Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.026
Filter
1.
Borno Med. J. (Online) ; 17(1): 1-11, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1259678

ABSTRACT

Background: A patient is required to be fully relaxed and airway reflexes should be adequately suppressed to allow for smooth insertion of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA).Propofol and a variety of other induction agents and their combinations have been tried to ease its insertion. The use of cheaper alternatives in our environment is highly desirable. Aims and objectives: To compare the ease of insertion of LMA in patients given propofol alone versus thiopentone with lignocaine, as well as assessing the cost effectiveness of these agents in our hospital setting. Methods: This is arandomised single blind prospectivestudy carried out in a Public Tertiary Academic Health Institution. Sixty-four ASA I and II patients equally randomized into 2 groups scheduled for short (not lasting more than one hour) elective gynaecological, orthopaedic, urological and general surgical procedures were recruited into this study. Patients were premedicated with 1g.kg-1 fentanyl intravenously and pre-oxygenated for five minutes. This was followed by an induction dose of either 2.5mg.kg-1propofol (group A) or a sequence of 2mg.kg-1 lignocaine and 5mg.kg-1thiopentone (group B) given by a trained assistant. With the patients in the sniffing position, LMA insertion was attempted immediately after induction of anaesthesia by the anaesthetist (researcher) who observed the ease of LMA insertion using presence or absence of adverse airway responses to LMA insertion such as coughing, gagging, laryngospasm, head and limb movement or inadequate jaw relaxation. These responses were graded as; no response, mild response, moderate response and severe response. Overall assessment of the ease of LMA insertion was then done combining these graded adverse airway responses as; excellent if there were no adverse airway responses, good if responses were mild, satisfactory if responses were moderate and poor if responses were severe with additional anaesthetic required to allow LMA insertion.Results: The average age in group A was 36.5±14 whereas in group B it was 38.7±05 with the p=0.493.There were 22 (56.4%) male patients in group A compared to 17 (43.6%) male patients in group B with p=0.528; whereas, there were 10 (40.0%) female patients in group A compared to 15 (60.0%) female patients in group B with p=0.326. Excellent LMA insertion were observed in 28 (87.5%) patients in group A compared to 27 (84.4%) patients in group B (P= 0.893); Good LMA insertion in 2 (6.3%) patients in group A compared to 1 (3.1%) patient in group B (p= 0.564); Satisfactory in 2 (6.3%) patients in group A compared to 4 (12.5%) patients in group B (p= 0.655).Conclusion: Thiopentone together with Lignocaine provided optimum conditions for laryngeal mask airway insertion comparable to that provided by propofol alone


Subject(s)
Lidocaine , Thiopental
2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 704-712, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to report the initial seizure threshold (IST) of a brief-pulse bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (BP-BL ECT) in Korean patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and to identify IST predictors. METHODS: Among 67 patients who received ECT and diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, we included 56 patients who received 1-millisecond BP-BL ECT after anesthesia with sodium thiopental between March 2012 and June 2018. Demographic and clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of the IST. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 36.9±12.0 years and 30 (53.6%) patients were male. The mean and median IST were 105.9±54.5 and 96 millicoulombs (mC), respectively. The IST was predicted by age, gender, and dose (mg/kg) of sodium thiopental. Other physical and clinical variables were not associated with the IST. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the IST of 1-ms BP-BL ECT following sodium thiopental anesthesia in Korean patients was comparable to those reported in previous literature. The IST was associated with age, gender, and dose of sodium thiopental.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Seizures , Sodium , Thiopental
3.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 967-975, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785489

