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1.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 119-128, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354464

ABSTRACT

Introduction: some plants such as turmeric, cinnamon, and okra are known to have therapeutic functions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, an immunomodulatory role has been observed in the production of antibodies, in particular immunoglobulin A (IgA), which mediates a variety of protective functions for the organism. Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary plants on the production of IgA in healthy Wistar rats. Methods: thus, 48 male Wistar rats of 90 days of age were allocated to four groups. The animals were treated for 14 days with dried turmeric, cinnamon, or okra (50, 50, 12.5 mg/day, respectively) in phosphate buffered saline, or with only phosphate buffered saline by gavage. The animals received water and feed ad libitum. Body mass and relative weight ofperitoneal fat, adrenal gland, kidney, spleen, liver and thymus, biochemical parameters, and IgA levels were analyzed. Results: no significant changes were observed in the body mass, relative weight of organs and tissues, and biochemical parameters. An increase in serum IgA levels was observed in animals treated with turmeric or cinnamon. Conclusion: we conclude that the treatment with turmeric and cinnamon increased IgA production. Therefore, our study supports the idea that dietary supplementation with these plants may improve humoral immunity.


Introdução: algumas plantas como a cúrcuma, a canela e o quiabo são conhecidas por apresentar funções terapêuticas, como atividade antioxidante e anti-inflamatória. Além disso, tem sido observado um papel imunomodulador sobre a produção de anticorpos, em especial a imunoglobulina A (IgA), a qual medeia uma variedade de funções protetoras para o organismo. Objetivo: o objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito de plantas dietéticas na produção de IgA em ratos Wistar saudáveis. Métodos: destarte, 48 ratos machos Wistar com 90 dias de idade foram alocados em quatro grupos. Os animais foram tratados por 14 dias com cúrcuma seca, canela ou quiabo (50, 50, 12,5 mg/dia, respectivamente) em solução salina tamponada com fosfato ou apenas solução salina tamponada com fosfato, por gavagem. Os animais receberam água e ração ad libitum. Foram analisados a massa corporal e o peso relativo da gordura peritoneal, glândula adrenal, rim, baço, fígado e timo, parâmetros bioquímicos e níveis de IgA. Resultados: não foram observadas alterações significativas na massa corporal, no peso relativo dos órgãos e tecidos e nos parâmetros bioquímicos. Foi observado aumento dos níveis séricos de IgA nos animais tratados com cúrcuma ou canela. Conclusão: podemos concluir que o tratamento com cúrcuma e canela aumentou a produção de IgA. Portanto, nosso estudo suporta a ideia de que a suplementação alimentar com essas plantas pode melhorar a imunidade humoral.


Subject(s)
Rats , Spleen , Thymus Gland , Rats, Wistar , Abelmoschus , Curcuma , Kidney , Liver , Antibodies , Antibody Formation , Plants , Cinnamomum zeylanicum
2.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 113-122, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358147

ABSTRACT

Se presenta conceptos de la inmunocompetencia y su relación con la nutrición en niños, que describen aspectos fisiológicos integrales. También se describen los aspectos inmunológicos, que permiten interpretar los mecanismos de la respuesta inmune, destacándose conceptos y criterios fisiológicos. Un niño malnutrido presenta alteraciones inmunológicas, y las mismas se las puede identificar como deficiencias a predominio celular, y a predominio humoral. Se destaca la importancia del eje Neuroinmunoendocrinológico como integrador de respuestas fisiológicas. El propósito del presente trabajo, esta dirigido a identificar las herramientas que permiten el estudio del sistema inmune en nuestro contexto, haciendo especial hincapié en la ecografía del timo, por ser una herramienta útil para evaluar al sistema inmune en niños con estado nutricional alterado en forma leve o moderada.


Concepts of immunocompetence and its relationship with nutrition in children are presented, describing comprehensive physiological aspects. Immunological aspects are also described, which allow to interpret the mechanisms of the immune response, highlighting physiological concepts and criteria. A malnourished child presents immunological alterations, and these can be identified as deficiencies with a cellular predominance, and with a humoral predominance. The importance of the Neuro-immunoendocrinological axis as an integrator of physiological responses is highlighted. The purpose of this work is aimed at identifying the tools that allow the study of the immune system in our context, with special emphasis on ultrasound of the thymus, as it is a useful tool to evaluate the immune system in children with altered nutritional status, mild or moderate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thymus Gland , Nutritional Status , Growth and Development , Nutritional Sciences , Physiological Phenomena , Immune System , Immunocompetence
3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1288, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251715

ABSTRACT

El sistema inmune madura gradualmente durante la infancia y el nacimiento es un momento crucial para este proceso. El paso por el canal del parto es el primer estímulo que el sistema inmunitario percibe para comenzar así su maduración progresiva. El timo como órgano linfoide primario, es el primero en aparecer entre todos los órganos linfoides; en este órgano ocurre la ontogenia, diferenciación y maduración de los linfocitos T que migran a los órganos linfoides secundarios como linfocitos T inmunocompetentes. La producción de IgA por los linfocitos B es uno de los mecanismos esenciales de respuesta inmune de las mucosas a las que protege en su forma de IgA secretoria. En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología, se atendieron en consulta 62 pacientes pediátricos entre uno y cinco años de edad, con antecedentes de infecciones respiratorias agudas frecuentes, con dos o más episodios en un mes, a los que se les diagnosticó por ultrasonografía una disminución del área tímica (hipoplasia). De ellos, 50 por ciento presentó además disminución de la concentración de IgA en suero. Estos resultados sugieren múltiples interrogantes. Consecuentemente, este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar la asociación hallada entre la disminución del tamaño del timo y la disminución de la concentración en suero de IgA, en un grupo de niños de uno a cinco años, con antecedentes de infecciones respiratorias frecuentes, consultados en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología durante un año(AU)


The immune system gradually matures during childhood, and birth is a crucial moment in this process. Transit through the birth canal is the first stimulus perceived by the immune system to start its progressive maturation. The thymus, a primary lymphoid organ as it is, is the first lymphoid organ to appear. It is the site of the ontogeny, differentiation and maturation of the T-lymphocytes migrating to secondary lymphoid organs as immunocompetent T-lymphocytes. IgA production by B-lymphocytes is one of the essential immune response actions performed by mucosas, which they protect in the form of secretory IgA. A study was conducted of 62 pediatric patients aged 1-5 years attending consultation at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology who had a history of frequent acute respiratory infection, with two or more episodes in one month. These patients were ultrasonographically diagnosed with thymus size reduction (hypoplasia). Among them, 50 percent also presented a decrease in serum IgA concentration. These results pose many questions concerning the association between thymus hypoplasia and IgA reduction. The purpose of the study was therefore to present the association found between thymus size reduction and serum IgA concentration decrease in a group of children aged 1-5 years with a history of frequent respiratory infection attending the Institute of Hematology and Immunology during one year(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections , Thymus Gland , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Hematology
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1855-1865, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a protective phenomenon in which pre-treatment with a tolerance dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to dramatically elevated survival. Accumulating evidence has shown that peripheral T cells contribute to the induction of ET. However, what happens to T cell development in the thymus under ET conditions remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyze the alterations in thymocyte populations (double-positive [DP] and single-positive [SP] cells) under ET conditions.@*METHODS@#Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS at a concentration of 5 mg/kg to establish an LPS tolerance model and were divided into two groups: a group examined 72 h after LPS injection (72-h group) and a group examined 8 days after LPS injection (8-day group). Injection of phosphate-buffered saline was used as a control (control group). Changes in thymus weight, cell counts, and morphology were detected in the three groups. Moreover, surface molecules such as CD4, CD8, CD44, CD69, and CD62L were analyzed using flow cytometry. Furthermore, proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway signaling were analyzed in thymocyte populations. The polymorphism and length of the T-cell receptor (TCR) β chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis DNA laser scanning analysis (ABI 3730).@*RESULTS@#Thymus weight and cell counts were decreased in the early stage but recovered by the late stage in a murine model of LPS-induced ET. Moreover, the proportions of DP cells (control: 72.130 ± 4.074, 72-h: 10.600 ± 3.517, 8-day: 84.770 ± 2.228), CD4+ SP cells (control: 15.770 ± 4.419, 72-h: 44.670 ± 3.089, 8-day: 6.367 ± 0.513), and CD8+ SP cells (control: 7.000 ± 1.916, 72-h: 34.030 ± 3.850, 8-day: 5.133 ± 0.647) were obviously different at different stages of ET. The polymorphism and length of TCR β chain CDR3 also changed obviously, indicating the occurrence of TCR rearrangement and thymocyte diversification. Further analysis showed that the expression of surface molecules, including CD44, CD69, and CD62L, on thymocyte populations (DP and SP cells) were changed to different degrees. Finally, the proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine production, and ERK pathway signaling of thymocyte populations were changed significantly.@*CONCLUSION@#These data reveal that alterations in thymocyte populations might contribute to the establishment of ET.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Differentiation , Endotoxins/toxicity , Flow Cytometry , Mice , Signal Transduction , Thymocytes , Thymus Gland
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3945-3960, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921478

ABSTRACT

The thymus is a pivotal immune organ of the human body, and it is the place where T cells differentiate and mature. The damage of thymus would easily induce autoimmune diseases and even malignant tumors. For years, researchers have been exploring the process of T cell development and revealing the mechanism of thymic injury and regeneration generally through the monolayer culture system of T cells in vitro. However, the classic monolayer culture system could neither reproduce the unique three-dimensional epithelial reticular structure of the thymus, nor provide the cytokines and growth factors required for the directed differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into T cells. Thymic organoid technology utilizes cells with stem cell potential to simulate the anatomical structure of the thymus and the signaling pathway mediated by thymic epithelial cells in vitro through three-dimensional culture, which is particularly close to the microenvironment of the thymus in vivo. Thymic organoids show great potential in the study of T cell differentiation and development, thymus-related diseases, reconstruction of immune function, and cell therapy. This paper summarizes the methods for culturing thymic organoids, followed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the scaffolds used for culturing. The applications of thymic organoids in the disease model, tumor-targeting therapy, regenerative medicine, and organ transplantation were also discussed, with possible future research directions prospected.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Organoids , Regenerative Medicine , Thymus Gland
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021327, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339246

ABSTRACT

Thymomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors arising from the epithelium of the thymus. They are categorized by the proportion of neoplastic epithelia to lymphocytes and by the degree of cytologic atypia. Thymomas constitute 0.2-1.5% of all malignancies and nearly all occur in patients over 20 years. We reviewed the available literature and found less than 50 cases of thymoma reported in children (<18 years of age), the youngest being 4 years old, and no cases in newborns. They represent less than 1% of all mediastinal tumors in children. Due to the limited number of cases in the pediatric population, the diagnosis and treatment in this population is extremely challenging. Thymomas in all age groups may be associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, being myasthenia gravis the most common, which is associated with a worse prognosis in the pediatric population. We present the first case of a newborn infant with congenital thymoma. This case demonstrates a rare tumor in an unusual age group and emphasizes the importance of multidisciplinary teamwork in the decision-making and management of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Thymoma/congenital , Thymus Neoplasms/congenital , Thymus Gland , Thymus Hyperplasia , Congenital Abnormalities/pathology , Myasthenia Gravis
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020231, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153176

ABSTRACT

Cardiac lymphoma is a rare entity. In this setting, the secondary involvement of the heart is far more frequent than the primary cardiac lymphoma. Herein, we present an autopsy case of a disseminated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with a dominant mediastinal involvement. Extensive cardiac infiltration with the near replacement of the myocardial wall by the neoplastic cells was observed. A total of nine isolated case reports of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with cardiac involvement were found in the English-language literature, and a widespread cardiac and thymic infiltration by the systemic ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma has not been documented. An incidental regenerative nodule was also identified in the liver. The patient died of pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic/pathology , Heart Neoplasms , Autopsy , Thromboembolism , Thymus Gland/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Heart Arrest
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1032-1038, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124893

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to examine the histological changes i.e. morphology and biometry of immune organs (thymus, spleen and bursa cloacalis or «Fabricius¼) of broilers in response to dietary dexamethasone (DEX). The day old chicks were obtained from the commercial hatchery and randomly divided into two groups i.e. control and experimental or treated group. The control group was reared on commercial broiler ration and the experimental group (n=25) was maintained on commercial broiler ration with corticosteroid (Dexamethasone-Decason, BP 0.5 mg, Opsonin @ 7 mg/kg feed). Samples (bursa cloacalis, spleen, and thymus) were collected from the ten control and ten experimental broilers at 14 and 28 days of experiment; then tissues were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The biometric measurements of the samples were performed by the calibrated stage micrometer. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 8 software. In DEX treated group, the morphology of thymus, spleen and bursa cloacalis did not show any abnormal alterations. But their development rate was slower on visual inspection in DEX treated group. The length and width of bursal follicle of bursa cloacalis, thymic lobule of thymus and white pulp of spleen were statistically consisted but numerically decreased in DEX treated group than the control. The present findings suggested that DEX does not affect the histological architectures of immune organs except causing developmental arrest. Numerical decrease in the biometry of immune organs indicates that DEX causes apoptosis of immune cells in lymphoid organs of broiler.


El estudio se realizó para examinar los cambios histológicos, es decir, la morfología y la biometría de los órganos inmunes (timo, bazo y bolsa cloacal) de pollos de engorde en respuesta a la dexametasona en la dieta (DEX). Los pollitos de un día se obtuvieron de un criadero comercial y se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos, control y experimental. El grupo control se crió con una ración comercial de pollos de engorde y el grupo experimental (n = 25) se mantuvo con una ración comercial de pollos de engorde con corticosteroides (DexamethasoneDecason, BP 0,5 mg, Opsonin @ 7 mg/kg). Se recogieron muestras (bolsa cloacal, bazo y timo) de los diez pollos del grupo control y diez del grupo de engorde experimental, a los 14 y 28 días de experimento. Luego, los tejidos se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina. Las mediciones biométricas de las muestras fueron realizadas con un micrómetro calibrado. Finalmente, los datos obtenidos se analizaron utilizando el software GraphPad Prism 8. En el grupo tratado con DEX, la morfología del timo, el bazo y la bolsa cloacal no mostraron alteraciones anormales. Pero su tasa de desarrollo fue más lenta en la inspección visual en el grupo tratado con DEX. La longitud y el ancho del folículo bursal de la bolsa cloacal, el lóbulo tímico del timo y la pulpa blanca del bazo fueron estadísticamente consistentes, pero disminuyeron numéricamente en el grupo tratado con DEX en relación al control. Los hallazgos actuales sugirieron que DEX no afecta la arquitectura histológica de los órganos inmunes, excepto que causa una detención del desarrollo. La disminución numérica en la biometría de los órganos inmunes indica que DEX provoca apoptosis de las células inmunes en los órganos linfoides de los pollos de engorde.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Spleen/drug effects , Thymus Gland/drug effects , Chickens , Cloaca/drug effects
9.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(2): 229-249, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124990

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el interés de la visualización sonográfica del timo fetal está relacionado con su importante función inmunológica, las posibilidades de diagnóstico que ofrecen los ecógrafos de alta resolución, y el incremento de informes de posibles afecciones durante el proceso de la gestación. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de la hipoplasia tímica fetal en gestantes de riesgo genético y relacionarla con la presencia de defectos fetales, factores de riesgo previos y aparición de efectos obstétricos adversos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo consistente en la evaluación ecográfica del timo fetal mediante el índice timo-tórax a 221 gestantes que acudieron a los servicios de referencia del Centro Provincial de Genética Médica, por presentar riesgo genético incrementado para cardiopatías. Resultados: se encontraron 16 fetos con un índice timo-tórax inferior o igual a 0,30, el cual se utilizó como criterio de hipoplasia tímica en este estudio, entre ellos: 4 con cardiopatías, 4 con cromosomopatías, 1 con malformación estructural aislada, 2 con preeclampsia, 1 con crecimiento intrauterino retardado, 1 pretérmino y una muerte fetal. Los motivos de referencia con mayor proporción de positividad fueron: la traslucencia nucal aumentada y la imagen de sospecha de cardiopatía congénita en ultrasonido de pesquisaje. Conclusiones: la determinación del índice timo-tórax permitió el diagnóstico de la hipoplasia tímica, tanto en el segundo como en el tercer trimestre de la gestación. Este tipo de investigación es relevante pues contribuye a identificar: defectos congénitos, factores de riesgo y efectos obstétricos adversos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the interest in sonographic visualization of the fetal thymus is related to its important immunological function, the diagnostic possibilities offered by high-resolution ultrasound scanners, and the increased reporting of possible conditions during the gestation process. Objective: to determine the frequency of fetal thymic hypoplasia in pregnant women with genetic risks and to relate it to the presence of fetal defects, previous risk factors and the appearance of adverse obstetric effects. Methods: we conducted a prospective descriptive study consisting of the ultrasound evaluation of the fetal thymus by means of the thymic-thoracic ratio in 221 pregnant women who come to referral services of the Provincial Center of Medical Genetics, because they presented increased genetic risk for heart disease. Results: sixteen fetuses were found with a thymic-thoracic ratio less than or equal to 0.30, which was used as the criterion for thymic hypoplasia in this study: four with heart diseases, four with chromosomal diseases, one with isolated structural malformation, two with preeclampsia, one with delayed intrauterine growth, one preterm and one fetal death. The reference reasons with the highest proportion of positivity were: increased nuchal translucency and image of suspected congenital cardiopathy in screening ultrasound. Conclusions: determination of the thymic-thoracic ratio allowed us the diagnosis of thymic hypoplasia, both in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. This type of research is relevant because it helps to identify: congenital defects, risk factors and adverse obstetric effects.


Subject(s)
Thymus Gland , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(2): 55-60, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125856

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pesquisa incidental de lesiones tímicas ha aumentado. Una adecuada aproximación a esas lesiones en la tomografía computada por emisión de positrones (PET-CT) es fundamental, pues se usa como parte de la mayoría de los procedimientos de planificación oncológica. Se han seleccionado casos representativos respecto de los aspectos más importantes de las imágenes de timo en PET-CT y cómo esa técnica puede contribuir a un diagnóstico preciso o a la planificación del tratamiento. Específicamente, presentamos una descripción general de las lesiones tímicas comunes y los imitadores de enfermedad, con énfasis en los hallazgos en PET-CT, incorporando también ejemplos de resonancia magnética (RM).


Abstract Incidental thymic lesion findings have increased. An adequate characterization of these lesions in positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) is essential, since it is used as part of most oncological planning procedures. Representative cases have been selected regarding the most important aspects of thymus imaging in PET-CT and how this technique can contribute to an accurate diagnosis or treatment planning. Specifically, we present a general description of common thymic lesions and disease mimics, with an emphasis on PET-CT findings, also incorporating examples of magnetic resonance imaging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Thymus Gland/physiology , Thymus Gland/pathology , Thymus Hyperplasia/diagnostic imaging , Thymus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging
11.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 69-74, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099204

ABSTRACT

Las masas cervicales representan un desafío habitual en pediatría, que en su mayoría son de etiología benigna. Una de las causas menos conocidas es el timo cervical aberrante, una entidad clínica resultante de anormalidades en el descenso del timo a lo largo de su ruta habitual (tracto timo-faríngeo). Este es un cuadro frecuentemente mal diagnosticado, del que se desconoce su incidencia real. Actualmente, su incidencia relativa parece ir en aumento en conjunto con la disponibilidad de la ecotomografía. En Chile no hay registro epidemiológico de este cuadro ni existen reportes de caso documentados. En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre masa cervical pediátrica y un reporte de caso de un paciente chileno.


Cervical masses constitute a frequent challenge in pediatric care, mostly which are of benign nature. One of the lesser known causes is the aberrant cervical thymus, which results from embryological abnormalities during the thymus descent through its normal route (thymo-pharyngeal duct). This is a frequently misdiagnosed syndrome, for which its real incidence remains unknown. Nowadays, its relative incidence is on the rise along with ultrasound availability. There is no epidemiological record or documented case reports of this entity in Chile. In this article we present a bibliographic revision on cervical mass and a case report from a Chilean patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Thymus Gland/abnormalities , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Neck/diagnostic imaging
12.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 68-73, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La hipoplasia de timo es una entidad que puede asociarse a múltiples patologías fetales de ahí la importancia de su diagnóstico y su manejo. OBJETIVO: Utilidad y métodos de evaluación del timo en la ecografía morfológica y valor de la interpretación del análisis genético de los microarrays. CASO CLÍNICO: Se presenta el caso clínico de una gestante en la que se detecta una glándula tímica hipoplásica utilizando para su medición el índice timo-torácico en un plano de tres vasos. Ante estos hallazgos se realiza una amniocentesis para análisis genético usando la QF-PCR y un análisis ARRAY-CGH. RESULTADOS: En el análisis de ARRAY-CGH se observa una duplicación patológica en mosaico compatible con una trisomía del cromosoma 10, alteración genética infrecuente de la que se han reportado unos 50 casos en recién nacidos vivos. Esta alteración presenta un rango muy amplio de alteraciones, desde malformaciones graves a niños completamente normales. En los controles posteriores la gestación es normoevolutiva y finaliza en la semana 40 mediante un parto eutócico de inicio espontáneo naciendo un bebé fenotípicamente normal con un timo de menor tamaño del habitual siendo pronto para saber las consecuencias de esta alteración en su inmunidad. CONCLUSIONES: Por un lado, el timo es una estructura fácil de visualizar en la ecografía morfológica de la semana 20 y su medición mediante el índice timo-torácico nos aporta información útil acerca de posibles patologías fetales. Por otro, tener en cuenta que debemos ser muy cautelosos con la interpretación de resultados de pruebas genéticas cuando éstas no tienen un significado clínico claro.


INTRODUCTION : Thymus hypoplasia can associate many different pathologies so is highly important the diagnosis and the management. OBJECTIVE: Utility and methods in the evaluation of the fetal thymus in the morphological ultrasound and interpretation of microarray results. CLINICAL CASE: We present a case of fetal hypoplastic thymus gland in a pregnant woman. We measure it using the thymus-torax index in a three vessel view. A genetical analysis was made using QF-PCR and Array-CGH. RESULTS: In the ARRAY-CGH analysis it is found a pathological mosaicism that match with chromosome 10 trisomy, a very uncommon genetical alteration with only 50 reported cases. This trisomy can traduce from serious malformations to complete normal children. The parents decide to continue with the pregnancy and in week 40 it finishes with an uncomplicated delivery of a healthy child. In the newborn pediatrics remark a thymus gland smaller than expected but it is early to say if it will have or not consequences in its immunity. CONCLUSION: On one hand the thymus is a structure that we can easily display in the morphological ultrasound in the 20 week of pregnancy and its measure, using the thymus-torax index, can be very helpful in the detection of fetal pathologies. On the other hand, is important being careful when we interpret a genetical alteration without a clear clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Thymus Gland/abnormalities , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy/diagnosis , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Aberrations , Microarray Analysis , Amniocentesis
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. xiv, 79 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128725

ABSTRACT

O timo é um órgão linfoide primário responsável pelo desenvolvimento e seleção de células T. Diversos fatores podem afetar o desenvolvimento de células T, como citocinas, quimiocinas e moléculas da matriz extracelular, mas também hormônios, neuropeptídeos e neurotransmissores. O timo recebe densa inervação simpática, liberando majoritariamente noradrenalina (NA), timócitos e células tímicas não linfoides expressam receptores adrenérgicos e podem sintetizar catecolaminas, sugerindo modulação de NA por diferentes vias. Por outro lado, poucas evidências anatômicas suportam a hipótese da inervação tímica parassimpática. Entretanto, acetilcolina (ACh) parece ser endogenamente produzida no órgão, uma vez que diferentes células no timo expressam a enzima sintetizadora de ACh (ChAT) e receptores colinérgicos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o papel funcional de ACh e NA sobre os componentes linfoide e microambiental do timo, e sobre as interações entre células epiteliais e timócitos. Avaliamos a expressão de receptores adrenérgicos α1A, α1D, α2C, ß2 e colinérgicos M1, M3, M5 e α7 em timócitos e TECs, através do método de PCR quantitativa. Todas as populações celulares testadas expressavam os receptores selecionados.


Além disso, buscamos caracterizar o efeito de drogas análogas aos neurotransmissores sobre a morte e a proliferação de timócitos, através da marcação com anexina-V/iodeto de propídio (IP) e CFSE respectivamente. Timócitos obtidos do timo de camundongos C57BL/6 fêmeas, foram tratados com carbacol (análogo de Ach - em concentrações variando de 10 nM a 1000 nM) ou arterenol (análogo de NA - em concentrações variando de 10 nM a 1 mM). Verificamos que apenas arterenol na concentração de 1 mM induziu a apoptose nas células tratadas. Nenhum dos análogos modulou a proliferação celular. Avaliamos ainda o efeito das drogas sobre a migração de timócitos, agindo como quimioatrente ou modulando a migração induzida por fibronectina. Nenhuma das drogas demonstrou efeito quimioatraente ou alterou a migração induzida por fibronectina. Além disso, avaliamos o efeito das drogas sobre a interação TEC/timócitos atraves de ensaios de adesão e observamos que carbacol foi capaz de diminuir a adesão de timócitos a TECs em todas as concentrações testadas. Essa diminuição é refletida no número de timócitos que aderem às TECs e parece estar associada a modulação da expressão do receptor de laminina VLA-6. Nossos dados sugerem que timócitos e as linhagens de TECs testadas expressam receptores e que neurotransmissores, em especial a ACh, podem modular a interação entre TECs e timócitos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Thymus Gland , Carbachol , Acetylcholine
14.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e963, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093283

ABSTRACT

El timo es un órgano cervicotorácico, impar y mediano, situado en la base del cuello y parte superior del mediastino. Junto a la médula ósea es uno de los dos órganos primarios del sistema inmune y ejerce su función en los neonatos y en los niños, fundamentalmente. Entra en regresión a partir de la pubertad, aunque algunos autores plantean que la involución puede comenzar un poco antes, cuando los principales tejidos linfoides están plenamente desarrollados. Interviene sinérgicamente con otras glándulas de secreción interna: tiroides, suprarrenal, hipófisis, para elaborar substancias necesarias para el desarrollo general del organismo. Es un órgano muy sensible a todo influjo. Como todos los órganos de la economía el timo presenta enfermedades producidas tanto por crecimiento exagerado, como por hipoplasias o atrofias. Dentro de las primeras las más comunes son la hiperplasia tímica y el timoma y, entre las últimas el síndrome de DiGeorge ha sido bien caracterizado en la literatura internacional desde la segunda mitad del siglo pasado. Sin embrago, en los últimos tiempos los inmunólogos hablan de la hipoplasia tímica como entidad que puede asociarse o no a estados de inmunodeficiencia. Se describen brevemente estas afecciones(AU)


The thymus is a cervicothoracic organ, odd and medium, located at the base of the neck and upper part of the mediastinum. Next to the bone marrow is one of the two primary organs of the immune system and exerts its function in neonates and children, fundamentally. It regresses after puberty, although some authors suggest that the involution can begin a little earlier, when the main lymphoid tissues are fully developed. It intervenes synergistically with other glands of internal secretion: thyroid, adrenal, pituitary gland, to develop substances necessary for the general development of the organism. It is a very sensitive organ to all influence. Like all the organs of the economy, the thymus presents diseases caused both by exaggerated growth, as by hypoplasias or atrophies. Among the former, the most common are thymic hyperplasia and thymoma and, among the latter, DiGeorge syndrome has been well characterized in international literature since the second half of the last century. However, in recent times immunologists speak of thymic hypoplasia as an entity that may or may not be associated with immunodeficiency states. These conditions are briefly described(AU)


Subject(s)
Thymus Hyperplasia/complications , Thymus Gland/physiopathology , Lymphatic Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1269-1276, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038603

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever comparativamente as artérias responsáveis pela irrigação dos lobos tímicos cervicais e torácicos dos javalis, determinando-se também as características morfológicas do referido órgão nessa espécie, a ponto de correlacioná-las evolutivamente com os demais representantes da família Suidae. Os lobos tímicos cervicais direito e esquerdo receberam ramos distribuídos pelas artérias carótidas comuns direita e esquerda e cervicais superficiais direita e esquerda e, por vezes, pelas artérias torácica externa esquerda e subclávia esquerda. Essa característica vascular foi mantida ao longo da evolução, estando presente em linhagens e raças mais recentes de suídeos. A irrigação dos lobos tímicos torácicos direito e esquerdo foi realizada predominantemente por ramos diretos e indiretos ipsilaterais e contralaterais das artérias torácicas internas direita e esquerda, e também por ramos da artéria subclávia esquerda. Ramos diretos das artérias cervicais superficiais direita e esquerda e ramos diretos da artéria torácica interna direita foram encontrados para o lobo tímico médio, sendo essa uma descrição única nessa espécie, o que demonstra uma característica evolutiva primitiva nesse ancestral.(AU)


The objective of this study was to comparatively describe the arteries responsible for the irrigation of the cervical and thoracic thymus lobes of Boars, also determining the morphological characteristics of this body in this species to the point of evolutionarily correlating them with other representatives of the Suidae family. The left and right cervical thymic lobes received branches distributed by common right and left, superficial right and left carotid arteries, and neck and, sometimes, the outer left chest and left subclavian arteries. This feature was vascular maintained throughout evolution and is present in more recent strains and breeds of swine. Irrigation of the right and left thoracic thymic lobes was performed predominantly by direct and indirect ipsilateral and contralateral branches of the right and left internal thoracic arteries and also by branches of the left subclavian artery. Direct branches of the right and left superficial cervical artery and right branches of the right internal thoracic artery were found for the average thymic lobe, this being a unique description in this species, demonstrating a primitive feature in this evolutionary ancestor.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Thymus Gland/growth & development , Thymus Gland/blood supply , Carotid Arteries , Sus scrofa/anatomy & histology
16.
Immune Network ; : e14-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740214

ABSTRACT

Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a small subset of thymus-generated T cells that produce cytokines to control both innate and adaptive immunity. Because of their very low frequency in the thymus, in-depth characterization of iNKT cells can be facilitated by their enrichment from total thymocytes. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) of glycolipid antigen-loaded CD1d-tetramer-binding cells is a commonly used method to enrich iNKT cells. Surprisingly, we found that this procedure also dramatically altered the subset composition of enriched iNKT cells. As such, NKT2 lineage cells that express large amounts of the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger were markedly over-represented, while NKT1 lineage cells expressing the transcription factor T-bet were significantly reduced. To overcome this limitation, here, we tested magnetic-activated depletion of CD24⁺ immature thymocytes as an alternative method to enrich iNKT cells. We found that the overall recovery in iNKT cell numbers did not differ between these 2 methods. However, enrichment by CD24⁺ cell depletion preserved the subset composition of iNKT cells in the thymus, and thus permitted accurate and reproducible analysis of thymic iNKT cells in further detail.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Cytokines , Leukemia , Methods , Natural Killer T-Cells , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , T-Lymphocytes , Thymocytes , Thymus Gland , Transcription Factors , Zinc Fingers
17.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 93-96, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738807

ABSTRACT

Thymus is an encapsulated organ having its bilateral origin from the third pharyngeal pouch. It appears to be a single organ but actually it is bilobed. It attains its maximum development at puberty and then it begins to involute. The parenchyma is replaced by adipocytes and lymphocyte production declines. Here we present a large thymus with a small area of persistent active tissue in it which was obtained during routine undergraduate dissection class. Tissues taken from different quadrants of the large thymic mass were processed, embedded in paraffin and sections were taken for hematoxylin and eosin staining which showed presence of thymic tissue in only one quadrant. Further sections from that quadrant was treated with cytokeratin to confirm its epithelial origin. Therefore knowledge of a large persistent thymus will be helpful to the radiologists and surgeons for making differential diagnosis and in avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adolescent , Aged , Cadaver , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymphocytes , Paraffin , Puberty , Surgeons , Thymus Gland
19.
Blood Research ; : 274-281, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established treatment modality for a variety of diseases. Immune reconstitution is an important event that determines outcomes. The immune recovery of T cells relies on peripheral expansion of mature graft cells, followed by differentiation of donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The formation of new T cells occurs in the thymus and as a byproduct, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) are released. Detection of TRECs by PCR is a reliable method for estimating the amount of newly formed T cells in the circulation and, indirectly, for estimating thymic function. The aim of this study was to determine the role of TREC quantitation in predicting outcomes of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) identical allogenic HSCT.METHODS: The study was conducted on 100 patients receiving allogenic HSCT from an HLA identical sibling. TREC quantification was done by real time PCR using a standard curve.RESULTS: TREC levels were inversely related to age (P=0.005) and were significantly lower in patients with malignant diseases than in those with benign diseases (P=0.038). TREC levels could predict relapse as an outcome but not graft versus host disease (GvHD) and infections.CONCLUSION: Age and nature of disease determine the TREC levels, which are related to relapse.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Recurrence , Siblings , T-Lymphocytes , Thymus Gland , Transplants
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787531

ABSTRACT

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare epithelial neuroendocrine malignancy and is preferentially located in gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma have been reported in many other locations, including the thymus, gallbladder, prostate, larynx, salivary glands, nasopharynx, tonsil and mastoid. However, primary sinonasal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma never have been reported in Korea. We experienced a case of primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma arising from left maxillary sinus recently. A 82-year-old male patient presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The biopsy revealed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with poor differentiation. After a general evaluation, the patient was staged as cT3N0M0. The patient was treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We report this rare case with literature review.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Drug Therapy , Epistaxis , Gallbladder , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Korea , Larynx , Male , Mastoid , Maxillary Sinus , Nasal Obstruction , Nasopharynx , Palatine Tonsil , Pancreas , Prostate , Radiotherapy , Salivary Glands , Thymus Gland
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