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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1573-1582, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few studies have explored the impact of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate (PNT) on kidney function. This study aimed to evaluate the association of urinary levels of PNT with renal function as well as the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among the general population in the United States.@*METHODS@#This analysis included data from 13,373 adults (≥20 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2016. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression, to explore the associations of urinary PNT with kidney function. Restricted cubic splines were used to assess the potentially non-linear relationships between PNT exposure and outcomes.@*RESULTS@#After traditional creatinine adjustment, perchlorate (P-traditional) was positively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (adjusted β: 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.25 to 3.26; P  < 0.001), and negatively associated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (adjusted β: -0.05; 95% CI: -0.07 to -0.02; P  = 0.001) in adjusted models. After both traditional and covariate-adjusted creatinine adjustment, urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were positively associated with eGFR (all P values <0.05), and negatively associated with ACR (all P values <0.05); higher nitrate or thiocyanate was associated with a lower risk of CKD (all P values <0.001). Moreover, there were L-shaped non-linear associations between nitrate, thiocyanate, and outcomes. In the adjusted models, for quartiles of PNT, statistically significant dose-response associations were observed in most relationships. Most results were consistent in the stratified and sensitivity analyses.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposures to PNT might be associated with kidney function, indicating a potential beneficial effect of environmental PNT exposure (especially nitrate and thiocyanate) on the human kidney.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Nitrates/adverse effects , Nutrition Surveys , Thiocyanates/urine , Perchlorates/urine , Creatinine , Environmental Exposure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Logistic Models
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2099-2108, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928150

ABSTRACT

According to the polarity of different components in Sanpian Decoction, two fingerprints were established. Then the substance benchmark freeze-dried powder of 15 batches of Sanpian Decoction was prepared, followed by the determination of the fingerprints, index component content, and dry extract rates, the identification of attribution of characteristic peaks, and the calculation of similarities between these fingerprints and the reference(R), the content and transfer rate ranges of ferulic acid, sinapine thiocyanate, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid, and the dry extract rate range. The results showed that the similarities of 15 batches of the substance benchmark fingerprints with R were all greater than 0.900.Further summarization of the characteristic peaks revealed that there were a total of 20 characteristic peaks in fingerprint 1, among which, eight were from Sinapis Semen, four from Paeoniae Radix Alba, six from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and two from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. A total of 16 characteristic peaks were observed in fingerprint 2, including one from Sinapis Semen, three from Paeoniae Radix Alba, eight from Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and four from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The average dry extract rate of 15 batches of substance benchmarks was 18.25%, with a dry extract rate range of 16.28%-20.76%. The index component content and transfer rate ranges were listed as follows: 0.15%-0.18% and 38.81%-58.05% for ferulic acid; 0.26%-0.42% and 36.51%-51.02% for sinapine thiocyanate; 0.09%-0.15% and 48.80%-76.61% for liquiritin; 0.13%-0.24% and 23.45%-35.61% for glycyrrhizic acid. The fingerprint, dry extract rate, and index component content determination was combined for analyzing the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks in the classic prescription Sanpian Decoction.The established quality evaluation method for the substance benchmarks was stable and feasible, which has provided a basis for the quality control of Sanpian Decoction and the follow-up development of related preparations.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Paeonia , Quality Control , Thiocyanates
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 143-151
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158399

ABSTRACT

In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5’-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/adverse effects , Animals , Antithyroid Agents/isolation & purification , Antithyroid Agents/toxicity , Arachis/chemistry , Drug Synergism , Glucosides/analysis , Glucosides/pharmacology , Glucosides/toxicity , Hyperplasia , Hypertrophy , Hyperthyroidism/blood , Hyperthyroidism/chemically induced , Iodide Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Iodine/urine , Male , Nitriles/analysis , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/toxicity , Ovule/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Thyroid Gland/enzymology , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Hormones/blood
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(3): 261-266, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741260

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the anaerobic components of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and of the 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAnT). Nine male physical education students performed: a) a maximal incremental exercise test; b) a supramaximal constant workload test to determine the anaerobic components of the MAOD; and c) a 30-WAnT to measure the peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). The fast component of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and blood lactate accumulation were measured after the supramaximal constant workload test in order to determine the contributions made by alactic (ALMET) and lactic (LAMET) metabolism. Significant correlations were found between PP and ALMET (r=0.71; P=0.033) and between MP and LAMET (r=0.72; P=0.030). The study results suggested that the anaerobic components of the MAOD and of the 30-WAnT are similarly applicable in the assessment of ALMET and LAMET during high-intensity exercise.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Nitrates/urine , Perchlorates/urine , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Hormones
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 807-812, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727006