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.PURPOSE: To compare clonidine and pregabalin with placebo for the attenuation of postoperative pain after thoracolumbar spinal surgery and instrumentationOVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Spine surgery is associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain that needs to be controlled to improve patient’s outcome. Alpha 2 agonists (e.g., clonidine) and gabapentenoids (e.g., pregabalin) are successfully used as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen.METHODS: Total 75 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated into three groups. Group P received pregabalin (150 mg), group C received clonidine (150 mcg), and group N received placebo 90 minutes preoperatively. A standard anesthesia protocol comprising fentanyl, thiopentone, vecuronium, nitrous oxide, and oxygen in isoflurane was used for all patients. Postoperative recovery profile, pain, time for first analgesic, 24-hour analgesic requirement, sedation, and hemodynamic parameters were noted.RESULTS: Recovery profile was similar in all three groups; however, the patients in group P and C were more sedated (p<0.05). Group N patients had a higher Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score (p<0.05) and the time for first analgesic was also lower (p=0.02). Postoperative (24-hour) analgesic requirement was maximum in group N, followed by that in group C and group P. The VAS score was highest in the control group; however, after 12 hours, it was similar in all groups.CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain and analgesic requirement is significantly attenuated by preoperative administration of a single dose of clonidine (150 mcg) or pregabalin (150 mg); pregabalin was more effective. Thus, their use offers a reasonable strategy for pain management in patients undergoing spine surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthesia , Clonidine , Fentanyl , Hemodynamics , Humans , Isoflurane , Nitrous Oxide , Oxygen , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Pregabalin , Prospective Studies , Spine , Thiopental , Vecuronium Bromide , Visual Analog Scale
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In emergency condition, failure in securing airway is a common and serious reason of pediatric death. Rapid intubation is required to minimize physiologic complication in children due to airway failure. Rapid loss of consciousness and rapid onset of neuromuscular blocking agent are necessary for the rapid sequence intubation. In this study, we compared the effects of thiopental sodium, ketamine, and propofol (drugs commonly used to induce anesthesia in children) on the onset time of rocuronium. We also compared the effects of these anesthesia induction drugs on intubation condition and their duration of action. METHODS: A total of 89 patients undergoing various elective surgeries were enrolled and allocated to the following three groups according to the anesthesia induction drug: 1) Group T, thiopental sodium; 2) Group P, propofol; and 3) Group K, ketamine. After loss of consciousness, neuromuscular monitoring was performed and rocurunium 0.6 mg/kg was administered. Onset time and duration of action of rocuronium were measured. Intubation condition was recorded with a tracheal intubation scoring system. Hemodynamic changes were observed before induction until 5 min after endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: The onset time of rocuronium in group K (39.9 s) was significantly faster than that in group T (61.7 s) or group P (50.7 s). There was no significant difference in duration of action of rocuronium or intubation condition among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine can decrease the onset time of rocuronium significantly compared to thiopental sodium or propofol.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Child , Emergencies , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Ketamine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Propofol , Thiopental , Unconsciousness
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104366

ABSTRACT

Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation. Four years later, she was pregnant and the obstetricians consulted us about the safety of the delivery. At 38-weeks into pregnancy, a scheduled caesarian section was carried out under general anesthesia. After induction using thiopental and succinylcholine, intubation was done quickly, followed by DBS turn off. For hemostasis, only bipolar electrocautery was used. Before awakening from the anesthesia, DBS was turned on as the same parameters previously adjusted. After delivery, she could feed her baby by herself, because the dystonia of left upper extremity and hand was improved. Until now, she has been showing continual improvement and being good at housework, carrying for children, with no trouble in daily life. This observation indicates that the patients who underwent DBS could safely be pregnant and deliver a baby.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Child , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia , Electrocoagulation , Female , Globus Pallidus , Hand , Hemostasis , Housekeeping , Humans , Intubation , Parturition , Pregnancy , Succinylcholine , Thiopental , Upper Extremity
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145724

ABSTRACT

The authors describe the successful perioperative management of a 3-year-old boy from Dubai with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty for complete right ureteropelvic junction obstruction. G6PD deficiency is a genetic disorder predisposing patients to hemolytic anemia from oxidative stress. Important considerations in anesthetic management include avoiding oxidative stress, which can be caused by various conditions, and monitoring for hypercapnia, which can cause acidosis and hemolysis. Laparoscopic surgery is usually associated with hypercapnia and therefore an increased risk for respiratory acidosis. During surgery in this particular case, efforts were made to avoid carbon dioxide retention and to keep the patient warm. General anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium, rocuronium, and fentanyl, and maintained with sevoflurane. There were no signs of hemolysis in the perioperative period and he was discharged owing to his improved condition.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Acidosis, Respiratory , Anemia, Hemolytic , Anesthesia, General , Carbon Dioxide , Child, Preschool , Fentanyl , Glucose-6-Phosphate , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Hemolysis , Humans , Hypercapnia , Laparoscopy , Male , Oxidative Stress , Perioperative Period , Thiopental
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 583-593, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829717

