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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 540-550, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982723

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. One important aspect of ALS pathogenesis is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant-mediated mitochondrial toxicity, leading to apoptosis in neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the neural protective synergistic effects of ginsenosides Rg1 (G-Rg1) and conditioned medium (CM) on a mutational SOD1 cell model, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the contents of nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly increased in CM after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were exposed to neuron differentiation reagents for seven days. CM or G-Rg1 decreased the apoptotic rate of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells to a certain extent, but their combination brought about the least apoptosis, compared with CM or G-Rg1 alone. Further research showed that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in all the treatment groups. Proteins associated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, such as Bax, caspase 9 (Cas-9), and cytochrome c (Cyt c), were downregulated. Furthermore, CM or G-Rg1 also inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα. CM/G-Rg1 or their combination also reduced the apoptotic rate induced by betulinic acid (BetA), an agonist of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the combination of CM and G-Rg1 effectively reduced the apoptosis of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells through suppressing the NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway (Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the abstract).


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons/metabolism , Apoptosis
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 929-946, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982431

ABSTRACT

A decline in the activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes has been consistently reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and animal models of ALS, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we report that receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) acts as an important regulator of complex IV assembly, which is pivotal to preserving motor neurons in SOD1G93A mice. We found the expression of REEP1 was greatly reduced in transgenic SOD1G93A mice with ALS. Moreover, forced expression of REEP1 in the spinal cord extended the lifespan, decelerated symptom progression, and improved the motor performance of SOD1G93A mice. The neuromuscular synaptic loss, gliosis, and even motor neuron loss in SOD1G93A mice were alleviated by increased REEP1 through augmentation of mitochondrial function. Mechanistically, REEP1 associates with NDUFA4, and plays an important role in preserving the integrity of mitochondrial complex IV. Our findings offer insights into the pathogenic mechanism of REEP1 deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases and suggest a new therapeutic target for ALS.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Spinal Cord/pathology , Mitochondria/physiology , Disease Models, Animal
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 602-616, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982403

ABSTRACT

Blueberries are rich in phenolic compounds including anthocyanins which are closely related to biological health functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of blueberry anthocyanins extracted from 'Brightwell' rabbiteye blueberries in mice. After one week of adaptation, C57BL/6J healthy male mice were divided into different groups that were administered with 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg blueberry anthocyanin extract (BAE), and sacrificed at different time points (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12 h). The plasma, eyeball, intestine, liver, and adipose tissues were collected to compare their antioxidant activity, including total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX/GPX) content, and the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The results showed that blueberry anthocyanins had positive concentration-dependent antioxidant activity in vivo. The greater the concentration of BAE, the higher the T-AOC value, but the lower the MDA level. The enzyme activity of SOD, the content of GSH-PX, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and GPX all confirmed that BAE played an antioxidant role after digestion in mice by improving their antioxidant defense. The in vivo antioxidant activity of BAE indicated that blueberry anthocyanins could be developed into functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of preventing or treating oxidative stress-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Blueberry Plants , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Superoxide Dismutase , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1
4.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 752-759, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of fucoxanthin (FX) against diabetic cardiomyopathy and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rat models of diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) were randomized into DM model group, fucoxanthin treatment (DM+FX) group and metformin treatment (DM+ Met) group, and normal rats with normal feeding served as the control group. In the two treatment groups, fucoxanthin and metformin were administered after modeling by gavage at the daily dose of 200 mg/kg and 230 mg/kg, respectively for 12 weeks, and the rats in the DM model group were given saline only. HE staining was used to examine the area of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in each group. The expression levels of fibrotic proteins TGF-β1 and FN proteins in rat hearts were detected with Western blotting. In the cell experiment, the effect of 1 μmol/L FX on H9C2 cell hypertrophy induced by exposure to high glucose (HG, 45 mmol/L) was evaluated using FITC-labeled phalloidin. The mRNA expression levels of the hypertrophic factors ANP, BNP and β-MHC in H9C2 cells were detected using qRT-PCR. The protein expressions of Nrf2, Keap1, HO-1 and SOD1 proteins in rat heart tissues and H9C2 cells were determined using Western blotting. The DCFH-DA probe was used to detect the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).@*RESULTS@#In the diabetic rats, fucoxanthin treatment obviously alleviated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, increased the protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1, and decreased the protein expressions of Keap1 in the heart tissue (P < 0.05). In H9C2 cells with HG exposure, fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the enlargement of cell surface area, lowered the mRNA expression levels of ANP, BNP and β-MHC (P < 0.05), promoted Nrf2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and up-regulated the protein expressions its downstream targets SOD1 and HO-1 (P < 0.05) to enhance cellular antioxidant capacity and reduce intracellular ROS production.@*CONCLUSION@#Fucoxanthin possesses strong inhibitory activities against diabetic cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis and is capable of up-regulating Nrf2 signaling to promote the expression of its downstream antioxidant proteins SOD1 and HO-1 to reduce the level of ROS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antioxidants/metabolism , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/pharmacology , Cardiomegaly , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Fibrosis , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Metformin , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1/pharmacology , Xanthophylls
5.
Biol. Res ; 55: 30-30, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Xenotransplantation has been primarily performed using fresh donor tissue to study testicular development for about 20 years, and whether the cultured tissue would be a suitable donor is unclear. In this study, we combined testicular culture and xenotransplantation into an integrative model and explored whether immature testicular tissue would survive and continue to develop in this model. METHODS: In the new integrative model group, the testes of neonatal rats on postnatal day 8 (PND 8) were cultured for 4 days ex vivo and then were transplanted under the dorsal skin of castrated nude mice. The xenografted testes were resected on the 57th day after xenotransplantation and the testes of rats in the control group were harvested on PND 69. The survival state of testicular tissue was evaluated from morphological and functional perspectives including H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining of 8-OH-dG, immunofluorescence staining, TUNEL assay, ultrastructural study, gene expression and protein analysis. RESULTS: (a) We found that complete spermatogenesis was established in the testes in the new integrative model group. Compared with the control in the same stage, the seminiferous epithelium in some tubules was a bit thinner and there were vacuoles in part of the tubules. Immunofluorescence staining revealed some ACROSIN-positive spermatids were present in seminiferous tubule of xenografted testes. TUNEL detection showed apoptotic cells and most of them were germ cells in the new integrative model group. 8-OH-dG immunohistochemistry showed strongly positive-stained in the seminiferous epithelium after xenotransplantation in comparison with the control group; (b) Compared with the control group, the expressions of FOXA3, DAZL, GFRα1, BOLL, SYCP3, CDC25A, LDHC, CREM and MKI67 in the new integrative model group were significantly elevated (P < 0.05), indicating that the testicular tissue was in an active differentiated and proliferative state; (c) Antioxidant gene detection showed that the expression of Nrf2, Keap1, NQO1 and SOD1 in the new integrative model group was significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05), and DNA methyltransferase gene detection showed that the expression of DNMT3B was significantly elevated as well (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The new integrative model could maintain the viability of immature testicular tissue and sustain the long-term survival in vivo with complete spermatogenesis. However, testicular genes expression was altered, vacuolation and thin seminiferous epithelium were still apparent in this model, manifesting that oxidative damage may contribute to the testicular development lesion and it needs further study in order to optimize this model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Testis/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Spermatogenesis , Acrosin/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1224-1227, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the patient and his parents for the extraction of genomic DNA. Genetic variant was identified by whole exome sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing of his parents and healthy controls.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor a heterozygous c.420C>G (p.Asn140Lys) variant of the SOD1 gene. The same variant was not detected in his parents and 100 healthy controls. The variant has not been included in HGMD, dbSNP and other databases.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.420C>G variant of the SOD1 gene may underlie the ALS in this patient. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of SOD1 gene variants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , China , Heterozygote , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics , Exome Sequencing
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2457-2464, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms in motor neurons (MNs) derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines could improve understanding of the issues affecting MNs. Therefore, in this study we explored mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein expression in MNs derived from the iPS cell lines of ALS patients carrying different SOD1 mutations.@*METHODS@#We generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from two familial ALS (FALS) patients with SOD1-V14M and SOD1-C111Y mutations, and then differentiated them into MNs. We investigated levels of the SOD1 protein in iPSCs and MNs, the intracellular Ca2+ levels in MNs, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the process of differentiation into the MNs derived from the controls and ALS patients' iPSCs.@*RESULTS@#The iPSCs from the two FALS patients were capable of differentiation into MNs carrying different SOD1 mutations and differentially expressed MN markers. We detected high SOD1 protein expression and high intracellular calcium levels in both the MN and iPSCs that were derived from the two SOD1 mutant patients. However, at no time did we observe stronger LDH activity in the patient lines compared with the control lines.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MNs derived from patient-specific iPSC lines can recapitulate key aspects of ALS pathogenesis, providing a cell-based disease model to further elucidate disease pathogenesis and explore gene repair coupled with cell-replacement therapy. Incremental mutant expressions of SOD1 in MNs may have disrupted MN function, either causing or contributing to the intracellular calcium disturbances, which could lead to the occurrence and development of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Motor Neurons , Mutation/genetics , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics
8.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31205, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291276

ABSTRACT

A Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica (ELA), uma doença neurodegenerativa fatal, que afeta neurônios motores superiores e inferiores, tem como fisiopatologia mais aceita a excitotoxicidade mediada por glutamato. O atual estudo tem como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre esse neurotransmissor e a ELA, a partir de uma revisão de literatura nas bases de dados Pubmed e Medline. O glutamato é o principal neurotransmissor do Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC) e a excitotoxicidade gerada pelo seu acúmulo nas fendas sinápticas é tida como um dos principais mecanismos envolvidos na fisiopatologia da ELA. Os indivíduos afetados pela ELA apresentam diminuição da expressão de determinados grupos de receptores metabotrópicos de glutamato (mGlu) nos neurônios e nas células da glia desses pacientes. Os mGlu possuem um papel de destaque na modulação da excitotoxicidade por glutamato e são subdivididos em três grupos. Os mGlus do grupo 1 amplificam as transmissões sinápticas excitatórias rápidas, e os dos grupos 2 e 3 atuam como neuroprotetores inibindo a liberação do glutamato na fenda sináptica. Os mGlus são, portanto, considerados alvos terapêuticos para a atuação de drogas que combatem a excitotoxicidade e induzem a produção de fatores neurotróficos, constituindo importante atuação no combate à ELA.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons, has as the most accepted pathophysiology the glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. The present study aims to establish the relationship between this neurotransmitter and ALS, based on a literature review in the PubMed and Medline databases. Glutamate is the main neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS) and the excitotoxicity generated by its accumulation in the synaptic clefts is considered one of the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ALS. People affected by ALS present a decrease in expression of certain metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) groups in neurons and glial cells of these patients. mGlu has a prominent role in modulating glutamate excitotoxicity and are subdivided into three groups. Group 1 mGlu amplifies rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions, while groups 2 and 3 act as neuroprotective agents, since among other functions they inhibit glutamate release into the synaptic cleft. Finally, mGlu are considered therapeutic targets for the action of drugs that fight excitotoxicity and induce the production of neurotrophic factors, constituting an important action in the fight against ALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Motor Neuron Disease , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurotoxins
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 339-345, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128182

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e moleculares associados à MDC em um cão da raça Pastor-Suiço. O cão possuía uma paraparesia progressiva em membros pélvicos e foi submetido a avaliações clínicas, pelas quais se obteve, entre outros diferenciais, o diagnóstico presuntivo de MDC. Com a evolução dos sinais, o tutor optou pela eutanásia. Os achados histopatológicos da medula espinhal foram compatíveis com uma degeneração segmentar axonal e mielínica. O diagnóstico molecular foi realizado por meio da extração do DNA obtido por swab oral. Uma PCR foi otimizada utilizando-se primers descritos em literatura para amplificar a região do gene SOD1. A amostra foi, então, submetida a sequenciamento unidirecional, que revelou que o animal em questão era homozigoto para o alelo A para a mutação c.118G>A no éxon 2 do gene SOD1. O diagnóstico clínico presuntivo da MDC no presente caso foi esclarecido por meio dos achados histopatológicos, associados aos achados clínicos, e da sua caracterização molecular. Ressalta-se a contribuição deste relato, que traz aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e moleculares associados à MDC na raça Pastor-Suíço, para a qual, até o presente momento, na literatura consultada, não há relato dessa enfermidade.(AU)


The objective of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and molecular findings associated with MDC in a Swiss Shepherd dog. The dog had a progressive paraparesis in pelvic limbs and was submitted to clinical evaluations where, among other differentials, the presumptive diagnosis of MDC was obtained. With the progression of the nervous deficits tutor opted for euthanasia. The histopathological findings of the spinal cord were compatible with axonal and myelinic segmental degeneration. Molecular diagnosis was performed by extracting the DNA obtained by oral swab. PCR was optimized using primers described in the literature to amplify the SOD1 gene region. The sample was then subjected to one-way sequencing which revealed that the animal in question was homozygous for the A allele for the c.118G>A mutation in exon 2 of the SOD1 gene. The presumptive diagnosis of MDC in the present case was clarified by histopathological findings, as well as by its molecular characterization. The contribution of this report brings clinical, histopathological and molecular aspects associated with canine degenerative myelopathy in the Swiss Shepherd breed, that until this moment, in the literature consulted, there is no report of this disease in the breed mentioned.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Spinal Cord Diseases/pathology , Spinal Cord Diseases/veterinary , Neurodegenerative Diseases/veterinary , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190583, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090773

ABSTRACT

Abstract Genetic and epigenetic changes have been associated with periodontitis in various genes; however, little is known about genes involved in epigenetic mechanisms and in oxidative stress. Objective: This study aims to investigate the association of polymorphisms C677T in MTHFR (rs1801133) and −149C→T in DNMT3B (rs2424913), as well as the methylation profiles of MTHFR, miR-9-1, miR-9-3, SOD1, and CAT with periodontitis. The association between polymorphisms and DNA methylation profiles was also analyzed. Methodology: The population studied was composed of 100 nonsmokers of both sexes, divided into healthy and periodontitis groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the epithelial buccal cells, which were collected through a mouthwash. Polymorphism analysis was performed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), while methylation-specific PCR (MSP) or combined bisulfite restriction analysis techniques were applied for methylation analysis. Results: For DNMT3B, the T allele and the TT genotype were detected more frequently in the periodontitis group, as well as the methylated profile on the miR-9-1 promoter region. There was also a tendency towards promoter region methylation on the CAT sequence of individuals with periodontal disease. Conclusion: The polymorphism −149C→T in DNMT3B (rs2424913) and the methylated profile of the miR-9-1 promoter region are associated with periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Periodontitis/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , DNA Methylation/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Catalase/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics , Genotype
11.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 475-482, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286546

ABSTRACT

The superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1) gene is the first responsible gene mapped in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1), and it codes for the enzyme SOD1, the function of which is to protect against damage mediated by free radicals deriving from oxygen. Its pathophysiological mechanism in ALS1 is related to ischemia. Several molecular studies of the SOD1 gene show that point mutations are the most frequent. The most common mutations in familial cases are p.A4V, p.I113Y, p.G37R, p.D90A and p.E100G, which account for more than 80% of cases, although intronic mutations have also been described as responsible for ALS1. Sporadic cases are explained by mutations in other genes such as SETX and C9orf72. ALS1 is a complex disease with genetic heterogeneity. On the other hand, familial and sporadic cases have a different etiology, which is explained by molecular heterogeneity and multiple pathogenic mechanisms that lead to ALS1; oxidative stress and ischemia are not the only cause. In Mexico, ALS molecular genetics studies are scarce. Clinical studies show an increase in cytokines such as adipsin in cerebrospinal fluid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Point Mutation , Age of Onset , Oxidative Stress , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/enzymology , Ischemia/complications , Mexico
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 91-97, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775450

ABSTRACT

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) (such as the superoxide radical) are commonly associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunctions. Though superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) overexpression may protect against ROS damage to the autonomic nervous system, superoxide radical reduction may change normal physiological functions. Previously, we demonstrated that human SOD1 (hSOD1) overexpression does not change baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia but rather increases aortic depressor nerve activity in response to arterial pressure changes in C57B6SJL-Tg (SOD1)2 Gur/J mice. Since the baroreflex arc includes afferent, central, and efferent components, the objective of this study was to determine whether hSOD1 overexpression alters the central and vagal efferent mediation of heart rate (HR) responses. Our data indicate that SOD1 overexpression decreased the HR responses to vagal efferent nerve stimulation but did not change the HR responses to aortic depressor nerve (ADN) stimulation. Along with the previous study, we suggest that SOD1 overexpression preserves normal baroreflex function but may differentially alter the functions of the ADN, vagal efferents, and central components. While SOD1 overexpression likely enhanced ADN function and the central mediation of bradycardia, it decreased vagal efferent control of HR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Baroreflex , Physiology , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Bradycardia , Metabolism , Heart Rate , Physiology , Mice, Transgenic , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Metabolism , Vagus Nerve , Metabolism
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 960-972, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010436

ABSTRACT

Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybee has been widely used as a health promotion supplement. The major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) have been identified as the functional component of RJ. However, the question of whether MRJPs have anti-senescence activity for human cells remains. Human embryonic lung fibroblast (HFL-I) cells were cultured in media containing no MRJPs (A), MRJPs at 0.1 mg/ml (B), 0.2 mg/ml (C), or 0.3 mg/ml (D), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0.2 mg/ml (E). The mean population doubling levels of cells in media B, C, D, and E were increased by 12.4%, 31.2%, 24.0%, and 10.4%, respectively, compared with that in medium A. The cells in medium C also exhibited the highest relative proliferation activity, the lowest senescence, and the longest telomeres. Moreover, MRJPs up-regulated the expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and down-regulated the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), catenin beta like-1 (CTNNB1), and tumor protein p53 (TP53). Raman spectra analysis showed that there were two unique bands related to DNA synthesis materials, amide carbonyl group vibrations and aromatic hydrogens. These results suggest that MRJPs possess anti-senescence activity for the HFL-I cell line, and provide new knowledge illustrating the molecular mechanism of MRJPs as anti-senescence factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Bees , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Culture Media , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Insect Proteins/chemistry , Lung/drug effects , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Superoxide Dismutase-1/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , beta Catenin/metabolism
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 162 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911601

ABSTRACT

Aldeídos de colesterol (Secosterol A e Secosterol B) têm sido detectados em amostras de cérebro humano e investigados em modelos de doenças neurodegenerativas como possíveis marcadores e intermediários do processo patológico. Estes oxisteróis constituem uma classe de eletrófilos derivados de lipídeos que podem modificar e induzir agregação de proteínas. A esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA) é um distúrbio neurodegenerativo associado ao acúmulo de agregados imunorreativos de superóxido dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, SOD1). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de aldeídos de colesterol em ratos modelo ELA e sua capacidade de induzir a formação de agregados de SOD1 in vitro. Aldeídos de colesterol foram analisados no plasma, medula espinhal e córtex motor de ratos ELA. Uma quantidade elevada de Secosterol B foi detectada no córtex motor desses ratos em comparação com animais controle. Adicionalmente, os experimentos in vitro mostraram que Secosterol B e Secosterol A induziram a agregação da SOD1 em uma forma amiloidogênica que se liga à tioflavina T. Esta agregação não foi observada com o colesterol e os seus hidroperóxidos. Usando aldeídos de colesterol marcados com grupo alquinil e um ensaio de click chemistry, foi observado que os agregados de SOD1 estão ligados covalentemente aos aldeídos. A modificação covalente da proteína foi confirmada por análise de MALDI-TOF, que mostrou a adição de até cinco moléculas de aldeídos de colesterol à proteína por base de Schiff. Curiosamente, a análise comparativa com outros eletrófilos derivados de lipídeos (e.g. HHE e HNE) demonstrou que a agregação de SOD1 aumentou proporcionalmente à hidrofobicidade dos aldeídos, observando-se a maioragregação com aldeídos de colesterol. Os sítios de modificação da SOD1 foram caracterizados por nanoLC-MS/MS após digestão da proteína com tripsina, onde foram identificadas lisinas como o principal aminoácido modificado. Em geral, nossos dados mostram que a oxidação do colesterol que leva à produção de aldeídos de colesterol é aumentada no cérebro de ratos ELA e que os aldeídos altamente hidrofóbicos derivados de colesterol podem promover eficientemente modificação e agregação de SOD1


Secosterol aldehydes (Secosterol B and Secosterol A) have been detected in human brain samples and investigated in models of neurodegenerative diseases as possible markers and intermediates of the pathological process. These oxysterols constitute a class of lipid-derived electrophiles that can modify and induce aggregation of proteins. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the accumulation of immunoreactive aggregates of superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, SOD1). The objective of this work is to evaluate the presence of secosterol aldehydes in ALS rats and their ability to induce formation of SOD1 aggregates in vitro. Secosterol aldehydes were analyzed in plasma, spinal cord and motor cortex of ALS rats. A higher amount of Secosterol B was detected in the motor cortex of these rats compared to control animals. In addition, in vitro experiments have shown that Secosterol B and Secosterol A induce aggregation of SOD1 into an amyloidogenic form that binds to thioflavin T. This aggregation was not apparent in incubations with cholesterol and its hydroperoxides. Using alkynyl-labeled secosterol aldehydes and a click chemistry assay, it was found that the SOD1 aggregates are covalently linked to the aldehydes. Covalent modification of the protein was confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis, which showed the addition of up to five molecules of secosterol aldehydes to the protein by Schiff base formation. Interestingly, the comparative analysis with other lipid-derived electrophiles (e.g. HHE and HNE) demonstrated that the aggregation of SOD1 increased according to the hydrophobicity of the aldehydes. Compared to the other electrophiles, a higher SOD1 aggregation was observed with secosterol aldehydes. SOD1 modification sites were characterized by nanoLC-MS/MS afterprotein digestion with trypsin, revealing lysine as the major amino acid modified in these experiments. Collectively, our data show that cholesterol oxidation leads to the production of secosterol aldehydes, which are increased in the brain of ALS rats, and that these highly hydrophobic aldehydes can efficiently promote the modification and aggregation of SOD1


Subject(s)
Cholesterol/analysis , Aldehydes/analysis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/classification , Superoxide Dismutase-1/pharmacology
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 584-596, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812078

ABSTRACT

Stress and emotion are associated with several illnesses from headaches to heart diseases and immune deficiencies to central nervous system. Terminalia arjuna has been referred as traditional Indian medicine for several ailments. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of T. arjuna bark extract (TA) against picrotoxin-induced anxiety. Forty two male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 7): control, diazepam (1.5 mg·kg), picrotoxin (1 mg·kg) and three TA treatemt groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Behavioral paradigms and PCR studies were performed to determine the effect of TA against picrotoxin-induced anxiety. The results showed that TA supplementation increased locomotion towards open arm (EPM) and illuminated area (light-dark box test), and increased rearing frequency (open field test) in a dose dependent manner, compared to picrotoxin (P < 0.05). Furthermore, TA increased number of licks and shocks in Vogel's conflict. PCR studies showed an up-regulation of several genes, such as BDNF, IP, DL, CREB, GABA, SOD, GPx, and GR in TA administered groups. In conclusion, alcoholic extract of TA bark showed protective activity against picrotoxin in mice by modulation of genes related to synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitters, and antioxidant enzymes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Anxiety Disorders , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Psychology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , Dopamine Agents , GABA Agents , Glutathione Peroxidase , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Picrotoxin , Plant Bark , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Serotonin Agents , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Terminalia , Chemistry
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 365-378, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756992

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms yet to be fully described. Mutations in a number of genes including SOD1 and FUS are associated with familial ALS. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of familial ALS patients bearing SOD1 and FUS mutations, respectively. We further generated gene corrected ALS iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Genome-wide RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of motor neurons derived from SOD1 and corrected iPSCs revealed 899 aberrant transcripts. Our work may shed light on discovery of early biomarkers and pathways dysregulated in ALS, as well as provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies to treat ALS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Cell Line , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Genetic Therapy , Genome-Wide Association Study , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Metabolism , Mutation, Missense , RNA-Binding Protein FUS , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Genetics , Metabolism
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 527-537, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756984

ABSTRACT

Accumulative evidence has shown the adverse effects of a geomagnetic field shielded condition, so called a hypomagnetic field (HMF), on the metabolic processes and oxidative stress in animals and cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the role of HMF on the regulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that HMF exposure led to ROS decrease, and that restoring the decrease by additional HO rescued the HMF-enhanced cell proliferation. The measurements on ROS related indexes, including total anti-oxidant capacity, HO and superoxide anion levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and expression, indicated that the HMF reduced HO production and inhibited the activity of CuZn-SOD. Moreover, the HMF accelerated the denaturation of CuZn-SOD as well as enhanced aggregation of CuZn-SOD protein, in vitro. Our findings indicate that CuZn-SOD is able to response to the HMF stress and suggest it a mediator of the HMF effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Magnetic Fields , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Neuroblastoma , Metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Metabolism
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 239-244, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358025

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sleep/wake disturbances in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are well-documented, however, no animal or mechanistic studies on these disturbances exist. Orexin is a crucial neurotransmitter in promoting wakefulness in sleep/wake regulation, and may play an important role in sleep disturbances in ALS. In this study, we used SOD1-G93A transgenic mice as an ALS mouse model to investigate the sleep/wake disturbances and their possible mechanisms in ALS.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Electroencephalogram/electromyogram recordings were performed in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice and their littermate control mice at the ages of 90 and 120 days, and the samples obtained from these groups were subjected to quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>For the first time in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice, we observed significantly increased wakefulness, reduced sleep time, and up-regulated orexins (prepro-orexin, orexin A and B) at both 90 and 120 days. Correlation analysis confirmed moderate to high correlations between sleep/wake time (total sleep time, wakefulness time, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep time, non-REM sleep time, and deep sleep time) and increase in orexins (prepro-orexin, orexin A and B).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Sleep/wake disturbances occur before disease onset in this ALS mouse model. Increased orexins may promote wakefulness and result in these disturbances before and after disease onset, thus making them potential therapeutic targets for amelioration of sleep disturbances in ALS. Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in the future.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Genetics , Metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neuropeptides , Genetics , Metabolism , Orexins , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sleep , Physiology , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Wakefulness , Physiology
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3396-3405, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240156

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Danshen (Radix Salvia miltiorrhizae) has been used as a traditional medicine in Asia for treatment of various microcirculatory disturbance related diseases. Tanshinones are mainly hydrophobic active components, which have been isolated from Danshen and show various biological functions. In this study, we observed the neuroprotective effect of tanshinone I (TsI) against ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) after transient cerebral ischemia and examined its neuroprotective mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The gerbils were divided into vehicle-treated-sham-group, vehicle-treated-ischemia-group, TsI-treated-sham-group, and TsI-treated-ischemia-group. TsI was administrated intraperitoneally three times (once a day for three days) before ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TsI was examined using H&E staining, neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. To investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of TsI after ischemia-reperfusion, immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blotting analyses for Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Treatment with TsI protected pyramidal neurons from ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, treatment with TsI maintained the levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as determined by IHC and Western blotting in the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the vehicle-ischemia-group. In addition, treatment with TsI increased the levels of BDNF and IGF-I determined by IHC and Western blotting in the TsI-treated-sham-group compared with the vehicle-treated-sham-group, and their levels were maintained in the stratum pyramidale of the ischemic CA1 in the TsI-treated-ischemia-group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Treatment with TsI protects pyramidal neurons of the CA1 from ischemic damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia via the maintenance of antioxidants and the increase of neurotrophic factors.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Blotting, Western , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Abietanes , Therapeutic Uses , Gerbillinae , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 4006-4011, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268432

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HL) exerts antioxidant activities against various oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we investigated effects of extract from HL leaves (HLE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of aged gerbils.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Aged gerbils (24 months) were divided into vehicle (saline)-treated- and HLE-treated-groups. The vehicle and HLE were orally administered with 200 mg/kg once a day for 20 days before sacrifice. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were examined in the DG using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in immunoreactivities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (p-GSK-3β) to examine their relation with neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The administration of HLE significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-positive neuroblasts with well-developed processes in the SGZ of the DG of the HLE-treated-group. In addition, immunoreactivities of SOD1, SOD2, BDNF, and p-GSK-3β were significantly increased in granule and polymorphic cells of the DG in the HLE-treated-group compared with those in the vehicle-treated-group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>HLE treatment significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, showing that immunoreactivities of SOD1, SOD2, BDNF, and p-GSK-3β were significantly increased in the DG. These indicate that increased neuroblast differentiation neurogenesis may be closely related to upregulation of SOD1, SOD2, BDNF, and p-GSK-3β in aged gerbils.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Metabolism , Gerbillinae , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Hippophae , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Intrinsic Factor , Metabolism , Neurogenesis , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1
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