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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 325-331, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153019

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia persistente mais comum e é o principal fator que leva ao tromboembolismo. Objetivo Investigar o valor do diâmetro do átrio esquerdo combinado com o escore CHA2DS2-VASc na predição da trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo na fibrilação atrial não valvar. Métodos Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo. 238 pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar foram selecionados e divididos em dois grupos: trombose e não trombose. Determinou-se o escore CHA2DS2-VASc. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados A análise de regressão logística multivariada revelou que histórico de acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, doença vascular, escore CHA2DS2-VASc, DAE, DDFVE e FEVE foram fatores de risco independentes para trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo (p<0,05). A análise da curva ROC ( Receiver Operating Characteristic ) revelou que a área sob a curva para o escore CHA2DS2-VASc na predição de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo foi de 0,593 quando o escore CHA2DS2-VASc foi ≥3 pontos, e a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 86,5% e 32,6%, respectivamente, enquanto a área sob a curva para o DAE na predição de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo foi 0,786 quando o DAE foi ≥44,17 mm, e a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 89,6% e 60,9%, respectivamente. Entre os diferentes grupos CHA2DS2-VASc, a taxa de incidência de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo em pacientes com DAE ≥44,17 mm foi maior do que em pacientes com DAE <44,17 mm (p <0,05). Conclusão O escore CHA2DS2-VASc e o DAE estão correlacionados com a trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo na fibrilação atrial não valvar. Para pacientes com escore CHA2DS2-VASc de 0 ou 1, quando o DAE é ≥44,17 mm, o risco de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo permaneceu alto. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common persistent arrhythmia, and is the main factor that leads to thromboembolism. Objective To investigate the value of left atrial diameter combined with CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Methods This is a retrospective study. 238 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were selected and divided into two groups: thrombosis and non-thrombosis. CHA2DS2-VASc score was determined. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, CHA2DS2-VASc score, left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were independent risk factors for left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis (p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve for the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis was 0.593 when the CHA2DS2-VASc score was ≥3 points, and sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 32.6%, respectively, while the area under the curve for LAD in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis was 0.786 when LAD was ≥44.17 mm, and sensitivity and specificity were 89.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Among the different CHA2DS2-VASc groups, the incidence rate of left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in patients with LAD ≥44.17 mm was higher than patients with LAD <44.17 mm (p<0.05). Conclusion CHA2DS2-VASc score and LAD are correlated with left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 or 1, when LAD is ≥44.17 mm, the risk for left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis remained high. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Risk Assessment
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 1010-1012, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143999

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the case of a 60-year-old patient who underwent orthotopic heart transplant 14 years earlier. Routine echocardiography showed giant masses in the left atrium. There were no symptoms or thromboembolic events in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging study revealed very enlarged left atrium (8.7 × 10.6 cm) occupied by irregular smooth mass (7 × 5 × 6.1 cm) with a stalk that was attached to the posterior left atrial wall in the area of graft suture lines. Intraoperative examination revealed a massive thrombus (12 × 10 cm) that filled almost the entire left atrial area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/surgery , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Echocardiography , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 999-1002, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143991

ABSTRACT

Abstract Minimally invasive surgical ablation is generally contraindicated in patients with atrial fibrillation and thrombosis of the left atrial appendage. We have treated three of these patients using an innovative technique based on a bilateral video-thoracoscopic approach, performing a continuous encircling lesion at the pulmonary veins outflow with radio-frequency ablation, simultaneously excluding the left atrial appendage. The postoperative course was uneventful, without neurologic events and all patients maintained a stable sinus rhythm at 1-year follow-up. This procedure represents a new mini-invasive method to treat persistent atrial fibrillation when partial thrombosis of the left atrial appendage contraindicates other ablation techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Catheter Ablation , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Thoracoscopy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1437-1443, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136138

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine independent predictors of left atrial thrombus (LAT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients without atrial fibrillation (AF) using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we enrolled 149 consecutive AIS patients. All of the patients underwent a TEE examination to detect LAT within 10 days following admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent predictors of LAT. RESULTS: Among all cases, 14 patients (9.3%) had a diagnosis of LAT based on the TEE examination. In a multivariate analysis, elevated mean platelet volume (MPV), low left-ventricle ejection fraction (EF), creatinine, and reduced left-atrium appendix (LAA) peak emptying velocity were independent predictors of LAT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for MPV was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.57-0.83; p = 0.011). With the optimal cut-off value of 9.45, MPV had a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 63% to predict LAT. CONCLUSION: AIS patients with low ventricle EF and elevated MPV should undergo further TEE examination to verify the possibility of a cardio-embolic source. In addition, this research may provide novel information with respect to the applicability of MPV to predict LAT in such patients without AF.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar indicadores independentes do trombo auricular esquerdo (LAT) em doentes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AIS) sem fibrilação auricular (AF) utilizando ecocardiografia transesofágica (TEE). MÉTODOS: Neste único centro, estudo retrospectivo, inscrevemos 149 pacientes consecutivos com AIS. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame de TEE para detectar LAT no prazo de dez dias após a admissão. A análise de regressão logística multivariada foi realizada para avaliar preditores independentes do final. RESULTADO: Entre todos os casos, 14 pacientes (9,3%) tiveram um diagnóstico de exame tardio no TEE. Numa análise multivariada, volume médio de plaquetas (VMP) elevado, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo baixo (EF), creatinina e uma velocidade de pico de esvaziamento do átrio esquerdo reduzida (LAA) foram indicadores independentes da LAT. A área sob a análise da curva característica de operação do receptor para VMP foi de 0,70 (95% IC: 0, 57-0, 83; p=0,011). Com o valor-limite ideal de 9,45, o VMP teve uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e uma especificidade de 63% para prever mais tarde. CONCLUSÃO: Os doentes AIS com EF ventricular baixa e VMP elevado devem ser submetidos a um exame de TEE adicional para determinar a possibilidade de origem cardioembólica. Além disso, esta investigação pode fornecer novas informações sobre a aplicabilidade do VMP para prever tardiamente os doentes sem AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 387-391, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Total arch replacement and stent trunk were performed for two patients. One of these underwent a total bilateral carotid artery replacement in anatomical position while the other underwent partial carotid artery dissection. The first patient demonstrated no neurological complication after surgery and a postoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed bilateral common carotid artery patency. However, the second patient had neurological dysfunction after surgery, while a postoperative CTA showed occlusion of the left common carotid artery. Anatomical replacement for a common carotid artery dissection with thrombus has the potential to significantly improve cerebral perfusion and reduce postoperative neurological complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Carotid Artery, Common/surgery , Carotid Artery, Common/diagnostic imaging , Dissection
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 55-58, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137135

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an established therapy for patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). One complication related to the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is thrombosis despite proper anticoagulation. We report the diagnosis and management of a clot-obstruction in a single site cannula placed through the internal jugular vein, guided by transesophageal echocardiography. Case report: A 39 year-old male developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and hemodynamic instability after an episode of pulmonary aspiration in the ICU. Eight hours after placement of a single site veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, suddenly the perfusionist noticed a reduction in flow. TEE showed a thrombus-like mass obstructing the inflow port in SVC and inflow at IVC was intact. After unsuccessful attempts to reposition the cannula, the team decided to insert additional femoral inflow cannula through the IVC. The single site catheter was then pulled out until its tip was positioned in the right atrium and all three ports of the catheter were switched to the infusion ports. After this, flows and oxygenation improved significantly. Unfortunately, despite all of the efforts, the patient died 2 days later. Discussion: The diagnosis of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannula obstruction is based on reduced inflow rates, hemodynamic instability and poor oxygenation of blood. TEE allows evaluation of the flows inside the cannula and in this case, an obstruction was found. The management presented points to the fact that in a situation of catheter obstruction caused by a clot, there is a feasible alternative to assure minimal interruption of the hemodynamic support offered by the veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Resumo Justificativa: A oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea veno-venosa é terapia estabelecida para pacientes com a síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Uma complicação relacionada ao uso da oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea veno-venosa é trombose apesar de anti-coagulação adequada. Relatamos o diagnóstico e conduta em obstrução por coágulo em cânula de acesso único inserida pela veia jugular interna, guiada por ecocardiografia transesofageana. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino de 39 anos desenvolveu síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo e instabilidade hemodinâmica após episódio de aspiração pulmonar na UTI. Oito horas após a instalação de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea veno-venosa de acesso único, o perfusionista notou repentina redução no fluxo. A ETE revelou massa semelhante a um trombo obstruindo o portal de fluxo de entrada na VCS e o fluxo de saída na VCI estava intacto. Após tentativas sem sucesso para reposicionar a cânula, a equipe decidiu inserir cânula de entrada de fluxo adicional pela VCI. O catéter de acesso único foi, então, puxado até que sua ponta se posicionasse no átrio direito e todos os três portais do catéter fossem transferidos para os portais de infusão. A seguir, os fluxos e oxigenação melhoraram significativamente. Infelizmente, apesar dos esforços, o paciente foi a óbito 2 dias depois. Discussão: O diagnóstico de obstrução de cânula da oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea veno-venosa se baseia em velocidades reduzidas de entrada de fluxo, instabilidade hemodinâmica e oxigenação pobre do sangue. A ETE permite a avaliação dos fluxos dentro da cânula, e nesse caso foi encontrada obstrução. A técnica apresentada aponta para o fato de que em situação de obstrução de catéter causada por coágulo, existe alternativa factível para garantir interrrupção mínima do suporte hemodinâmico oferecido pela oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea veno-venosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Cannula/adverse effects , Thrombosis/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venae Cavae , Echocardiography, Transesophageal
11.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 50, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130788

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global major concern. In this review, we addressed a theoretical model on immunopathogenesis associated with severe COVID-19, based on the current literature of SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemic pathogenic coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS. Several studies have suggested that immune dysregulation and hyperinflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 are more involved in disease severity than the virus itself. Immune dysregulation due to COVID-19 is characterized by delayed and impaired interferon response, lymphocyte exhaustion and cytokine storm that ultimately lead to diffuse lung tissue damage and posterior thrombotic phenomena. Considering there is a lack of clinical evidence provided by randomized clinical trials, the knowledge about SARS- CoV-2 disease pathogenesis and immune response is a cornerstone to develop rationale-based clinical therapeutic strategies. In this narrative review, the authors aimed to describe the immunopathogenesis of severe forms of COVID-19.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Thrombosis/etiology , Cytokines/adverse effects
12.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1556, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152639

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hepatic artery thrombosis is an important cause of graft loss and ischemic biliary complications. The risk factors have been related to technical aspects of arterial anastomosis and non-surgical ones. Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for the development of hepatic artery thrombosis. Methods: The sample consisted of 1050 cases of liver transplant. A retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out, and the variables studied in both donor and recipient. Results: Univariate analysis indicated that the variables related to hepatic artery thrombosis are: MELD (p=0.04) and warm time ischemia (p=0.005). In the multivariate analysis MELD=14.5 and warm ischemia time =35 min were independent risk factors for hepatic artery thrombosis. In the prevalence ratio test for analysis of the anastomosis as a variable, it was observed that patients with continuous suture had an increase in thrombosis when compared to interrupted suture. Conclusions: Prolonged warm ischemia time, calculated MELD and recipient age were independent risk factors for hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation in adults. Transplanted patients with continuous suture had an increase in thrombosis when compared to interrupted suture. Re-transplantation due to hepatic artery thrombosis was associated with higher recipient mortality.