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was designed to investigate whether dexmedetomidine and thiopental have cerebral protective effects after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (Group C, n = 10), dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n = 10), thiopental group (Group T, n = 10). After all rats were anesthetized, they were intubated, then mechanically ventilated. A catheter was inserted into the right femoral artery for continuous mean arterial pressure, physiological parameters and blood sampling at baseline, 5 min after occlusion and 20 min after reperfusion. A catheter was inserted into the left femoral vein for intravenous (IV) medication administration. Right common carotid artery of each rat was isolated and clamped for 45 min. At the end of the duration common carotid artery were unclamped and the brain reperfusion was achieved for 90 min. Dexmedetomidine was administered for Group D IV infusion, and Group T received thiopental IV. According to histopathologic scores cerebral ischemia was documented in all rats in Group C, but no ischemia was found in three rats in Group T and in four rats in Group D. Grade 3 cerebral ischemia was documented in three rats in Group C, and in only one rat in both groups T and D. For histopathologic grades the difference between Group T and Group D was not significant (p > 0.05). But the differences between Group C and Group T (p < 0.05) and Group C and Group D (p < 0.01) were statically significant. In conclusion, we demonstrated that dexmedetomidine and thiopental have experimental histopathologic cerebral protective effects on experimental focal cerebral ischemia in rats.


Resumo Este estudo foi desenhado para investigar se dexmedetomidina e tiopental têm efeitos protetores cerebrais após isquemia cerebral focal em ratos. Trinta ratos da linhagem Sprague Dawley foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: controle (Grupo C, n = 10), dexmedetomidina (Grupo D, n = 10) e tiopental (Grupo T, n = 10). Após a anestesia, foram intubados e ventilados mecanicamente. Um cateter foi inserido na artéria femoral direita para monitoração contínua da pressão arterial média (PAM) e dos parâmetros fisiológicos e para coleta de amostras de sangue na fase basal, 5 minutos após a oclusão e 20 minutos após a reperfusão. Um cateter foi inserido na veia femoral esquerda para administração intravenosa (IV) de medicamentos. A artéria carótida comum direita de cada rato foi isolada e pinçada durante 45 minutos. No fim dos 45 minutos, o pinçamento foi removido e a reperfusão do cérebro foi obtida por 90 minutos. Dexmedetomidina foi administrada por infusão IV no Grupo D e tiopental no Grupo T. De acordo com as pontuações histopatológicas, isquemia cerebral foi observada em todos os ratos do Grupo C, mas não foi encontrada em três ratos do Grupo T e em quatro ratos do Grupo D. O grau 3 de isquemia cerebral foi encontrada em três ratos do grupo C e em apenas um rato de ambos os grupos T e D. Para os graus histopatológicos, a diferença entre o Grupo T e o Grupo D não foi significativa (p > 0,05). Porém, as diferenças entre o Grupo C e o Grupo T (p < 0,05) e entre o Grupo C e o Grupo D (p < 0,01) foram estatisticamente significativas. Em conclusão, demonstramos que dexmedetomidina e tiopental têm efeitos histopatológicos protetores cerebrais sobre isquemia cerebral focal experimental em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thiopental/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anesthesia
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5294, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792520

