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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 309-322, mayo 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396871


This paper describes the evaluation of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from seeds and epicarps of Garcinia madruno; as well garcinol, morelloflavone and volkensiflavone isolated from the same species. In the preliminary test of bacterial susceptibility, hexane extracts from seeds and epicarps and the three compounds tested only displayed inhibitory growth effect against Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extract and compounds ranging from 86.6 to 1253.4 µg/mL. The hemolytic activity was assessed; however, except for the methanol extract from seeds, none of the samples studied induced hemolysis. Thus, our results suggest that extracts and compounds from G. madruno have the potential to be used in the control of pathologies associated to Gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of the antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of extracts of different polarity obtained from seeds and epicarps of this edible species.

El presente artículo describe la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana y hemolítica de los extractos de hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol, obtenidos de la semilla y el epicarpio de Garcinia madruno; así como de garcinol, morelloflavona y volkensiflavona; aislados de la misma especie. En el ensayo de susceptibilidad bacteriana, tanto el extracto de hexano obtenido a partir de la semilla y el epicarpio, y los tres compuestos aislados, únicamente mostraron actividad inhibitoria del crecimiento contra bacterias Gram-positivas. La concentración mínima inhibitoria presentó valores entre 86.6 y 1253.4 µg/mL. También se estableció la actividad hemolítica; sin embargo, con excepción del extracto metanólico obtenido a partir de las semillas, ninguna de las muestras evaluadas indujo hemólisis. Por lo tanto, los resultados sugieren que los extractos y compuestos de G. madruno tienen el potencial de ser usados en el control de bacterias Gram-positivas asociadas a diversas patologías. Este es el primer reporte de actividad antimicrobiana y hemolítica de extractos de diferente polaridad obtenidos de las semillas y epicarpios de esta especie comestible.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Hemolytic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biflavonoids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 123-130, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372547


The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.

El género Fuchsia se usa generalmente en preparaciones de hierbas para tratar afecciones provocadas por microorganismos. En base al uso popular de este tipo de plantas, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener los extractos secuenciales de polaridad creciente de las ramas de Fuchsia lycioides por maceración a temperatura ambiente y por el método Soxhlet a 60ºC, para luego evaluar la capacidad antifúngica de los extractos frente a diferentes aislados clínicos del genero Candida. El extracto de acetato de etilo exhibió una fuerte actividad antifúngica inhibiendo en forma selectiva las cepas de C. albicans con valores de CMI y de CMF de 10 y 15 µg/mL, respectivamente; comparables con el fármaco itraconazol®. El análisis del extracto por CG-EM mostró una alta concentración de terpenoides (principalmente fitol) y fenilpropanoides (principalmente ácido cinámico), posibles responsables de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de acetato de etilo de F. lycioides.

Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onagraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/analysis , Temperature , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745


This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.

Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.

Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813


This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.

Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818


Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.

Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405


This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.

Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 15-28, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102865


The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and acaricidal effect of two Psidium species essential oils and selected compounds on Tetranychus urticae. Essential oils from the leaves of Psidium laruotteanum and Psidium myrsinites were obtained through hydrodistillation, analyzed using CG-FID and CG-MS and evaluated for toxicity to T. urticae by fumigation and residual contact. The susceptibility of T. urticae to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes was also investigated. The major constituents of the P. laruotteanum oil were (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) and γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) and the major constituents of the P. myrsinites oil were ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) and α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%). Based on the LC50 estimates, no significant differences were found between the two oils regarding toxicity by fumigation or residual contact. ß-Caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol had the highest level of toxicity, independently of the method investigated. The findings indicate that both oils and selected constituents, especially ß-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol, are promising as natural acaricidal agents that affect T. urticae through more than one mode of action.

Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Psidium laruotteanum y Psidium myrsinites se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, se analizaron por CG-FID y CG-MS, y se evaluaron sus toxicidades por fumigación y contacto residual contra Tetranychus urticae. Se investigó también la susceptibilidad del T. urticae a monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos. En el aceite esencial de P. laruotteanum, (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) y γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) se identificaron como constituyentes mayoritarios, mientras que en el aceite esencial de P. myrsinites, ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) y α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%) se encontraron como mayoritarios. Con base en las CL50 estimadas, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre las toxicidades de los aceites por fumigación, y tampoco por contacto residual. ßCaryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol presentaron las mayores toxicidades, independientemente del método investigado. Estos resultados indican, que los dos aceites, así como los constituyentes seleccionados, entre los que se destacan ß-caryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol, son promisores agentes acaricidas naturales por actuar en el T. urticae por más de un mecanismo de acción.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Psidium/chemistry , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control , Fumigation , Acaricides/chemistry , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 555-565, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102241