RESUMO Racional: Trombose de artéria hepática é importante causa de falência de enxerto e complicações biliares. Fatores de risco para trombose estão relacionados aos aspectos técnicos da anastomose arterial e fatores não cirúrgicos. Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de trombose de artéria hepática. Métodos: A amostra consta de 1050 casos de transplante hepático. Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo e transversal, e as variáveis foram avaliadas em doadores e receptores. Resultados: A análise univariada mostrou que as variáveis relacionadas a trombose de artéria hepática são: MELD e tempo de isquemia quente. Na análise multivariada, o MELD=14.5 e tempo de isquemia quente =35 min foram fatores de risco independentes para trombose de artéria hepática. No teste de prevalência para avaliação do tipo de anastomose como variável, foi observado que a sutura contínua tem maior risco de trombose quando comparada com aquela em pontos separados. Conclusão: Tempo de isquemia quente prolongado, MELD calculado e idade do recipiente foram fatores de risco independentes para trombose de artéria hepática após transplante de fígado em adultos. Pacientes submetidos à anastomose com sutura contínua apresentaram mais trombose quando comparados com a em pontos separados. Retransplante por trombose está associado com maior mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Thrombosis/etiology , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatic Artery/surgery , Vascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Liver Transplantation/methods , Liver Diseases/surgery
13.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(3): 216-221, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149070

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Anticoagulation is the primary management to prevent venous thromboembolism; inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) provide a mechanical prophylactic alternative when anticoagulation is contraindicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate in IVCF patients, whether the initiation of anticoagulation therapy is associated with decreased rates of recurrent thrombotic events and device-related complications. Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients that underwent insertion of IVCF. Subjects with IVCF were studied in two groups: those initiated on anticoagulation (A) and without anticoagulation (NA). Variables as indications for IVCF, anticoagulation, recurrence of thrombosis, complications, and reinterventions were examined. Results: From April 2007 to March 2014, 54 patients underwent IVCF placement; (61% of females), with mean age of 54 years (standard deviation ± 19). 28 (52%) were initiated on anticoagulation, during a mean follow-up period of 28 months, five experienced recurrent thrombosis and three were on the A group (p=0.5); when comparing patients that developed post-thrombotic syndrome, seven were in the A group and seven in the NA. Two patients with IVC rupture were in the A group (p=0.5), and the only case of IVCF migration occurred in the A group. 11 (20%) patients died from comorbidities nonrelated to the device or procedure (four in the A cohort). Conclusions: Patients with IVCF on anticoagulation have equivalent rates of thrombotic events and device-related complications than those patients NA.


Resumen Objetivo: La anticoagulación es la terapia de elección para la prevención de tromboembolismo venoso; los filtros de vena cava inferior (FVCI) proveen una alternativa mecánica profiláctica cuando la anticoagulación está contraindicada. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la terapia anticoagulante se asocia con una tasa menor de eventos trombóticos recurrentes y complicaciones relacionadas con el dispositivo. Métodos: Los pacientes fueron categorizados en dos grupos: Aquellos a los que se les inicio anticoagulación (A) y aquellos que no (NA). Variables tales como indicación de la colocación del filtro, anticoagulación, recurrencia de trombosis y complicaciones fueron examinadas. Resultados: De abril de 2007 a marzo 2014, a 54 pacientes se les coloco un filtro (61% fueron mujeres), con una media de edad de 54 años [Desviación estándar (DE) ±19. Veintiocho (52%) fueron iniciados en anticoagulación y durante un seguimiento de 28 meses, 5 pacientes experimentaron recurrencia de trombosis, 3 en el grupo A (p=0.5). Al comparar los pacientes que desarrollaron síndrome posflebítico, 7 pertenecieron al grupo A y 7 al grupo NA. Dos pacientes con ruptura de vena cava pertenecieron al grupo A (p=0.5) y el único caso de migración del dispositivo ocurrió en el grupo A. Once (20%) pacientes fallecieron debido a comorbilidades no relacionadas con el dispositivo o el procedimiento. Conclusión: Pacientes con FVCI en anticoagulación tienen tasas de eventos trombóticos y complicaciones asociadas a los dispositivos equivalentes a aquellos pacientes sin anticoagulación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Foreign-Body Migration/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Thrombosis/etiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Equipment Failure
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 185-192, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is one of the main concerns in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and finding a strategy for increasing success rate and accelerating fistula maturation is valuable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of papaverine injection on AVF maturation and success rate. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial that involved 110 patients with ESRD that were referred for AVF construction. Patients were allocated in papaverine group and control group with block randomization according to age and sex. In the case group, papaverine (0.1 or 0.2 cc) was injected locally within the subadventitia of artery and vein after proximal and distal control during AVF construction and in the control group, AVF construction was done routinely without papaverine injection. Results: Maturation time in case and control groups was 37.94 ± 11.49 and 44.23 ± 9.57 days, respectively (p=0.004). Hematoma was not seen in the case group but occurred in one patient in the control group. One patient of the case group developed venous hypertension. Four functional fistulas, 1 (1.8%) in the case group and 3 (5.5%) in the control group, failed to mature (p=0.618). Maturation rate did not differ between the two groups statistically (p=0.101). Conclusion: Local papaverine injection increased vessel diameter and blood flow, increasing shearing stress in both arterial and venous segment of recently created AVF. In this way, papaverine probably can decrease AVF maturation time without an increase in complications.


Resumo Introdução: A maturação da fístula arteriovenosa (FAV) é uma das principais preocupações em pacientes com doença renal terminal (DRT). Assim, é importante identificar estratégias para aumentar as taxas de sucesso e acelerar a maturação da fístula. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da infiltração de papaverina sobre a maturação da FAV e suas taxas de sucesso. Método: O presente ensaio clínico randomizado incluiu 110 pacientes com DRT encaminhados para colocação de FAV. Os pacientes foram randomizados em bloco em função de idade e sexo e alocados nos grupos caso ou controle. Os indivíduos no grupo caso receberam infiltração local de papaverina (0,1 ou 0,2 ml) no plano da sub-adventícia da artéria e veia após o controle proximal e distal durante a construção da FAV. No grupo controle, a construção da FAV foi realizada rotineiramente sem infiltração de papaverina. Resultados: Os tempos de maturação dos grupos caso e controle foram 37,94 ± 11,49 e 44,23 ± 9,57 dias, respectivamente (p = 0,004). Foi observado hematoma em apenas um paciente do grupo controle. Um paciente do grupo caso desenvolveu hipertensão venosa. Quatro fístulas funcionais, uma (1,8%) no grupo caso e três (5,5%) no grupo controle, não amadureceram (p = 0,618). A taxa de maturação não diferiu estatisticamente entre os dois grupos (p = 0,101). Conclusão: A infiltração local de papaverina aumentou o diâmetro do vaso e o fluxo sanguíneo, elevando a tensão de cisalhamento nos segmentos arterial e venoso da FAV recentemente criada. Desta forma, a papaverina provavelmente consegue reduzir o tempo de maturação da FAV sem aumentar as complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Papaverine/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/etiology , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Venous Pressure , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Hematoma/etiology
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 82-86, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objective: Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which may occur during the perioperative period and lead to hemodynamic instability due to loss of atrial systolic function. During atrial fibrillation management, electrical cardioversion is one of the therapeutic options in the presence of hemodynamic instability; however, it exposes the patient to thromboembolic event risks. Transesophageal echocardiography is a diagnostic tool for thrombi in the left atrium and left atrial appendage with high sensitivity and specificity, allowing early and safe cardioversion. The present case describes the use of transesophageal echocardiography to exclude the presence of thrombi in the left atrium and left atrial appendage in a patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery with atrial fibrillation of unknown duration and hemodynamic instability. Case report: Male patient, 74 years old, hypertensive, with scheduled abdominal surgery, who upon cardiac monitoring in the operating room showed atrial fibrillation undiagnosed in preoperative electrocardiogram, but hemodynamic stable. During surgery, the patient showed hemodynamic instability requiring norepinephrine at increasing doses, with no response to heart rate control. After the end of the surgery, transesophageal echocardiography was performed with a thorough evaluation of the left atrium and left atrial appendage and pulsed Doppler analysis of the left atrial appendage with mean velocity of 45 cm.s-1. Thrombus in the left atrium and left atrial appendage and other cardiac causes for hemodynamic instability were excluded. Therefore, electrical cardioversion was performed safely. After returning to sinus rhythm, the patient showed improvement in blood pressure levels, with noradrenaline discontinuation, extubation in the operating room, and admission to the intensive care unit. Conclusion: In addition to a tool for non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring, perioperative transesophageal echocardiography may be valuable in clinical decision making. In this report, transesophageal echocardiography allowed the performance of early and safely cardioversion, with reversal of hemodynamic instability, and without thromboembolic sequelae.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia cardíaca mais comum, pode ocorrer durante todo período perioperatório e gerar instabilidade hemodinâmica devido à perda da função sistólica atrial. No manejo da fibrilação atrial, a cardioversão elétrica é uma das opções terapêuticas quando há instabilidade hemodinâmica, entretanto expõe o paciente a risco de eventos tromboembólicos. A ecocardiografia transesofágica é uma ferramenta que diagnostica trombos no átrio esquerdo e apêndice atrial esquerdo com alta sensibilidade e especificidade e permite a cardioversão precoce e segura. O presente caso descreve o uso da ecocardiografia transesofágica para excluir a presença de trombos no átrio esquerdo e apêndice atrial esquerdo em um paciente submetido à cirurgia não cardíaca com fibrilação atrial de duração desconhecida e instabilidade hemodinâmica. Relato de caso: Paciente, masculino, 74 anos, hipertenso, com cirurgia abdominal programada, que à monitoração cardíaca em sala operatória apresentava ritmo de fibrilação atrial não documentada em eletrocardiograma pré-operatório, porém estável hemodinamicamente. Durante a cirurgia, apresentou instabilidade hemodinâmica com necessidade de noradrenalina em doses crescentes, sem resposta ao controle de frequência cardíaca. Após o término da cirurgia, a ecocardiografia transesofágica foi feita com uma avaliação minuciosa do átrio esquerdo e apêndice atrial esquerdo e análise Doppler pulsado do apêndice atrial esquerdo com velocidade média de 45 cm.s-1. Foram excluídos trombo em átrio esquerdo e apêndice atrial esquerdo e outras causas cardíacas para instabilidade hemodinâmica. Dessa forma, foi feita cardioversão elétrica com segurança. Após retorno ao ritmo sinusal, o paciente apresentou melhoria dos níveis pressóricos com retirada da noradrenalina, extubação em sala operatória e transferência para unidade de terapia intensiva. Conclusão: Além de ferramenta para monitoração hemodinâmica pouco invasiva, a ecocardiografia transesofágica no perioperatório pode ser valiosa na tomada de decisões clínicas. Nesse relato, a ecocardiografia transesofágica permitiu que a cardioversão fosse feita precocemente e com segurança, revertendo o quadro de instabilidade hemodinâmica sem sequelas tromboembólicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Clinical Decision-Making , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamics , Intraoperative Complications/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Electric Countershock , Intraoperative Care/methods , Intraoperative Complications/therapy
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 351-359, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hemodialysis vascular access thrombosis is an acute event that can interrupt the dialytic treatment. A timely management can restore access patency, avoiding the use of central venous catheters and their complications. Objective: To present the experience from a Brazilian Interventional Nephrology Center (INC) in the salvage of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and grafts for hemodialysis. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the primary and secondary patencies of 41 hemodialysis accesses with thrombosis confirmed by ultrasound and submitted to endovascular salvage procedures. We considered clinical success the use of the access for at least 3 subsequent hemodialysis sessions. The procedures were done in an outpatient center by interventional nephrologists. Patients were followed for up to 18 months with Doppler every 3 months. Results: Forty-five salvage procedures were performed in 41 accesses of 40 hemodialysis patients with native AVF or grafts. Of these, 90% were AVF, mostly upper arm, and 10% were grafts. Clinical success rate was 60% (27 procedures). Primary patency at 12 months was 39% and secondary was 52%. Gender of the patient, diabetes, and location of the access did not correlate statistically with outcomes. There were 3 major complications (anastomosis rupture, grade 3 hematoma, and anaphylactic shock). Conclusion: The majority of thrombosed accesses can be successfully treated, maintaining its long-term patency. The need of repeated intervention is frequent.


RESUMO Introdução: A trombose dos acessos vasculares para hemodiálise é um evento agudo que interrompe o tratamento dialítico. O manejo em tempo hábil pode restaurar a patência do acesso, evitando o uso de cateteres centrais e suas complicações. Objetivo: Apresentar a experiência brasileira de um centro de nefrologia intervencionista no salvamento de fístulas arteriovenosas (FAV) e próteses para hemodiálise. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, avaliando as patências primária e secundária de 41 acessos para hemodiálise com trombose confirmada por ultrassonografia e submetidos a salvamento por via endovascular. Consideramos sucesso clínico o uso do acesso por no mínimo 3 sessões de hemodiálise. Os procedimentos foram realizados em regime ambulatorial por nefrologistas intervencionistas. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por até 18 meses com Doppler trimestral. Resultados: Foram realizados 45 procedimentos de salvamento em 41 acessos de 40 pacientes em hemodiálise por FAV ou prótese. 90% dos acessos abordados foram FAV, sendo a maioria proximais, e 10%, próteses. A taxa de sucesso clínico foi de 60% (27 procedimentos). A patência primária em 12 meses foi de 39% e a secundária, de 52%. O gênero, presença de diabetes e localização do acesso não se correlacionaram significativamente com os desfechos avaliados. Ocorreram 3 complicações maiores (rotura de anastomose, hematoma grau III e choque anafilático). Conclusões: A maioria dos acessos com trombose pode ser tratada, mantendo sua patência em longo prazo. É frequente a necessidade de intervenções repetidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/therapy , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , Vascular Patency , Brazil , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Angioplasty
19.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(3)jul.-set. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-915855