ABSTRACT

Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using in vivo imaging is the cardiac functional parameter most frequently employed in preclinical research. However, there is considerable conflict regarding the effects of anesthetic agents on LVEF. This study aimed at assessing the effects of various anesthetic agents on LVEF in hamsters using transthoracic echocardiography. Twelve female hamsters were submitted to echocardiography imaging separated by 1-week intervals under the following conditions: 1) conscious animals, 2) animals anesthetized with isoflurane (inhaled ISO, 3 L/min), 3) animals anesthetized with thiopental (TP, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and 4) animals anesthetized with 100 mg/kg ketamine plus 10 mg/kg xylazine injected intramuscularly (K/X). LVEF obtained under the effect of anesthetics (ISO=62.2±3.1%, TP=66.2±2.7% and K/X=75.8±1.6%) was significantly lower than that obtained in conscious animals (87.5±1.7%, P<0.0001). The K/X combination elicited significantly higher LVEF values compared to ISO (P<0.001) and TP (P<0.05). K/X was associated with a lower dispersion of individual LVEF values compared to the other anesthetics. Under K/X, the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVdD) was increased (0.60±0.01 cm) compared to conscious animals (0.41±0.02 cm), ISO (0.51±0.02 cm), and TP (0.55±0.01 cm), P<0.0001. The heart rate observed with K/X was significantly lower than in the remaining conditions. These results indicate that the K/X combination may be the best anesthetic option for the in vivo assessment of cardiac systolic function in hamsters, being associated with a lower LVEF reduction compared to the other agents and showing values closer to those of conscious animals with a lower dispersion of results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Ketamine/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Reference Values , Systole/drug effects , Thiopental/pharmacology , Time Factors , Xylazine/pharmacology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167821

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Blood Pressure , Carbon Dioxide , Extracellular Fluid , Heart Rate , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Injections, Intravenous , Isoflurane , Lactic Acid , Macaca mulatta , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Propofol , Respiratory Rate , Thiopental
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(5): 1231-1240, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764456

ABSTRACT

The cardiopulmonary changes in propofol- or thiopental-anesthetized dogs induced to pulmonary hypertension (PH) were evaluated. Twenty adult animals were randomly assigned to two groups: propofol group (PG) and thiopental group (TG). In PG, propofol was used for induction (8(0.03mg.kg-1) and anesthesia maintenance (0.8mg.kg-1.minute-1), while, in TG, thiopental was used (22±2.92mg.kg-1; 0.5mg.kg-1.minute-1, respectively). Mechanical ventilation using time cycle was started. PH was induced by administration of serotonin (5HT) (10µg.kg-1 and 1mg.kg-1.hour-1) through a thermodilution catheter positioned in the pulmonary artery. The measurements were performed before administration of 5HT (T0), after 30 minutes (T30), then at 15-minute intervals (T45, T60, T75 and T90). No differences between groups were registered for systolic (sPAP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI). In PG, sPAP and mPAP increased from T30. While in TG, sPAP and mPAP increased from T75. In PG, heart rate (HR) increased from T30, in which PG was higher than TG. The TPRI values decreased from T30 in PG, and in TG, at T45, T60 and T90. In PG, at T0, PVRI was lower than at other times. In PG, arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) decreased from T60 and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (PA-aO2) increased at T60. In TG, at T0 PaO2 was higher than at T30, T45, T60 and T90, while PA-aO2 at T0 was lower than at T90. From T30 to T90, TG showed higher PaO2 means and lower arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) values when compared to PG. In PG, from T30, PaCO2 increased, while in TG this parameter was stable. In conclusion, thiopental anesthesia attenuated the cardiopulmonary changes resulting from serotonin-induced PH, probably by attenuation of vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction.