Rhipicephalus microplus, is one parasites that cause severe productivity losses in the cattle industry of Brazil and shows increasing resistance to conventional pesticides. This research aims to study the chemical composition, and acaricidal activity of the essential oil from Ocotea notata leaves, a brazilian endemic species, against R. microplus. The effect on R. microplus engorged adult females was evaluated using the immersion test. The oil reduced the survival by 90% after incubation for 15 days and there was 100% reduction for posture inhibition and reproductive capacity. These results suggest that the O. notata essential oil has activity on the R. microplus.

Rhipicephalus microplus, es un parásito que causa graves pérdidas de productividad en la industria ganadera de Brasil y muestra una creciente resistencia a los pesticidas convencionales. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar la composición química y la actividad acaricida del aceite esencial de las hojas de Ocotea notata, una especie endémica brasileña, contra R. microplus. El efecto sobre las hembras adultas engordadas de R. microplus se evaluó mediante la prueba de inmersión. El aceite redujo la supervivencia en 90% después de la incubación durante 15 días y hubo una reducción del 100% para la inhibición de la postura y la capacidad reproductiva. Estos resultados sugieren que el aceite esencial de O. notata tiene actividad contra R. microplus.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Ticks/drug effects , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Tick Control/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Acaricides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 586-594, nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102647


The aim of the present study was to determine the main constituents of Scrophularia striata essential oil and to evaluate in vitro effect of essential oil on Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. Chemical constituents of the extracted essential oil were separated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) equipped with a PDMS/DVB fiber. The fiber was injected to gas chromatogram- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to determine their identity. Finally, after exposure of parasites to different concentrations of water soluble fraction of essential oil, viability of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes were investigated. Based on the HS-SPME results, 47 compounds representing 95.6% of the total oil, were identified in essential oil. Essential oil analysis showed that nonane (19.7%), α-terpineol (17.4%) and linalool (10.2%) were the most abundant compounds. This study indicates that water soluble fraction of S. striata essential oil has promising anti-leishmanial activity.

El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los principales componentes del aceite esencial de Scrophularia striata y evaluar el efecto in vitro del aceite esencial en promastigotes y amastigotes axénicos de Leishmania tropica y Leishmania major. Los componentes químicos del aceite esencial extraído se separaron mediante microextracción de fase sólida en el espacio superior (HS-SPME) equipado con una fibra PDMS/DVB. Para determinar su identidad la fibra se inyectó en un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado un espectrómetro de masas (GC-MS). Finalmente, después de la exposición de los parásitos a diferentes concentraciones de fracción soluble del aceite esencial en agua, se investigó la viabilidad de los promastigotes y los amastigotes axénicos. En base a los resultados de HS-SPME, se identificaron 47 compuestos que representan el 95.6% del aceite total en el aceite esencial. El análisis de aceites esenciales mostró que el nonano (19.7%), el α-terpineol (17.4%) y el linalol (10.2%) fueron los compuestos más abundantes. Este estudio indica que la fracción soluble en agua del aceite esencial de S. striata tiene una actividad antileishmanial prometedora.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Scrophularia/chemistry , Leishmania/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Colorimetry , Solid Phase Microextraction , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 444-458, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008263


This review work focuses on how the secondary chemistry could help in the survival of plants in high mountain habitats under extreme environmental conditions. The elevated levels of stress in high areas of the tropic and subtropic change dramatically not only by following the annual cycles of winter and summer but they also change in a single day. Some species, however, are able to successfully grow at heights more than 3000 m in the tropical mountains due, in part, to highly specialized physiological processes that affect their physical and chemical responses. In this study, it describes some strategies of how the secondary metabolites could help the plants to stand the high levels of stress in the high mountain ecosystems.

Este trabajo de revisión se centra en cómo la química secundaria podría ayudar en la supervivencia de plantas en hábitats de alta montaña en condiciones ambientales extremas. Los altos niveles de estrés en las zonas altas del trópico y subtrópico cambian dramáticamente no solo al seguir los ciclos anuales de invierno y verano, sino que también cambian en un solo día. Sin embargo, algunas especies pueden crecer con éxito a alturas superiores a 3000 m en las montañas tropicales debido, en parte, a procesos fisiológicos altamente especializados que afectan sus respuestas físicas y químicas. En esta revisión, se describen algunas estrategias de cómo los metabolitos secundarios podrían ayudan a las plantas a soportar los altos niveles de estrés en los ecosistemas de alta montaña.

Plants/chemistry , Stress, Physiological , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Altitude , Phloroglucinol/analysis , Phloroglucinol/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Terpenes/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195


BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.

Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 223-238, mayo 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007927


Plants of the genera Werneria (Asteraceae) and Xenophyllum (genus extracted from Werneria) are used in traditional medicine of Latin America for the treatment of mountain sickness, hypertension and gastrointestinal disorders. Only a small number of species of these genera have been studied, leading to the isolation of compounds belonging to the classes of benzofurans, chromenes, acetophenones, coumarates, diterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Some of the plant extracts and/or compounds have shown antimicrobial, anti-HIV, hypotensive and photoprotective activities.

Las plantas de los géneros Werneria (Asteraceae) y Xenophyllum (género extraido de Werneria) son usadas en la medicina tradicional de América Latina para el tratamiento del mal de montaña, hipertensión y desórdenes gastrointestinales. Solo un pequeño número de especies de estos géneros ha sido investigado, lográndose aislar compuestos que pertenecen a las clases de benzofuranos, cromenos, acetofenonas, cumaratos, diterpenos y alcaloides pirrolizidínicos. Algunos de los extractos y/o compuestos de dichas plantas han mostrado actividades antimicrobianas, anti-HIV, hipotensoras y fotoprotectoras.

Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Asteraceae/chemistry , Acetophenones/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Benzopyrans/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/chemistry , Coumaric Acids/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 197-203, mar. 2019. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007815


The chemical composition of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the Balkan endemic species Thymus longedentatus was studied by GC-MS. Twenty eight compounds, consisting 98.2% of the total components were detected in amounts exceeding 0.1%. The oil was characterized by relatively high concencentration of oxygentated monoterpenes (78.7%), among which citral isomers neral (27.5%) and geranial (30.3%) were the principal ones. In addition, 1,8-cineole (7.8%), trans-ß-ocimene (7.5%), and ß-myrcene (3.7%) were detected in significant ammounts. Germacrene D (4.4%) was found to be the main sesquiterpene in the essential oil.

Se estudió mediante GC-MS la composición química del aceite esencial obtenido de las partes aéreas de Thymus longedentatus, especie endémica de los Balcanes. Se detectaron veintiocho compuestos, que representaban un 98,2% del total de compuestos y que se encontraban en cantidades superiores al 0,1%. El aceite se caracterizó por una concentración relativamente alta de monoterpenos oxigenados (78.7%), entre los cuales los isómeros de citral, neral (27.5%) y geranial (30.3%) eran los principales. Además, se detectó 1,8-cineol (7,8%), trans-ß-ocimeno (7,5%) y ß-mirceno (3,7%) en cantidades significativas. Se encontró que Germacreno D (4.4%) es el principal sesquiterpeno en el aceite esencial.

Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Balkan Peninsula , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5134-5142, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008376


Traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) decoction contains complex bitterness. In this paper,the simple mixing of TCM monomer bitter substances is used as the entry point to study the law of bitterness superposition. With berberine hydrochloride( alkaloids),geniposide( terpenoids),and arbutin( glycosides) as mother liquor,sophoridine( alkaloids),gentiopicroside( terpenoids),and puerarin( glycosides) as additive substances,these different additive substances were mixed with different mother liquor according to concentration gradients to form different liquid mixtures. The bitterness of the additive solution and the mixtures was evaluated by traditional human taste panel method( THTPM) and electronic tongue; the bitterness-concentration fitting model of the additive solution and the liquid mixtures was established by Weibull and logarithmic curves. By comparing and analyzing the bitterness-concentration model and the bitterness difference( ΔI_0/ΔI_e) of the additive solution and the mixture,the influence of mother liquor on the bitterness of the mixture was investigated. The results showed that both the additive solution bitterness model and the liquid mixture bitterness model were consistent with the Weibull model and the logarithmic model( THTPM: R~2≥0. 887 0,P<0. 01; electronic tongue test:R~2≥0. 753 2,P<0. 05). The fitting degree of the Weibull model was generally higher than that of the logarithmic model; the bitterness difference( ΔI_0) was monotonously decreasing; the fitting equation of tongue bitterness and electronic tongue bitterness: R~2≥0. 874 2,P<0. 01. In this article,through the superposition of different kinds of TCM bitter substances,THTPM and electronic tongue test was combined. It was found that the bitterness after superposition was still in Weibull or logarithmic relationship with the concentration of additive substances; THTPM showed that the effect of bitter mother liquor on the bitterness of the mixture decreased with the increase of the concentration of the additive; the bitterness of the electronic tongue was obviously related to the bitterness of THTPM. However,further verification is needed later by optimizing the concentration gradient and expanding the sample size.