ABSTRACT

Background: Adequate flow through a newly created arteriovenous fistula depends on multiple characteristics of the vessels and patient comorbidities. Several studies have related preoperative findings to failure, but few have analyzed the influence of intraoperative findings. Objectives: To evaluate the predictive value of intraoperative findings on the immediate outcome of radial-cephalic arteriovenous wrist fistulas (RCAVF) by collecting data that are easily measured intraoperatively. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional study, in which a single surgeon performed 101 RCAVF in 100 patients at a single center. We analyzed the immediate postoperative flow, assessed by thrill intensity immediately after fistula creation, against patient demographics and intraoperative data. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, comorbidities, length of vein visible at preoperative examination, macroscopic arterial calcification, maximum vein diameter, and length of stenosis-free vein, measured by cannulation with a urethral catheter during the procedure. The chi-square test was used both to eliminate possible bias introduced by side of venous access (left or right), and to determine predictive values of immediate thrill. Results: Side of access was not associated with any significant differences in variables. Absence of macroscopic arterial calcification, successful venous catheterization using a 6 French catheter or larger, and ability to advance it more than 10 centimeters along the lumen of the proximal vein were correlated with adequate immediate postoperative thrill (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions: In this series of 101 RCAVF, both the diameter of the catheter and its progress through the proximal vein and also absence of arterial calcification had positive predictive value for achieving adequate immediate thrill after vascular access construction


O fluxo adequado de uma fístula arteriovenosa recém-confeccionada depende de múltiplas características dos vasos, bem como de comorbidades do paciente. Diversos estudos associam achados pré-operatórios e suas relações à falha do acesso, mas poucos analisam a influência dos achados encontrados no intraoperatório. Objetivos: Avaliar o valor preditivo desses achados no fluxo imediato de fístulas arteriovenosas radiocefálicas de punho (FAVRCPs) para hemodiálise através de coleta de dados facilmente mensuráveis do intraoperatório. Métodos: Um único cirurgião realizou 101 FAVRCPs em 100 pacientes, em um único centro. Analisou-se o fluxo do pós-operatório imediato através da intensidade do frêmito imediatamente após a confecção do acesso, e os resultados foram comparados com dados demográficos e achados intraoperatórios. As variáveis analisadas foram sexo, idade, comorbidades, extensão da veia visível ao exame físico, presença de calcificação arterial macroscópica, diâmetro venoso máximo e extensão de veia livre de estenose, avaliadas através da cateterização venosa com sonda uretral durante o procedimento. O teste de qui-quadrado foi utilizado tanto para excluir um possível viés de confusão pelo lado do acesso como para avaliar o valor preditivo das variáveis na intensidade do frêmito. Resultados: Não foi identificada diferença significativa nas variáveis segundo o lado do acesso. A ausência de calcificação arterial, a possibilidade de cateterização venosa com sonda de 6 French ou maior, e a sua progressão por mais de 10 cm através do lúmen da veia proximal tiveram correlação com frêmito imediato adequado ao fim do procedimento (p = 0,004, p < 0,001 e p = 0,005, respectivamente). Conclusões: Nesta série de 101 FAVRCPs, o diâmetro e a progressão de cateter 6 French ou maior através da veia proximal e a ausência de calcificação arterial apresentaram valor preditivo positivo na obtenção de frêmito imediato adequado de FAVRCP para hemodiálise


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arteriovenous Fistula , Intraoperative Care/adverse effects , Intraoperative Care/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Renal Dialysis , Wrist , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical , Catheters, Indwelling , Cohort Studies , Risk Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Upper Extremity
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 339-346, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142140

ABSTRACT

Resumen De acuerdo a las guías actuales, aún es materia de debate el uso de anticoagulación en los primeros 3 meses en pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con prótesis biológicas. En base a la evidencia actual, la aspirina a dosis bajas es razonable como alternativa a los antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK) durante el posquirúrgico temprano en pacientes con prótesis biológicas en posición aórtica. Se comparó la incidencia de complicaciones trombóticas o hemorrágicas de acuerdo a la estrategia de terapia antitrombótica en los pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con válvulas biológicas en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. La hipótesis: la aspirina como monoterapia antitrombótica tiene un efecto benéfico comparado con los AVK. Se estudiaron los pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con válvulas biológicas en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Se incluyeron los pacientes operados del año 2011 al 2015. Se identificó en el seguimiento a un año la presencia de complicaciones trombóticas o hemorrágicas y si se manejaron con cualquiera de las siguientes: aspirina únicamente, AVK solo y la combinación aspirina más AVK. Se analizaron 231 pacientes. Solo se presentó una complicación hemorrágica en un paciente tratado con AVK. No hubo complicaciones trombóticas. No se presentaron complicaciones trombóticas en pacientes que no recibieron anticoagulación oral formal durante los primeros 3 meses posquirúrgicos, lo que indica que es seguro el uso de aspirina como monoterapia en estos pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico.


Abstract According to current guidelines, in patients without additional risk factors who have undergone aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis, anticoagulation in the first 3 months after surgery is still a matter of debate. According to current evidence, aspirin in low doses is a reasonable alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). A comparison is made between the incidence of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in patients with low thrombotic risk who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico. The hypothesis: aspirin as monotherapy has a beneficial effect compared to VKA. The studied patients were the low thrombotic risk patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico from 2011 to 2015. The groups studied were: aspirin only, VKA only, and the combination of VKA plus aspirin. The patients were retrospectively followed-up for 12 months, and the thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications were documented. Of the 231 patients included in the study, only one patient in the VKA only group presented with a haemorrhagic complication. No thrombotic complications were observed. In the present study no thrombotic complications were observed in patients who did not receive anticoagulation in the first 3 months after an aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis after a follow up period of 12 months. This suggests that the use of aspirin only is safe during this period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Aspirin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Mexico , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
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