Avaliaram-se as alterações cardiopulmonares em cães anestesiados com propofol ou tiopental induzidos à hipertensão pulmonar (HP). Vinte animais adultos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo propofol (PG) e grupo tiopental (TG). No PG, o propofol foi usado para indução (8(0,03mg.kg-1) e manutenção da anestesia (0,8mg.kg-1minuto-1), enquanto no TG foi empregado o tiopental (22(2,92mg.kg-1; 0,5mg.kg-1.minute-1, respectivamente). Em seguida, a ventilação mecânica ciclada a tempo foi iniciada. A HP foi induzida pela administração de serotonina (5HT) (10µg.kg-1e 1mg.kg-1.hour-1) por meio de cateter de termodiluição posicionado na artéria pulmonar. As mensurações tiveram início antes da administração da 5HT (T0), depois de 30 minutos (T30), seguida de intervalos de 15 minutos (T45, T60, T75 e T90). Diferenças entre os grupos não foram registradas para pressões sistólica (PAPs) e média (PAPm) da artéria pulmonar, pressão arterial média (PAM), índices da resistência periférica total (IRPT) e da resistência vascular pulmonar (IRVP). A PAPs e a PAPm aumentaram a partir de T30, no PG, e a partir de T75, no TG. No PG, a frequência cardíaca (FC) aumentou a partir de T30, no qual PG foi maior que TG. O IRPT diminuiu no T45, T60 e T90, no TG, e a partir de T30 no PG. No PG, no T0, IRVP foi menor que nos outros momentos. No PG, a pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2) diminuiu a partir de T60, e a diferença de tensão entre o oxigênio alveolar e arterial (PA-aO2) aumentou no T60. No TG, no T0, a PaO2 foi maior que no T30, T45, T60 e T90, enquanto a PA-aO2,, no T0, foi menor que no T90. Entre T30 e T90, TG apresentou maior PaO2 e menor pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2) quando comparado ao PG. No PG, a partir de T30, a PaCO2 aumentou. A anestesia com tiopental abrandou as mudanças cardiopulmonares resultantes da indução da HP pela serotonina, provavelmente devido à atenuação da vasoconstrição e broncoconstrição.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Anesthesia, Intravenous/adverse effects , Hypertension, Pulmonary/veterinary , Propofol/analysis , Thiopental/analysis , Anesthesia, Intravenous/veterinary , Pulmonary Heart Disease/veterinary , Monitoring , Serotonin/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 36(2)jun. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767263

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the long term nociceptive response determined by use of two general anesthetics, one intravenous and the other inhalatory, in young animals. In the first experiment, the animals of 21 days of age were divided into control (saline) and thiopental (35 mg/kg, i.p.) groups. In the second experiment, rats of the same age were divided in two groups ­ halothane (2%) and control. In experiment 1, there was difference between groups ­ reduction of tail-flick latency in the group thiopental (P< 0.05). In experiment 2, there were no differences between groups or interaction between time versus group (F(1,19)=0.11 for groups, P>0.05; F(1,19)=0.032 for the interaction, P>0.05). The results obtained in this study showed that halothane did not alter the nociceptive response in young animals. However, the thiopental induced hyperalgesic response in rats. (AU)


O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a resposta nociceptiva a longo prazo relacionada ao uso de dois anestésicos gerais ­ um intravenoso e outro inalatório, em animais jovens. No primeiro experimento, os animais de 21 dias de idade foram divididos nos grupos controle (solução salina) e tiopental sódico (35 mg/kg, i.p.). No segundo experimento, animais de mesma idade foram divididos em dois grupos ­ halotano (2%) e controle. No Experimento 1, houve redução da latência de retirada da cauda no grupo tiopental (P<0,05). No Experimento 2, não houve diferença entre os grupos ou interação entre grupo x tempo (F(1,19)=0,11 para grupos, P>0,05; F(1,19)=0,032 para a interação, P>0,05). Os resultados obtidos nesse estudo demonstraram que o halotano não altera a resposta nociceptiva em animais jovens. Entretanto, o tiopental induziu resposta hiperalgésica nestes ratos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Reaction Time , Thiopental/administration & dosage , Nociception/drug effects , Halothane/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Anesthetics, Inhalation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to compare the incidence of emergence agitation (EA) between inhalation and intravenous anesthesia induction in children after sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS: In this prospective and double-blind study, 100 children aged 3 to 7 years were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to the sevoflurane (Group S) or thiopental (Group T) anesthesia induction groups. Anesthesia was induced using 8% sevoflurane and 4-6 mg/kg thiopental in Groups S and T, respectively. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. The children were evaluated at 5 and 20 min after arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with a four-point agitation scale and the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The incidence of EA and administration of the rescue agent were recorded. RESULTS: The incidence of EA was significantly lower in Group T compared to Group S at 5 min after PACU arrival (3/49 patients, 6% vs. 12/47 patients, 26%, P = 0.019). However, there was no difference between the two groups at 20 min after PACU arrival (23/49 vs. 19/47 patients in Group T vs. Group S, P = 0.425). The overall incidence of EA was 60% (28/47 patients) in Group S and 41% (20/49 patients) in Group T (P = 0.102). The number of children who received propofol as a rescue agent was significantly lower in Group T (Group S: 14/47 vs. Group T: 5/49, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous anesthesia induction with thiopental reduced the incidence of EA in the early PACU period compared to inhalation induction with sevoflurane in 3- to 7-year-old children undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Child , Delirium , Dihydroergotamine , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Incidence , Inhalation , Nitrous Oxide , Pediatrics , Propofol , Prospective Studies , Thiopental
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73836

