SUMMARY: Biomechanical factors are important factors in inducing intervertebral disc degeneration, in this paper, the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties of degenerated intervertebral discs were analyzed experimentally. Firstly, the loading and unloading curves of intervertebral discs before and after degeneration at different strain rates were compared to analyze the changes of their apparent viscoelastic mechanical properties; The internal stress/strain distribution of the disc before and after degeneration was then tested by combining digital image technology and fiber grating technology. The results show that the intervertebral disc is strain-rate- dependent whether before or after degeneration; The modulus of elasticity and peak stress of the degenerated disc are significantly reduced, with the modulus of elasticity dropping to 50 % of the normal value and the peak stress decreasing by about 55 %; Degeneration will not change the distribution of the overall internal displacement of the intervertebral disc, but has a greater impact on the superficial and middle AF; The stress in the center of the nucleus pulposus decreases, and the stress in the outer AF increases after degeneration. Degeneration has a great impact on the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties of intervertebral disc, which has reference value for the mechanism, treatment and prevention of clinical degenerative diseases.
RESUMEN: Los factores biomecánicos son importantes en la inducción de la degeneración del disco intervertebral. En este estudio se analizaron experimentalmente las propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas no lineales de los discos intervertebrales degenerados. En primer lugar se compararon las curvas de carga y descarga de los discos intervertebrales, antes y después de la degeneración, a diferentes velocidades de deformación para analizar los cambios aparentes de sus propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas. La distribución interna de tensión/deformación del disco antes y después de la degeneración se probó luego combinando tecnología de imagen digital y tecnología de rejilla de fibra. Los resultados mostraron que el disco intervertebral depende de la velocidad de deformación antes o después de la degeneración; El módulo de elasticidad y la tensión máxima del disco degenerado se reducen significativamente, cayendo el módulo de elasticidad al 50 % del valor normal y la tensión máxima disminuyendo en aproximadamente un 55 %; La degeneración no cambiará la distribución del desplazamiento interno general del disco intervertebral, pero tiene un mayor impacto en la FA superficial y media; El estrés en el centro del núcleo pulposo disminuye y el estrés en el FA externo aumenta después de la degeneración. La degeneración tiene un gran impacto en las propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas no lineales del disco intervertebral, que tiene valor de referencia para el mecanismo, tratamiento y prevención de enfermedades clínicas degenerativas.
Subject(s)Stress, Mechanical , Viscosity , Nonlinear Dynamics , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Biomechanical Phenomena , Elastic Modulus , Models, Biological
To explore the influence of bionic texture coronary stents on hemodynamics, a type of bioabsorbable polylactic acid coronary stents was designed, for which a finite element analysis method was used to carry out simulation analysis on blood flow field after the implantation of bionic texture stents with three different shapes (rectangle, triangle and trapezoid), thus revealing the influence of groove shape and size on hemodynamics, and identifying the optimal solution of bionic texture groove. The results showed that the influence of bionic texture grooves of different shapes and sizes on the lower wall shear stress region had a certain regularity. Specifically, the improvement effect of grooves above 0.06 mm on blood flow characteristics was poor, and the effect of grooves below 0.06 mm was good. Furthermore, the smaller the size is, the better the improvement effect is, and the 0.02 mm triangular groove had the best improvement effect. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that bionic texture stents have provided a new method for reducing in-stent restenosis.
Subject(s)Bionics , Computer Simulation , Coronary Vessels , Hemodynamics/physiology , Models, Cardiovascular , Stents , Stress, Mechanical
It has been found that the incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with lower limb amputation is significantly higher than that in normal individuals, but the relationship between lower limb amputation and the episodes of cardiovascular disease has not been studied from the perspective of hemodynamics. In this paper, numerical simulation was used to study the effects of amputation on aortic hemodynamics by changing peripheral impedance and capacitance. The final results showed that after amputation, the aortic blood pressure increased, the time averaged wall shear stress of the infrarenal abdominal aorta decreased and the oscillatory shear index of the left and right sides was asymmetrically distributed, while the time averaged wall shear stress of the iliac artery decreased and the oscillatory shear index increased. The changes above were more significant with the increase of amputation level, which will result in a higher incidence of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. These findings preliminarily revealed the influence of lower limb amputation on the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and provided theoretical guidance for the design of rehabilitation training and the optimization of cardiovascular diseases treatment.
Subject(s)Amputation, Surgical , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Lower Extremity , Models, Cardiovascular , Stress, Mechanical
Abstract Objective: To compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of four commercially available NiTi orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Twelve NiTi orthodontic wires, round, 0.016-in, three per brand, were selected and divided into four groups: G1 - Heat-activated NiTi, G2 - Superelastic NiTi, G3 - Therma-Ti, and G4 - CopperNiTi. The atomic absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the chemical composition of investigated NiTi wires. We also performed a fatigue test at three-point bending using a universal testing machine for 1000 cycles in a 35 °C water bath. For the first and thousandth cycle, the average plateau load and the plateau length were determined in the unloading area of the force versus displacement diagram. In addition, we calculated the difference between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycle (∆F), as well as the difference between the plateau length of both cases (∆L). Results: According to our results, there were no significant differences between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycles of each group (p>0.05) and in the plateau length of the first and thousandth cycles of the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups changing the superelasticity property after high-cycle fatigue.
Subject(s)Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontics , Stress, Mechanical , Dental Instruments , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance
OBJECTIVE@#In daily life, the movement of the neck will cause certain deformation of the blood vessel and the stent. This study explores the quantitative influence of the torsion deformation of the blood vessel on the mechanical properties of the stent.@*METHODS@#In the finite element simulation software Abaqus, the numerical simulation of the crimping and releasing process of the stent, the numerical simulation of the torsion process of the blood vessel with the stent, and the numerical simulation of the pressure loading process of the outer wall of the blood vessel were carried out.@*RESULTS@#After the stent was implanted, when a load was applied to the outer surface of the blood vessel wall, when the applied load did not change, as the torsion angle increased, the smallest cross-sectional area in the blood vessel decreased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After the stent is placed, when the external load is fixed, the radial support capacity of the stent will decrease as the torsion angle increases.
Subject(s)Computer Simulation , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Stents , Stress, Mechanical
Objective: To investigate the effects of straight-line minimally invasive access cavity on the mechanical properties of endodontically treated maxillary first premolars using finite element analysis. Methods: Micro-CT data of twenty maxillary first premolars were collected for three-dimensional reconstruction. Three access cavities, including the conventional access cavity (ConvAC), the truss access cavity (TrussAC) and the straight-line minimally invasive access cavity (SMIAC), as well as the root canal treatment procedure, were simulated in all the 20 reconstruction samples of three-dimensional models, respectively. The peak von Mises stress on the cervical area of each model, as well as the stress distribution under vertical and oblique loading circumstances, were subsequently determined by using finite element analysis. Results: In comparison to the stresses of ConvAC [buccal cervical (BC): (188.7±13.4) MPa, palatal cervical (PC): (200.9±25.7) MPa], the stresses of TrussAC [BC: (146.0±12.9) MPa, PC: (167.6±15.9) MPa] (t=9.01, P<0.001; t=4.59, P<0.001) and SMIAC [BC: (142.6±13.7) MPa, PC: (168.1±17.4) MPa] (t=9.64, P<0.001; t=3.76, P=0.004) significantly reduced the peak von Mises stress on the cervical area of the maxillary first premolars after root canal treatment. Under vertical loading conditions, SMIAC also reduced the central tendency of stresses on the occlusal surface, cervical area and root. In the case of oblique loading conditions, similar results were observed. Under both loading conditions, there was no significant difference in the peak von Mises stress on the cervical area of the maxillary first premolar between TrussAC and SMIAC groups. Conclusions: The design of SMIAC could preserve the mechanical properties of the maxillary first premolar following root canal treatment, which might have certain clinical feasibility.
Subject(s)Bicuspid , Dental Stress Analysis , Finite Element Analysis , Root Canal Therapy , Stress, Mechanical , X-Ray Microtomography
Resumen: Introducción: Las células de la musculatura lisa vascular (CMLV) se caracterizan por mantener cierto grado de desdiferenciación, variando su fenotipo entre el contráctil y el secretor, de acuerdo con las necesidades del tejido, y el contráctil predominante en condiciones fisiológicas. Cualquier alteración del estímulo mecánico, ya sea en el flujo sanguíneo o la tensión mecánica ejercida sobre las CMLV, conducen a cambios de su fenotipo y remodelamiento de la vasculatura, lo que puede constituir el punto de inflexión de varias patologías relevantes en la salud pública como, por ejemplo, la hipertensión arterial. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sobre los mecanosensores y las vías transduccionales conocidas e implicadas en el cambio de fenotipo de las CMLV. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, Google Académico y Scielo sobre la mantención y cambio de fenotipo de las células de la musculatura lisa vascular asociado principalmente a el estrés mecánico, la participación de los mecanosensores más relevantes y las vías de señalización involucrados en este proceso. Conclusión: Los mecanosensores implicados en el cambio de fenotipo de las CMLV contemplan principalmente receptores acoplados a proteína G, moléculas de adhesión y canales iónicos activados por estiramiento. Los estudios se han concentrado en la activación o inhibición de vías como las proteínas quinasas activadas por mitógenos (MAPK), la vía AKT, mTOR y factores transcripcionales que regulan la expresión de genes de diferenciación y/o desdiferenciación, como las miocardinas. Existen además otros receptores involucrados en la respuesta al estrés mecánico, como los receptores tirosina quinasas. A pesar de la importancia que reviste el conocimiento de los mecanosensores y las vías implicadas en el cambio de fenotipo de las CMLV, así como el papel que cumplen en el establecimiento de patologías vasculares, es aún escaso el conocimiento que se tiene sobre los mismos.
Abstract: Introduction: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VS- MCs) are characterized by maintaining a certain de- gree of dedifferentiation. VSMCs may vary their phenotype between contractile and secretory according to tissue needs. Under physiological conditions, the predominant phenotype is contractile. Any alteration of the mechanical stimulus, either in the blood flow or the mechanical stress exerted on the VSMCs, leads to changes in their phenotype and remodeling of the vasculature. These changes can constitute the turning point in several hypertension and other diseases relevant in public health. Objective: To review the main mechanosensor and transduction pathways involved changes in VSMCs phenotype. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Scielo databases was carried out to ascertain the state of the art regarding the maintenance and change of VSMCs phenotype mainly associated with mechanical stress. Additionally, the participation of the most relevant mechanosensors and the signaling pathways involved in this process are discussed. Conclusion: The mechanosensors involved in the change in VSMCs phenotype mainly contempla- te G-protein-coupled receptors, adhesion molecules, and stretch-activated ion channels. Studies have been focused on the activation or inhibition of MAPK, AKT, mTOR, pathways and transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of differentiation and/or des differentiation genes such as Myocardins. There are also other receptors involved in the response to mechanical stress such as the tyrosine kinases receptor. Although the importance of understanding mechanosensors, the signaling pathways involved in VSMC phenotype switching and their role in the establishment of vascular pathologies, knowledge about them is limited.
Subject(s)Mechanoreceptors/physiology , Muscle, Smooth/physiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Stress, Mechanical , Calcium Channels/isolation & purification , Vascular Remodeling
Abstract The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decrease of different elastomeric chains after different times: initial, 10 minutes, 1 day, 28 days and after mechanical brushing. Twenty orthodontic elastomeric chains segments were utilized for each commercial brand. Initially, the elastomeric chain of 15mm long were immediate stretched up to 20 mm in an Instron and the force was measured in gf. After all specimens were placed stretched on rectangular acrylic jigs with distance of 20 mm, immersed in deionized water at 37oC for 10 minutes and the force (gf) was measured again. Five test measurements of remaining force were made at the following time intervals: initial, 10 minutes, 1 day, 28 days and mechanical brushing. After 28 days, the acrylic plates with the specimens were adapted in the mechanical brushing machines (MSCT 3) and the elastomeric chains were submitted to mechanical brushing and the force (gf) measure again. The force (gf) was submitted to mixed-model ANOVA and Sidak post-hoc test (α=0.05). A statistically significant reduction in the force was found for all orthodontic elastomeric chain types after 1 day, 28 days and mechanical brushing (p<0.05). Morelli and 3M Unitek elastomeric chains showed significantly higher force than Abzil and GAC (p<0.05) after 1 day, 28 days and mechanical brushing. In conclusion, the force delivered by all elastomeric chains decayed rapidly over time. Morelli and 3M Unitek elastomeric chains consistently had a significantly greater force after mechanic brushing, while GAC the lowest.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar a redução da força de diferentes cadeias elastoméricas após diferentes tempos: inicial, 10 minutos, 1 dia, 28 dias e após escovação mecânica. Vinte segmentos de cadeias elastoméricas ortodônticas foram utilizadas para cada marca comercial. Inicialmente, a cadeia elastomérica de 15 mm de comprimento foi esticada imediatamente até 20 mm na Instron e a força foi medida em (gf). Após, todas as amostras foram adaptadas esticadas em placas retangulares de acrílico na distância de 20 mm, imersas em água deionizada a 37o C por 10 minutos e a força (gf) foi medida novamente. Cinco medidas de força foram feitas nos seguintes intervalos de tempo: inicial, 10 minutos, 1 dia, 28 dias e após a escovação mecânica. Após 28 dias, as placas de acrílico com as amostras foram adaptadas na máquina de escovação (MSCT 3) e as cadeias elastoméricas foram submetidas a escovação mecânica e a medida de força (gf) novamente. Os dados da força (gf) foram submetidos a ANOVA modelo misto e teste post-hoc de Sidak (α = 0,05). Uma redução estatisticamente significativa na força foi encontrada para todos os tipos de cadeia elastomérica ortodôntica após 1 dia, 28 dias e escovação mecânica (p<0,05). As cadeias elastoméricas Morelli e 3M Unitek apresentaram força significativamente superior em relação a Abzil e GAC (p<0,05) após 1 dia, 28 dias e escovação mecânica. Em conclusão, a força distribuída por todas as cadeias elastoméricas decaiu rapidamente com o tempo. As cadeias elastoméricas Morelli e 3M Unitek consistentemente tiveram uma força significativamente maior após a escovação mecânica, enquanto GAC a mais baixa.
Subject(s)Orthodontic Appliances , Elastomers , Stress, Mechanical , Toothbrushing , Materials Testing , Elasticity
Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical behavior of peri-implant bone tissue and prosthetic components in two modalities of treatment for posterior region of the maxilla, using short implants or standard-length implants associated with bone graft in the maxillary sinus. Four 3D models of a crown supported by an implant fixed in the posterior maxilla were constructed. The type of implant: short implant (S) or standard-length implant with the presence of sinus graft (L) and type of crown retention: cemented (C) or screwed (S) were the study factors. The models were divided into SC- cemented crown on a short implant; SS- screwed crown on the short implant; LC- cemented crown on a standard-length implant after bone graft in the maxillary sinus and LS- crown screwed on a standard-length implant after bone graft in the maxillary sinus. An axial occlusal loading of 300 N was applied, divided into five points (60N each) corresponding to occlusal contact. The following analysis criteria were observed: Shear Stress, Maximum and Minimum Main Stress for bone tissue and von Mises Stress for the implant and prosthetic components. The use of standard-length implants reduced the shear stress in the cortical bone by 35.75% and the medullary bone by 51% when compared to short implants. The length of the implant did not affect the stress concentration in the crown, and the cement layer acted by reducing the stresses in the ceramic veneer and framework by 42%. Standard-implants associated with cemented crowns showed better biomechanical behavior.
Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o comportamento biomecânico do tecido ósseo peri-implantar e dos componentes protéticos em duas modalidades de tratamento para região posterior da maxila, utilizando implantes curtos ou implantes de comprimento padrão associados a enxerto ósseo em seio maxilar. Foram construídos quatro modelos 3D de uma coroa suportada por um implante osseointegrado na região posterior da maxila. O tipo de implante: implante curto (S) ou implante de comprimento padrão com presença de enxerto sinusal (L) e tipo de retenção da restauração: cimentada (C) ou parafusada (S) foram os fatores de estudo. Foi aplicada uma força oclusal de 300N, dividida em cinco pontos (60 N cada) correspondentes ao contato oclusal de um primeiro molar superior. Foram observados os seguintes critérios de análise: tensão de cisalhamento, tensão principal máxima e mínima para o tecido ósseo e tensão de Von Mises para o implante e componentes protéticos. O uso de implantes de comprimento padrão reduziu a tensão de cisalhamento no osso cortical em 35,75% e no osso medular em 51% quando comparado aos implantes curtos. O comprimento do implante não afetou a concentração de tensão na restauração. A camada de cimento atuou reduzindo as tensões na cerâmica de cobertura e infraestrutura de cerâmica em 42%. Os implantes de tamanho padrão associados às coroas cimentadas apresentaram o melhor comportamento biomecânico.
Subject(s)Dental Implants , Maxilla/surgery , Stress, Mechanical , Dental Prosthesis Design , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported , Finite Element Analysis , Crowns , Dental Stress Analysis
Abstrac The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance and surface roughness of Reciproc R25 instruments in four different situations, namely as new instruments and as instruments tested after clinical preparation of one, two or three maxillary molars with four root canals. The total time required to perform each root canal preparation was recorded. Cyclic fatigue resistance was determined by the time to fracture using a customized testing device (n = 10 per group). The torsional test evaluated the torque and angle of rotation to failure according to ISO 3630-1 (n = 10 per group). The roughness of the working parts of new and used instruments was evaluated with a profilometer (n = 5 per group). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The level of significance was set at 5%. No fractures or deformations were observed after clinical use. Higher preparation time was needed during the third use of the instruments for all root canals (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in regard to either cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance (p > 0.05). Regarding the roughness measurements, groove depth was higher on new and one- versus two- or three-maxillary-molar-prepared instruments (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the clinical use of Reciproc instruments increased preparation time and decreased surface roughness. However, clinical use did not affect the cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance of the Reciproc instruments.
Subject(s)Titanium , Root Canal Preparation , Stress, Mechanical , Materials Testing , Torque , Dental Instruments , Equipment Design
Este estudo avaliou o efeito de 3 desenhos de preparos dentários para restaurações parciais indiretas de cobertura total na veracidade e precisão de modelos digitais obtidos por 3 escâneres intraorais; e na tensão de contração de polimerização residual por meio de análise de elementos finitos. Foram considerados os seguintes preparos: contendo redução de istmo (IST); sem redução de istmo (wIST) e preparo não retentivo (nRET). Para avaliação da veracidade e precisão, 10 varreduras foram realizadas em modelos referência de resina epóxi de contendo os dentes 45, 47 e com preparo no 46. Os modelos de referência digital foram obtidos usando um escâner industrial. Três escâneres intraorais foram comparados (n=10): Element 2 (ELE); Trios 3 (TRI); Primescan (PRI). A veracidade (µm) e a precisão (µm) foram analisadas em um software de sobreposição tridimensional. Os dados foram analisados utilizando os testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (α = 0,05). Para avaliar a tensão de contração, os preparos foram modelados em um dente 46 contendo: esmalte, dentina, cimento, restauração de cerâmica, polpa, ligamento periodontal, osso cortical e esponjoso. As interfaces foram consideradas coladas e os volumes considerados homogêneos, lineares e isotrópicos. A contração do cimento foi simulada e critério de Tensão Máxima Principal foi adotado para análise dos resultados. O preparo não retentivo obteve maior veracidade (3,8 µm) e precisão (2,7 µm) em comparação com os demais (veracidade = 6-7 µm, precisão = 4-5 µm). A veracidade foi menor no grupo ELE × IST (16), seguido por ELE × wIST (13 µm) e PRI × IST (7,8 µm). Não foi encontrada diferença entre os escâneres PRI e TRI (6 µm), com desempenho inferior para ELE (13 µm). As discrepâncias positivas foram maiores na proximal em IST e wIST. Os picos de tensão (MPa) de contração seguiram a seguinte sequência: restauração=IST (13,4) > wIST (9,3) > nRET (9); cimento=IST (16,9) > wIST (12,6) > nRET (10-7,5); dente=IST (10,7) > wIST (10,5) > (9). Conclui-se que o preparo nRET foi vantajoso para a redução da tensão de contração e para a obtenção de modelos com maior veracidade e precisão.
This study evaluated the effect of 3 preparations designs for full-coverage onlay on the accuracy of digital models obtained by intraoral scanners; and in the polymerization residual shrinkage stress by means of finite element analysis. The following preparations were evaluated: with isthmus preparation (IST); without isthmus preparation (sIST) and non-retentive preparation (nRET). For the evaluation of accuracy, 10 digital impressions were performed in a reference epoxy resin model from a lower hemiarch (teeth 45, 46 and 47) with a preparation on the teeth 46. The digital reference models were obtained using an industrial scanner. Three intraoral scanners were compared (n=10): Element 2 (ELE); Trios 3 (TRI); Primescan (PRI). Trueness (µm) and precision (µm) were analyzed using a three-dimensional superimposition software. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = 0.05). To assess the shrinkage stress, the preparations were modeled on a tooth #46 containing: enamel, dentin, cement, ceramic restoration, pulp, periodontal ligament, cortical and cancellous bone. The interfaces were considered bonded and the volumes as homogeneous, linear and isotropic. The cement shrinkage was simulated, and the Maximum Principal Stress criterion was adopted to analyze the results. The non-retentive preparation had greater trueness (3.8 µm) and precision (2.7 µm) compared to the others (trueness = 6-7 µm, precision = 4-5 µm). The trueness was lower in the ELE × IST (16), followed by ELE × wIST (13 µm) and PRI × IST (7.8 µm). No difference was found between PRI and TRI scanners (6 µm), with lower performance for ELE (13 µm). Positive discrepancies were greater in the proximal in IST and wIST. The stress (MPa) of followed the sequence: restoration=IST (13.4) > wIST (9.3) > nRET (9); cement=IST (16.9) > wIST (12.6) > nRET (10-7.5); tooth=IST (10.7) > wIST (10.5) > (9). It can be concluded that the nRET preparation was advantageous for reducing the contraction stress and for obtaining models with greater accuracy and precision.
Subject(s)Stress, Mechanical , Finite Element Analysis , Data Accuracy , Inlays
ABSTRACT Objective: This paper aims to verify the thermodynamic, mechanical and chemical properties of CuNiTi 35ºC commercial wires. Methods: Forty pre-contoured copper-nickel-titanium thermodynamic 0.017 x 0.025-in archwires with an Af temperature of 35°C were used. Eight wires from five different manufacturers (American Orthodontics® [G1], Eurodonto® [G2], Morelli® [G3], Ormco® [G4] and Orthometric® [G5]) underwent cross-sectional dimension measurements, tensile tests, SEM-EDS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests. Parametric tests (One-way ANOVA and Tukey post-test) were used, with a significance level of 5%, and Pearson's correlation coefficient test was performed between the Af and chemical elements of the wires. All sample tests and statistical analyses were double-blinded. Results: All wires presented standard dimensions (0.017 x 0.025-in) and superelastic behavior, with mean plateau forces of: G1 = 36.49N; G2 = 27.34N; G3 = 19.24 N; G4 = 37.54 N; and G5 = 17.87N. The Af means were: G1 = 29.40°C, G2 = 29.13°C and G3 = 31.43°C, with p>0.05 relative to each other. G4 (32.77°C) and G5 (35.17°C) presented statistically significant differences between each other and among the other groups. All samples presented Ni, Ti, Cu and Al in different concentrations. Conclusions: The chemical concentration of the elements that compose the alloy significantly influenced the thermodynamic and mechanical properties.
RESUMO Objetivo: O presente artigo teve como objetivo verificar as propriedades termodinâmicas, mecânicas e químicas de fios CuNiTi 35°C comerciais. Métodos: Foram utilizados 40 arcos termodinâmicos pré-contornados de cobre-níquel-titânio de 0,017" x 0,025" e temperatura Af de 35°C. Oito fios de cinco fabricantes diferentes (American Orthodontics® [G1], Eurodonto® [G2], Morelli® [G3], Ormco® [G4] e Orthometric® [G5]) foram submetidos a medições de suas secções transversais, testes de tração, MEV-EDS e calorimetria diferencial (DSC). Foram utilizados testes paramétricos (One-way ANOVA e pós-teste de Tukey), com nível de significância de 5%, e foi realizado o teste do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson entre a temperatura Af e os elementos químicos dos fios. Todos os testes das amostras e análises estatísticas foram duplo-cegos. Resultados: Todos os fios apresentavam dimensões padronizadas (0,017" x 0,025") e comportamento superelástico, com forças médias de platô de G1 = 36,49 N; G2 = 27,34 N; G3 = 19,24 N; G4 = 37,54 N; e G5 = 17,87 N. As médias de Af foram: G1 = 29,40°C, G2 = 29,13°C e G3 = 31,43°C, com p> 0,05 entre si. G4 (32,77°C) e G5 (35,17°C) apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre si e entre os demais grupos. Todas as amostras apresentaram Ni, Ti, Cu e Al em diferentes concentrações. Conclusões: A concentração química dos elementos que compõem a liga influenciou significativamente as propriedades termodinâmicas e mecânicas.
Subject(s)Orthodontic Wires , Dental Alloys , Stress, Mechanical , Titanium , Materials Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elasticity
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of many cardiovascular diseases, and biomechanical factors play an important role in the process of plaque rupture. In the study of plaque biomechanics, there are relatively few studies based on fatigue fracture failure theory, and most of them mainly focus on the whole fatigue propagation process from crack initiation to plaque rupture, while there are few studies on the influence of crack on plaque rupture at a certain time in the process of fatigue propagation. In this paper, a two-dimensional plaque model with crack was established. Based on the theory of fracture mechanics and combined with the finite element numerical simulation method, the stress intensity factor (SIF) and related influencing factors at the crack tip in the plaque were studied. The SIF was used to measure the influence of crack on plaque rupture. The results show that the existence of crack can lead to local stress concentration, which increases the risk of plaque rupture. The SIF at the crack tip in the plaque was positively correlated with blood pressure, but negatively correlated with fibrous cap thickness and lipid pool stiffness. The effect of the thickness and angle of lipid pool on the SIF at the crack tip in the plaque was less than 4%, which could be ignored. This study provides a theoretical basis for the risk assessment of plaque rupture with cracks.
Subject(s)Biomechanical Phenomena , Computer Simulation , Humans , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Stress, Mechanical
Lower extremity movement is a complex and large range of limb movement. Arterial stents implanted in lower extremity are prone to complex mechanical deformation, so the stent is required to have high comprehensive mechanical properties. In order to evaluate the mechanical property of different stents, in this paper, finite element method was used to simulate and compare the mechanical properties of six nitinol stents (Absolute Pro, Complete SE, Lifestent, Protégé EverFlex, Pulsar-35 and New) under different deformation modes, such as radial compression, axial compression/tension, bending and torsion, and the radial support performance of the stents was verified by experiments. The results showed that the comprehensive performance of New stent was better than other stents. Among which the radial support performance was higher than Absolute Pro and Pulsar-35 stent, the axial support performance was better than Complete SE, Lifestent and Protégé EverFlex stent, the flexibility was superior to Protégé Everflex stent, and the torsion performance was better than Complete SE, Lifestent and Protégé Everflex stent. The TTR2 type radial support force tester was used to test the radial support performance of 6 types, and the finite element analysis results were verified. The mechanical properties of the stent are closely related to the structural size. The result provides a reference for choosing a suitable stent according to the needs of the diseased location in clinical applications.
Subject(s)Alloys , Femoral Artery , Finite Element Analysis , Lower Extremity , Mechanical Phenomena , Prosthesis Design , Stents , Stress, Mechanical
In the study of oral orthodontics, the dental tissue models play an important role in finite element analysis results. Currently, the commonly used alveolar bone models mainly have two kinds: the uniform and the non-uniform models. The material of the uniform model was defined with the whole alveolar bone, and each mesh element has a uniform mechanical property. While the material of the elements in non-uniform model was differently determined by the Hounsfield unit (HU) value of computed tomography (CT) images where the element was located. To investigate the effects of different alveolar bone models on the biomechanical responses of periodontal ligament (PDL), a clinical patient was chosen as the research object, his mandibular canine, PDL and two kinds of alveolar bone models were constructed, and intrusive force of 1 N and moment of 2 Nmm were exerted on the canine along its root direction, respectively, which were used to analyze the hydrostatic stress and the maximal logarithmic principal strain of PDL under different loads. Research results indicated that the mechanical responses of PDL had been affected by alveolar bone models, no matter the canine translation or rotation. Compared to the uniform model, if the alveolar bone was defined as the non-uniform model, the maximal stress and strain of PDL were decreased by 13.13% and 35.57%, respectively, when the canine translation along its root direction; while the maximal stress and strain of PDL were decreased by 19.55% and 35.64%, respectively, when the canine rotation along its root direction. The uniform alveolar bone model will induce orthodontists to choose a smaller orthodontic force. The non-uniform alveolar bone model can better reflect the differences of bone characteristics in the real alveolar bone, and more conducive to obtain accurate analysis results.
Subject(s)Biomechanical Phenomena , Computer Simulation , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Models, Biological , Periodontal Ligament , Stress, Mechanical , Tooth Movement Techniques
This study aims to overcome the shortcomings such as low efficiency, high cost and difficult to carry out multi-parameter research, which limited the optimization of infusion bag configuration and manufacture technique by experiment method. We put forward a fluid cavity based finite element method, and it could be used to simulate the stress distribution and deformation process of infusion bag under external load. In this paper, numerical models of infusion bag with different sizes was built, and the fluid-solid coupling deformation process was calculated using the fluid cavity method in software ABAQUS subject to the same boundary conditions with the burst test. The peeling strength which was obtained from the peeling adhesion test was used as failure criterion. The calculated resultant force which makes the computed peeling stress reach the peeling strength was compared with experiment data, and the stress distribution was analyzed compared with the rupture process of burst test. The results showed that considering the errors caused by the difference of weak welding and eccentric load, the flow cavity based finite element method can accurately model the stress distribution and deformation process of infusion bag. It could be useful for the optimization of multi chamber infusion bag configuration and manufacture technique, leading to cost reduction and study efficiency improvement.
Subject(s)Finite Element Analysis , Software , Stress, Mechanical
The article aims to study the effect and mechanism of shear stress on eicosanoids produced by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in endothelial cells. First, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated by control (Static), laminar shear stress (LSS) and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) for 6 h. Then the endothelial cells were incubated with fresh M199 medium for 3 h, and the cell culture medium was collected. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to detect the level of eicosanoid metabolites secreted by endothelial cells. The results showed that under different shear stress, the level of eicosanoid metabolites were changed significantly. We found 10 metabolites were significantly up-regulated by OSS compared with those in LSS group, including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α and PGJ2 produced by cyclooxygenase; 11-HETE, 15-HETE, 13-HDoHE produced by lipoxygenase or spontaneous oxidation; 12,13-EpOME, 9,10-EpOME, 9,10-DiHOME produced by cytochrome P450 oxidase and soluble epoxide hydrolase. The transcription levels of these up-regulated eicosanoids metabolic enzyme-related genes were also increased in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that OSS may promote the increase of metabolites by up-regulating the transcription level of metabolic enzyme-related genes, which playing a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study reveals the effect of shear stress on eicosanoid metabolism in endothelial cells, which provides a novel supplement to the systems biology approach to study systemic hemodynamics.
Subject(s)Cells, Cultured , Eicosanoids , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Metabolomics , Stress, Mechanical
OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the biomechanical mechanism of mandibular symphyseal fracture combined with bilateral intracapsular condylar fractures using finite element analysis (FEA).@*METHODS@#Maxillofacial CT scans and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) MRI were performed on a young male with normal mandible, no wisdom teeth and no history of TMJ diseases. The three-dimensional finite element model of mandible was established by Mimics and ANSYS based on the CT and MRI data. The stress distributions of mandible with different angles of traumatic loads applied on the symphyseal region were analyzed. Besides, two models with or without disc, two working conditions in occlusal or non-occlusal status were established, respectively, and the differences of stress distribution between them were compared.@*RESULTS@#A three-dimensional finite element model of mandible including TMJ was established successfully with the geometry and mechanical properties to reproduce a normal mandibular structure. Following a blow to the mandibular symphysis with different angles, stress concentration areas were mainly located at condyle, anterior border of ramus and symphyseal region under all conditions. The maximum equivalent stress always appeared on condylar articular surface. As the angle between the external force and the horizontal plane gradually increased from 0° to 60°, the stress on the mandible gradually concentrated to symphysis and bilateral condyle. However, when the angle between the external force and the horizontal plane exceeded 60°, the stress tended to disperse to other parts of the mandible. Compared with the condition without simulating the disc, the stress distribution of articular surface and condylar neck decreased significantly when the disc was present. Compared with non-occlusal status, the stress on the mandible in occlusal status mainly distributed on the occlusal surface, and no stress concentration was found in other parts of the mandible.@*CONCLUSION@#When the direction of external force is 60° from the horizontal plane, the stress distribution mainly concentrates on symphyseal region and bilateral condylar surface, which explains the occurrence of symphyseal fracture and intracapsular condylar fracture. The stress distribution of condyle (including articular surface and condylar neck) decreases significantly in the presence of arti-cular disc and in stable occlusal status when mandibular symphysis is under traumatic force.
