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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550889

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ictus isquémico representa la tercera causa de mortalidad en el mundo y la primera causa de discapacidad. Objetivos: Describir los efectos beneficiosos de la prescripción de las estatinas en la prevención primaria, secundaria y terciaria del ictus isquémico. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la prescripción de estatinas en la prevención primaria, secundaria y terciaria del ictus isquémico. Se revisaron más de 400 artículos publicados en PubMed, Cochrane y Medline. Conclusiones: El empleo de estatinas disminuye la mortalidad en la prevención primaria y secundaria, se utiliza precozmente en la fase aguda (prevención terciaria), disminuye el área infartada, existe una mejoría clínica y disminuyen los reactantes de la fase aguda como la proteína C reactiva(AU)


Introduction: Ischemic stroke represents the third cause of mortality worldwide and the first cause of disability. Objective: To describe the beneficial effects of the prescription of statins in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of ischemic stroke. Methods: A bibliographic review on the prescription of statins in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of ischemic stroke was carried out. More than 400 articles published in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane were reviewed. Only 50 articles met the selection criteria, which were published from May 2021 to June 2022. Conclusions: The use of statins decreases mortality in primary and secondary prevention. If they are used early in the acute phase (tertiary prevention), the infarcted area decreases, there is clinical improvement and acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein decrease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Secondary Care , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology
4.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1113-1127, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010335

ABSTRACT

Being the leading cause of death among both urban and rural residents in Hunan Province, China, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases hold a significant position in the region's public health landscape. Their prevalence and impact not only underscore the urgency of effective disease prevention and control but also provide crucial guidance for future initiatives. Consequently, the Hunan Province Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Health and Disease Report Summary (2020) hereinafter referred to as the "Annual Report", serves as an extensive and informative document. It meticulously examines the current status of these diseases, highlighting both the existing challenges and opportunities for prevention and control efforts in Hunan Province. The primary objective of this report is to furnish valuable insights and evidence that will empower and enrich future endeavors aimed at combatting cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases within the region. In 2017, the year of life expectancy lost due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Hunan Province remained higher than the national average. Additionally, the per capita life expectancy in 2019 (77.1 years) was slightly lower by 0.2 years compared with the national average (77.3 years). Alarmingly, the mortality rates associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were consistently ranking highest, indicating an upward trajectory. Moreover, the prevalence and mortality rates of conditions such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke, all encompassed within the domain of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, surpassed the national averages. Consequently, the economic burden attributable to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is on the rise. And under vertical comparison, in 2019, the life expectancy per capita in Hunan Province increased by 1.26 years compared with 2015. The incidence rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events decreased by 8.34% compared with 2017. A new model of hypertension medical and preventive integration has been established with the efforts of many experts in Hunan Province, and full coverage of standardised outpatient clinics for hypertension at the grassroots level has been realised. The rate of standardised management of patients with hypertension under management in Changsha County, a demonstration area, rose to 65.27%, and the incidence rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, the incidence rate of stroke, and the mortality rate due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were reduced by 28.08%, 28.62%, and 25.00%, respectively. Hunan Province has made significant strides in the prevention and control of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in recent years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Life Expectancy , Incidence , Stroke/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Hypertension
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 82-87, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Preliminary studies have indicated that Shexiang Baoxin Pill (MUSKARDIA) has a coronary artery dilation effect and increases the coronary blood flow, relieving the symptoms of angina. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of MUSKARDIA on patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM).@*METHODS@#This was a subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase IV trial. CAD patients with a medical history of DM or baseline fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥7.0 mmol/L were grouped according to the treatment (standard therapy plus MUSKARDIA or placebo). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), which was the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. The secondary outcome was the composite outcome of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure, and coronary angioplasty.@*RESULTS@#MACEs occurred in 2.6% (9/340) and 4.8% (18/376) of patients in the MUSKARDIA and placebo groups, respectively ( P  = 0.192). Secondary composite outcome was significantly less frequent with MUSKARDIA than with placebo (15.3% [52/340] vs . 22.6% [85/376], P  = 0.017). Risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-1.57) was comparable between two groups. In patients with uncontrolled DM (≥4 measurements of FBG ≥7 mmol/L in five times of follow-up), the risk of secondary outcome was significantly lower with MUSKARDIA (5/83, 6.0%) than with placebo (15/91, 16.5%) (HR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.13-0.95).@*CONCLUSION@#As an add-on to standard therapy, MUSKARDIA shows a trend of reduced MACEs in patients with stable CAD and DM. Furthermore, MUSKARDIA may reduce the frequency of all-cause death, hospitalization, and coronary angioplasty in this population, especially in those with uncontrolled DM.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR.org.cn, ChiCTR-TRC-12003513.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2431-2441, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007591

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Understanding the changing profiles of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and modifiable risk factors is essential for CVD prevention and control. We aimed to report the comprehensive trends in CVD and risk factors in China from 1990 to 2019.@*METHODS@#Data on the incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of total CVD and its 11 subtypes for China were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The CVD burden attributable to 12 risk factors was also retrieved. A secondary analysis was conducted to summarize the leading causes of CVD burden and attributable risk factors.@*RESULTS@#From 1990 to 2019, the number of CVD incidence, death, and DALYs considerably increased by 132.8%, 89.1%, and 52.6%, respectively. Stroke, ischemic heart disease, and hypertensive heart disease accounted for over 95.0% of CVD deaths in 2019 and remained the top three causes during the past 30 years. Between 1990 and 2019, the age-standardized rate of stroke decreased significantly (percentage of decreased incidence: -9.3%; death: -39.8%; DALYs: -41.6%), while the rate of ischemic heart disease increased (percentage of increased incidence: 11.5%; death: 17.6%; DALYs: 2.2%). High systolic blood pressure, unhealthy diet, tobacco, and air pollution continued to be the major contributors to CVD deaths and DALYs (attributing to over 70% of the CVD burden), and the high body mass index (BMI)-associated CVD burden had the largest increase between 1990 and 2019.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The significant increases in the number of CVD incident cases, deaths, and DALYs suggest that the CVD burden is still a concern. Intensified strategies and policies are needed to maintain promising progress in stroke and to reduce the escalating burden of ischemic heart disease. The CVD burden attributable to risk factors has not yet made adequate achievements; even worse, high BMI has contributed to the increasing CVD burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 305-312, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to examine the trends in stroke mortality among young and middle-aged adults in China.@*METHODS@#Data were obtained from the China national vital registration system. Significant changes in mortality were assessed by Joinpoint regression. Age-period-cohort analysis was used to explain the reasons for the changes. Future mortality and counts were predicted by the Bayesian age-period-cohort model.@*RESULTS@#Between 2002 and 2019, a total of 6,253,951 stroke mortality in young and middle-aged adults were recorded. The age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) of women showed a downward trend. The annual percent changes (APC) were -3.5% (-5.2%, -1.7%) for urban women and -2.8% (-3.7%, -1.9%) for rural women. By contrast, the AAMRs per 100,000 for rural men aged 25-44 years continued to rise from 9.40 to 15.46. The AAMRS for urban men aged 25-44 years and urban and rural men aged 45-64 years did not change significantly. Between 2020 and 2030, the projected stroke deaths are 1,423,584 in men and 401,712 in women.@*CONCLUSION@#Significant sex and age disparities in the trends of stroke mortality among young and middle-aged adults were identified in China. Targeted health policy measures are needed to address the burden of stroke in the young generation, especially for rural men, with a focus on the prevention and management of high risk factors.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Bayes Theorem , Urban Population , Stroke/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , China/epidemiology , Mortality
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1598-1605, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Stroke is the leading cause of death in China, and predicting the stroke burden could provide essential information guiding the setting of medium- and long-term health policies and priorities. The study aimed to project trends associated with stroke burden in China through 2050, not only in terms of incidence and mortality but also for prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).@*METHODS@#Data on stroke rates in incidence, prevalence, deaths, and DALYs in China between 1990 and 2019 were obtained from a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Demographic-specific trends in rates over time were estimated using three models: the loglinear model, the Lee-Carter model, and a functional time series model. The mean absolute percentage error and the root mean squared error were used for model selection. Projections up to 2050 were estimated using the best fitting model. United Nations population data were used to project the absolute numbers through 2050.@*RESULTS@#From 2019 to 2050, the crude rates for all measures of the stroke burden are projected to increase continuously among both men and women. We project that compared with those in 2019, the incidence, prevalence, deaths, and DALYs because of stroke in China in 2050 will increase by 55.58%, 119.16%, 72.15%, and 20.04%, respectively; the corresponding increases in number were 2.19, 34.27, 1.58, and 9.21 million. The age-standardized rate is projected to substantially decline for incidence (8.94%), death (40.37%), and DALYs (43.47%), but the age-standardized prevalence rate is predicted to increase by 10.82%. By 2050, the burden of stroke among the population aged ≥65 years will increase significantly: by 104.70% for incidence, by 218.48% for prevalence, by 100.00% for death, and by 58.93% for DALYs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#With the aging population in China increasing over the next three decades, the burden of stroke will be markedly increased. Continuous efforts are needed to improve stroke health care and secondary prevention, especially for older adults.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Aged , Cost of Illness , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Stroke/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , China/epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 551-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986168

ABSTRACT

Relevant research in recent years has demonstrated that the atrial fibrillation occurrence rate is significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis. The most common indication for long-term anticoagulant therapy is chronic atrial fibrillation. The use of anticoagulant therapy greatly reduces the incidence rate of ischemic stroke. Patients with cirrhosis combined with atrial fibrillation have an elevated risk of bleeding and embolism during anticoagulant therapy due to cirrhotic coagulopathy. At the same time, the liver of such patients will go through varying levels of metabolism and elimination while consuming currently approved anticoagulant drugs, thereby increasing the complexity of anticoagulant therapy. This article summarizes the clinical studies on the risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapy in order to provide a reference for patients with cirrhosis combined with atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Risk Factors
10.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 17(1): 58-63, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525943

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) es una afección con alta morbimortalidad, producida por la interrupción de la perfusión cerebral. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la tendencia de egresos hospitalarios por ACV agudo en el periodo 2018-2021 en Chile. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo observacional, que incluyó egresos hospitalarios con diagnóstico de ACV agudo en el periodo 2018-2021, en Chile (n=19.274), según datos del Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud de Chile. Se calculó la tasa de egreso hospitalario (TEH) según variable, utilizando datos del censo chileno 2017. No requirió comité de ética. Resultados: El 2018 tuvo la mayor TEH por ACV agudo (28,99) y el 2021 la menor (26,39). El grupo de "80 años y más" presenta la mayor TEH, mientras que el de "5-9 años" la menor. La mayor y menor TEH las tienen las regiones de Ñuble (263,00) y Tarapacá (10,29), respectivamente. Discusión: La disminución de TEH durante dicho periodo podría deberse al fortalecimiento de la Ley de Urgencia, al Programa Nacional de Telesalud y el impacto de la reciente pandemia. A mayor edad, aumenta la prevalencia y gravedad de las comorbilidades, lo cual explicaría la mayor TEH en el grupo más longevo. La mayor TEH masculina podría ser porque los hombres presentan mayor cantidad y severidad de factores de riesgo. La mayor TEH en la región del Ñuble posiblemente sea por los elevados niveles de pobreza y ruralidad, y la menor TEH en Tarapacá podría relacionarse con la presencia de una población nacional más joven.


Introduction: Stroke (CVA) is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, produced by the interruption of cerebral perfusion. This article aims to analyze the trend of hospital discharges for acute stroke in the period 2018-2021 in Chile. Methodology: Descriptive observational study, which included hospital discharges with a diagnosis of acute stroke in the period 2018-2021, in Chile (n=19,274), according to data from the Chilean Department of Health Statistics and Information. The hospital discharge rate (HTE) was calculated according to variable, using data from the 2017 Chilean census. No ethics committee was required. Results: 2018 had the highest HTE for acute stroke (28.99) and 2021 the lowest (26.39). The group aged "80 years and older" had the highest TEH, while the group aged "5-9 years" had the lowest TEH. The regions of Ñuble (263.00) and Tarapacá (10.29) have the highest and lowest HTE, respectively. Discussion: The decrease in HTE during this period could be due to the strengthening of the emergency law, the National Telehealth Program and the impact of the recent pandemic. The higher the age, the higher the prevalence and severity of comorbidities, which would explain the higher HTE in the older group. The higher male HTE may be due to the fact that men have a greater number and severity of risk factors. The higher HTE in the Ñuble region is possibly due to the high levels of poverty and rurality, and the lower HTE in Tarapacá would be related to having a younger national population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Chile/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution
11.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408972

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad cerebrovascular es la tercera causa de muerte en el mundo y representa la causa más frecuente de discapacidad permanente en adultos. Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a enfermedades cerebrovasculares en mujeres. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico observacional, de tipo caso-control, a partir de 35 pacientes del sexo femenino con diagnóstico de enfermedad cerebrovascular (casos) y otro grupo de pacientes que no presentaban dicha enfermedad (controles). Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida resumen de las variables cualitativas. Se determinó la razón de productos cruzados, el intervalo de confianza y la prueba de Chi2, así como el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual para identificar los factores que se asociaron a la presencia de la enfermedad. Resultados: La hipercolesterolemia, la obesidad, el sedentarismo, los hábitos nutricionales inadecuados y el uso de anticonceptivos orales fueron los factores de riesgo modificable más significativos, con valores de razón de productos cruzados de 10,15, 9,08 y 8,17 y un riesgo atribuible en expuesto de 90,1 por ciento, 89 por ciento, 87,8 por ciento respectivamente. Por otra parte, la enfermedad cardiaca, la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad cerebrovascular previa fueron los padecimientos asociados de mayor significación con razón de productos cruzados en expuesto de 3,55 y 2,97 y un riesgo atribuible en expuesto de 71,8 y 66,3 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgos modificables como hipercolesterolemia, obesidad, sedentarismo, hábitos nutricionales inadecuados y el uso de métodos anticonceptivos aumentaron la probabilidad de sufrir enfermedad cerebrovascular en las mujeres estudiadas(AU)


Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third cause of death in the world and IT represents the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with cerebrovascular diseases in women. Methods: An analytical, observational, case-control study was carried out in 35 female patients diagnosed with cerebrovascular disease (cases) and another group of patients who did not show said disease (controls). The percentage was used as a summary measure of the qualitative variables. The ratio of crossed products, the confidence interval and the Chi2 test were determined, as well as the attributable risk in percentage exposed to identify the factors that were associated with the presence of the disease. Results: Hypercholesterolemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutritional habits and the use of oral contraceptives were the most significant modifiable risk factors, with cross-product ratio values of 10.15, 9.08 and 8.17 and an attributable risk in exposed of 90.1 percent, 89 percent, and 87.8 percent, respectively. On the other hand, heart disease, arterial hypertension, and previous cerebrovascular disease were the most significant associated conditions with a ratio of cross products in exposed of 3.55 and 2.97 and an attributable risk in exposed of 71.8 and 66.3 percent, respectively. Conclusions: Modifiable risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutritional habits and the use of contraceptive methods increased the probability of suffering from cerebrovascular disease in the women studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 295-301, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935284

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between metabolically healthy obesity and the incident risk of stroke in people aged ≥40 years from rural areas of Henan Province. Methods: During 2007 to 2008, 20 194 residents aged ≥18 years were selected for baseline examination by random cluster sampling and 17 265 participants were followed up during 2013 to 2014. According to the aim of current study, a total of 11 864 eligible subjects were included in this post-hoc analysis. Depending on body mass index and metabolic status, subjects were divided into four groups: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically abnormal normal weight and metabolically abnormal obesity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between metabolically healthy obesity and the risk of stroke. Results: The median (Q1, Q3) age of study participants was 54(46, 61) years, and 4 526 participants were men. During the mean follow-up of 6 years, the cumulative incidence of stroke was 7.16%. The incidence of stroke in metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically abnormal normal weight, and metabolically abnormal obesity were 3.73%, 4.61%, 8.99% and 9.38%, respectively (χ²=117.458, P<0.001). After adjusting possible confounding factors, compared with metabolically healthy normal weight, the risk of stroke was significantly increased in the metabolically healthy obesity group, metabolically abnormal normal weight group and metabolically abnormal obesity group with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.52(1.10-2.12), 2.11(1.61-2.77) and 2.78(2.18-3.55), respectively. Stratified analysis showed that the risk of stroke was significantly higher in metabolically healthy obesity people aged 40-59 years compared with metabolically healthy normal weight group (OR=2.12, 95%CI: 1.36-3.30). Conclusion: Metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically abnormal normal weight and metabolically abnormal obesity are positively associated with the risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Obesity/complications , Obesity, Metabolically Benign/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
14.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 573-603, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939598

ABSTRACT

In 2019, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for 46.74% and 44.26% of all deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that about 330 million patients suffer from CVD in China. The number of patients suffering from stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, pulmonary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, lower extremity artery disease and hypertension are 13.00 million, 11.39 million, 8.90 million, 5.00 million, 4.87 million, 2.50 million, 2.00 million, 45.30 million, and 245.00 million, respectively. Given that China is challenged by the dual pressures of population aging and steady rise in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors, the burden caused by CVD will continue to increase, which has set new requirements for CVD prevention and treatment and the allocation of medical resources in China. It is important to reduce the prevalence through primary prevention, increase the allocation of medical resources for CVD emergency and critical care, and provide rehabilitation services and secondary prevention to reduce the risk of recurrence, re-hospitalization and disability in CVD survivors. The number of people suffering from hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes in China has reached hundreds of millions. Since blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose levels rise mostly insidiously, vascular disease or even serious events such as myocardial infarction and stroke often already occured at the time of detection in this population. Hence, more strategies and tasks should be taken to prevent risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, and more efforts should be made in the assessment of cardiovascular health status and the prevention, treatment, and research of early pathological changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
15.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 492-500, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the onset and recurrence characteristics of noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective, multicenter and registry study was carried out in 2,558 patients at 7 representative clinical sub-centers during November 3, 2016 to February 17, 2019. A questionnaire was used to collect information of patients regarding CM syndromes and constitutions and associated risk factors. Additionally, stroke recurrence was defined as a primary outcome indicator.@*RESULTS@#A total of 327 (12.78 %) patients endured recurrence events, 1,681 (65.72%) were men, and the average age was 63.33 ± 9.45 years. Totally 1,741 (68.06%) patients suffered first-ever ischemic stroke, 1,772 (69.27%) patients reported to have hypertension, and 1,640 (64.11%) of them reported dyslipidemia, 1,595 (62.35%) patients exhibited small-artery occlusion by The Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Specifically, 1,271 (49.69%) patients were considered as qi-deficient constitution, and 1,227 (47.97%) patients were determined as stagnant blood constitution. There were 1,303 (50.94%) patients diagnosed as blood stasis syndrome, 1,280 (50.04%) patients exhibited phlegm and dampness syndrome and 1,012 (39.56%) patients demonstrated qi deficiency syndrome. And 1,033 (40.38%) patients declared intracranial artery stenosis, and 478 (18.69%) patients reported carotid artery stenosis. The plaque in 1,508 (41.36%) patients were of mixed. Particularly, 41.09% of them demonstrated abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin levels.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Recurrence in minor and small-artery stroke cannot be ignored. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal HbA1c, intracranial artery stenosis and carotid plaque were more common in stroke patients. Particularly, phlegm-dampness and blood stasis syndromes, as well as qi deficiency and blood stasis constitutions, were still the main manifestations of stroke. (Trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT03174535).


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Constriction, Pathologic , Hospitals , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Syndrome
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 788-795, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Stroke is a complication that causes considerable morbidity and mortality during the heart surgery postoperative period (incidence: 1.3 to 5%; mortality: 13 to 41%). Models for assessing the risk of stroke after heart surgery have been proposed, but most of them do not evaluate postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop a risk score for postoperative stroke in patients who undergo heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: A cohort study was conducted with data from 4,862 patients who underwent surgery from 1996 to 2016. Logistic regression was used to assess relationships between risk factors and stroke. Data from 3,258 patients were used to construct the model. The model's performance was then validated using data from the remainder of the patients (n=1,604). The model's accuracy was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The prevalence of stroke during the postoperative period was 3% (n=149); 59% of the patients who exhibited this outcome were male, 51% were aged ≥ 66 years, and 31.5% of the patients died. The variables that remained as independent predictors of the outcome after multivariate analysis were advanced age, urgent/emergency surgery, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, history of cerebrovascular disease, and cardiopulmonary bypass time ≥ 110 minutes. The area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.66 - 0.75). Conclusion: We were able to develop a risk score for stroke after heart surgery. This score classifies patients as low, medium, high, or very high risk of a surgery-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Cohort Studies , Risk Assessment
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1070-1075, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a multifactorial disease that presents high rates of morbimortality in Brazil. Several studies proved that there is a link between the ABO blood group system and the occurrence of thrombotic events. Nonetheless, its association with IS is not well established. Objective: For that reason, the purpose hereof was to investigate the relation between the ABO blood groups and the occurrence of IS in a Brazilian cohort of cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Five hundred and twenty-nine subjects were included over 12 months, from which 275 presented an IS episode and 254 composed the control group. Blood samples were drawn for direct and reverse serotyping. The control and IS groups were compared regarding the traditional risk factors and the distribution of the ABO blood groups. Results: The IS group presented a higher prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, smoking habits, family history, cardiopathy, and sedentary lifestyle in comparison with the control group. The AB blood type prevailed among the patients (5.1 vs. 1.6%; p<0.05) and this group had more SAH cases in comparison with the O type group (92.9 vs. 67.3%; p<0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the occurrence of IS is more frequent among patients of the AB blood type.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) é uma doença multifatorial que apresenta altas taxas de morbimortalidade no Brasil. Vários estudos provaram que existe uma ligação entre o sistema ABO de grupos sanguíneos e a ocorrência de eventos trombóticos. No entanto, sua associação com AVCI não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Por essa razão, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a relação entre os grupos sanguíneos ABO e a ocorrência de AVCI em uma coorte brasileira de doenças cerebrovasculares. Métodos: Ao longo de 12 meses foram incluídos 529 indivíduos, dos quais 275 apresentaram um episódio de AVCI e 254 compuseram o grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para sorotipagem direta e reversa. Os grupos controle e AVCI foram comparados em relação aos fatores de risco tradicionais e à distribuição dos grupos sanguíneos ABO. Resultados: O grupo AVCI apresentou maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), diabetes mellitus, tabagismo, história familiar, cardiopatia e estilo de vida sedentário em comparação ao grupo controle. O tipo sanguíneo AB prevaleceu entre os pacientes (5,1 vs. 1,6%; p<0,05) e apresentou mais casos de HAS em comparação ao tipo O (92,9 vs. 67,3%; p<0,05). Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que a ocorrência de AVCI é mais frequente entre os pacientes do tipo sanguíneo AB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke , ABO Blood-Group System , Risk Factors
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5,supl.1): 44-52, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346347

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are cardiovascular diseases commonly characterized by the development of atheromatous plaques associated with major complications and high mortality rates. Objective To identify an epidemiological trend in hospitalizations due to stroke and AMI and to analyze the relationship between health programs applied in Primary Health Care, gender and the Federative Unit. Methods Ecological study with a time series design between 1998 and 2018, collecting data from all federal units in Brazil stratified by, gender and place of residence. There were analyzed Hospitalization Authorizations (AIH) for stroke and MI, consulting the Hospital Admissions System (SIH) of the Informatics Department of the National Health Service with p <0.05. Results From 1998 to 2018, the rate of hospitalization for AMI increased in Brazil approximately 42.58 events per 100 thousand inhabitants annually (p<0.001), while hospitalizations for stroke declined 32.17 cases (p=0.03). This pattern was observed in both sexes in AMI and stroke. There is also evidence of the effect of the Hiperdia (p<0.001) and Mais Médicos (p=0.001) program in reducing stroke and Hiperdia cases in mitigating the evolution of AMI cases (p = 0.0001). Conclusion Although these diseases remain as an important cause of death, stroke hospitalization has reduced significantly in the period evaluated. National programs as the Hiperdia and Mais Médicos showed an impact in the acute cases of strokes and AMI.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Health Consortia , Hospitalization , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Ecological Studies , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , National Health Programs
20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 517-522, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340060

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Stroke related to atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with high recurrence and mortality rates. Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (ESUS) is associated with fewer vascular risk factors, less disability, and a high recurrence rate. Objective: To compare risk factors, functional outcomes and the occurrence of primary endpoint (a composite of recurrent stroke, cardiovascular death, and myocardial infarction) between AF stroke and ESUS patients. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted including all consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke admitted to the Hospital de Clinicas (Clinical Hospital) of the Federal University of Paraná from October 2012 to January 2017 (n=554). There were 61 patients with stroke due to AF and 43 due to ESUS. Both groups were compared for demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the impact of each variable on the primary endpoint in a 12-month follow-up. Statistical significance was considered for p-values < 0.05. Results: ESUS patients, as compared to AF patients, were younger and more likely to be smokers. ESUS patients presented a mean CHADS2VASc score of 4, while the AF group presented a score of 5 (p <0.001). The primary endpoint was observed in 9 (20.9%) ESUS and 11 (18.0%) AF patients over a 12-month period (p=0.802). Higher glucose levels upon hospital admission (p=0.020) and a higher modified Rankin Scale upon hospital discharge (p=0.020) were predictors of the primary endpoint occurrence. Conclusion: AF and ESUS stroke patients presented very similar independence rates upon hospital discharge and outcomes after 12 months, despite some baseline differences, including stroke recurrence, vascular death, and myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Sociodemographic Factors , Patient Discharge , Atrial Fibrillation , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Infarction , Intracranial Embolism , Measures of Association
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