ABSTRACT

A reninoma is an uncommon, benign, renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cell tumor that causes secondary hypertension in young patients. This hypertension is treated by tumor resection. Except for increased levels of plasma renin and angiotensin I and II, the other physical and laboratory examinations and electrocardiographs were within normal limits upon admission of a 19-year-old woman with a reninoma. For percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental sodium and rocuronium bromide and maintained with servoflurane (2-4 vol%) and oxygen. The operation ended uneventfully in hemodynamic stability. However, the patient complained of dizziness while sitting 5 hours after the operation, and hypotension was diagnosed. After aggressive normal saline (1 L) infusion over 30 min, the hypotension was corrected and the patient recovered without any other surgical complications. Here, we report the anesthetic management of a patient who underwent percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation for reninoma destruction, particularly focusing on postoperative hypotension.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Angiotensin I , Catheter Ablation , Dizziness , Electrocardiography , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension , Hypotension , Oxygen , Plasma , Renin , Thiopental , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The potassium disturbance associated with thiopental continuous infusion in neurosurgical patients is well known. However, the effect of propofol continuous infusion on serum potassium levels has not been investigated extensively. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 60 consecutive patients who received coma therapy or deep sedation for intracranial pressure control using either thiopental or propofol between January 2010 and January 2012. RESULTS: The overall incidence of hypokalemia (K5.0 mmol/L, 32.4% vs. 4.3%, p=0.010) and the peak potassium concentration (4.8 mmol/L vs. 4.2 mmol/L, p=0.037) after the cessation of therapy were higher in thiopental group. On multivariate analysis, thiopental [8.82 (1.00-77.81); p=0.049] and duration of continuous infusion [1.02 (1.00-1.04); p=0.016] were associated with rebound hyperkalemia once therapy was discontinued. CONCLUSION: Propofol was less frequently associated with moderate to severe hypokalemia after induction and rebound hyperkalemia following the cessation of continuous infusion than thiopental.


Subject(s)
Coma , Deep Sedation , Humans , Hyperkalemia , Hypokalemia , Incidence , Intracranial Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Potassium , Propofol , Thiopental
15.
Annals Abbassi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College. 2014; 19 (2): 79-84
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-168086

ABSTRACT

To assess the effect on intubating conditions and haemodynamic response on intubation of two different induction agents etomidate and thiopental sodium with rocuronium during rapid sequence induction. This prospective quasi experimentalstudy was conducted in Department Of Anaesthesia, SICU and Pain Management, Dow Medical College, Civil Hospital Karachi and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital Karachi Medical and Dental College over a period of one year. Total 120 American Society of Anaesthesiologists [ASA] physical class I and II, adult patients of either gender, aged between 18 to 60 years, undergoing elective surgery were allocated randomly into two equal groups to receive either intravenous thiopental sodium [Group NTR] or etomidate[Group NER] for rapid sequence induction. Group NER was given nalbuphine 0.1 mg/kg, induction agent etomidate 3 mg/kg with muscle relaxant rocuronium 1.0 mg/kg while in group NTR induction agent thiopental sodium was given in the dose of 4 mg/kg with nalbuphine and rocuronium in the same doses. After sixty seconds, laryngoscopy was done. Intubating condition was assessed using the criteria of Cooper and colleagues: ease of intubation, condition of vocal cords and response to intubation. Cardiovascular response on intubation in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate was evaluated at 0,1, 3 and 5 minutes. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. Intubating conditions which were assessed in terms of ease of laryngoscopy, condition of vocal cords at intubation and intubation response coughing, bucking and diaphragmatic movement were significantly better in the group NER [p<0.05]. Similarly, arterial blood pressure remained close to base line in NER group but there was significant fall in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in group NTR. However, there was no significant difference in change in the heart rate in the groups. Etomidate-rocuronium is better than thiopental-rocuronium in terms of intubating conditions and haemodynamic stability during rapid sequence induction in non-septic surgical patients in emergency department


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Etomidate/pharmacology , Thiopental/pharmacology , Androstanols/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Nalbuphine , Laryngoscopy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we assessed the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of sevoflurane for reducing a rocuronium-induced reaction, based on the Dixon's up-and-down method. We also assessed the 50 and 95% effective end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (ETsev), based on the probit regression curve of the probability of nonwithdrawal reaction. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, double-blind study in 23 males and 24 females. After using 2.5% thiopental sodium (4 mg/kg), anesthesia was induced in the patients. The patients then inhaled sevoflurane with 5 vol% in 6 L/min of oxygen. When the target ETsev was achieved, a nurse injected the intubating dose of rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) for 5-10 s under the free flow of intravenous fluid. After the nurse evaluated the response, the nurse recorded the maximum heart rate during 30 s and the mean arterial pressure after rocuronium injection. RESULTS: Based on Dixon's up-and-down method, the EC50 of sevoflurane was 2.5 alpha 0.5 vol% in males and 2.5 alpha 0.3 vol% in females. The probit regression curve of the probability of nonwithdrawal reaction showed that in males the 50% effective ETsev was 2.4 vol% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-3.1 vol%) and the 95% effective ETsev was 3.5 vol% (95% CI, 2.9-11.0 vol%); in females, the 50% effective ETsev was 2.4 vol% (95% CI, 2.1-2.7 vol%) and the 95% effective ETsev was 3.0 vol% (95% CI, 2.7-4.5 vol%). CONCLUSIONS: The inhalation of sevoflurane during the induction period may provide a simple and reliable means of reducing rocuronium-induced reactions without adverse hemodynamic changes. There was no significant difference between males and females.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Double-Blind Method , Female , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Inhalation , Male , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Thiopental
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During induction of general anesthesia, the intravenous injection of rocuronium is often associated with withdrawal movement of the arm due to pain, and this abrupt withdrawal may result in dislodgement of the venous catheter, injury, or inadequate injection of rocuronium. We performed this study to evaluate the 50 and 95% effective end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane (ETsev) for preventing rocuronium-induced withdrawal of the arm. METHODS: We conducted a prospective double-blind study in 31 pediatric patients. After free flow of lactated Ringer's IV fluid was confirmed, anesthesia was induced in the patients by using 2.5% thiopental sodium (4 mg/kg) and sevoflurane (4 vol%) with 6 L/min of oxygen. When the target ETsev was reached, preservative-free 1% lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg) was intravenously injected during manual venous occlusion and rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) was injected after lidocaine injection under free-flow intravenous fluid. A nurse who was an investigator and was blinded to the ETsev injected the rocuronium. The nurse evaluated the response. RESULTS: Non-withdrawal movement was observed in 5 out of 11 patients with ETsev 3.0 vol% and in 5 out of 6 patients with ETsev 3.5 vol%. By Dixon's up-and-down method, the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of sevoflurane for non-withdrawal movement at rocuronium injection was 3.1 +/- 0.4 vol%. A logistic regression curve of the probability of non-withdrawal movements showed that the 50% effective ETsev for abolishing withdrawal movement at rocuronium injection was 2.9 vol% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-3.8 vol%) and the 95% effective ETsev was 4.3 vol% (95% CI 3.6-9.8 vol%). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the 50 and 95% effective ETsev that prevent withdrawal movement at rocuronium injection are 2.9 and 4.3 vol%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Arm , Catheters , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine , Logistic Models , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , Research Personnel , Thiopental
