Donde se identificó una LSE se consignó: indicación, edad, sexo, tamaño, ubicación e histología, hallazgos de la ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE), punción-aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF) y resección quirúrgica. Resultados: Se evidenciaron 54 LSE en 7.983 pacientes (0,7 %). 72 % eran mujeres y la indicación más común fue dispepsia (26 %). La localización más frecuente fue en el estómago (74 %). El tamaño medio fue de 16 mm (5-50 mm) y la mitad fueron menores a 10 mm. Siete presentaban mucosa ulcerada, 4 se ubicaban en el cuerpo gástrico y 86 % eran referidos por hemorragia digestiva/anemia. En 26 casos de 54 (48 %) se realizaron biopsias estándar y en 6 de los 54 (11 %) biopsias sobre biopsias, con rendimiento diagnóstico nulo. En un 11 % de ellos se realizó USE, todas mayores de 10 mm: 2 páncreas ectópicos, una lesión compatible con leiomioma, 2 lesiones de la muscular propia (leiomioma/GIST) y 1 compresión extrínseca. No se realizó ninguna PAAF. Todas las LSE fueron manejadas de forma conservadora. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio nacional sobre prevalencia de LSE del tracto gastrointestinal superior y resultó comparable al de otras series. El rendimiento diagnóstico de la biopsia fue nulo. En la mayoría de los casos las lesiones se manejaron según las recomendaciones de las guías internacionales.


Introduction: Subepithelial lesions (SELs) are incidental findings in endoscopy procedures. Most are benign, but some have malignant potential. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence, endoscopic characteristics and diagnostic / therapeutic management of SELs in upper GI endoscopy. Materials and methods: All upper GI endoscopy from January 2011 to June 2018 were included. Cases with missing data were excluded. Indication, age, sex, size, location and histology, findings of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fine needle aspiration (FNA) and surgical resection were recorded in patients with SELs. Results: There were 54 SELs in 7983 patients (0.7 %). 72 % were women, and the most frequent indication was dyspepsia (26 %). The most frequent location was stomach (74 %). The average size was 16 mm (5-50 mm), half were less than 10 mm. Seven had ulcerated mucosa, 4 were located in the gastric body and 86 % were referred for digestive hemorrhage/anemia. In 26 of 54 (48 %) standard biopsies and in 6 of 54 (11 %) bite-on-bite biopsy were performed, with no diagnostic yield. In 11 % of the cases EUS was performed, all of them larger than 10 mm: 2 ectopic pancreas, one lesion compatible with leiomyoma, 2 lesions of the muscularis propria (leiomyoma/GIST) and 1 extrinsic compression. No FNA was performed. All SELs were managed conservatively. Conclusions: This is the first national study of the prevalence of SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract and was comparable to that of other series. Biopsy diagnostic yield was zero. In most cases, lesions were managed according to international guidelines.


Introdução: lesões subepiteliais (LSE) são achadas incidentais em endoscopias. A maioria são benignas, mas algumas têm potencial maligno. Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência, características endoscópicas e manejo diagnóstico/terapêutico das LSE em vídeo-gastroscopias (VGC). Materiais e métodos: Foram incluídos todas VGC do período de janeiro de 2011 a junho de 2018. Foram excluídos os casos com dados ausentes. Quando uma LSE foi identificada, foram indagados: indicação, idade, sexo, tamanho, localização e histologia, achados da ultrassonografia endoscópica (USE), aspiração por agulha fina (PAAF) e ressecção cirúrgica. Resultados: 54 LSE foram evidenciadas em 7.983 pacientes (0,7 %). 72 % eram mulheres e a indicação mais freqüente foi dispepsia (26 %). A localização mais freqüente foi estômago (74 %). O tamanho médio era de 16 mm (5-50 mm), a metade era menor que 10 mm. Sete tinham mucosa ulcerada, quatro estavam localizadas no corpo gástrico e 86% foram referidos por sangramento/anemia gastrointestinal. Em 26 de 54 (48 %) foram realizadas biópsias padrão e em 6 de 54 (11 %) biópsias sobre biópsias, com um desempenho diagnóstico nulo. Em 11 %, foi realizado uma USE, todas maiores que 10 mm: 2 pâncreas ectópico , uma lesão compatível com leiomioma, 2 lesões musculares (leiomioma/GIST) e 1 compressão extrínseca. Não foi realizada nenhuma PAAF. Todas as LSE foram manejadas de forma conservadora. Conclusões: Este é o primeiro estudo nacional de prevalência de LSE no trato gastrointestinal superior e foi comparável ao de outras séries. O rendimento diagnóstico da biópsia foi nulo. Na maioria dos casos, as lesões foram tratadas de acordo com as recomendações das diretrizes internacionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach/pathology , Duodenum/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
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