Subject(s)Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Male , Mandible , Mandibular Condyle/diagnostic imaging , Mandibular Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Stress, Mechanical , Temporomandibular Joint/diagnostic imaging , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the influence of base materials on stress distribution in endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored with endocrowns using three-dimensional finite element analysis.@*METHODS@#A maxillary second premolar was scanned by Micro-CT and a three-dimensional finite element model of ceramic endocrown with 1 mm thickness of base was established. A model without base was also established as a negative control. Four kinds of conventional base materials with different elastic modulus were adopted: light cure glass ionomer(3M Vitrebond, 3 657 MPa), flowable composite resin(3M Filtek Z350XT Flowable Restorative, 7 300 MPa), high strength glass ionomer(GC Fuji Ⅸ, 13 130 MPa), and posterior composite resin(3M Filtek P60, 19 700 MPa). With a 200 N force loaded vertically and obliquely, the distribution and magnitude of stress in the tooth tissue and adhesive layer were investigated by three-dimensional finite element analysis.@*RESULTS@#The maximum von Mises stress values(vertical/oblique) in dentin and adhesive layer were measured as follows: (1) no base material: 19.39/70.49 MPa in dentin and 6.97/17.97 MPa in adhesive layer; (2) light cure glass ionomer: 19.00/69.75 MPa in dentin and 6.87/16.30 MPa in adhesive layer; (3) flowable composite resin: 18.78/69.33 MPa in dentin and 6.79/16.17 MPa in adhesive layer; (4) high strength glass ionomer: 18.71/69.20 MPa in dentin and 6.74/16.07 MPa in adhesive layer; (5) posterior composite resin: 18.61/69.03 MPa in dentin and 6.70/16.01 MPa in adhesive layer. Under the same loading condition, models with different elastic moduli of base materials had similar stress distribution patterns. The von Mises stress of tooth tissue was mainly concentrated in the tooth cervix. Under oblique load, the regions where von Mises stress concentrated in were similar to those under a vertical load, but the values increased. The stress concentration in the tooth cervix was alleviated in models with base materials compared with the model without base material. The maximum von Mises stress in the tooth tissue and adhesive layer decreased when the elastic modulus of base materials increased and got close to that of dentin.@*CONCLUSION@#The posterior composite resin of which the elastic moduli is high and close to that of dentin is recommended as base material for premolar endocrowns to alleviate the concentration of stress in tooth cervix and adhesive layer.
Subject(s)Bicuspid , Ceramics , Composite Resins , Dental Stress Analysis , Dentin , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Materials Testing , Stress, Mechanical , Tooth Cervix , X-Ray Microtomography
ABSTRACT Objectives: Assess the stability of three different mini-implants, based on thread shape factor (TSF), and evaluate stresses at the mini-implant site and surrounding cortical bone on application of retraction force, at two different insertion angles. Methods: Mini-implants of three different diameters (M1 - Orthoimplant, 1.8mm), (M2 - Tomas, 1.6mm) and (M3 - Vector TAS, 1.4mm) and length of 8mm were used. Using scanning electronic microscopy, the mean thread depth, pitch and relationship between the two (TSF) were calculated. The mini-implants were loaded into a synthetic bone block and the pull-out strength was tested. One way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used to compare the pull-out strength of mini-implants. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Finite element models (FEM) were constructed with insertion angulation at 90° and 60°, with retraction force of 150 g. The results were analyzed using ANSYS software. Results: Statistically significant difference was found among all the three mini-implants for thread depth and pitch (< 0.001). Statistically significant higher pull-out force value was seen for Orthoimplant. The stress distribution level in mini-implant and surrounding bone was observed to be smaller for Orthoimplant. Conclusion: Orthoimplant mini-implants have more favorable geometric characteristics among the three types, and less stress with 90°angulation.
RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a estabilidade de três diferentes tipos de mini-implantes, com base no fator formato da rosca (thread shape factor, TSF), e avaliar a tensão no local de inserção e no osso cortical ao redor dos mini-implantes inseridos com dois ângulos diferentes, durante a aplicação de força para retração. Métodos: Foram usados três diferentes diâmetros de mini-implantes, sendo eles 1,8 mm (M1, ORTHO Implant), 1,6 mm (M2, Tomas) e 1,4 mm (M3, Vector TAS), todos com comprimento de 8 mm. Por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, foram calculados a profundidade da rosca, o passo da rosca (distância entre os filetes da rosca) e a relação entre os dois (TSF). Para realização do teste de tração (pull-out), os mini-implantes foram inseridos em um bloco de osso sintético. Os testes ANOVA de uma via e post-hoc de Tukey foram usados para comparar as forças de resistência à tração dos mini-implantes, considerando-se estatisticamente significativos valores de p< 0,05. Modelos de elementos finitos (MEF) foram gerados com ângulos de inserção dos mini-implantes a 90° e 60°, com força de retração em 150g. Os resultados foram analisados usando-se o software ANSYS. Resultados: Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram encontradas entre os três mini-implantes quanto à profundidade da rosca e o passo da rosca (p< 0,001). O ORTHO Implant apresentou a maior força de resistência à tração, com significância estatística. O nível de distribuição das tensões no mini-implante e no osso circundante também foi menor para o ORTHO Implant. Resultados: Entre os diferentes tipos de mini-implantes analisados, o ORTHO Implant apresentou as características geométricas mais favoráveis e a menor tensão com o ângulo de inserção de 90°.