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thiopental and propofol have been widely used for general anesthesia induction, but their impacts on cardiac function have not been well described. A recent study speculated that anesthesia induction using propofol 2 mg/kg transiently reduced left ventricular (LV) contraction by analyzing tissue Doppler-derived imaging (TDI) during induction phase. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare the impacts of propofol- and thiopental-induction on LV function. METHODS: Twenty-four female patients with normal LV function undergoing non-cardiac surgery were randomly administered intravenous bolus thiopental (5 mg/kg, Thiopental-group, n = 12) or propofol (2 mg/kg, Propofol-group, n = 12) for anesthesia-induction. TDI of septal mitral annular velocity during systole (S'), early diastole (e') and atrial contraction (a') were determined by transthoracic echocardiography before and 1, 3, and 5 minutes after thiopental/propofol administration (T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively). RESULTS: The bispectral index and systolic blood pressure declined significantly during anesthesia induction in both groups, however, more depressed in Thiopental-group compared with those in Propofol-group at T2 and T3 (all, p < 0.05). Among TDI two parameters demonstrated a significant inter-group difference: the S' in propofol was lower than that in Thiopental-group at T3 (p = 0.002), and a' velocities were persistently lower in Propofol-group, compared with same time values in Thiopental-group (T1, T2, and T3: p = 0.025, 0.007, and 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSION: Anesthesia induction using propofol revealed a more persistent and profound decline of LV and atrial contraction than that using thiopental. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Blood Pressure , Diastole , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Propofol , Systole , Thiopental
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main disadvantage of rocuronium is the pain associated with vascular injection. We evaluated the efficacy of palonosetron for reducing pain after rocuronium injection. METHODS: Eighty patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomly divided into two groups: Group C (normal saline 1.5 ml, n = 40) and Group P (palonosetron 0.075 mg, n = 40). Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 5 mg/kg and the test drug was injected over 10 seconds. Thirty seconds after the injection of the test drug, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was injected over 30 seconds and the response was recorded. Injection pain was graded using a 4-point scale. The grade was 0 points for no movement, 1 point for wrist movement, 2 points for elbow or shoulder movement, and 3 points for whole body movement. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded on arrival in the operating room and before and 30 seconds after rocuronim injection. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the grade 1 response between the two groups; however, the grade 2 and 3 responses in Group P were 5 (12.5%) and 4 (10%), respectively, which were significantly lower than in Group C, with 13 (32.5%) responses for each grade. There were no significant differences in hemodynamic changes within each group. However, the difference in mean arterial pressure before and after the injection of rocuronium was significantly larger in Group C compared to Group P. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with palonosetron 0.075 mg reduced the incidence and severity of withdrawal movement after rocuronium administration.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Elbow , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Incidence , Operating Rooms , Shoulder , Thiopental , Wrist
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane anesthesia commonly causes emergence agitation (EA) in children. One previous study has reported that the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) during the washout of sevoflurane may reduce EA by decreasing the residual sevoflurane concentration, while many animal studies suggest that N2O poses a potential risk to children. The present study was designed to compare EA in children assigned to receive sevoflurane with N2O (group N) or sevoflurane alone (group S). METHODS: We enrolled 80 children aged 3-10 years. Anesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg thiopental sodium, 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium and 0.5 mg/kg ketorolac, and was maintained with 50% N2O and sevoflurane in group N or with sevoflurane alone in group S. The sevoflurane concentration was adjusted with a bispectral index (BIS) of 40-60. After completion of the surgery, N2O and sevoflurane were simultaneously discontinued and replaced with oxygen (O2) at 6 L/min. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (Et Sevo) (%), BIS at the end of surgery, Et Sevo at recovery of self-respiration and emergence profiles were recorded. EA occurrence, pain score and rescue fentanyl consumption were assessed in the postanesthesia care unit. RESULTS: Et Sevo was significantly lower in group N (1.9%) than in group S (2.3%) at the end of surgery. However, there were no differences in Et Sevo at recovery of self-respiration, emergence times, the incidence of EA, pain score or dose of rescue fentanyl between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing adenotonsillectomy with preemptive ketorolac, anesthetic maintenance using sevoflurane alone does not affect the incidence of EA or emergence profiles compared to anesthetic maintenance using sevoflurane with N2O.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Child , Dihydroergotamine , Fentanyl , Humans , Incidence , Ketorolac , Nitrous Oxide , Oxygen , Thiopental
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL