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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1431-1435, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355672

ABSTRACT

A radiologia é uma importante ferramenta complementar para o diagnóstico de diversas afecções em diferentes espécies. O uso de exames complementares na medicina de animais silvestres, em especial o exame de imagem, traz inúmeras informações acerca do paciente. Este trabalho apresenta os dados obtidos por meio de um levantamento dos exames radiográficos realizados em animais silvestres entre os anos de 2017 e 2020, no Laboratório de Diagnóstico de Imagem e Cardiologia (LADIC), do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (HCV/UFPel). Ao todo, foram avaliados 464 prontuários, sendo 293 (63,1%) de aves, 135 (29,1%) de mamíferos e 36 (7,8%) de répteis. As alterações mais encontradas nos exames radiológicos foram fratura de membros torácicos para as duas primeiras classes, e pneumonia para a última.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Animals, Wild/injuries , Brazil , Radiography/veterinary , Radiography/statistics & numerical data
2.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1147, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Dentro de la atención al lesionado con trauma torácico se cuenta con varios medios diagnósticos, entre ellos la evaluación por ecografía focalizada en trauma extendido a tórax, el cual ha mostrado una alta sensibilidad, aun realizado por médicos no radiólogos como cirujanos generales, emergencistas e intensivistas. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la ecografía torácica extendida realizada por cirujanos en lesionados con traumatismo torácico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas con un diseño transversal, en 1052 pacientes ingresados en la sala de emergencia. Se les realizó la evaluación por ecografía torácica extendida en el Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García", durante el período comprendido entre enero de 2020 y febrero de 2021. Resultados: Fueron realizados en un periodo de 1 año un total de 1052 ultrasonidos torácicos, 221 casos fueron positivos, de ellos 81 neumotórax (7,7 por ciento) y 62 hemoneumotórax (5,9 por ciento) todos confirmados por tomografía de tórax. La edad promedio fue de 45,27 (18-97), el sexo masculino prevaleció con 772 casos (73,4 por ciento). Los mecanismos productores de trauma más frecuentes fueron: caída de altura 273 casos (26 por ciento) y trauma contuso 181 casos (17,2 por ciento). La ecografía torácica extendida obtuvo una sensibilidad de un 95,24 por ciento y una especificidad de 99,88 por ciento en el diagnóstico lesiones torácicas. Conclusiones: La ecografía torácica extendida demostró que en manos de los cirujanos generales es una herramienta confiable, segura, no invasiva, poco costosa, repetible, que permite diagnosticar rápidamente lesiones torácicas y tratarlas(AU)


Introduction: Within care for the injured patient with thoracic trauma there are several diagnostic means. For example, extended focused assessment with sonography for thoracic trauma has shown high sensitivity, even when performed by non-radiologists such as general surgeons, emergency specialists and intensivists. Objective: To determine the usefulness of extended thoracic sonography performed by surgeons on injured patients with thoracic trauma. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests assessment was carried out in 1052 patients admitted to the emergency room. They were assessed by extended thoracic sonography at General Calixto García University Hospital, during the period between January 2020 and February 2021. Results: A total of 1052 thoracic ultrasounds were performed in a period of one year, of which 221 cases were positive. Of them, 81 were pneumothorax (7.7 percent) and 62 were hemopneumothorax (5.9 percent), all confirmed by chest tomography. The average age was 45.27 (18-97). The male sex prevailed, with 772 cases (73.4 percent). The most frequent trauma-producing mechanisms were altitude fall, accounting for 273 cases (26 percent), and blunt trauma, accounting for 181 cases (17.2 percent). Extended thoracic ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 95.24 percent and a specificity of 99.88 percent in the diagnosis of thoracic injuries. Conclusions: Extended thoracic ultrasound showed that, in the hands of general surgeons, it is a reliable, safe, noninvasive, inexpensive and repeatable tool that allows rapid diagnosis and treatment of thoracic injuries(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma/methods , Hemopneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Medisan ; 25(4)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1340211

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trauma torácico se encuentra entre las primeras causas de muerte, fundamentalmente en personas jóvenes. Objetivos: Caracterizar a una población operada por traumatismos torácicos según variables clinicoepidemiológicas y describir los hallazgos tomográficos posquirúrgicos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional y descriptivo de 48 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Radiología del Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, de enero del 2016 a diciembre del 2018, a los cuales se les realizó tomografía computarizada multidetector. Resultados: Los traumas torácicos predominaron en personas jóvenes del sexo masculino, asociadas fundamentalmente a acciones violentas que provocaron traumas abiertos. La contusión pulmonar resultó ser el hallazgo tomográfico inicial más frecuente, en tanto, el neumotórax persistente y el hemotórax coagulado constituyeron los hallazgos tomográficos más influyentes en la decisión de una reintervención quirúrgica. Conclusiones: La tomografía es un medio diagnóstico que permite una descripción detallada del estado posoperatorio de los órganos afectados, con un alto valor orientativo para decidir procedimientos quirúrgicos posteriores.


Introduction: The thoracic trauma is among the first causes of death, fundamentally in young people. Objectives: To characterize a population operated due to thoracic trauma according to clinical epidemiological variables and describe the postsurgical tomographic findings. Methods: An observational and descriptive study of 48 patients assisted in the Radiology Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2016 to December, 2018, to whom a multidetector computed tomography was carried out. Results: The thoracic traumas prevailed in young male people, fundamentally associated with violent actions that caused open traumas. The lung contusion was the most frequent initial tomographic finding, as long as, the persistent pneumothorax and the coagulated hemothorax constituted the most influential tomographic findings in the decision of a surgical reintervention. Conclusions: Tomography is a diagnostic means that allows a detailed description of the postoperative state in the affected organs, with a high orientative value to decide later surgical procedures.


Subject(s)
Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Pneumothorax/surgery , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Hemothorax/surgery
4.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 540-544, 20210000. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254390

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Chest trauma is one of the most common causes of death corresponding to 20 to 25 % of cases. The majority of the patients (85%), can be managed with only a tube thoracostomy. Our objective by presenting this case report is to provide an example of how to manage a challenging chest tube thoracostomy in a patient with cardiac hernia diagnosed in the preoperative phase, based on signs of computed tomography. Case report. A 45-year-old male presented to our emergency department who fell from a light pole 7 meters high. He fell to the ground on his back. Physical examination revealed a huge subcutaneous emphysema on his entire anterior chest wall and presented no sensitivity or movements below the navel line. After the initial assessment and management care, the patient improved. As the patient stabilized we decided to go to CT. The scan revealed pericardial rupture with only the right pericardial circumference intact, the heart herniated into the left pleural space, bilateral pneumothorax, small right hemothorax and a relevant subcutaneous emphysema surrounding the chest. We decided to perform the blunt dissection technique to insert chest tubes bilaterally because of safety. After performed it the patient was transferred to cardiothoracic department. Discussion. There is a variety of techniques to perform tube thoracostomy but the blunt dissection remain the safer, especially when we are facing an anatomic distortion of the heart. Conclusion. We present a case report of a challenging thoracic drainage performed in a patient with traumatic cardiac hernia, which procedure was successful


Introducción. El traumatismo torácico es una de las causas más comunes de muerte y corresponde al 20 a 25 % de los casos. La mayoría de los pacientes (85 %) pueden tratarse solo con toracostomía. Nuestro objetivo al presentar este informe de caso es proporcionar un ejemplo de cómo manejar una toracostomía desafiante en un paciente con hernia cardíaca, diagnosticada en la fase preoperatoria, basada en signos de tomografía computarizada. Presentación del caso. Paciente masculino de 45 años que ingresa a nuestro departamento de emergencias luego de caída de 7 metros de altura (poste de luz), cayendo de espaldas al suelo. El examen físico reveló un enfisema subcutáneo importante en todo el tórax anterior y sin sensibilidad ni movimientos debajo de la línea del ombligo. Después de la evaluación y atención inicial el paciente mejoró y se decidió realizar una tomografía computarizada que reveló la rotura pericárdica, con solo la circunferencia pericárdica derecha intacta, el corazón herniado en el espacio pleural izquierdo, neumotórax bilateral, pequeño hemotórax en el lado derecho y enfisema subcutáneo rodeando completamente el tórax. Se escogió una técnica de disección roma para insertar el tubo torácico en ambos hemitórax, debido a su mayor seguridad. Posteriormente, el paciente fue trasladado al departamento de cirugía cardiotorácica. Discusión. Existe una variedad de técnicas para realizar una toracostomía con sonda, pero la disección roma sigue siendo la más segura, especialmente cuando enfrentamos una distorsión anatómica del corazón. Conclusión. Presentamos el caso de un drenaje torácico desafiante practicado a un paciente con hernia cardíaca traumática, con éxito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries , Heart Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Thoracostomy , Chest Tubes , Myocardial Contusions
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 145-147, Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156090

ABSTRACT

Abstract Transmediastinal gunshot wounds (TGWs) may lead to life-threatening injuries of vital organs such as large vessels, the esophagus, and lungs. Although they are not commonly encountered in pregnant women, additional caution should be given to these patients. Physical examination for the diagnosis and the choice of treatment modality contain controversial points in hemodynamically stable patients, and resuscitation has excessive importance due to physiological changes in pregnancy. We present a hemodynamically stable 26-week pregnant woman brought to the emergency department for TGW. She had a 1-cm diameter of bullet entrance hole on the right anterior 4th intercostal space, 2 cm lateral to the sternum, and a 3-cm diameter exit hole on the right posterior 12th intercostal space on the midscapular line.With our conservative approach, she had an uncomplicated pregnancy period, and gave birth to a healthy baby at term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Thoracic Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds, Gunshot/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/therapy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Resuscitation , Thoracic Injuries/therapy , Wounds, Gunshot/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hemodynamics
6.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 311-319, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922350

ABSTRACT

Rib fracture is the most common injury in chest trauma. Most of patients with rib fractures were treated conservatively, but up to 50% of patients, especially those with combined injury such as flail chest, presented chronic pain or chest wall deformities, and more than 30% had long-term disabilities, unable to retain a full-time job. In the past two decades, surgery for rib fractures has achieving good outcomes. However, in clinic, there are still some problems including inconsistency in surgical indications and quality control in medical services. Before the year of 2018, there were 3 guidelines on the management of regional traumatic rib fractures were published at home and abroad, focusing on the guidance of the overall treatment decisions and plans; another clinical guideline about the surgical treatment of rib fractures lacks recent related progress in surgical treatment of rib fractures. The Chinese Society of Traumatology, Chinese Medical Association, and the Chinese College of Trauma Surgeons, Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized experts from cardiothoracic surgery, trauma surgery, acute care surgery, orthopedics and other disciplines to participate together, following the principle of evidence-based medicine and in line with the scientific nature and practicality, formulated the Chinese consensus for surgical treatment of traumatic rib fractures (STTRF 2021). This expert consensus put forward some clear, applicable, and graded recommendations from seven aspects: preoperative imaging evaluation, surgical indications, timing of surgery, surgical methods, rib fracture sites for surgical fixation, internal fixation method and material selection, treatment of combined injuries in rib fractures, in order to provide guidance and reference for surgical treatment of traumatic rib fractures.


Subject(s)
China , Consensus , Flail Chest , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Rib Fractures/surgery , Thoracic Injuries
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021263, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249034

ABSTRACT

Blunt chest trauma (BCT) is one of the rarest causes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This paper reports the case of a young married man who suffered from AMI due to BCT sustained in a fight with his wife. The histopathology examination revealed a rupture of atherosclerotic plaque with superimposed thrombus in the proximal left anterior descending artery. This report also reviews previously reported BCT-induced AMI cases in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thoracic Injuries/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Autopsy , Coronary Thrombosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Morphological and Microscopic Findings
8.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 380-387, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288146

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las fracturas costales son la lesión más frecuente en los traumatismos torácicos. La fijación de las fracturas ha estado dirigida clásicamente al volet costal. En los últimos años se han extendido las indi caciones a las fracturas múltiples desplazadas aun sin volet. Se consideran asimismo otras indicaciones de osteosíntesis menos frecuentes. La neumonía y contusión pulmonar graves que requieren asisten cia respiratoria mecánica son consideradas contraindicaciones para la fijación quirúrgica. La primera semana es el momento óptimo para su realización. Diversos dispositivos de fijación se han ideado; las placas de titanio son las más utilizadas. La osteosíntesis costal ofrece a los pacientes una recuperación más rápida con menor estadía hospitalaria y en cuidados críticos, así como mejor funcionalidad respi ratoria y menor dolor en el corto y largo plazo.


ABSTRACT Rib fractures are the most common injuries in chest trauma. Fracture fixation has been traditionally performed in flail chest patients. Over the past years, the indication has been extended to multiple, severely displaced non-flail pattern fractures. Other less common indications for osteosynthesis have also been considered. Severe pneumonia and lung contusion requiring mechanical ventilation are considered contraindication for surgical fixation. The optimal timing for the intervention is the first week. Several devices have been developed for fracture fixation; titanium plates are the most commonly used. Rib fixation offers patients a more rapid recovery with shorter length of hospital stay and of intensive care unit stay with improved respiratory function and pain management in the short and long term.


Subject(s)
Rib Fractures/surgery , Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Rib Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Thoracic Injuries/therapy , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Rib Cage/injuries , Fracture Fixation, Internal
9.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 434-440, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138735

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El hemotórax masivo (HM) se puede definir como el acúmulo súbito de ≥ 1.500 ml de sangre en la cavidad pleural o débito ≥ 200 ml/h de sangre en 3-4 h por pleurotomía; es considerada una complicación traumática grave. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, índices de gravedad de traumatismo (IGT), morbilidad y variables asociadas a mortalidad en pacientes con hemotórax masivo por traumatismo torácico operados (HMTT). Materiales y Método: Estudio analítico longitudinal. Período enero de 1981 a diciembre de 2018. Revisión prospectiva de base de datos, protocolos quirúrgicos y fichas clínicas. Descripción de características de HMTT. Se calcularon IGT: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Para mortalidad se realizó análisis univariado con cálculo de Odds Ratio. Resultados: Total 4.306 traumatismos torácicos (TT), HMTT 119 (2,8%). Hombres 112 (94,1%), edad promedio 32 ± 13,2 años, 91 (76,5%) pacientes presentaron TT aislado, 28 (23,5%) asociado a lesiones extratorácicas, de estos, 23 (19,3%) fueron politraumatismos. Fueron traumatismos penetrantes 102 (85,7%). El HMTT se atribuyó principalmente a: lesión de pared en 38 (31,9%) y lesión pulmonar en 29 (24,4%). De las cirugías torácicas: 87 (73,1%) fueron urgentes (≤ 4 h), 10 (8,4%) precoces (> 4-24 h) y 22 (18,5%) diferidas (> 24 h). Hospitalización postoperatoria promedio 7,9 ± 6,4 días. Según IGT: ISS promedio 17,4 ± 9,6, RTS-T promedio 10,2 ± 2,7, TRISS promedio 12,7. Morbilidad 46 (38,7%) y mortalidad 15 (12,6%). Discusión: Los HMTT se atribuyeron principalmente a lesiones de pared y lesión pulmonar. En la mayoría se requirió cirugía torácica de urgencia. La mortalidad observada es semejante a la esperada según IGT. Existen variables asociadas a mayor mortalidad.


Introduction: Massive hemothorax (MH) can be defined as the sudden accumulation of ≥ 1500 ml of blood in the pleural cavity or debit ≥ 200 ml/h in 3-4 hours through pleurostomy, and it is considered a serious complication. Aim: To describe features, trauma severity indexes (TSI), morbidity and variables associated with mortality in patients with traumatic MH who required surgical treatment. Materials and Method: analytical longitudinal study. Period January 1981 to December 2018. Database, surgical protocols, medical records review. Description of MH characteristics. The following TSI were calculated: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). An Odds Ratio univariate analysis was used for mortality. Results: Total 4306 TT, operated MH 119 (2.8%). Men were 112 (94.1%), average age 32 ± 13.2 years, 91 (76.5%) had isolated TT, 28 (23.5%) were associated with extrathoracic injuries and of these 23 (19.3%) were polytraumatized patients. Penetrating TT was 102 (85.7%). MH was mainly attributed to: chest wall injury in 38 (31.9%), pulmonary lacerations 29 (24.4%). Of the thoracic surgeries: 87 (73.1%) were urgent (≤ 4 h), 10 (8.4%) early (> 4-24 h) and 22 (18.5%) deferred (> 24 h). Average post operatory stay (days): 7.9 ± 6.4 According to TSI: average ISS 17.4 ± 9.6; RTS-T average 10.2 ± 2.7; TRISS average 12.7. Morbidity 46 (38.7%). Mortality 15 (12.6%). Discussion: MH is mainly attributed to chest wall injuries and pulmonary lacerations. Most of HM required urgent thoracic surgery. The observed mortality is similar to that expected one by TSI. There are variables associated with higher mortality in MH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries , Trauma Severity Indices , Hemothorax/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Morbidity
10.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(4): 293-300, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138714

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los traumatismos torácicos por armas de fuego (TTAF) son cada vez más frecuentes. Objetivos: Describir características clínicas, morbilidad, mortalidad y la evolución a través del tiempo de hospitalizados por TTAF. Materiales y Método: Estudio analítico longitudinal. Período enero de 1981-diciembre de 2018. Revisión base de datos, protocolos prospectivos y fichas clínicas. Se utilizó planilla Microsoft Excel® y programa SPSS24® con chi cuadrado y de Mann-Whitney. Descripción de características de TTAF en pacientes hospitalizados y comparación por períodos. Se calcularon índices de gravedad del traumatismo (IGT): Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Resultados: Total 4.306 pacientes hospitalizados por traumatismo torácico (TT), 205 (4,8%) hospitalizados por TTAF. Hombres: 188 (91,7%), edad promedio 28,8 ± 11,2 años, TTAF aislado 115 (56,1%), asociado a lesiones extratorácicas 90 (43,9%), de estos 55 (26,8%) se consideraron politraumatismos. Mecanismo: Agresión 193 (94,1%), autoagresión 11 (5,4%) y accidental 1 (0,5%). Lesiones y/o hallazgos torácicos más frecuentes: Hemotórax 127 (62,0%), neumotórax 96 (46,8%) y contusión pulmonar 51 (24,9%). Tratamiento definitivo: Pleurotomía 88 (42,9%), cirugía 71 (34,6%) y tratamiento médico 46 (22,4%). Mediana de hospitalización 7 días. Según IGT: ISS promedio 16,7 ± 11,7, RTS-T promedio 11,1 ± 2,1, TRISS promedio 9,6. Morbilidad: 44 (21,5%). Mortalidad: 14 (6,8%). En los diferentes períodos, se observó aumento de politraumatismos y TRISS, sin cambios en mortalidad. Discusión: La mayoría de los TTAF fueron aislados. Aproximadamente un tercio de los pacientes requirió cirugía. La mortalidad observada es menor a la esperada. Se observan cambios en los TTAF a través del tiempo.


Background: Thoracic trauma by firearms (TTF) are increasingly frequent. Aim: To describe clinical characteristics, morbidity and mortality and the evolution over time of patients hospitalized due TTF. Materials and Method: Longitudinal analytical study. Period January 1981 - December 2018. Database review, prospective protocols and clinical files. Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet and SPSS24® program with chi square and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Description of characteristics of TTF in hospitalized patients and comparison of TTF by periods. Trauma severity indexes (TSI) were calculated: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Results: Total: 4306 hospitalized patients due thoracic trauma (TT), 205 (4.8%) hospitalized due TTF. Men: 188 (91.7%), average age 28.8 ± 11.2 years, isolated TTF 115 (56.1%), associated with extrathoracic lesions 90 (43.9%), and of these 55 (26.8%) were considered polytraumatism. Mechanisms: aggression 193 (94.1%), self-harm 11 (5.4%) and accidental 1 (0.5%). Frequent thoracic injuries and/or findings: hemothorax 127 (62.0%), pneumothorax 96 (46.8%) and pulmonary contusion 51 (24.9%). Definitive treatment: Pleurotomy 88 (42.9%), surgery 71 (34.6%) and medical treatment 46 (22.4%). Median hospitalization 7 days. According TSI: Average ISS 16.7 ± 11.7, average RTS-T 11.1 ± 2.1, average TRISS 9.6. Morbidity: 44 (21.5%). Mortality: 14 (6.8%). There is an increase in polytraumatism and average TRISS, without changes in mortality. Discussion: The majority of TTF were isolated TT. Approximately one third of patients required surgery. The observed mortality is lower than expected. Changes in TTF were observed over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Wounds, Gunshot/complications , Thoracic Injuries/etiology , Thoracic Injuries/mortality , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Chile , Longitudinal Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
11.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 224-230, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115546

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los traumatismos constituyen la quinta causa de muerte en el adulto mayor (60 años o más), siendo los traumatismos contusos los más frecuentes. Objetivo: Describir características, índices de gravedad de traumatismo (IGT), morbilidad y mortalidad en adultos mayores (AM) hospitalizados con traumatismo torácico (TT). Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Período desde enero de 1981 a diciembre de 2017. Revisión de base de datos, protocolos quirúrgicos y fichas clínicas. Descripción de características de TT en AM hospitalizados. Se calculó IGT: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Resultados: Total 4.163 TT, AM 513 (12,3%). Hombres: 350 (68,2%), edad promedio 71,2 ± 8,4 años, mediana 70 (rango: 60-103), TT aislado 350 (68,2%), asociado a lesiones extratorácicas 163 (31,8%) y de estos 96 (18,7%) se consideraron politraumatismos. Traumatismo contuso 456 (88,9%) y penetrante 57 (11,1%). La causa más frecuente fueron las caídas en 252 (49,1%). Lesiones y/o hallazgos torácicos más frecuentes: fracturas costales 409 (79,7%), hemotórax 186 (36,3%) y neumotórax 185 (36,1%). Tratamiento definitivo: médico 287 (55,9%), pleurotomía 193 (37,6%) y cirugía 40 (7,8%). Cirugía extratorácica 33 (6,4%). Hospitalización promedio 9,0 ± 8,8 días. Según IGT: ISS promedio 12,1 ± 9,6, RTS-T promedio 11,6 ± 1,3, TRISS promedio 8,1. Morbilidad 76 (14,8%) y mortalidad 26 (5,1%). Discusión: La mayoría de los TT en AM son contusos, causados por accidentes domésticos. Las lesiones y hallazgos más frecuentes fueron fracturas costales y hemotórax. La mortalidad fue menor a la esperada según IGT.


Introduction: Trauma is the fifth leading cause of death in the elderly (60 or older), with blunt trauma being the most frequent. Objective: To describe characteristics, Trauma Severity Indices (TSI) and morbidity and mortality in hospitalized elderly for Thoracic Trauma (TT). Materials and Method: Crosssectional descriptive study was carried out. Term: from January 1981 to December 2017. Database review, surgical protocols and medical records were performed. TT description of characteristics was conducted in hospitalized elderly. TSI was calculated: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Results: Total 4.163 TT, 513 elderly (12.3%). Men: 350 (68.2%), average age 71.2 ± 8.4 years, 70 median (range 60-103). Isolated TT: 350 (68.2%), 163 associated with extrathoracic trauma (31.8%) and of these 96 (18.7%) were considered polytraumatism. Blunt trauma 456 (88.9%) and penetrating 57 (11.1%). Most frequent domestic accident mechanism was 196 (38.2%) and 158 traffic accidents (30.8%). Frequently thoracic injuries or findings: 409 rib fractures (79.7%), 186 hemothorax (36.3%), and 185 pneumothorax (36.1%). Final treatment: 287 Medical treatment (55.9%), 193 pleurotomy (37.6%), and 40 thoracic surgery (7.8%). Extrathoracic surgery 33 (6.4%). Average hospitalization: 9.0 ± 8.8 days. According IGT: ISS 12.1 ± 9.6, RTS-T 11.6 ± 1.3, TRISS 8.1. Morbidity: 76 (14.8%) and mortality: 26 (5.1%). Discussion: Most TT in elderly are blunt, caused by domestic accidents. Injuries and most frequent findings were rib fractures and hemothorax. Mortality was lower than expected according to TSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thoracic Injuries/etiology , Thoracic Injuries/mortality , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Thoracic Injuries/physiopathology , Wounds, Penetrating/complications , Accidents, Traffic , Trauma Severity Indices , Epidemiology, Descriptive
14.
Edumecentro ; 12(2): 49-58, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090017

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: el dominio y la aplicación del método clínico en el contexto del dolor torácico agudo son fundamentales, pues resulta uno de los síntomas más frecuentes en las consultas de servicios médicos de urgencia hospitalaria. Objetivo: evaluar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el diagnóstico de dolor torácico agudo en internos de Medicina. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en estudiantes internos que cursaban su rotación por Medicina Interna en el Hospital Universitario "Mártires del 9 de Abril" en la provincia Villa Clara, Cuba durante el año 2018. Se aplicaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción e histórico-lógico; y empíricos: la encuesta en forma de cuestionario. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudiantes obtuvieron evaluación de Regular en cuanto a las habilidades para la identificación etiológica del dolor torácico a través de la anamnesis. De igual forma se comportó el resultado en la evaluación en cuanto a la exploración física. Por su parte la identificación del examen complementario de elección ante cada situación arrojó mejores resultados, al obtener calificaciones de Excelente 20 internos. Conclusiones: el nivel de conocimientos sobre diagnóstico del dolor torácico agudo en internos de Medicina resultó insuficiente, preferentemente en la interpretación los datos aportados por la anamnesis y la exploración física.


ABSTRACT Background: mastery and application of the clinical method in the context of acute chest pain are essential, as it is one of the most frequent symptoms in hospital emergency medical services. Objective: to assess the level of knowledge on the diagnosis of acute chest pain in medical interns. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in internal students who were studying Internal Medicine at the "Mártires del 9 de Abril" University Hospital in Villa Clara province, Cuba during 2018. Theoretical methods were applied: analysis-synthesis, induction-deduction and historical-logical; and empirical ones: the survey in questionnaire form. Results: the majority of the students obtained a so-so mark in the evaluation regarding the abilities for the etiological identification of chest pain through the history-taking pain. In the same way behaved the result in the assessment in terms of physical examination. On the other hand, the identification of the complementary examination of choice in each situation yielded better results, 20 interns got excellent qualifications. Conclusions: the level of knowledge about the diagnosis of acute chest pain in medical interns was insufficient, preferably in the interpretation of the data provided by the history-taking pain and physical examination.


Subject(s)
Chest Pain , Students, Medical , Thoracic Injuries
15.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(2): 107-112, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092900

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción Las cárceles constituyen un foco de violencia inherente y un ambiente propicio de lesiones traumáticas. Objetivo Describir el perfil de ingreso y evolución de personas privadas de libertad hospitalizadas en nivel terciario por trauma acontecido en 2 complejos penitenciarios, que ingresan a nuestro Servicio. Materiales y Método Estudio descriptivo, incluyó la revisión de fichas clínicas en nuestro hospital (HUAP), durante el periodo entre agosto de 2009 y diciembre de 2016. Resultados 88 consultas de personas privadas de libertad, donde se obtuvieron 46 consultas por lesiones traumáticas. Se observó una distribución simétrica para las variables edad, presión arterial media, frecuencia cardíaca, hematocrito, hemoglobina y recuento de leucocitos. El sitio del trauma más frecuente fue el tórax y el abdomen (incluyendo cara anterior y posterior completa), cada uno con 18 pacientes (39,13% cada uno). El diagnóstico de ingreso más frecuente fue neumotórax en doce sujetos. Los principales tratamientos efectuados fueron 16 laparotomías exploradoras (34,78; IC 95%: 22,68 a 49,23) y 12 pleurostomías (26,09; IC 95%: 15,60 a 40,26). La duración de la hospitalización distribuyó en forma asimétrica, con mediana de 3 días. Tuvimos 6 reingresos (13,04%) en los primeros 30 días posteriores al alta y una mortalidad. Conclusiones Los hechos de violencia en estos 2 centros penitenciarios en Santiago, son un diagnóstico que se presenta en la urgencia de nuestro hospital, con lesiones de distinta gravedad y tratamiento. Resulta necesario adelantarse a estos escenarios, donde ahora sabemos que gran parte de ellos necesitará algún procedimiento o intervención.


Background Prisons are a source of inherent violence and an environment conducive to traumatic injuries. Aim The objective of this paper is to describe the income and evolution profile of hospitalized people deprived of liberty at the tertiary level due to trauma that occurred in two prison detention centers in Santiago, that enters our service. Materials and Method Descriptive study, included the review of clinical records in our hospital, during the period between August 2009 and December 2016. Results 88 consultations of people deprived of liberty, where 46 consultations for traumatic injuries were obtained. A symmetric distribution was observed for the variables age, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin and leukocyte count. The most frequent trauma site was the thorax and abdomen (including front face and full back), each with 18 patients (39.13% each). The most frequent diagnosis of admission was pneumothorax in twelve subjects. The main treatments were 16 exploratory laparotomies (34.78, 95% CI: 22.68 to 49.23) and 12 pleurostomies (26.09, 95% CI: 15.60 to 40.26). The duration of hospitalization distributed asymmetrically, with a median of 3 days. We had 6 readmissions (13.04%) in the first 30 days after discharge and one mortality. Conclusions The violence in this two prison detention centers, in Santiago, is a diagnosis that appears in the urgency of our hospital, with lesions of different severity and treatment. It is necessary to anticipate these scenarios, where we now know that a large part of them will need some procedure or intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Prisons , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Chile , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Abdominal Injuries/epidemiology
16.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(2): 137-143, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092905

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos Describir las características, índices de gravedad de traumatismo (IGT), morbilidad, mortalidad y factores asociados a mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados por traumatismo torácico por arma blanca (TTAB). Materiales y Método Estudio analítico transversal. Período enero de 1981 a diciembre de 2017. Revisión base de datos prospectiva, protocolos quirúrgicos, fichas clínicas. Se describe y compara las características de los TTAB. Se calculó IGT: Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score ( RTS-T) y Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Resultados Total 4.163 pacientes hospitalizados por TT, 2.286 hospitalizados por TTAB. Hombres: 2.131 (93,2%), edad promedio 27,8 ± 10,7 años, TTAB aislado 2.035 (89,0%), asociado a lesiones extratorácicas 251 (11,0%) y de éstos 124 (5,5%) se consideraron politraumatismos. Mecanismos principales del traumatismo: agresión 2.246 (98,3%) y autoagresión 22 (1,0%). Lesiones y hallazgos torácicos más frecuentes: neumotórax 1.473 (64,4%), hemotórax 1.408 (61,6%), enfisema subcutáneo 485 (21,2%). Tratamiento definitivo: pleurotomía 1.378 (60,3%), cirugía torácica 537 (23,5%) y tratamiento médico 370 (16,2%). Hospitalización promedio 6,2 ± 6,5 días, IGT: ISS promedio 10,9 ± 7,2, RTS-T promedio 11,6 ± 1,4 y TRISS promedio 3,6. Morbilidad: 318 (13,9%). Mortalidad: 32 (1,4%). Conclusión Los TTAB ocurren frecuentemente en hombres jóvenes por agresión. La mayoría se puede tratar con pleurotomía exclusiva.


Aim Our objectives are to describe and correlate the clinical characteristics, trauma severity indexes (TSI) and morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalized for thoracic trauma by a bladed weapon (TTBW). Materials and Method Transversal analytic study. Period January-1981 to December-2017. Prospective database review, surgical protocols, clinical files. The characteristics of the TTBW are described and compared. Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS-T) and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) were calculated. Results Total of 4,163 patients hospitalized for TT, 2,286 hospitalized for TTBW. Men: 2,131 (93.2%), average age 27.8 ± 10.7 years, isolated TTBW 2,035 (89.0%), associated with extra thoracic injuries 251 (11.0%) and of these 124 (5.5%) were considered polytrauma. Main mechanisms of trauma: Aggression 2,246 (98.3%) and self-aggression 22 (1.0%). Most frequent injuries and thoracic findings: pneumothorax 1,473 (64.4%), hemothorax 1,408 (61.6%), subcutaneous emphysema 485 (21.2%). Definitive treatment: Pleurotomy 1,378 (60.3%), thoracic surgery 537 (23.5%) and medical treatment 370 (16.2%). Average hospital stay: 6.2 ± 6.5 days. ISS average 10.9 ± 7.2, RTS-T average 11.6 ± 1.4 and TRISS average 3.6. Morbidity: 318 (13.9%). Mortality: 32 (1.4%). Discussion TTBW are frequent in our environment, unlike on an international level. Conclusions TTBW frequently occur in young male patients due to aggression. The majority can be treated with exclusive pleurotomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thoracic Injuries/mortality , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/mortality , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology , Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Thoracic Injuries/complications , Wounds, Stab/surgery , Wounds, Stab/etiology , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e57-e60, 2020-02-00. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096070

ABSTRACT

El tórax inestable se define por fractura de 3 o más costillas adyacentes, en 2 o más sitios, con movimiento paradojal del tórax afectado. Se presenta en el 2-4 % de los traumas de tórax contusos, con una mortalidad del 10-15 %.El tratamiento se realiza de forma conservadora, mediante analgesia y el uso de ventilación con presión positiva o, quirúrgicamente, mediante osteosíntesis de las fracturas costales.Se presenta el caso de una niña de 9 años con diagnóstico de traumatismo cerrado de tórax y tórax inestable. En la tomografía computada, se evidenciaron fracturas costales de 2da a 7maizquierdas, arcos medios y anteriores. Por inadecuado manejo del dolor, se colocó asistencia ventilatoria mecánica. A las 72 horas, se decidió la resolución quirúrgica mediante osteosíntesis de las costillas 3a-7a. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente. El manejo quirúrgico permitió reducir los días de ventilación mecánica y de internación.


Flail chest is defined by fracture of 3 or more adjacent ribs, at 2 or more sites, with paradoxical movement of the affected chest. It occurs in 2 to 4 % of blunt chest trauma, with a mortality of 10 to 15 %.Treatment is conservative, using analgesia and positive pressure ventilation, or surgical osteosynthesis of rib fractures.We present the case of a 9-year-old girl with blunt chest trauma and flail chest. Computed tomography showed rib fractures from 2nd to 7th left ribs, in middle and anterior arches. Due to inadequate pain management, it was placed in mechanical ventilation. After 72 hours the surgical resolution was decided, osteosynthesis of the 3rd to 7th ribs was performed. The patient evolved favorably. The surgical management allowed reducing days of mechanical ventilation and days of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Flail Chest , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Internal
18.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 139-144, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Injury continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Globally, it is responsible for approximately 5.8 million deaths per year and 91% of these deaths occur in developing countries. Road traffic collision, suicides and homicides are the leading cause of traumatic deaths. Despite the fact that traumatic chest injury is being responsible for 10% of all trauma-related hospital admissions and 25% of trauma-related deaths across the world including in Ethiopia, only few published studies showed the burden of traumatic chest injury in Ethiopia. So, this study aims at assessing the characteristics and outcome of traumatic chest injury patients visited Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital (TASH) over one year period.@*METHODS@#A single center based retrospective study was done. We collected data from patients' records to assess characteristics and outcome of traumatic chest injury at TASH over one year period. All patients diagnosed with traumatic chest injury and received treatment at the hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2016 regardless of its types and severity levels were included in the study. Patients with incomplete medical records for at least 20% of the study variables and without detailed medical history, or patients died before receiving any health care were excluded from the study. The collected data were cleaned and entered into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS Version 21.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with outcome of traumatic chest injury patients.@*RESULTS@#A total of 192 chest injury patients were included in the study and about one-fourth of chest injury victims were died during treatment period in TASH. Road traffic collision (RTC) was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among traumatic chest injury victims. Age of the victims (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-53.24), time elapsed between the occurrence of traumatic chest injury and admission to health care facilities (AOR 4.6, 95% CI 1.19-18.00), length of stay in hospital (AOR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.58), presence of multiple extra-thoracic injury (AOR 25, 95% CI 4.18-150.02) and development of complications (AOR 23, 95% CI 10-550) were factors associated with death among traumatic chest injury patients in this study.@*CONCLUSION@#RTC contributed for a considerable number of traumatic chest injuries in this study. Old age, delay in delivering the victim to health care facilities, length of stay in hospital, and development of atelectasis and pneumonia were associated with death among traumatic chest injury patients. Road safety interventions, establishment of organized pre-hospital services, and early recognition and prompt management of traumatic chest injury related complications are urgently needed to overcome the underlying problems in the study setting.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Age Factors , Ethiopia , Epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Mortality , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Injuries , Epidemiology , Mortality , Time Factors , Transportation of Patients
19.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 176-180, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827844

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Trauma is a major health concern. Length of hospital stay (LOS) has been targeted as an important metric to assess trauma care. This study aims to evaluate the risk factors that affect LOS among trauma patients in a trauma center in Southwestern Iran.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients admitted to Rajaee Trauma Center, Shiraz, Iran between January 1, 2018 and December 30, 2018. The inclusion criteria were age above 15 years and having traffic accident injuries, including car, motorcycle and pedestrian injury mechanisms. The exclusion criteria were existing diseases including cardiovascular, cerebral, renal, and pulmonary diseases prior to this study, dead upon arrival or within 48 h after admission, and stay at the hospital for less than 6 h. The risk variables analyzed for prolonged LOS were age, gender, mechanism of traffic accident injury, infection during hospital stay, type of injury, injury severity score, surgery during hospitalization, and survival. Poisson regression was performed to evaluate the partial effects of each covariate on trauma hospitalization (≥3 days as longer stay).@*RESULTS@#This study was conducted on 14,054 patients with traffic accident injury and the mean age was (33.89 ± 15.78) years. Additionally, 74.35% of the patients were male, with male to female ratio of 2.90. The result of Poisson regression indicated that male patients, higher age, combination of thoracic injuries, onset of infected sites, and surgery patients were more susceptible to have a longer LOS. Considering the site of injury, patients with face injuries followed by those with thorax injuries had the highest means of LOS (3.74 days and 3.36 days, respectively). Simultaneous existence of surgical intervention and infection in a patient had the greatest impact on prolonged LOS.@*CONCLUSION@#This study identified that age, gender, mechanism of injury, infection, type of injury, survival, and ISS could lead to prolongation of LOS, but the affect can be reduced by eliminating modifiable risk factors.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries , Accidents, Traffic , Adult , Age Factors , Facial Injuries , Female , Humans , Iran , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thoracic Injuries , Wound Infection , Young Adult
20.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 125-138, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827837

ABSTRACT

Physical traumas are tragic and multifaceted injuries that suddenly threaten life. Although it is the third most common cause of death in all age groups, one out of four trauma patients die due to thoracic injury or its complications. Blunt injuries constitute the majority of chest trauma. This indicates the importance of chest trauma among all traumas. Blunt chest trauma is usually caused by motor vehicle accident, falling from height, blunt instrument injury and physical assault. As a result of chest trauma, many injuries may occur, such as pulmonary injuries, and these require urgent intervention. Chest wall and pulmonary injuries range from rib fractures to flail chest, pneumothorax to hemothorax and pulmonary contusion to tracheobronchial injuries. Following these injuries, patients may present with a simple dyspnea or even respiratory arrest. For such patient, it is important to understand the treatment logic and to take a multidisciplinary approach to treat the pulmonary and chest wall injuries. This is because only 10% of thoracic trauma patients require surgical operation and the remaining 90% can be treated with simple methods such as appropriate airway, oxygen support, maneuvers, volume support and tube thoracostomy. Adequate pain control in chest trauma is sometimes the most basic and best treatment. With definite diagnosis, the morbidity and mortality can be significantly reduced by simple treatment methods.


Subject(s)
Flail Chest , Therapeutics , Hemothorax , Therapeutics , Humans , Lung Injury , Therapeutics , Pain Management , Pneumothorax , Therapeutics , Rib Fractures , Therapeutics , Thoracic Injuries , Therapeutics , Thoracic Wall , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Therapeutics
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