ABSTRACT

Bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics has been recognized as a significant global health issue. In this study, we carried out the screening of a family of allylic thiocyanates for their action against a diversity of bacteria and fungi with a view to developing new antimicrobial agents. Allylic thiocyanates bearing halogenated aryl groups, which were readily obtained in two steps from the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts, showed moderate-to-high activity against selective pathogens, including a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. In particular cases, methyl (Z)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(thiocyanomethyl)-2-propenoate exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to the reference antibiotic Imipenem.


Subject(s)
Allyl Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Thiocyanates/pharmacology , Allyl Compounds/chemical synthesis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Thiocyanates/chemical synthesis
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(1): 9-9, Jan. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706523

ABSTRACT

Background Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is one of the most important pathogens of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes severe yield losses in all rice-growing regions. Sclerotia, formed from the aggregation of hyphae, are important structures in the life cycles of R. solani and contain a large quantity of polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and pigments. In order to extract high-quality total RNA from the sclerotia of R. solani, five methods, including E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-sodium borate, SDS-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC) and modified Trizol, were compared in this study. Results The electrophoresis results showed that it failed to extract total RNA from the sclerotia using modified Trizol method, whereas it could extract total RNA from the sclerotia using other four methods. Further experiments confirmed that the total RNA extracted using SDS-sodium borate, SDS-PVP and E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit methods could be used for RT-PCR of the specific amplification of GAPDH gene fragments, and that extracted using GTC method did not fulfill the requirement for above-mentioned RT-PCR experiment. Conclusion It is concluded that SDS-sodium borate and SDS-PVP methods were the better ones for the extraction of high-quality total RNA that could be used for future gene cloning and expression studies, whereas E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal RNA Kit was not taken into consideration when deal with a large quantity of samples because it is expensive and relatively low yield.


Subject(s)
Rhizoctonia/genetics , RNA/isolation & purification , Phenols/chemistry , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/chemistry , Thiocyanates/chemistry , Borates/chemistry , RNA, Fungal/genetics , Povidone/chemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Electrophoresis , Guanidines/chemistry
7.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 404-408, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231839

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to investigate the effect of a lactoperoxidase-peroxidase-thiocyanate (LPO-H2O-SCN-) system with different concentrations of iodine (I-) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), particularly on various parameters, including growth, adhesion, glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme activity, and insoluble exopolysaccharide synthesis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>S. mutans ATCC 25175 was used as experimental species. Clonal formation unit (CFU) were counted to investigate the inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. The inhibition rate of bacterial adherence was calculated to analyze the effect on adhesion. Anthrone method was used to determine the content of insoluble exopolysaccharides and the amount of reducing saccharides. GTF activity and enzyme activity were then determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The inhibitory ability of the LPO-H2O2-SCN- system with I- on the cariogenicinity of S. mutans was strengthened as I- concentration was increased. At I- concentration > or = 100 micromol x L(-1) the antibacterial effects were significantly increased compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). At I- concentration > or = 1,000 micromol x L(-1), the antibacterial effects were significantly improved compared with those of the group with SCN-only (P < 0.05). At I- concentration > or = 100 micromol x L(-1), the inhibition rate of bacterial adherence was > 50%; insoluble exopolysaccharide synthesis and GTF enzyme activity were reduced (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The antibacterial effects of the LPO-H2O2-I- system were enhanced by adding I- to overcome the antagonistic effect of physiological SCN- concentration. LPO-H2O2-SCN- system with different concentrations of I- showed statistically significant inhibitory effects on growth, adhesion, insoluble exopolysaccharide synthesis, and GTF enzyme activity.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Adhesion , Hydrogen Peroxide , In Vitro Techniques , Iodine , Lactoperoxidase , Oxidation-Reduction , Streptococcus mutans , Thiocyanates
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4345-4348, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341857

ABSTRACT

This article dealed with the effects of processing method and duration on the major bioactive components (sinigrin and sinapine thiocyanate) in Brassica juncea. The contents of sinigrin and sinapine thiocyanate in decoctions of raw and processed B. juncea were determined and compared by high performance liquid chromatography on a Alltima C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) at 35 degrees C with the acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid as the mobile phrase in gradient elution. The detection wavelength of sinigrin and sinapine thiocyanate was set at 227 nm and 326 nm, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). It was found that with the extended processing duration, the contents of sinigrin and sinapine thiocyanate first increased and then decreased: i.e., 0-2 minutes they increased gradually (for sinigrin, by 9.65% in processed products and 356. 10% in powder; for sinapine thiocyanate, by 12.82% in processed products and 3.41% in powder), and achieved their highest content at 2 min; then, decreased during the next 5 minutes (for sinigrin, by 80.35% in processed products and 82.09% in powder; for sinapine thiocyanate, by 14.29% in processed products and 17.54% in powder), suggesting that processing duration could significantly affect the contents of bioactive components in B. juncea, enzymatic hydrolysis of sinigrin when the seed is crushed in the present of moisture may be responsible for the content change. It is recommended that the slow fire should be the best processing method and the raw seed could be used directly in the water extracts related industrial production.


Subject(s)
Brassica , Chemistry , Choline , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glucosinolates , Chemistry , Powders , Chemistry , Thiocyanates , Chemistry
9.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2013; 12 (45): 51-67
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126944

ABSTRACT

It has been considered by researchers to study the possibility of replacing chemical food additives [synthetic antioxidants] by natural products [medicinal plants]. This study investigated the antioxidant properties of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil [SHEO] on safflower oil oxidation. Different assays have been used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of SHEO: total phenol content [TPC], DPPH, ABTS+, ferric thiocyanate [FTC], beta - carotene bleaching. For evaluation of SHEO effect on safflower oil oxidation, peroxide value [PV], conjugated dienes [CD], and tiobarbituric acid [TBA] indices were compared with BHT [a synthetic antioxidant]. TPC of SHEO was determined to be 293.7 mg gallic acid equivalent in 1 ml of sample and IC[50] was 0.71 mg/ml in DPPH. 0.4 and 0.1 mg/ml of SHEO at all time [1, 5, 10, 15 min] showed the highest and lowest antiradical ABTS+ activity [118.2 and 26.6 microg/ml AscAE =Ascorbic acid equivalent] in 15 min. In FTC and FTC-TBA, 8 mg/ml SHEO showed the highest activity. In beta-carotene bleaching of 0.1-2 mg/ml SHEO, 0.1 has the minimum [%9.02], and 1 and 2 has the maximum inhibitory effects [%34.33 and%36.86 inhibitions]. 4 mg/ml of SHEO had the highest inhibitory effect in the safflower oil test and that peroxide does not have significant difference with 0.1 mg/ml BHT. Antioxidant activities of SHEO concentrations increased in all indices [pandamp; lt; 0.05] and various concentrations were able to slow down the oxidation process


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Safflower Oil , Thiocyanates , Oils, Volatile
10.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 1076-1083, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9496

ABSTRACT

Cyanide poisoning can occur from industrial disasters, smoke inhalation from fire, food, and multiple other sources. Cyanide inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by blocking mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase, which in turn results in anaerobic metabolism and depletion of adenosine triphosphate in cells. Rapid administration of antidote is crucial for life saving in severe cyanide poisoning. Multiple antidotes are available for cyanide poisoning. The action mechanism of cyanide antidotes include formation of methemoglobin, production of less or no toxic complex, and sulfane sulfur supplementation. At present, the available antidotes are amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin, 4-dimethylaminophenol, and dicobalt edetate. Amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, and 4-dimethylaminophenol induce the formation of methemoglobin. Sodium thiosulfate supplies the sulfane sulfur molecule to rhodanese, allowing formation of thiocyanate and regeneration of native enzymes. Hydroxocobalamin binds cyanide rapidly and irreversibly to form cyanocobalamin. Dicobalt edetate acts as a chelator of cyanide, forming a stable complex. Based on the best evidence available, a treatment regimen of 100% oxygen and hydroxocobalamin, with or without sodium thiosulfate, is recommended for cyanide poisoning. Amyl nitrite and sodium nitrite, which induce methemoglobin, should be avoided in victims of smoke inhalation because of serious adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Aminophenols , Amyl Nitrite , Antidotes , Disasters , Edetic Acid , Electron Transport Complex IV , Equipment and Supplies , Fires , Hydroxocobalamin , Inhalation , Metabolism , Methemoglobin , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxygen , Poisoning , Polyphosphates , Regeneration , Smoke , Sodium , Sodium Nitrite , Sulfur , Thiocyanates , Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase , Thiosulfates , Vitamin B 12
11.
An. venez. nutr ; 25(2): 94-99, dic. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-705430

ABSTRACT

El término canola (Canadian Oil Low Acid), designa a una variedad de semillas desarrolladas durante la década de los setenta por métodos tradicionales de fitomejoramiento de la colza. La canola se ubica en el segundo lugar como planta oleaginosa cultivada en el mundo, y no sólo se utiliza en la fabricación de aceite para ensaladas y frituras, sino también en la elaboración de margarinas, mantecas y otros productos alimenticios. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión de la información científica disponible sobre los antecedentes que motivaron el surgimiento de las semillas variedad canola, así como la seguridad y efectividad del consumo de su aceite sobre algunos de los factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). La búsqueda y localización de la información, incluyó una revisión de artículos científicos, para lo cual se utilizaron los descriptores: Canola, enfermedad cardiovascular, aterosclerosis, y antioxidantes, fundamentalmente. La mayoría de los artículos seleccionados estaban relacionados con el efecto de la composición de ácidos grasos de aceites comestibles en la ECV, así como estudios de análisis de antioxidantes en este aceite. Además, se localizaron artículos de organismos reguladores sobre la seguridad del consumo del aceite de canola(AU)


The term canola (Canadian Oil Low Acid) refers to a variety of seeds developed in the seventies by traditional breeding methods of rapeseed. Canola is located in the second most cultivated oilseed plant in the world, and not only used in the manufacture of salad oil and frying, but also in the development of margarines, shortenings and other food products. This paper aims to conduct a review of the available scientific information on the background that led to the emergence of canola seed variety and the safety and effectiveness of its oil consumption on some of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Finding and locating information, including a review of scientific articles. The descriptors were used: Canola, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and antioxidants, mainly. Most selected articles were related to the effect of fatty acid composition of edible oils in VCE and analysis studies of antioxidants in this oil. In addition, articles were located regulators about the safety of canola oil consumption(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oxidation-Reduction , Thiocyanates , Isothiocyanates , Rapeseed Oil/chemical synthesis , Glucosinolates , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Cholesterol , Lipid Metabolism , Fatty Acids
12.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 94-98, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that the potent antioxidants may be potential therapeutic drugs for schizophrenia. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of the potent antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN), found in cruciferous vegetables, on behavioral abnormalities (e.g., hyperlocomotion and prepulse inhibition [PPI] deficits) in mice after a single administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). METHODS: Effects of SFN (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) on hyperlocomotion and PPI deficits in the adult male ddY mice after administration of PCP (3.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]) were examined. RESULTS: Administration of SFN (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]), but not low doses (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly attenuated hyperlocomotion in mice after PCP administration (3.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]). Furthermore, administration of SFN (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the PPI deficits in mice after PCP administration (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SFN has antipsychotic activity in an animal model of schizophrenia. Therefore, it is likely that SFN may be a potential therapeutic drug for schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antioxidants , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Oxidative Stress , Phencyclidine , Schizophrenia , Thiocyanates , Vegetables
13.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; (12): 231-233, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate (BG) in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L.@*METHODS@#Determination of BG was performed on an Hypersil BDS C(18) column at the wavelength of 214 nm with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancer H69 cell in vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) against H69 cell.@*RESULTS@#The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed contains BG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration of BITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation on H69 cell, and the IC(50) was 6.5 μmol/L.@*CONCLUSIONS@#BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product of BG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Carica , Chemistry , Cell Proliferation , Chromatography , Hydrolysis , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Seeds , Chemistry , Thiocyanates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Thioglucosides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 980-983, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252961

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore material basis of the pharmacological differences between the roasting and pro-roasting Raphani Semen.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The two new sulfur-containing compounds (A209 and B221) were found changed after processing in the water decoction. The common precursor-C3 of A209 and B211 and the precursor of C3 were seperated and purified. Their transforming relationship was proved.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The result showed that glucosinolates could decompose into sulforaphane and transform into A209 and B221 further in the boiling process.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This study provides some experimental evidences for revealing the mechanism of Raphani Semen processing.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glucosinolates , Chemistry , Metabolism , Isothiocyanates , Seeds , Chemistry , Sulfur Compounds , Chemistry , Thiocyanates , Chemistry
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1474-1482, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82229

ABSTRACT

Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring compound which is known to induce the phase II antioxidant genes via Nrf2 activation, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated Nrf2 induction in response to SFN in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process. SFN treatment reduced cell viability. Prior to cell death, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated at a high rate within a minute of commencing SFN treatment. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked SFN-induced decrease in cell growth. Erk1/2 was activated within 30 min of SFN addition, whereas Akt phosphorylation did not significantly change until the first 8 hr after SFN treatment but then became substantially low until 48 hr. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation attenuated SFN-induced loss of cell viability. Nrf2 protein levels in both nuclear and whole cell lysates were increased by SFN treatment, which was dependent on ROS production. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA attenuated SFN-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation. Induction of the Nrf2/HO-1 after SFN treatment was potently suppressed by pretreatment with NAC. Overall, our results indicate that SFN mediates antioxidative and antiproliferative responses by generating ROS in BEAS-2B cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bronchi/cytology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/biosynthesis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/biosynthesis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thiocyanates/pharmacology
16.
The Korean Journal of Nutrition ; : 488-497, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-650377

ABSTRACT

Oxygen is necessary to sustain life, yet cellular oxygen metabolism creates destructive elements called free radicals. Free radicals are chemically unbalanced and carrying free electrons that can damage molecules, potentially damaging the cell itself. For this reason, many antioxidant products, including supplements and functional foods, are being developed. In particular, natural products are rich sources of pharmacologically active compounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of target biomaterials in Korean traditional spices such as diallyl sulfide (DAS), capsaicin (CAP), and gingerol (GGR), and to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) compared to sulforaphane (SFN) in HepG2 cells. After the analysis of the cell viability using Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, we determined that the optimum levels were 200 microM DAS, 25 microM CAP, 50 microM GGR, and 12.5 microM SFN. Antioxidant enzymes were measured and protein expression was detected by Western blotting. All treatments showed a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase, catalse, and glutathione peroxidase in HepG2 cells. Additionally, DAS, CAP, GGR and SFN increased the antioxidant system-related transcription factor Nrf2 which was found to be regulated by the activation of MAPK-JNK in this study. In conclusion, these results indicate the protective effects of DAS CAP, GGR, and SFN against H2O2-induced oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid , Allyl Compounds , Antioxidants , Biocompatible Materials , Blotting, Western , Capsaicin , Catechols , Cell Count , Cell Survival , Electrons , Fatty Alcohols , Free Radicals , Functional Food , Glutathione Peroxidase , Hep G2 Cells , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lifting , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen , Spices , Sulfides , Superoxide Dismutase , Thiocyanates , Transcription Factors
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 17-23, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259247

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of tBHQ and sulforaphane on the protein expression in Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway of Caco2 cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human colorectal carcinoma Caco2 cells were treated with 20 micromol/L tBHQ and 5 micromol/L sulforaphane (SFN) respectively. Real time PCR, Western blotting and immunoflourescence staining (IF) were performed to measure the target gene expression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Nrf2, AKR1C1 and NQO1 protein expressions were increased time-dependently in Caco2 cells after treatment with tBHQ and SFN. Time-course experiments showed that tBHQ and SFN increased the accumulation of Nrf2, and concomitantly increased the protein levels of AKR1C1 and NQO1. Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that tBHQ and SFN significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 at 8h after the treatment, and AKR1C1 and NQO1 at 16 h. Confocal microscopy technique showed that Nrf2 accumulated in the nucleus at 6-8 h after treatment with tBHQ. After 1 h treatment with tBHQ the nuclear Nrf2 maintained at elevated level for at least 4 h with tBHQ withdrawn.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>tBHQ and SFN induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and activated Nrf2-dependent regulation of ARE-mediated gene expression in Caco2 cells. In addition, the results provide experimental evidence for choosing the dose and frequency of the inducer in cancer chemoprevention study and in developing inhibitors of Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Hydroquinones , Pharmacology , Isothiocyanates , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Physiology , Oxidative Stress , Genetics , Physiology , Response Elements , Physiology , Signal Transduction , Thiocyanates , Pharmacology
18.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 23-29, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27767

ABSTRACT

Oxidative damage is thought to be a major cause of the progression of dopamine (DA)rgic neurodegeneration as in Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an endogenous molecule required for DA synthesis, exerts oxidative stress to DA-producing cells and facilitates the production of DA quinone. It is known that aconitase, present in both mitochondrial and cytosolic forms, act as an reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensor, and that their inactivation leads to further generation of ROS. In the present study we investigated whether the BH4-associated vulnerability of DA cells might involve aconitase. In DArgic cell line CATH.a, BH4 treatment caused reduction of activity of both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases, and this appeared to be due to direct inactivation of the pre-existing enzyme molecules. Although most of the activity reduced by BH4 was increased upon reactivation reaction under a reducing condition, the restoration was not complete, suggesting that irreversible and covalent modification has occurred. The aconitase inactivation was exacerbated in the presence of DA and attenuated in the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor a-methyl-p-tyrosine, suggesting the involvement of DA. The degree of inactivation increased when the cells were treated with the quinone reductase inhibitor dicoumarol and decreased in the presence of quinone reductase inducer sulforaphane. Taken together, BH4 appeared to lead to both reversible and irreversible inactivation of aconitase and that this is facilitated by the presence of DA and accumulation of DA quinone.


Subject(s)
Aconitate Hydratase , Benzoquinones , Biopterins , Cell Line , Cytosol , Dicumarol , Dopamine , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) , Oxidative Stress , Parkinson Disease , Reactive Oxygen Species , Thiocyanates , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
19.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2009; 8 (31): 132-141
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-133927

ABSTRACT

Artemisia species with common Persian name of Dermaneh are found all over Iran and are used for treatment in infectious diseases such as malaria, hepatitis and other diseases. Some Artemisia species are used in traditionally as tonic and anti-helmintic in north of Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia haussknechtii. Also potential antioxidant and anti microbial activities of the essential oil and ethanolic extract were studied. The essential oil was prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS instruments. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by methods; namely DPPH, free radical scavenging, FTC system and total phenolic compounds analyzing. The antimicrobial activities of the extract were individually tested against a panel of microorganisms using disc diffusion method and MIC [minimum inhibitory concentration] measurement. Forty-eight components were identified constituting 98.35 of total oil. Camphor [12.4%], alpha-Terpineol [9.93%], Davana ether [6/24%], and Bornyl acetate [3.77%] were the major components. Good antioxidant activity of extract; increasing with the increment of concentration of plant extract was revealed. Ethanolic extract of Artemisia haussknechtii inhibited both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. MIC of the extract against yeast was the lowest [2.5 micro sign g/ml]. A known anti-bacterial compound [camphor] was one of major components in the essential oil, ethanolic extract showed good anti-oxidant activity and also extract inhibited growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi. These findings supported some traditional use of this plant


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Antioxidants , Anti-Infective Agents , Plant Extracts , Ethanol , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Gas , Camphor , Iron , Thiocyanates , Aminobiphenyl Compounds , Picrates
20.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2009; 57 (2): 187-192
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166200

ABSTRACT

The lactoperoxidase system [LP-system] is anacceptable chemical method for raw milk preservation, especially in rural areas where refrigeration facilities are absent to farmers. Milk production in most African countries is dominated by small-scale traditional production systems using low yielding local breeds. Therefore, processors who operate in such situations must rely on small volumes of milk from many farmers.Application of the LP-system prolongs the shelf life of raw milk and also encourages groupingof farmers hence facilitating milk collection by processors. The application of the LP-system is a recent preservation method for milk in many African countries whose efficiency has been proven. Therefore, need arose for further studies on the influence of this method on milk processing as well as the quality dairy products. The LP-system was activated by adding 10 ppm sodium thiocyanate and 8.5 ppm sodium per-carbonate to fresh milk


Subject(s)
Milk/chemistry , Food Preservation/chemistry , Thiocyanates , Bicarbonates
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