Humans , Alkaloids/analysis , Electronic Nose , Glycosides/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Taste , Terpenes/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 566-574, nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007336


The composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Minthostachys mollis Griseb (Lamiaceae) aerial parts was determined by GC and GC/MS. Menthone (13.2%), pulegone (12.4%), cis-dihydrocarvone (9.8%) and carvacrol acetate (8.8%) were the main essential oil components. The cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was in vitro measured using the MTT colorimetric assay. IC50 values were calculated on healthy non-tumor cells (HEK-293) and three human cancer cell lines (T24, DU-145 and MCF-7). In such latter cells, the estimated values were around 0.2 mg/mL. In addition, the antioxidant activity was determined by interaction with the stable free radical 2,2"-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil was almost devoid of antioxidant activity indicating that its anti-proliferative action relies on other unknown mechanism.

La composición del aceite esencial obtenido por hidrodestilación a partir de partes aéreas de Minthostachys mollis Griseb (Lamiaceae) se determinó mediante GC y GC/MS. Mentona (13.2%), pulegona (12.4%), junto con cis-dihidrocarvona (9.8%) y acetato de carvacrol (8.8%) fueron los principales componentes del aceite esencial. La actividad citotóxica del aceite esencial se midió in vitro utilizando el ensayo colorimétrico MTT tanto en células sanas no tumorales (HEK-293) como en tres líneas celulares de cáncer humano (T24, DU-145 y MCF-7). Los valores de IC50 calculados fueron de alrededor de 0.2 mg/mL. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante por su interacción con el radical libre 2,2"-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo. El aceite esencial tiene baja actividad antioxidante, lo que indica que su acción antiproliferativa depende de otro mecanismo desconocido.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lamiaceae , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peru , Picrates , Terpenes/analysis , Biological Assay , Biphenyl Compounds , Calorimetry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915344


The chemical composition of the seasonal essential oils (2015-2016) from the leaves and flowers of Zaluzania montagnifolia is presented. The chemical content of those oils showed quantitative and qualitative differences. Germacrene D (19.9-29.8%), camphor (12.4- 19.4%) and ß-caryophyllene (13.7-18.5%) were the most abundant volatiles in the leaves. The essential oils from the flowers contained high amounts of camphor (32.7-37.2%) limonene (19.8-24.9%) and germacrene D (3.2-7.3%). All the seasonal essential oils showed a potent in vitro inhibition against HMG-CoA reductase. The essential oils from flowers (IC50, 40.5-55.1 µg mL-1) showed better inhibition properties than those of leaves (IC50, 84.4-123.5 µg mL-1). Camphor (IC50, 72.5 µg mL-1) and borneol (IC50, 84.4 µg mL-1) exerted a non-competitive inhibition on the enzyme. Additionally, the hydrodistillates exhibited antibacterial activity against the phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci TBR2004 (MIC, 62.7-76.5 µg mL-1) P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (MIC, 45.4-50.4 µg mL-1) and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (MIC, 26.7-31.9 µg mL-1). Germacrene D (MIC, 35.4-66.2 µg mL-1) and ß-caryophyllene (MIC, 36.5-54.2 µg mL-1) were the strongest anti-Pseudomonas syringae agents.

Se presenta la composición química de los aceites esenciales estacionales (2015-2016) provenientes de hojas y flores de Zaluzania montagnifolia. El contenido químico de los aceites esenciales mostró diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas. El germacreno D (19.9-29.8%), alcanfor (12.4-19.4%) y ß-cariofileno (13.7-18.5%) fueron los volátiles más abundantes en las hojas. Los aceites esenciales de las flores contuvieron altas concentraciones de alcanfor (32.7-37.2%), limoneno (19.8-24.9%) y germacreno D (3.2-7.3%). Todos los aceites esenciales estacionales mostraron una potente inhibición in vitro contra la HMG-CoA reductasa. Los aceites esenciales de las flores (IC50, 40.5-55.1 µg mL-1) mostraron mejores propiedades inhibitorias que aquellos de las hojas (IC50, 84.4-123.5 µg mL-1). El alcanfor (IC50, 72.5 µg mL-1) y el borneol (IC50, 84.4 µg mL-1) ejercieron una inhibición no competitiva sobre la enzima. Adicionalmente, los hidrodestilados exhibieron una actividad antibacterial contra los fitopatógenos Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci TBR2004 (MIC, 62.7-76.5 µg mL-1) P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (MIC, 45.4-50.4 µg mL-1) y P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (MIC, 26.7-31.9 µg mL-1). El germacreno D (MIC, 35.4-66.2 µg mL-1) y ß-cariofileno (MIC, 36.5-54.2 µg mL-1) fueron los agentes más fuertes contra los patovares de Pseudomonas syringae.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/chemistry , Asteraceae , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(3): 302-309, mayo 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915398


Vitex gardneriana Schauer (Lamiaceae) popularly known as "jaramataia", is a shrub commonly found in caatinga biome located in Northeast Brazil. In folk medicine, its leaves have been used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed and identified by GC-MS and GC-FID and showing a total of 26 constituents (95.9%) being 2 monoterpenes (0.4%) and 24 sesquiterpenes (95.4%). The main constituents identified were cis-calamenene (29.7%), 6,9-guaiadiene (14.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (14.0%). The essential oil has been demonstrated high larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 28.0 µg/mL). In the evaluation of the bioassay with Artemia salina the essential oil showed LC50 = 98.11 µg/mL. In addition, the essential oil did not show cytotoxicity (IC50 > 2.50 mg/mL) by the hemolysis assay.

Vitex gardneriana Schauer (Lamiaceae) popularmente conocido como "jaramataia", es un arbusto que se encuentra comúnmente en el bioma de caatinga ubicado en el noreste de Brasil. En medicina popular, sus hojas se han utilizado como analgésicos y agentes antiinflamatorios. La composición química de los aceites esenciales de las hojas obtenidas por hidrodestilación fue analizada e identificada por GC-MS y GC-FID y mostrando un total de 26 constituyentes (95.9%) siendo 2 monoterpenos (0.4%) y 24 sesquiterpenos (95.4%). Los componentes principales fueron cis-calamenene (29.7%), 6,9-guaiadiene (14.5%) y caryophyllene oxide (14.0%). El aceite esencial ha demostrado una alta actividad larvicida contra Aedes aegypti (CL50 = 28.0 µg/mL). En la evaluación del bioensayo con Artemia salina, el aceite esencial demostró CL50 = 98.11 µg/mL. Además, el aceite esencial no mostró citotoxicidad (IC50 > 2.5 mg / mL) mediante el ensayo de hemólisis.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Vitex/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Larvicides , Larva
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 30-35, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914997


Chemical characterization of the essential oils of two Lippia species by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy revealed that limonene (84.3%) and ß-caryophyllene (6.1%) were the most abundant components in Lippia turbinata while (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanone (99.1%) predominated in Lippia integrifolia. Antifungal activity of the essential oils was determined by headspace volatile exposure assay against the fungal phytopathogenic Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. The essential oil of L. turbinata showed potent antifungal activity against the panel of fungi tested while that the oil of L. integrifolia significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and R. solani.

La caracterización química de los aceites esenciales de dos especies de Lippia por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM) y espectroscopia de RMN reveló que limoneno (84,3%) y ß-cariofileno (6,1%) fueron los componentes más abundantes de Lippia turbinata mientras que (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanona (99,1%) predominó en Lippia integrifolia. La actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales se determinó por el ensayo de exposición a los vapores frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani. El aceite esencial de L. turbinata mostró una potente actividad antifúngica frente al panel de hongos ensayados, mientras que el aceite de L. integrifolia inhibió significativamente el crecimiento micelial de S. rolfsii y R. solani.

Ascomycota/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 53-60, ene. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915115


This paper reports the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Pinus dalatensis Ferré, Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex. Tsiang and Pinus armandii subsp. xuannhaensis L.K. Phan. The oils were studied by gas chromatograpgy (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of P. dalatensis were the terpene hydrocarbons namely α-pinene (38.2%), ß- pinene (25.3%), ß-myrcene (11.0%) and ß-caryophyllene (10.5%), while α-cedrol (19.2%) was the only significant compound of P. armandi subsp. xuannhaensis. P. kwangtungensis showed ß-pinene (26.3%), α-pinene (18.0%), limonene (16.1%) and ß-myrcene (10.4%) as the dominant compounds. The volatile constituents of P. dalatensis and P. armandi subsp. xuannhaensis are being reported for the first time.

En este artículo se reportan los constituyentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de Pinus dalatensis Ferré, Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex. Tsiang y Pinus armandii subsp. Xuannhaensis L.K. Phan que se analizaron mediante cromatografía de Gases (GC) y por Cromatografía de Gases acoplada a la Espectrometría de Masas (GC-EM). Los principales constituyentes de P. dalatensis fueron los hidrocarburos terpénicos, a saber, α-pineno (38.2%), ß-pineno (25.3%), ß-mirceno (11.0%) y ß-cariofileno (10.5%). Por otro lado, α- cedrol (19.2%) fue el único compuesto significativo de P. armandi subsp. Xuannhaensis mientras que el aceite de P. kwangtungensis estuvo dominado por ß-pineno (26.3%), α-pineno (18.0%), limoneno (16.1%) y ß-mirceno (10.4%). Los constituyentes volátiles de P. dalatensis y P. armandi subsp. xuannhaensis se informa por primera vez.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pinus/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Vietnam , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(6): 520-528, nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914913


Artemisia genus (family Asteraceae) has been widely used as medicines and cosmetic. The chemical compositions of essential oils extracted from five Artemisia species (A. anethoides, A. giraldii, A. roxburghiana, A. rubripes and A. sacrorum) were analyzed and the repellent activities of five essential oils were investigated by testing percent repellency (PR) in petri dish against Tribolium castaneum. By GC-MS analysis, the common components of the five essential oils were eucalyptol (11.09%-50.05%), camphor (6.28%-33.10%), terpinen- 4-ol (2.46%-12.41%), ß-caryophyllene (0.63%-10.68%) and germacrene D (2.28%-10.01%). 3,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-heptadien-6-ol (11.72%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (24.80%) and ß-farnesene (12.23%) were the characteristic compounds in essential oils of A. sacrorum, A. anethoides and A. rubripes respectively. The essential oils of five plants showed repellent activity against T. castaneum. The PR of others four essential oils were comparable with DEET expect for A. sacrorum. The results indicated that the essential oils of A. anethoides, A. giraldii, A. roxburghiana and A. rubripes had the potential to be developed as repellent for control of T. castaneum.

El género Artemisia (familia Asteraceae) ha sido ampliamente utilizado como medicamentos y cosméticos. Se analizaron las composiciones químicas de los aceites esenciales extraídos de cinco especies de Artemisia (A. anethoides, A. giraldii, A. roxburghiana, A. rubripes y A. sacrorum) y se investigaron las actividades repelentes de cinco aceites esenciales mediante la prueba de repelencia porcentual (PR) en placa de petri contra Tribolium castaneum. Por análisis GC-MS, los componentes comunes de los cinco aceites esenciales fueron eucaliptol (11,09% -50,05%), alcanfor (6,28% -33,10%), terpinen-4-ol (2,46% -12,41%), ß-cariofileno 0,63% -10,68%) y germacrén D (2,28% -10,01%). 3,3,6-trimetil-1,4-heptadien-6-ol (11,72%), 2-isopropil-5-metil-3-ciclohexen-1-ona (24,80%) y ß-farneseno (12,23%). Los compuestos característicos en los aceites esenciales de A. sacrorum, A. anethoides y A. rubripes respectivamente. Los aceites esenciales de cinco plantas mostraron actividad repelente contra T. castaneum. El PR de otros cuatro aceites esenciales eran comparables con DEET esperado para A. sacrorum. Los resultados indicaron que los aceites esenciales de A. anethoides, A. giraldii, A. roxburghiana y A. rubripes tienen el potencial de ser desarrollados como repelentes para el control de T. castaneum.

Animals , Tribolium/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Artemisia/chemistry , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Coleoptera/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry