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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468845

ABSTRACT

In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Subject(s)
Bacillus pumilus/chemistry , Xylans/analysis , Substrate Specificity
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 263 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416822

ABSTRACT

In the first chapter, studies on substrate recognition and enzymatic activity of GGDEF domains are presented. Many proteins containing GGDEF domains are diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, EC 2.7.7.65), enzymes that catalyze the conversion of 2 GTP molecules into the second messenger c-di-GMP in prokaryotes. This molecule is primarily implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles, as well several other phenotypes. Redundancy and diversity of GGDEF domain sequences in many bacterial genomes raises the possibility that other enzymatic functions may yet be discovered. To test this hypothesis, i) the effect of point mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of GGDEF domains is analyzed, ii) the enzymatic specificity of wild-type GGDEF domains from different proteins is also tested, and iii) when non-canonical products are detected, enzymatic models are studied to understand its preferential production. The principal results obtained from these studies are as follows. Seven mutants of the DGC PleD (a GGDEF containing-protein from Caulobacter crescentus) were constructed and the crystallographic structure of two of them was solved, showing that they are unlikely to bind the guanine moiety in its active site. Additionally, five mutants of XAC0610, another DGC from Xanthomonas citr, were constructed and their substrate specificities were evaluated. None of those mutants were able to use ATP as a substrate. Finally, seven different GGDEF domain-containing DGCs from different sources were expressed and purified and their enzymatic specificities were tested with several nucleotide triphosphates. One enzyme, GSU1658 from Geobacter sulfurreducens was particularly promiscuous and shown to produce c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, c-di-IMP, c-di-2´dGMP, cGAMP, c-GIMP, and c-AIMP. Interestingly, XAC0610 was able to recognize 2´dGTP as substrate. Analysis of enzyme kinetics of XAC0610 in presence of 2´dGTP and/or GTP showed the preferential formation of the hybrid linear product pppGp2´dG. The second chapter present studies on cyanide metabolism in Bacillus with focus on the cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus safensis. Cyanide is widely used in industries due to its high affinity for metals. This same ability confers potent toxicity to this compound. Thus, industries must reduce the cyanide concentration from wastewater before its final disposal. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been developed to achieve this goal, but knowledge about metabolic pathways and the biology of enzymes involved in cyanide degradation is still scarce. Here, the isolation of a Bacillus safensis strain from mine tailings in Peru is described. Classification of this strain was done through a comparative analysis of 132 core genomes of strains from the Bacillus pumilus group. Sequence analysis determined that a cyanide dihydratase (CynD, EC 3.5.5.1)) encoded in the genome of the isolated strain was likely the enzyme responsible for cyanide degradation. Confirmation of the cyanide degrading activity of CynD from this strain was achieved by cloning, expression and purification of the enzyme and its enzymatic characterization. CynD from this strain was active up to pH 9 and oligomerization patterns analyzed by SEC-MALS and electron microscopy showed that the enzyme forms large helical structures at pH 8 and smaller structures at higher pHs. Finally, we show that CynD expression is strongly induced in the presence of cyanide. The last two years of graduate studies were carried out in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thanks to the large amount of publicly available genomic data, we were able to carry out studies on the worldwide dynamics of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 mutants forms. In the first year of the pandemic, genomic classification of 171,461 genomes showed the presence of five major haplotypes based on nine mutations. The worldwide distribution and the temporal evolution of frequency of these haplotypes was carefully analyzed. All the haplotypes were identified in the six regions analyzed (South America, North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania); however, the frequency of each of them was different in each of these regions. As of September 30, 2020, haplotype 3 (or operational taxonomic unit 3, OTU_3) was the most prevalent in four regions (South America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania). OTU_5 was the most prevalent in North America and OTU_2 in Europe. Temporal dynamics of the haplotypes showed that OTU_1 became nearly extinct after 8 months of pandemic (November 2020). Other OTUs are still present in different frequencies all around the world, while currently generating new variants. Based on their temporal dynamics, a classification scheme of 115 SARS-CoV-2 mutations identified from 1,058,020 SARS-COV-2 genomes was also performed. Three types of temporal dynamics of mutations were identified: i) High-Frequency mutations are characterized by a rapid increase in frequency upon its appearance, ii) medium and iii) low-frequency mutations maintain mid or low-frequencies for several months and can be region-specific. Finally, we performed a correlation analysis of the effective reproduction number (Rt) of SARS-CoV-2 harboring the high-frequency mutation N501Y with the level of control measures adopted in specific jurisdictions. We show that Rt is negatively correlated with the level of control measures in eight of the nine countries analyzed. This negative correlation was similar when we analyzed the Rt of SARS-CoV-2 not-harboring N501Y. Thus, the control measures likely diminish the Rt of both SARSCoV-2 wild-type and N501Y


O presente trabalho está dividido em três capítulos sobre linhas de pesquisa diferentes desenvolvidas pelo autor durante o período de doutorado No primeiro capítulo, são apresentados estudos relacionados ao reconhecimento estrutural de substratos e análise enzimática de domínios GGDEF com atividade diguanilato ciclase (EC 2.7.7.65). As proteínas contendo domínios GGDEF estão relacionados à produção enzimática do segundo mensageiro c-di-GMP, a partir de duas moléculas de GTP, em procariotos. Esta molécula está principalmente envolvida na transição entre os estilos de vida móveis e sésseis, bem como vários outros fenótipos. Redundância e diversidade de sequências de domínio GGDEF aumentam a possibilidade de que outras funções enzimáticas ainda possam ser descobertas. Para testar esta hipótese, i) o efeito de mutações pontuais na estrutura e atividade enzimática dos domínios GGDEF é analisado, ii) a especificidade enzimática de domínios GGDEF de enzimas diferentes também é testada e iii) quando produtos não canônicos são detectados, modelos enzimáticos são estudados para entender sua produção preferencial. Como resultados mais importantes, sete mutantes do PleD (uma proteína contendo GGDEF) foram construídos e a estrutura cristalográfica de dois delas foi resolvida, mostrando que é improvável que eles liguem à porção guanina em seu sítio ativo. Além disso, cinco mutantes da proteína XAC0610 de Xanthomonas citri foram construídos e sua capacidade de usar ATP ou GTP como substrato foi avaliada. Nenhum desses mutantes foi capaz de usar ATP como substrato. Finalmente, sete outras proteínas contendo GGDEF foram purificadas e sua especificidade enzimática foi avaliada com vários trifosfatos de nucleotídeos. Uma enzima promíscua chamada GSU1658 mostrou produzir c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, c-di-IMP, c-di-2´dGMP, c-GAMP, cGIMP e c-AIMP. Curiosamente, o XAC0610 foi capaz de reconhecer 2´dGTP como substrato. A análise da cinética enzimática de XAC0610 na presença de 2´dGTP e GTP mostrou a formação preferencial do produto linear híbrido pppGp2´dG. O segundo capítulo aborda estudos sobre o metabolismo do cianeto em Bacillus com foco na cianeto dihidratase de Bacillus safensis. O cianeto é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias devido à sua alta afinidade com os metais. Esta mesma capacidade confere toxicidade potente a este composto. Assim, as indústrias têm que reduzir a concentração de cianeto das águas residuais antes de sua disposição final. Métodos físicos, químicos e biológicos têm sido desenvolvidos para atingir esse objetivo, mas o conhecimento sobre as vias metabólicas e a biologia das enzimas envolvidas na degradação do cianeto ainda é escasso. Aqui, é descrito o isolamento de uma cepa de Bacillus safensis de rejeitos de minas no Peru. A classificação desta cepa foi feita através de uma análise comparativa de 132 core genomes de cepas do grupo de Bacillus pumilus. Em seguida, determinamos que uma cianeto dihidratase (CynD, EC 3.5.5.1) codificada no genoma da cepa isolada era provavelmente a enzima responsável pela degradação do cianeto. A confirmação da atividade degradante de cianeto de CynD desta cepa foi feita por clonagem, expressão e purificação da enzima e realização de caracterização enzimática. O CynD desta cepa é ativo até pH 9 e os padrões de oligomerização analisados por SEC-MALS mostraram que a enzima forma longas estruturas helicoidais em pH 8 e estruturas menores enquanto o pH aumenta. Finalmente, foi demonstrado que a expressão de CynD é fortemente induzida na presença de cianeto. Os últimos dois anos do doutorado foram realizados no contexto da pandemia COVID- 19. Vários laboratórios se dedicaram a gerar conhecimento para ajudar no combate à pandemia. Nesta situação e graças à grande quantidade de dados genômicos disponíveis publicamente, estudos sobre a dinâmica das mutações do SARS-CoV-2 foram realizados. No primeiro ano da pandemia, a classificação genômica de 171.461 genomas mostrou a presença de cinco haplótipos principais com base em nove mutações. A distribuição mundial e a mudança de frequência desses haplótipos foram analisadas cuidadosamente. Todos os haplótipos foram identificados nas seis regiões analisadas (América do Sul, América do Norte, Europa, Ásia, África e Oceania); no entanto, a frequência de cada um deles foi diferente em cada uma dessas regiões. Em 30 de setembro de 2020, o haplótipo 3 (ou unidade taxonômica operacional 3, OTU_3) era o mais prevalente em quatro regiões (América do Sul, Ásia, África e Oceania). OTU_5 foi o mais prevalente na América do Norte e OTU_2 na Europa. A dinâmica temporal dos haplótipos mostrou que OTU_1 parece perto da extinção após 8 meses de pandemia (novembro de 2020). Outros OTUs ainda estão presentes em diferentes frequências em todo o mundo, mesmo atualmente gerando novas variantes. Com base em sua dinâmica temporal, um esquema de classificação de 115 mutações SARS-CoV-2 identificadas a partir de 1.058.020 genomas SARS-COV-2 também foi feito. Três tipos de dinâmica temporal de mutações foram identificados: i) Mutações de alta frequência, ii) mutações de média frequência e iii) mutações de baixa frequência. Finalmente, foi analisada a correlação do número de reprodução efetiva (Rt) do SARS-CoV-2 que contém a mutação de alta frequência N501Y com o nível de medidas de controle, mostrando que seu Rt está negativamente correlacionado com o nível de medidas de controle em oito dos nove países analisados. Esta correlação negativa foi semelhante quando foi analisado o Rt de SARS-CoV-2 sem a mutação N501Y. Assim, as medidas de controle provavelmente diminuirão o Rt de SARS-CoV-2 tipo selvagem e N501Y


Subject(s)
Sequence Analysis , Bacillus pumilus/classification , Patient Isolation , Substrate Specificity , Kinetics , Genome, Bacterial , Caulobacter crescentus/chemistry , Point Mutation , Cloning, Organism/instrumentation , Cyanides/adverse effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Life Style
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249280

ABSTRACT

L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G ­ 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G ­ 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Asparaginase/pharmacology , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Escherichia coli/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4644-4657, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970337

ABSTRACT

β-glucosidase has important applications in food, medicine, biomass conversion and other fields. Therefore, exploring β-glucosidase with strong stability and excellent properties is a research hotspot. In this study, a GH3 family β-glucosidase gene named Iubgl3 was successfully cloned from Infirmifilum uzonense. Sequence analysis showed that the full length of Iubgl3 was 2 106 bp, encoding 702 amino acids, with a theoretical molecular weight of 77.0 kDa. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the enzymatic properties of purified IuBgl3 were studied. The results showed that the optimal pH and temperature for pNPG hydrolysis were 5.0 and 85 ℃, respectively. The enzyme has good thermal stability, and more than 85% of enzyme activity can be retained after being treated at 80 ℃ for2 h. This enzyme has good pH stability and more than 85% of its activity can be retained after being treated at pH 4.0-11.0 for 1 h. It was found that the enzyme had high hydrolysis ability to p-nitrophenyl β-d-glucoside (pNPG) and p-nitrophenyl β-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX). When pNPG was used as the substrate, the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were 0.38 mmol and 248.55 μmol/(mg·min), respectively, and the catalytic efficiency kcat/Km was 6 149.20 s-1mmol-1. Most metal ions had no significant effect on the enzyme activity of IuBgl3. SDS completely inactivated the enzyme, while EDTA increased the enzyme activity by 30%. This study expanded the β-glucosidase gene diversity of the thermophilic archaea GH3 family and obtained a thermostable acid bifunctional enzyme with good industrial application potential.


Subject(s)
beta-Glucosidase/chemistry , Archaea/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Temperature , Glucosides , Enzyme Stability , Substrate Specificity , Kinetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4215-4230, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921500

ABSTRACT

Threonine aldolases catalyze the aldol condensation of aldehydes with glycine to furnish β-hydroxy-α-amino acid with two stereogenic centers in a single reaction. This is one of the most promising green methods for the synthesis of optically pure β-hydroxy-α-amino acid with high atomic economy and less negative environmental impact. Several threonine aldolases from different origins have been identified and characterized. The insufficient -carbon stereoselectivity and the challenges of balancing kinetic versus thermodynamic control to achieve the optimal optical purity and yield hampered the application of threonine aldolases. This review summarizes the recent advances in discovery, catalytic mechanism, high-throughput screening, molecular engineering and applications of threonine aldolases, with the aim to provide some insights for further research in this field.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Catalysis , Glycine , Glycine Hydroxymethyltransferase/metabolism , Kinetics , Substrate Specificity , Threonine
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3439-3458, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921440

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants, which have received widespread attentions due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic toxicity. The microbial degradation of PAHs are usually started from the hydroxylation, followed by dehydrogenation, ring cleavage and step-by-step removal of branched chains, and finally mineralized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Rieske type non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHOs) or cytochrome P450 oxidases are responsible for the conversion of hydrophobic PAHs into hydrophilic derivatives by the ring hydroxylation. The ring hydroxylation is the first step of PAHs degradation and also one of the rate-limiting steps. Here, we review the distribution, substrate specificity, and substrate recognition mechanisms of RHOs, along with some techniques and methods used for the research of RHOs and PAHs.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Iron , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Substrate Specificity
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1298-1311, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878632

ABSTRACT

As a class of multifunctional biocatalysts, halohydrin dehalogenases are of great interest for the synthesis of chiral β-substituted alcohols and epoxides. There are less than 40 halohydrin dehalogenases with relatively clear catalytic functions, and most of them do not meet the requirements of scientific research and practical applications. Therefore, it is of great significance to excavate and identify more halohydrin dehalogenases. In the present study, a putative halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH-Ra) from Rhodospirillaceae bacterium was expressed and its enzymatic properties were investigated. The HHDH-Ra gene was cloned into the expression host Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and the target protein was shown to be soluble. Substrate specificity studies showed that HHDH-Ra possesses excellent specificity for 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) and ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (CHBE). The optimum pH and temperature for HHDH-Ra with 1,3-DCP as the reaction substrate were 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively. HHDH-Ra was stable at pH 6.0-8.0 and maintained about 70% of its original activity after 100 h of treatment. The thermal stability results revealed that HHDH-Ra has a half-life of 60 h at 30 °C and 40 °C. When the temperature is increased to 50 °C, the enzyme still has a half-life of 20 h, which is much higher than that of the reported enzymes. To sum up, the novel halohydrin dehalogenase from Rhodospirillaceae bacterium possesses good temperature and pH stability as well as catalytic activity, and shows the potential to be used in the synthesis of chemical and pharmaceutical intermediates.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrolases/metabolism , Rhodospirillaceae , Substrate Specificity
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 580-592, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878583

ABSTRACT

A novel β-glucosidase BglD2 with glucose and ethanol tolerant properties was screened and cloned from the deep-sea bacterium Bacillus sp. D1. The application potential of BglD2 toward polydatin-hydrolyzing was also evaluated. BglD2 exhibited the maximal β-glucosidase activity at 45 °C and pH 6.5. BglD2 maintained approximately 50% of its origin activity after incubation at 30 °C and pH 6.5 for 20 h. BglD2 could hydrolyze a variety of substrates containing β (1→3), β (1→4), and β (1→6) bonds. The activity of β-glucosidase was enhanced to 2.0 fold and 2.3 fold by 100 mmol/L glucose and 150 mmol/L xylose, respectively. BglD2 possessed ethanol-stimulated and -tolerant properties. At 30 °C, the activity of BglD2 enhanced to 1.2 fold in the presence of 10% ethanol and even remained 60% in 25% ethanol. BglD2 could hydrolyze polydatin to produce resveratrol. At 35 °C, BglD2 hydrolyzed 86% polydatin after incubation for 2 h. Thus, BglD2 possessed glucose and ethanol tolerant properties and can be used as the potential candidate of catalyst for the production of resveratrol from polydatin.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Stability , Glucose , Glucosides/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Xylose , beta-Glucosidase/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 88-99, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878545

ABSTRACT

The formation of most proteins consists of two steps: the synthesis of precursor proteins and the synthesis of functional proteins. In these processes, propeptides play important roles in assisting protein folding or inhibiting its activity. As an important polypeptide chain coded by a gene sequence in lipase gene, propeptide usually functions as an intramolecular chaperone, assisting enzyme molecule folding. Meanwhile, some specific sites on propeptide such as glycosylated sites, have important effect on the activity, stability in extreme environment, methanol resistance and the substrate specificity of the lipase. Studying the mechanism of propeptide-mediated protein folding, as well as the influence of propeptide on lipases, will allow to regulate lipase by alternating the propeptide folding behavior and in turn pave new ways for protein engineering research.


Subject(s)
Lipase/metabolism , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , Protein Folding , Protein Precursors , Substrate Specificity
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2623-2632, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887828

ABSTRACT

α-L-rhamnosidase is a very important industrial enzyme that is widely distributed in a variety of organisms. α-L-rhamnosidase of different origins show functional diversity. For example, the optimal pH of α-L-rhamnosidase from bacteria is close to neutral or alkaline, while the optimal pH of α-L-rhamnosidase from fungi is in the acidic range. Furthermore, the enzymatic properties of α-L-rhamnosidases of different origins differ in terms of the optimal temperature, the thermal stability, and the substrate specificity, which determine the different applications of these enzymes. In this connection, it is crucial to elucidate the similarities and differences in the catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity of α-L-rhamnosidase of different origins through analyzing its enzymatic properties. Moreover, it is important to explore and understand the effects of aglycon and metal cations on enzyme activity and the competitive inhibition of L-rhamnose and glucose on enzymes. These knowledge can help discover α-L-rhamnosidase of industrial significance and promote its industrial application.


Subject(s)
Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Rhamnose , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2513-2521, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887817

ABSTRACT

Human secreted phospholipase A2 GIIE (hGIIE) is involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism due to its ability of hydrolyzing phospholipids. To reveal the mechanism of substrate head-group selectivity, we analyzed the effect of mutation of hGIIE on its activity and selectivity. hGIIE structural analysis showed that E54 might be related to its substrate head-group selectivity. According to the sequence alignment, E54 was mutated to alanine, phenylalanine, and lysine. Mutated genes were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris X33, and the enzymes with mutations were purified with 90% purity by ion exchange and molecular size exclusion chromatography. The enzymatic activities were determined by isothermal microthermal titration method. The Km of mutant E54K towards 1,2-dihexyl phosphate glycerol decreased by 0.39-fold compared with that of wild type hGIIE (WT), and the Km of E54F towards 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine increased by 1.93-fold than that of WT. The affinity of mutant proteins with phospholipid substrate was significantly changed, indicating that E54 plays an important role in the substrate head-group selectivity of hGIIE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kinetics , Mutation , Phospholipases A2, Secretory , Phospholipids , Saccharomycetales , Substrate Specificity
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 868-878, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826889

ABSTRACT

2-Haloacid dehalogenases (EC 3.8.1.X) catalyze the hydrolytic dehalogenation of 2-haloacids, releasing halogen ions and producing corresponding 2-hydroxyacids. The enzymes not only degrade xenobiotic halogenated pollutants, but also show wide substrate profile and astonishing efficiency for enantiomer resolution, making them valuable in environmental protection and the green synthesis of optically pure chiral compounds. A variety of 2-haloacid dehalogenases have been biochemically characterized so far. Further studies have been made in protein crystal structures and catalytic mechanisms. Here, we review the recent progresses of 2-haloacid dehalogenases in their source, protein structures, reaction mechanisms, catalytic properties and application. We also suggest further research directions for 2-haloacid dehalogenase.


Subject(s)
Catalysis , Halogenation , Hydrolases , Chemistry , Metabolism , Hydrolysis , Research , Substrate Specificity
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1021-1030, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826874

ABSTRACT

Pectin methylesterase (PME) is an important pectinase that hydrolyzes methyl esters in pectin to release methanol and reduce the degree of methylation of pectin. At present, it has broad application prospects in food processing, tea beverage, paper making and other production processes. With the in-depth study of PME, the crystal structures with different sources have been reported. Analysis of these resolved crystal structures reveals that PME belongs to the right-hand parallel β-helix structure, and its catalytic residues are two aspartic acids and a glutamine, which play the role of general acid-base, nucleophile and stable intermediate, in the catalytic process. At the same time, the substrate specificity is analyzed to understand the recognition mechanism of the substrate and active sites. This paper systematically reviews these related aspects.


Subject(s)
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Chemistry , Metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Crystallography , Pectins , Metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Substrate Specificity
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 199-220, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011464

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las betalactamasas, enzimas con capacidad hidrolítica frente a los antibióticos betalactámicos, son responsables del principal mecanismo de resistencia en bacterias Gram negativas; las de mayor impacto clínico y epidemiológico en los hospitales, son las betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), las de tipo AmpC y las carbapenemasas. El incremento en su frecuencia y su diseminación a nivel mundial ha limitado cada vez más las opciones terapéuticas tanto en infecciones adquiridas en los hospitales como las que se generan en la comunidad. En Colombia, las redes de vigilancia y los grupos de investigación iniciaron su estudio desde finales de los años 90 y, así, se logró la caracterización molecular de las diferentes variantes; además, se reportó una gran prevalencia y diseminación en los hospitales de mediana y alta complejidad, y se describió el impacto clínico de las infecciones que causan. Dichos estudios han evidenciado el alto grado de endemia de algunas de estas betalactamasas y, en consecuencia, la necesidad de una inmediata implementación de programas para inducir el uso prudente de los antibióticos y de medidas de vigilancia, que permitan controlar y prevenir su diseminación, con el fin de disminuir la morbimortalidad en los pacientes y preservar las opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. En esta revisión, se recopiló la información sobre las variantes, la distribución geográfica y la caracterización molecular de las betalactamasas en Colombia, así como los estudios llevados a cabo desde finales de la década de 90 hasta el 2016, lo cual permitió tener un panorama de las betalactamasas que circulan en diferentes regiones, su incremento en el tiempo y sus implicaciones clínicas.


Abstract Beta-lactamases are enzymes with hydrolytic activity over beta-lactam antibiotics and they are the main resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC, and carbapenemases have the greatest clinical and epidemiological impact in hospital settings. The increasing frequency and worldwide spread of these enzymes have limited the therapeutic options in hospital-acquired infections and those originating in the community. In Colombia, surveillance networks and research groups began studying them in the late 90s. Different variants of these enzymes have been molecularly characterized and their high prevalence and dissemination in medium and high complexity hospitals, along with a high clinical impact, have been reported. Furthermore, many studies in Colombia have evidenced high endemicity for some of these beta-lactamases, which requires an urgent implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in order to preserve the few therapeutic options and infection control strategies to prevent and limit their dissemination. In this publication, we carried out a review of the different enzyme variants, geographic distribution, and molecular characterization of these beta-lactamases in Colombia. Additionally, we describe the available information in the literature regarding studies conducted between the late 1990s and 2016, which provide an overview of the beta-lactamases circulating in different regions of Colombia, their increase over time, and their clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , beta-Lactamases/classification , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Geography, Medical , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 96-106, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The treatment of urinary tract infections has become more challenging due to the increasing frequency of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in human populations. Objective: To characterize multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in Cumaná, Venezuela, and associate possible risk factors for infection by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing isolates. Materials and methods: We included all the patients with urinary tract infections attending the urology outpatient consultation and emergency unit in the Hospital de Cumaná, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, from January through June, 2014. blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes detection was carried out by PCR. Results: We found a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli (25.2%) with 20.4% of the isolates producing ESBL. The ESBL-producing isolates showed a high frequency (66.7%) of simultaneous resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides compared to non-producing isolates (2.4%). Of the resistant isolates, 65.4% carried the blaTEM gene, 34.6% the blaCTX-M and 23.1% the blaSHV. The blaCTX-M genes detected belonged to the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2 groups. Plasmid transfer was demonstrated by in vitro conjugation in 17 of the 26 ESBL-producing isolates. All three genes detected were transferred to the transconjugants. Age over 60 years, complicated urinary tract infections and previous use of a catheter predisposed patients to infection by ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions: The high frequency of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing isolates should alert the regional health authorities to take measures to reduce the risk of outbreaks caused by these types of bacteria in the community.


Resumen Introducción. El tratamiento de las infecciones urinarias constituye un reto creciente por el aumento de Escherichia coli proveniente de la comunidad multirresistente a los medicamentos. Objetivo. Caracterizar aislamientos de E. coli multirresistente causantes de infecciones urinarias adquiridas en la comunidad en Cumaná, Venezuela, y detectar los posibles riesgos de infección por aislamientos productores de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE). Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes atendidos en la consulta externa de urología y en urgencias del Hospital de Cumaná entre enero y junio de 2014 y que evidenciaban infecciones urinarias. La detección de los genes blaTEM, blaSHV y blaCTX-M se hizo mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Resultados. Se encontró una alta prevalencia de E. coli multirresistente a los medicamentos (25,2 %), con 20,4 % de aislamientos productores de BLEE y una gran frecuencia de resistencia simultánea a trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, fluoroquinolonas y aminoglucósidos (66,7 %) comparados con los no productores (2,4 %). En el 65,4 % de los aislamientos resistentes, se encontró el gen blaTEM; en 34,6 %, el blaCTX-M, y en 23,1 %, el blaSHV. Los genes blaCTX-M detectados pertenecían a los grupos CTX-M-1 y CTX-M-2. Se demostró la transferencia in vitro de plásmidos por conjugación en 17 de los 26 aislamientos productores de BLEE. Los tres tipos de genes detectados se transfirieron a los transconjugantes. La edad mayor de 60 años, las infecciones urinarias con complicaciones y el uso previo de catéter, predispusieron a la infección por cepas de E. coli productoras de BLEE. Conclusiones. La gran frecuencia de aislamientos multirresistentes productores de BLEE debería alertar a las autoridades sanitarias para tomar medidas que reduzcan el riesgo de epidemias causadas por este tipo de bacterias en la comunidad.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Outpatients , Substrate Specificity , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Venezuela/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/analysis , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Risk , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1234-1246, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771805

ABSTRACT

1,3-1,4-β-glucanase (E.C.3.2.1.73) is an important industrial enzyme which cleave β-glucans into oligosaccharides through strictly cutting the β-1,4 glycosidic bonds in 3-O-substituted glucopyranose units. Microbial 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase belongs to retaining glycosyl hydrolases of family 16 with a jellyroll β-sandwich fold structure. The present paper reviews the industrial application and protein engineering of microbial β-glucanases in the last decades and forecasts the research prospects of microbial β-glucanases.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Glycoside Hydrolases , Models, Molecular , Protein Engineering , Substrate Specificity
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1843-1856, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771748

ABSTRACT

By constructing mutant libraries and utilizing high-throughput screening methods, directed evolution has emerged as the most popular strategy for protein design nowadays. In the past decade, taking advantages of computer performance and algorithms, computer-assisted protein design has rapidly developed and become a powerful method of protein engineering. Based on the simulation of protein structure and calculation of energy function, computational design can alter the substrate specificity and improve the thermostability of enzymes, as well as de novo design of artificial enzymes with expected functions. Recently, machine learning and other artificial intelligence technologies have also been applied to computational protein engineering, resulting in a series of remarkable applications. Along the lines of protein engineering, this paper reviews the progress and applications of computer-assisted protein design, and current trends and outlooks of the development.


Subject(s)
Directed Molecular Evolution , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Protein Engineering , Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Substrate Specificity
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 816-826, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771328

ABSTRACT

A new method to express oligomerized feruloyl esterase (FAE) in Pichia pastoris GS115 to improve the catalytic efficiency was developed. It was realized by fusing the foldon domain at the C-terminus of FAE, and the fusion protein was purified by histidine tag. Fusion of the feruloyl esterase with the foldon domain resulted spontaneously forming a trimer FAE to improve the catalytic performance. The oligomerized FAE and monomeric FAE were obtained by purification. The apparent molecular weight of the oligomerized FAE was about 110 kDa, while the monomeric FAE about 40 kDa, and the optimum temperature of the oligomerized FAE was 50 °C, which is the same as the monomeric one. The optimal pH of the oligomerized FAE is 5.0, while the optimal pH of the monomer FAE is 6.0. When compared with the monomeric ones, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the oligomerized FAE increased 7.57-folds. The catalytic constant (kcat) of the oligomerized FAE increased 3.42-folds. The oligomerized FAE induced by foldon have advantages in the catalytic performances, which represents a simple and effective enzyme-engineering tool. The method proposed here for improving the catalytic efficiency of FAE would have great potentials for improving the catalytic efficiency of other enzymes.


Subject(s)
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Metabolism , Catalysis , Molecular Weight , Pichia , Genetics , Metabolism , Polymerization , Protein Engineering , Substrate Specificity
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 647-655, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951810

ABSTRACT

Abstract An intronless endoglucanase from thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus DBINU-1 was cloned, characterized and expressed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The full-length open reading frame of the endoglucanase gene from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1, designated Cel7, was 1383 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 460 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the A. fumigatus Cel7 gene product were 48.19 kDa and 5.03, respectively. A catalytic domain in the N-terminal region and a fungal type cellulose-binding domain/module in the C-terminal region were detected in the predicted polypeptide sequences. Furthermore, a signal peptide with 20 amino acid residues at the N-terminus was also detected in the deduced amino acid sequences of the endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1. The endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1 was successfully expressed in K. lactis, and the purified recombinant enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme was very stable in a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 and a temperature range from 30 to 60 °C. These features make it suitable for application in the paper, biofuel, and other chemical production industries that use cellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Gene Expression , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Kluyveromyces/genetics , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cellulose/metabolism , Computational Biology , Feces/microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , INDEL Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Substrate Specificity , Zea mays/metabolism
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