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Rev. cuba. med ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408972


Introducción: La enfermedad cerebrovascular es la tercera causa de muerte en el mundo y representa la causa más frecuente de discapacidad permanente en adultos. Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a enfermedades cerebrovasculares en mujeres. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico observacional, de tipo caso-control, a partir de 35 pacientes del sexo femenino con diagnóstico de enfermedad cerebrovascular (casos) y otro grupo de pacientes que no presentaban dicha enfermedad (controles). Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida resumen de las variables cualitativas. Se determinó la razón de productos cruzados, el intervalo de confianza y la prueba de Chi2, así como el riesgo atribuible en expuesto porcentual para identificar los factores que se asociaron a la presencia de la enfermedad. Resultados: La hipercolesterolemia, la obesidad, el sedentarismo, los hábitos nutricionales inadecuados y el uso de anticonceptivos orales fueron los factores de riesgo modificable más significativos, con valores de razón de productos cruzados de 10,15, 9,08 y 8,17 y un riesgo atribuible en expuesto de 90,1 por ciento, 89 por ciento, 87,8 por ciento respectivamente. Por otra parte, la enfermedad cardiaca, la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad cerebrovascular previa fueron los padecimientos asociados de mayor significación con razón de productos cruzados en expuesto de 3,55 y 2,97 y un riesgo atribuible en expuesto de 71,8 y 66,3 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgos modificables como hipercolesterolemia, obesidad, sedentarismo, hábitos nutricionales inadecuados y el uso de métodos anticonceptivos aumentaron la probabilidad de sufrir enfermedad cerebrovascular en las mujeres estudiadas(AU)

Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third cause of death in the world and IT represents the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with cerebrovascular diseases in women. Methods: An analytical, observational, case-control study was carried out in 35 female patients diagnosed with cerebrovascular disease (cases) and another group of patients who did not show said disease (controls). The percentage was used as a summary measure of the qualitative variables. The ratio of crossed products, the confidence interval and the Chi2 test were determined, as well as the attributable risk in percentage exposed to identify the factors that were associated with the presence of the disease. Results: Hypercholesterolemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutritional habits and the use of oral contraceptives were the most significant modifiable risk factors, with cross-product ratio values of 10.15, 9.08 and 8.17 and an attributable risk in exposed of 90.1 percent, 89 percent, and 87.8 percent, respectively. On the other hand, heart disease, arterial hypertension, and previous cerebrovascular disease were the most significant associated conditions with a ratio of cross products in exposed of 3.55 and 2.97 and an attributable risk in exposed of 71.8 and 66.3 percent, respectively. Conclusions: Modifiable risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, inadequate nutritional habits and the use of contraceptive methods increased the probability of suffering from cerebrovascular disease in the women studied(AU)

Humans , Female , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928964


OBJECTIVE@#To delineate the onset and recurrence characteristics of noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective, multicenter and registry study was carried out in 2,558 patients at 7 representative clinical sub-centers during November 3, 2016 to February 17, 2019. A questionnaire was used to collect information of patients regarding CM syndromes and constitutions and associated risk factors. Additionally, stroke recurrence was defined as a primary outcome indicator.@*RESULTS@#A total of 327 (12.78 %) patients endured recurrence events, 1,681 (65.72%) were men, and the average age was 63.33 ± 9.45 years. Totally 1,741 (68.06%) patients suffered first-ever ischemic stroke, 1,772 (69.27%) patients reported to have hypertension, and 1,640 (64.11%) of them reported dyslipidemia, 1,595 (62.35%) patients exhibited small-artery occlusion by The Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Specifically, 1,271 (49.69%) patients were considered as qi-deficient constitution, and 1,227 (47.97%) patients were determined as stagnant blood constitution. There were 1,303 (50.94%) patients diagnosed as blood stasis syndrome, 1,280 (50.04%) patients exhibited phlegm and dampness syndrome and 1,012 (39.56%) patients demonstrated qi deficiency syndrome. And 1,033 (40.38%) patients declared intracranial artery stenosis, and 478 (18.69%) patients reported carotid artery stenosis. The plaque in 1,508 (41.36%) patients were of mixed. Particularly, 41.09% of them demonstrated abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin levels.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Recurrence in minor and small-artery stroke cannot be ignored. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, abnormal HbA1c, intracranial artery stenosis and carotid plaque were more common in stroke patients. Particularly, phlegm-dampness and blood stasis syndromes, as well as qi deficiency and blood stasis constitutions, were still the main manifestations of stroke. (Trial registration at No. NCT03174535).

Aged , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Syndrome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939598


In 2019, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for 46.74% and 44.26% of all deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that about 330 million patients suffer from CVD in China. The number of patients suffering from stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, pulmonary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, lower extremity artery disease and hypertension are 13.00 million, 11.39 million, 8.90 million, 5.00 million, 4.87 million, 2.50 million, 2.00 million, 45.30 million, and 245.00 million, respectively. Given that China is challenged by the dual pressures of population aging and steady rise in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors, the burden caused by CVD will continue to increase, which has set new requirements for CVD prevention and treatment and the allocation of medical resources in China. It is important to reduce the prevalence through primary prevention, increase the allocation of medical resources for CVD emergency and critical care, and provide rehabilitation services and secondary prevention to reduce the risk of recurrence, re-hospitalization and disability in CVD survivors. The number of people suffering from hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes in China has reached hundreds of millions. Since blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose levels rise mostly insidiously, vascular disease or even serious events such as myocardial infarction and stroke often already occured at the time of detection in this population. Hence, more strategies and tasks should be taken to prevent risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, and more efforts should be made in the assessment of cardiovascular health status and the prevention, treatment, and research of early pathological changes.

Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935284


Objective: To investigate the association between metabolically healthy obesity and the incident risk of stroke in people aged ≥40 years from rural areas of Henan Province. Methods: During 2007 to 2008, 20 194 residents aged ≥18 years were selected for baseline examination by random cluster sampling and 17 265 participants were followed up during 2013 to 2014. According to the aim of current study, a total of 11 864 eligible subjects were included in this post-hoc analysis. Depending on body mass index and metabolic status, subjects were divided into four groups: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically abnormal normal weight and metabolically abnormal obesity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between metabolically healthy obesity and the risk of stroke. Results: The median (Q1, Q3) age of study participants was 54(46, 61) years, and 4 526 participants were men. During the mean follow-up of 6 years, the cumulative incidence of stroke was 7.16%. The incidence of stroke in metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically abnormal normal weight, and metabolically abnormal obesity were 3.73%, 4.61%, 8.99% and 9.38%, respectively (χ²=117.458, P<0.001). After adjusting possible confounding factors, compared with metabolically healthy normal weight, the risk of stroke was significantly increased in the metabolically healthy obesity group, metabolically abnormal normal weight group and metabolically abnormal obesity group with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.52(1.10-2.12), 2.11(1.61-2.77) and 2.78(2.18-3.55), respectively. Stratified analysis showed that the risk of stroke was significantly higher in metabolically healthy obesity people aged 40-59 years compared with metabolically healthy normal weight group (OR=2.12, 95%CI: 1.36-3.30). Conclusion: Metabolically healthy obesity, metabolically abnormal normal weight and metabolically abnormal obesity are positively associated with the risk of stroke.

Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity, Metabolically Benign/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1070-1075, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355707


ABSTRACT Background: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a multifactorial disease that presents high rates of morbimortality in Brazil. Several studies proved that there is a link between the ABO blood group system and the occurrence of thrombotic events. Nonetheless, its association with IS is not well established. Objective: For that reason, the purpose hereof was to investigate the relation between the ABO blood groups and the occurrence of IS in a Brazilian cohort of cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Five hundred and twenty-nine subjects were included over 12 months, from which 275 presented an IS episode and 254 composed the control group. Blood samples were drawn for direct and reverse serotyping. The control and IS groups were compared regarding the traditional risk factors and the distribution of the ABO blood groups. Results: The IS group presented a higher prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, smoking habits, family history, cardiopathy, and sedentary lifestyle in comparison with the control group. The AB blood type prevailed among the patients (5.1 vs. 1.6%; p<0.05) and this group had more SAH cases in comparison with the O type group (92.9 vs. 67.3%; p<0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the occurrence of IS is more frequent among patients of the AB blood type.

RESUMO Antecedentes: O acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) é uma doença multifatorial que apresenta altas taxas de morbimortalidade no Brasil. Vários estudos provaram que existe uma ligação entre o sistema ABO de grupos sanguíneos e a ocorrência de eventos trombóticos. No entanto, sua associação com AVCI não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Por essa razão, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a relação entre os grupos sanguíneos ABO e a ocorrência de AVCI em uma coorte brasileira de doenças cerebrovasculares. Métodos: Ao longo de 12 meses foram incluídos 529 indivíduos, dos quais 275 apresentaram um episódio de AVCI e 254 compuseram o grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para sorotipagem direta e reversa. Os grupos controle e AVCI foram comparados em relação aos fatores de risco tradicionais e à distribuição dos grupos sanguíneos ABO. Resultados: O grupo AVCI apresentou maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), diabetes mellitus, tabagismo, história familiar, cardiopatia e estilo de vida sedentário em comparação ao grupo controle. O tipo sanguíneo AB prevaleceu entre os pacientes (5,1 vs. 1,6%; p<0,05) e apresentou mais casos de HAS em comparação ao tipo O (92,9 vs. 67,3%; p<0,05). Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que a ocorrência de AVCI é mais frequente entre os pacientes do tipo sanguíneo AB.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke , ABO Blood-Group System , Risk Factors
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): 788-795, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351665


Abstract Introduction: Stroke is a complication that causes considerable morbidity and mortality during the heart surgery postoperative period (incidence: 1.3 to 5%; mortality: 13 to 41%). Models for assessing the risk of stroke after heart surgery have been proposed, but most of them do not evaluate postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop a risk score for postoperative stroke in patients who undergo heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: A cohort study was conducted with data from 4,862 patients who underwent surgery from 1996 to 2016. Logistic regression was used to assess relationships between risk factors and stroke. Data from 3,258 patients were used to construct the model. The model's performance was then validated using data from the remainder of the patients (n=1,604). The model's accuracy was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The prevalence of stroke during the postoperative period was 3% (n=149); 59% of the patients who exhibited this outcome were male, 51% were aged ≥ 66 years, and 31.5% of the patients died. The variables that remained as independent predictors of the outcome after multivariate analysis were advanced age, urgent/emergency surgery, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, history of cerebrovascular disease, and cardiopulmonary bypass time ≥ 110 minutes. The area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.66 - 0.75). Conclusion: We were able to develop a risk score for stroke after heart surgery. This score classifies patients as low, medium, high, or very high risk of a surgery-related stroke.

Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Cohort Studies , Risk Assessment
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5,supl.1): 44-52, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346347


Abstract Background Stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are cardiovascular diseases commonly characterized by the development of atheromatous plaques associated with major complications and high mortality rates. Objective To identify an epidemiological trend in hospitalizations due to stroke and AMI and to analyze the relationship between health programs applied in Primary Health Care, gender and the Federative Unit. Methods Ecological study with a time series design between 1998 and 2018, collecting data from all federal units in Brazil stratified by, gender and place of residence. There were analyzed Hospitalization Authorizations (AIH) for stroke and MI, consulting the Hospital Admissions System (SIH) of the Informatics Department of the National Health Service with p <0.05. Results From 1998 to 2018, the rate of hospitalization for AMI increased in Brazil approximately 42.58 events per 100 thousand inhabitants annually (p<0.001), while hospitalizations for stroke declined 32.17 cases (p=0.03). This pattern was observed in both sexes in AMI and stroke. There is also evidence of the effect of the Hiperdia (p<0.001) and Mais Médicos (p=0.001) program in reducing stroke and Hiperdia cases in mitigating the evolution of AMI cases (p = 0.0001). Conclusion Although these diseases remain as an important cause of death, stroke hospitalization has reduced significantly in the period evaluated. National programs as the Hiperdia and Mais Médicos showed an impact in the acute cases of strokes and AMI.

Primary Health Care , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Health Consortia , Hospitalization , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Ecological Studies , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , National Health Programs
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 517-522, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340060


Abstract Background: Stroke related to atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with high recurrence and mortality rates. Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (ESUS) is associated with fewer vascular risk factors, less disability, and a high recurrence rate. Objective: To compare risk factors, functional outcomes and the occurrence of primary endpoint (a composite of recurrent stroke, cardiovascular death, and myocardial infarction) between AF stroke and ESUS patients. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted including all consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke admitted to the Hospital de Clinicas (Clinical Hospital) of the Federal University of Paraná from October 2012 to January 2017 (n=554). There were 61 patients with stroke due to AF and 43 due to ESUS. Both groups were compared for demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the impact of each variable on the primary endpoint in a 12-month follow-up. Statistical significance was considered for p-values < 0.05. Results: ESUS patients, as compared to AF patients, were younger and more likely to be smokers. ESUS patients presented a mean CHADS2VASc score of 4, while the AF group presented a score of 5 (p <0.001). The primary endpoint was observed in 9 (20.9%) ESUS and 11 (18.0%) AF patients over a 12-month period (p=0.802). Higher glucose levels upon hospital admission (p=0.020) and a higher modified Rankin Scale upon hospital discharge (p=0.020) were predictors of the primary endpoint occurrence. Conclusion: AF and ESUS stroke patients presented very similar independence rates upon hospital discharge and outcomes after 12 months, despite some baseline differences, including stroke recurrence, vascular death, and myocardial infarction.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Sociodemographic Factors , Patient Discharge , Atrial Fibrillation , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Infarction , Intracranial Embolism , Measures of Association
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(supl.3): 5089-5098, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345723


Abstract This article aims to investigate whether difficulty in taking medication is associated with stroke among older adults with Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) and to explore their association with living arrangements. Cross-sectional study was based on 3,502 older adults with SAH from the four universities pole of Frailty in Brazilian Older People (Fibra) Study, Brazil, including 14 municipalities of the five Brazilian regions. We used the medical diagnosis of stroke and difficulty in taking medications (self-reported difficulty and financial difficulty affording prescribed medications). Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Differently from women, older men with SAH, which report difficulty in taking medication (unintentional non-adherence), have higher odds of stroke. When stratified by living arrangements, those living with a partner have even higher odds of stroke compared to those without difficulty in taking medication and living alone. None association was found for difficulty affording prescribed medication for both men and women. Unintentional difficulty in taking medication plays a role in SAH treatment among men. Primary care strategies for controlling blood pressure should not be focus only on patients but targeting spouses as well.

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se a dificuldade em tomar medicamentos está associada ao acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) entre idosos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e explorar esta associação com arranjos familiares. Estudo seccional baseado em 3.502 idosos com HAS dos quatro polos do Estudo Fibra, Brasil, incluindo 14 cidades das cinco regiões brasileiras. Foi usado o diagnóstico médico de AVE e a dificuldade em tomar medicamentos (dificuldade autorrelatada e dificuldade financeira). Utilizou-se a regressão logística na análise multivariada. Diferentemente das mulheres, homens com HAS que relataram dificuldade em tomar medicamentos (não adesão não intencional) apresentam maior chance de ter AVE. Quando estratificado por arranjos familiares, homens que moravam com o cônjuge apresentaram chance ainda maior de ter AVE, quando comparados com aqueles sem dificuldade em tomar medicamentos e que vivem sozinhos. Nenhuma associação foi encontrada para dificuldade financeira, tanto para mulheres quanto para homens. Dificuldades não intencionais em tomar medicamentos têm um papel importante no controle da HAS entre homens. Estratégias de controle da pressão arterial realizadas na atenção primária não devem focar apenas nos pacientes, mas nos cônjuges destes pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Stroke/epidemiology , Frailty , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medication Adherence
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 426-434, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339193


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum. Existem poucos dados sobre a epidemiologia da FFA na América do Sul. Objetivo: O presente estudo procurou descrever a epidemiologia clínica da FFA e o uso de anticoagulantes na avaliação da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 13.260 participantes do ELSA-Brasil. A FFA foi definida pelo eletrocardiograma ou por autorrelato. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar fatores associados à FFA. Este estudo também analisou se idade e sexo estavam associados ao uso de anticoagulantes para evitar acidente vascular cerebral. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 51 anos, e 7.213 (54,4%) participantes eram mulheres. A FFA foi detectada em 333 (2,5%) participantes. O aumento da idade (razão de chances [RC]:1,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,04-1,07), hipertensão (RC:1,44; IC95%:1,14-1,81) coronariopatia (RC: 5,11; IC95%:3,85-6,79), insuficiência cardíaca (RC:7,37; IC95%:5,00-10,87) e febre reumática (RC:3,38; IC95%:2,28-5,02) foram associadas à FFA. Dos 185 participantes com FFA e pontuação no CHA2DS2-VASc≥2, apenas 20 (10,8%) usavam anticoagulantes (50,0% entre aqueles com FFA no eletrocardiograma de linha de base). O uso de anticoagulantes nesse grupo foi associado a maior idade (1,8% vs 17,7% naqueles com idade ≤ 54 e ≥ 65 anos, respectivamente; p=0,013). Observou-se uma tendência ao menor uso de anticoagulantes em mulheres (7,1% vs. 16,4% em mulheres e homens, respectivamente; p=0,055). Conclusões: No recrutamento do ELSA-Brasil, 2,5% dos participantes tinham FFA. O baixo uso de anticoagulantes era comum, o que representa um desafio para os cuidados de saúde nesse cenário.

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Limited data can be found on AFF epidemiology in South America. Objective: The present study sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of AFF and the use of stroke prevention medication in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: This study analyzed data from 13,260 ELSA-Brasil participants. AFF was defined according to ECG recording or by self-report. Logistic regression models were built to analyze factors associated with AFF. This study also analyzed if age and sex were associated with anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Median age was 51 years and 7,213 (54.4%) participants were women. AFF was present in 333 (2.5%) participants. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.05; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.07), hypertension (OR:1.44; 95%CI: 1.14-1.81), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.85-6.79), heart failure (OR:7.37; 95%CI: 5.00-10.87), and rheumatic fever (OR:3.38; 95%CI: 2.28-5.02) were associated with AFF. From 185 participants with AFF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, only 20 (10.8%) used anticoagulants (50.0% among those with AFF in the baseline ECG). Stroke prevention in this group was associated with a higher age (1.8% vs 17.7% in those aged ≤ 54 and ≥ 65 years, respectively; p=0.013). A trend towards a reduced anticoagulant use was observed in women (7.1% vs. 16.4% in women and men, respectively; p=0.055). Conclusions: At the ELSA-Brasil baseline, 2.5% of the participants had AFF. The lack of stroke prevention was common, which is an especially challenging point for healthcare in this setting.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Self Report , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408633


Introducción: La vejez está subvalorada, poco se piensa en el bienestar físico y psicosocial del anciano. La enfermedad cerebrovascular tiene como factores de riesgo comorbilidades como la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes mellitus, la dislipidemia, cardiopatías o malos estilos de vida como el consumo de cigarrillo, la obesidad y la poca actividad física, todos estos comunes en esta etapa de la vida. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo que presentan los adultos mayores para sufrir enfermedad cerebrovascular de un centro gerontológico de la ciudad de Medellín. Métodos: Fue una investigación descriptiva, de tipo transversal; se indagaron 37 adultos mayores con historias clínicas y exámenes de laboratorio. Se midieron los niveles de hemoglobina glicosilada, colesterol total, colesterol de baja densidad, colesterol de alta densidad y triglicéridos. Resultados: Se evidenció que la población era en su mayoría de sexo masculino con 51,4 por ciento y el sexo femenino con 48,6 por ciento; con rango de edad entre 60 y 70 años el 51,4 por ciento. Los factores de riesgo más relevantes fueron el índice de masa corporal mayor o igual a 25 con (75,7 por ciento), hipertensión arterial y no realizar actividad física. Conclusiones: Se logró determinar los principales factores de riesgo que tienen estos adultos mayores para sufrir enfermedad cerebrovascular; con resultados algunos similares y otros diferentes a estudios a nivel mundial. Con actividades de promoción y prevención se pueden intervenir estilos de vida de la población(AU)

Introduction: Old age is undervalued; little is thought about the physical and psychosocial well-being of the elderly. Among the risk factors of cerebrovascular disease, there are comorbidities, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and cardiopathies, or poor lifestyles like cigarette smoking, obesity and little physical activity, all of which are common at this stage of life. Objective: To identify, in a gerontological center in Medellín City, the risk factors that older adults present for being affected by cerebrovascular disease. Methods: This was a descriptive and cross-sectional research carried out with 37 older adults with medical antecedents and laboratory tests. The levels of glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density cholesterol, as well as triglycerides were measured. Results: It was evidenced that the population was mostly male (51.4 por ciento), while females accounted for 48.6 por ciento. Their age range was mostly between 60 and 70 years (51.4 por ciento). The most relevant risk factors were body mass index greater than or equal to 25 (75.7 por ciento), arterial hypertension and not doing any physical activity. Conclusions: It was possible to determine the main risk factors for these older adults being affected by cerebrovascular disease; in this respect, some results were similar to and others were different from studies worldwide. With promotion and prevention activities, lifestyles of the population can be intervened(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cerebral Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511


Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.

Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3484, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289658


RESUMEN Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares agudas se consideran una epidemia vascular y un problema socio-sanitario de primer orden. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en pacientes de una zona rural perteneciente al Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas"de Cifuentes, provincia Villa Clara, durante el año 2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo transversal. La muestra estuvo constituida por 32 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Se aplicó un cuestionario a pacientes y familiares cercanos, además, de la revisión de historias clínicas individuales y familiares con el propósito de identificar la etiopatogenia, mes en que ocurrió el evento cerebrovascular, factores de riesgo asociados, tipo de enfermedad cerebrovascular, variante, y forma de presentación clínica. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edades de 60-69 años, sexo masculino y color de la piel negro. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, tabaquismo y dislipidemia. Marzo fue el mes donde hubo mayor número de casos diagnosticados como enfermedad cerebrovascular. Prevaleció el infarto cerebral como variante más frecuente. Conclusiones: La enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda siempre está asociada a los factores de riesgo clásicos. Existe predominio del ictus de origen isquémico sobre el hemorrágico. Más de la mitad de los pacientes tiene cifras elevadas de tensión arterial durante el evento cerebral. Se evidencia mayor frecuencia de casos durante los meses de menores temperaturas.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute cerebrovascular diseases are considered a vascular epidemic and a first-order social and health problem. Objective: To describe the behavior of cerebrovascular disease in patients who residing in a rural area associated to the Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas" in Cifuentes, Villa Clara, period time 2019. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study was carried out. The sample selected envolved 32 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A questionnaire was administered to patients and close relatives, and individual and family medical records were reviewed to identify the etiopathogenesis, month in which the cerebrovascular event occurred, associated risk factors, type of cerebrovascular disease, variant, and form of clinical presentation. Results: Group age 60 to 69 and male black patients, were predominant. Most common risk factors were: systemic arterial hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. March was the month with the highest number of cases diagnosed with cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction prevailed as the most frequent variant. Conclusions: Acute cerebrovascular disease is always associated with classical risk factors. Ischemic stroke predominates over hemorrhagic stroke. More than half of patients have elevated blood pressure during the cerebral event. Arising cases were higher during the months with lower temperatures.

RESUMO Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares agudas são consideradas uma epidemia vascular e um problema sócio-sanitário de primeira ordem. Objetivo: descrever o comportamento da doença cerebrovascular em pacientes de uma área rural pertencente à Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas", de Cifuentes, província de Villa Clara, durante o ano de 2019. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 32 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Foi aplicado questionário aos pacientes e familiares próximos, além da revisão dos prontuários individuais e familiares para identificação da etiopatogenia, mês em que ocorreu o evento cerebrovascular, fatores de risco associados, tipo de doença cerebrovascular, variante e forma de apresentação clínica. Resultados: Predominou a faixa etária de 60 a 69 anos, sexo masculino e cor da pele negra. Os fatores de risco mais frequentes foram: hipertensão arterial sistêmica, tabagismo e dislipidemia. Março foi o mês com maior número de casos diagnosticados como doença cerebrovascular. O infarto cerebral prevaleceu como a variante mais frequente. Conclusões: A doença cerebrovascular aguda está sempre associada a fatores de risco clássicos. Há predomínio do AVC de origem isquêmica sobre o hemorrágico. Mais da metade dos pacientes apresentam níveis elevados de pressão arterial durante o evento cerebral. Há maior frequência de casos nos meses de menor temperatura.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 156-162, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181005


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Stroke is the principal cause of disability around the world and the ensuing functional dependence (FD) can be correlated with different factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine how demographic factors and clinical characteristics after stroke distinguish patients who achieve functional independence from those who do not. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational study at specialized neurovascular clinic in Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: FD was classified according to the modified Rankin scale (mRs): 0 to 2 points were classified as independent (FD-), and 3 to 5 points were classified as dependent (FD+). Logistic regression analysis included age, sedentary lifestyle, the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The Mann-Whitney test and χ2 test were used to compare groups. RESULTS: We included 190 stroke patients with a mean age of 60.02 ± 14.22 years. We found that 34.8% of the patients were classified as FD+. Lower NIHSS and CES-D scores were more associated with achieving functional independence. Most of the patients had access to physical therapy, and the mean duration of rehabilitation therapy was 65.2 minutes per week. Females had higher prevalence of depressive symptoms (P = 0.005) and rehabilitation time was shorter for hemorrhagic stroke (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: We found a FD rate four times greater than in another Brazilian study. Lower stroke severity and fewer depressive symptoms were associated with achieving functional independence. Less than half of the patients were referred to a rehabilitation service at hospital discharge and few had access to multidisciplinary treatment.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke Rehabilitation , Patient Discharge , Brazil/epidemiology , Disability Evaluation
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 117-122, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181011


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death in Brazil and the main cause of disability. Inability to identify alarm signals causes delays in seeking emergency services, thereby leading to a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the population's knowledge of how to recognize and prevent stroke. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study on data derived from a questionnaire that was administered during the 2016 World Stroke Campaign, launched in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Data on 806 interviewees were evaluated using descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Among all the interviewees, 52.1% knew how to conceptualize stroke; 70.07% knew someone who had suffered a stroke; and 29.03% listed three or more risk factors. Only 27.5% mentioned controlling high blood pressure as a preventive measure. In the event of witnessing a stroke, 57.8% would call the emergency service and 2.9% would check the timing. Less educated individuals were 5.6 times more likely (95% confidence interval, CI 3.45-9.02) to have poor knowledge of stroke, compared with the more educated group. Knowing someone who had had a stroke reduced the chances of not knowing the terms relating to the disease (odds ratio, OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.4-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the severity and prevalence of stroke, the population still has little information on this disease. In this context, the importance of mounting campaigns to improve prevention and treatment and to contribute to healthcare policies becomes evident.

Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 1-13, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352168


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Reconstruct types of simultaneous stress trajectories in the family and employment domain at different stages of life and estimate their association with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in old age. METHODS: We used a retrospective, face-to-face, representative survey of people aged 65 to 75 years in the city of Santiago, Chile, (n = 802). We performed a multichannel sequence analysis to reconstruct family and employment stress trajectory types at various life stages and then used logistic regression models to estimate the association of these trajectory types with CVA in old age, controlled for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Four representative types of family and employment stress trajectories were identified: (1) Absence of family and employment stress, (2) Absence of family stress, persistent employment stress, (3) Absence of family stress, out of the labor market, and (4) Persistent family stress, absence of employment stress. The 61.7% of the sample followed trajectories marked by the permanent presence of family and/or employment stress. Likewise, 18.3% had a trajectory characterized by prolonged absence from the labor market. Individuals with persistent family or employment stress trajectories, as well as those with extended periods of inactivity, are more at risk of developing CVA. CONCLUSIONS: Stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease experienced by many people at different stages and domains of life on a prolonged basis. Consequently, prevention systems for this type of chronic diseases should emphasize the highly harmful effects of daily and cumulatively stressful life experiences. This could mitigate the multiple health and financial consequences associated with CVA.

RESUMEN OBJETIVOS: Reconstruir tipos de trayectorias de estrés simultáneo en el dominio familiar y laboral en diferentes etapas de la vida y estimar su asociación con accidentes cerebrovasculares (ACV) en la vejez. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó una encuesta retrospectiva, cara a cara, y representativa de personas de 65 a 75 años en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile (n = 802). Se empleó un análisis de secuencias multicanal para reconstruir tipos de trayectorias de estrés familiar y laboral en diversas etapas de la vida y luego se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística para estimar la asociación de estos tipos de trayectoria con ACV en la vejez, controlado por factores tradicionales de riesgo cardiovascular. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron cuatro tipos representativos de trayectorias de estrés familiar y laboral: (1) Ausencia de estrés familiar y laboral, (2) Ausencia de estrés familiar, estrés laboral persistente, (3) Ausencia de estrés familiar, fuera de mercado laboral, y (4) Estrés familiar persistente, ausencia de estrés laboral. El 61,7% de la muestra siguió trayectorias marcadas por la presencia permanente de estrés familiar y/o laboral. Asimismo, el 18,3% tuvo una trayectoria caracterizada por la ausencia prolongada del mercado del trabajo. Las personas con trayectorias de estrés familiar o laboral persistente, así como aquellas con períodos extensos de inactividad, tienen más riesgo de desarrollar ACV. CONCLUSIONES: El estrés es un factor de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares que experimenta de manera prolongada muchas personas en distintas etapas y dominios de la vida. En consecuencia, los sistemas de prevención de este tipo de enfermedades crónicas deben enfatizar los efectos altamente nocivos de enfrentar cotidiana y acumulativamente experiencias de vida estresantes. Esto a su vez podría mitigar las múltiples consecuencias sanitarias y financieras asociadas al ACV.

Humans , Stroke/epidemiology , Employment , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Life Change Events