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1.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(2): 121-130, 14 de agosto del 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451554

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Aunque la mayoría de los nódulos tiroideos son benignos, asintomáticos y estables en la historia clínica de una paciente mujer; en los estudios ecográficos, citológicos e histopatológicos se ha podido obtener la caracterización subclínica de lesiones sugestivas de malignidad. El actual estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados a la malignidad de nódulos tiroideos en pacientes adultas. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo correlacional de enfoque mixto en el servicio de endocrinología del Hospital Teodoro Maldonado Carbo entre Enero y Junio del 2019. El universo estuvo compuesto por todos los casos con diagnóstico de nódulo tiroideo. Se utilizó el sistema de Bethesda para los reportes. Resultados: Fueron 132 casos de pacientes con nódulos tiroideos, edad entre 45 a 64 años (57,6%). En estado pre menopáusico (52%), con 1 gestación (12%), glucosa >100 mg/dL (34%), IMC entre 25.0 y 29.9 kg/m2 (49%) y con antecedente patológico familiar de cáncer de tiroides (35%). 30 casos con valores de TSH >4.00 uUI/mL (23%). El sistema de Bethesda, 22 casos (17%) categoria IV, 17 casos (13%) categoria V y 11 casos (8%) categoría VI. Conclusiones: La lesión citológica tiroidea más frecuente que se encontró fue la neoplasia benigna. No obstante, la lesión maligna junto con la lesión folicular indeterminada presentaron una prevalencia del 8%. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre los nódulos de citología maligna con los niveles de TSH elevados y con el antecedente patológico familiar de cáncer de tiroides.


Introduction: Although most thyroid nodules are benign, asymptomatic, and stable in the clinical history of a female patient, in ultrasound, cytological, and histopathological studies, it has been possible to obtain the subclinical characterization of lesions suggestive of malignancy. The current study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with the malignancy of thyroid nodules in adult patients. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, correlational study with a mixed approach was carried out in the endocrinology service of the Teodoro Maldonado Carbo Hospital between January and June 2019. The study population consisted of all patients diagnosed with thyroid nodules. The Bethesda system was used for reporting. Results: There were 132 patients with thyroid nodules aged between 45 and 64 (57.6%). In a premenopausal state (52%), there was one pregnancy (12%), glucose >100 mg/dL (34%), BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 (49%) and a family history of thyroid cancer (35%). Thirty patients had TSH values >4.00 µUI/mL (23%). In the Bethesda system, 22 cases (17%) were Category IV, 17 cases (13%) were Category V, and 11 cases (8%) were Category VI. Conclusions: The most frequent thyroid cytological lesion found was a benign neoplasm. However, malignant lesions and indeterminate follicular lesions presented a prevalence of 8%. A significant association was found between malignant cytology nodules with elevated TSH levels and a family history of thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyrotropin , Thyroid Nodule , Pathology , Cell Biology
2.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 107-114, Junio 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443451

ABSTRACT

Obtener intervalos de referencia (IRs) confiables para pruebas de laboratorio en pediatría es particularmente complejo y costoso. Una alternativa a este problema es el uso de métodos indirectos, donde se usan grandes bases de datos preexistentes de pacientes. Nuestros objetivos fueron: calcular IR para TSH y hormonas tiroideas (Perfil tiroideo, PT) en población pediátrica que asiste al Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan, por método indirecto y verificar la confiabilidad de los mismos para su aplicación. Se recolectaron datos de 19.842 pacientes entre enero de 2020 y diciembre de 2021. Se aplicaron filtros para eliminar los pacientes que pudieran tener afectado el PT. Los 4.861 pacientes incorporados al análisis fueron divididos en 3 grupos: G1: 0-12 meses (n: 551), G2:13 meses- 7 años (n: 1347) y G3: 8 -18 años (n: 2963). Los IR fueron calculados por 2 métodos: el de Hoffman adaptado y el de CLSI EP28A3, para cada grupo de edad. TSH, TT3 y T4L se analizaron con Architect i4000-Abbott y TT4 con Immulite 2000XPi-Siemens. Para la primera etapa de verificación se utilizaron 20 sueros de pacientes provenientes de análisis prequirúrgicos. Los outliers se detectaron aplicando el método de Tukey. Los datos fueron procesados según CLSI EP28A3c. Los IR obtenidos fueron similares a los previamente publicados obtenidos por método directo. Los resultados de la verificación fueron en su mayoría aceptados. Por lo tanto, los métodos indirectos son una buena alternativa de cálculo de IR en pediatría (AU)


Obtaining reliable reference ranges (RRs) for laboratory tests in pediatrics is particularly complex and costly. An alternative to this problem is to use of indirect methods, where large pre-existing patient databases are used. Our aims were to calculate RRs for TSH and thyroid hormones (thyroid profile, PT) in children seen at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan by indirect methods and to verify their reliability for their application. Data were collected from 19,842 patients seen between January 2020 and December 2021. Filters were applied to eliminate patients in whom the PT was potentially affected. The remaining 4,861 patients included in the analysis were divided into 3 groups: G1: 0-12 months (n: 551), G2: 13 months-7 years (n: 1347) and G3: 8-18 years (n: 2963). RRs were calculated by 2 methods: the adapted Hoffman method and the CLSI EP28A3 method, for each age group. TSH, TT3, and FT4 were analyzed with Architect i4000-Abbott and TT4 with Immulite 2000XPi-Siemens. For the first stage of verification, 20 patient sera from pre-surgical analysis were used. Outliers were detected by applying the Tukey method. The data were processed according to CLSI EP28A3c. The RRs obtained were similar to those previously published using the direct method. The verification results were mostly acceptable. Therefore, indirect methods are a good option for calculating RRs in children (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Thyroid Function Tests/methods , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine/instrumentation
3.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 181-190, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443731

ABSTRACT

Las pruebas de función tiroidea (PFT) son esenciales para el diagnóstico preciso y el seguimiento eficaz de la disfunción tiroidea. Existe un incremento progresivo y estable de los pedidos de PFT, incluso se han incorporado las mismas a los exámenes de salud anuales en niños sanos. Representan más del 60% de las pruebas realizadas en el laboratorio de endocrinología, tanto en adultos como en los laboratorios especializados en pediatría. Para hacer un uso eficiente de las PFT, antes de solicitarlas debemos preguntarnos… ¿Para quién? ¿Cuándo solicitarlas? ¿Qué pruebas solicitar? ¿Cómo solicitarlas? y ¿Cómo interpretar correctamente los resultados? Un resultado anormal en las PFT no siempre implica patología tiroidea asociada. Las PFT tienen importante variabilidad intra e interindividual lo que hace más compleja su correcta interpretación. La pesquisa de enfermedad tiroidea neonatal es un importante aporte a la prevención de la deficiencia mental en la infancia, su aplicación obligatoria posibilita un diagnóstico temprano, para asegurar su éxito debe considerarse en el marco de un programa integral de detección con estrategias de confirmación, tratamiento temprano y seguimiento a corto, mediano y largo plazo. No debe hacerse un uso indiscriminado de la prueba de estímulo con TRH en el diagnóstico de la patología tiroidea. En pediatría la estrategia de tamiz de enfermedad tiroidea es conveniente realizarla mediante la medición de por lo menos TSH y T4 libre e incluir la determinación de ATPO en grupos de riesgo, a diferencia de la determinación aislada de TSH como es recomendado en adultos. (AU)


Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are essential for accurate diagnosis and effective monitoring of thyroid dysfunction. There is a progressive and steady increase in requests for TFTs, and they have even been incorporated into annual health examinations in healthy children. They represent more than 60% of the tests performed in the endocrinology laboratory, both in adults and in specialized pediatric laboratories. To efficiently use TFTs, before requesting them we should ask ourselves... For whom? When to request them? Which tests to request? How to request them? and How to correctly interpret the results? An abnormal TFT result does not always imply thyroid disease. TFTs have significant intra- and inter-individual variability, which makes their correct interpretation more complex. Screening for newborn thyroid disease is an important contribution to the prevention of intellectual disability in childhood and its mandatory use enables early diagnosis; however, to ensure the test to be successful, it should be considered within the framework of a comprehensive screening program with strategies for confirmation, early treatment, and short-, medium-, and long-term follow-up. The TRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of thyroid disease should not be used indiscriminately. In children, the screening strategy for thyroid disease should be performed by measuring at least TSH and free T4 and include the measurement of TPO-ab in risk groups, as opposed to the isolated measurement of TSH as recommended in adults. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Function Tests/trends , Thyroid Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Thyrotropin/blood , Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine/trends , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Unnecessary Procedures
4.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1-7, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and its changes with age in apparently healthy Chinese elderly population and analyze the differences between TSH levels detected using Roche and Snibe electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzers.@*METHODS@#General clinical data and frozen fasting serum samples were collected from 5451 apparently healthy Chinese elderly individuals (> 60 years) from 10 centers in different geographic regions in China. Thyroid function indexes including TSH level were detected using Roche and Snibe electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, and the median (2.5% and 97.5% quantiles) TSH level was calculated. The variations of TSH level among the participants with geographic regions, gender, and age (with an interval of 5 years) were analyzed to determine the influence of these factors on TSH level.@*RESULTS@#The reference ranges of serum TSH level established using Roche and Snibe electrochemiluminescence immunoassay analyzers were 0.42-9.47 mU/L and 0.36-7.98 mU/L, respectively, showing significant differences between the two methods (P < 0.001). The TSH levels measured at two centers in Western China were significantly higher than those at the other centers (P < 0.05). In elderly male population, serum TSH level tended to increase with age, which was not observed in elderly female population. At the age of 60-75 years, women generally had higher serum TSH level than men, but this difference was not observed in the population beyond 75 years.@*CONCLUSION@#In elderly population, serum TSH level can vary with geographic region, gender, and age, but there was no need for establishing specific reference ranges for these factors. The differences between different detection methods should be evaluated when interpreting the detection results of TSH level.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asian People , China , Fasting , Health Status , Thyrotropin/blood
5.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 143-148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970459

ABSTRACT

Studies have demonstrated the detrimental effects of overt hyperthyroidism on sexual functioning.Here,we comprehensively reviewed the studies that focused on the association between overt hyperthyroidism and erectile dysfunction (ED).After the systematic searching for relevant studies,we find that overt hyperthyroidism is significantly associated with the high risk of ED.The prevalence of ED in patients with hyperthyroidism ranges from 3.05% to 85%,while that in general population is 2.16% to 33.8%.A study reported that the erectile functioning of the hyperthyroidism patients was improved (International Index of Erectile Function:22.1±6.9 vs. 25.2±5.1) after the achievement of euthyroidism.The underlying mechanism of the increase in the risk of ED by overt hyperthyroidism might be correlated to the dysfunction of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis,dysregulation of sex hormones,abnormal expression of thyroid hormone receptors,and psychiatric or psychological disturbances (e.g.,depression,anxiety,and irritability).Since limited clinical trials have been conducted,additional well-designed cohorts with sizable samples are warranted to elucidate the evidence and mechanism of hyperthyroidism predisposing to ED.The present review indicates that overt hyperthyroidism and the risk of ED are associated,which reminds the clinicians should assess the thyroid stimulating hormone in hyperthyroidism patients presenting with ED,especially in those without positive conventional laboratory findings for causing ED.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Anxiety , Hyperthyroidism/complications , Thyrotropin
6.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 370-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982751

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of recurrence after surgical resection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma combined with iodine-131 and TSH(Thyroid stimulating hormone) inhibition therapy. Methods:From January 2015 to April 2020, the clinical data of patients with structural recurrence and without recurrence were retrospectively collected after surgical treatment combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital. The general conditions of the two groups of patients were analyzed and the measurement data in line with the normal distribution was used for comparison between groups. For measurement data with non-normal distribution, the rank sum test was used for inter-group comparison. The Chi-square test was used for comparison between the counting data groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors associated with relapse. Results:The median follow-up period was 43 months(range 18-81 months) and 100 patients(10.5%) relapsed among the 955 patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the central region of the neck, and the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the lateral region were significantly correlated with post-treatment recurrence(P<0.001, P=0.018, P<0.001, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.496, 95%CI: 1.226-1.826, P<0.001), tumor frequency(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.927, 95%CI: 1.003-3.701, P=0.049), the number of lymph node metastases in the central neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 2.630, 95%CI: 1.509-4.584, P=0.001) and the number of lymph node metastases in the lateral neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 3.074, 95%CI: 1.649-5.730, P=0.001) was associated with tumor recurrence. Conclusion:The study showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases in the central region of the neck>5 and the number of lymph node metastases in the side of the neck >5 are independent risk factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer after surgical resection combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Adenocarcinoma , Thyrotropin , Lymph Nodes/pathology
8.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-10, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518732

ABSTRACT

El Hipotiroidismo subclínico (HSC) es definido bioquímicamente por una elevación en la concentración sérica de la hormona TSH con niveles normales de T4 libre. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de HSC en los pacientes que asistieron a la consulta de medicina interna del Hospital General IESS de Riobamba. Así como, analizar la correlación entre los parámetros hormonales y ciertos marcadores bioquímicos asociados con el incremento de riesgo cardiovascular. Se realizó una investigación de tipo descriptiva, observacional, con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal, que abarcó el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2019 hasta septiembre de 2021. 245 pacientes fueron diagnosticados con HSC, lo cual representó el 10.58 % del universo poblacional estudiado, 61.2% eran del sexo femenino, mientras que el 38.8% del sexo masculino. El mayor número de casos (59.61 %) se observó en el grupo etario mayor de 65 años, distribuidos de la siguiente manera: (22.86% hombres y 36.75% mujeres), también se encontró que el HSC está asociado con un perfil lipídico aterogénico, caracterizado por un incremento en la concentración de colesterol total y LDL los cuales se correlacionaron positivamente con las concentraciones de TSH.


Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is biochemically defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of TSH hormone with normal levels of free T4. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SH in patients attending the internal medicine clinic of the General Hospital IESS of Riobamba. Also, to analyze the correlation between hormonal parameters and certain biochemical markers associated with increased cardiovascular risk. A descriptive, observational, non-experimental cross-sectional design was performed, covering the period from January 2019 to September 2021. 245 patients were diagnosed with SH, which represented 10.58 % of the population universe studied, 61.2% were female, while 38.8% were male. The highest number of cases (59.61 %) was observed in the age group over 65 years, distributed as follows: (22.86% men and 36.75% women), it was also found that SH is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile, characterized by an increase in the concentration of total cholesterol and LDL which correlated positively with TSH concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Thyrotropin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/blood , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/blood , Lipids/blood
9.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-11, June 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512559

ABSTRACT

Thyroid pathology is the morphofunctional evolution of the thyroid glands that leads to different types of clinical pictures. Within it is subclinical hypothyroidism, which is a biochemical alteration due to the elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between 4.5 to 10 mUI that can occur with or without symptoms of multifactorial origin. The worldwide prevalence is 4-10% and Latin America 15-25%. 90% of patients with this pathology do not require treatment, but in turn there is an overmedicalization and underdiagnosis of it. This bibliographic review analyzes from its morphofunctional changes towards clinical criteria for a comprehensive approach to subclinical hypothyroidism, where we have an individualization by its comorbidities, age group, diagnostic algorithm, follow-up and differentiated treatment according to recent studies within this pathology. Therefore, an adequate diagnosis, follow-up and treatment provides a better lifestyle for patients.


La patología tiroidea es la alteración morfofuncional de la glándula tiroides que lleva a diferentes tipos de cuadros clínicos. Dentro de ella se encuentra el Hipotiroidismo subclínico que es una alteración bioquímica por la elevación de la Hormona Estimulante de la tiroides (TSH) entre 4,5 a 10 mUI que puede presentarse con o sin sintomatología y tiene etiología multifactorial. La prevalencia mundial es del 4-10 % y latinoamericana del 15-25%. El 90% de pacientes con esta patología no requieren tratamiento, pero a su vez existe una sobremedicalización y una subdiagnóstico del mismo. La presente revisión bibliografía analiza a partir de su alteración morfofuncional hacia criterios clínicos para un abordaje integral del Hipotiroidismo subclínico, donde tenemos una individualización por sus comorbilidades, grupo etario, algoritmo diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento diferenciado según últimos estudios dentro de esta patología. Por lo que un adecuado diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento brinda un mejor estilo de vida a los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyrotropin/analysis , Hypothyroidism/complications
10.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 525-532, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion on behavior, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cortisol in the serum, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus in rats with hypothyroidism complicated with depression, and to explore the possible mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion on improving depression in rats with hypothyroidism.@*METHODS@#A total of 32 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and a wheat-grain moxibustion group, 8 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the rats in the remaining groups were treated with intragastric administration of 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) suspension at 1 mL/100 g, once a day for 4 weeks to establish the rat model of hypothyroidism, and whether the rats were accompanied with depression-like behavior determined through behavioristics evaluation. The rats in the medication group were intervened with euthyrox at 0.9 mL/100 g, once a day, for 4 weeks; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Mingmen" (GV 4), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20), 7 cones each acupoint, once a day, six times a week for 4 weeks. After the intervention, the depression status was observed by behavioristics test; the contents of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), 5-HT and cortisol in the serum were detected by ELISA; the protein expressions of MR and GR in hippocampus were detected by Western blot; the expressions of MR mRNA and GR mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#Before the intervention, compared with the blank group, the scores of open field test (OFT) were decreased and the immobility time of tail suspension test (TST) was prolonged (P<0.05); the serum TSH contents were increased and TT4 contents were decreased (P<0.01) in the other three groups. After the intervention, compared with the model group, the vertical score of OFT was increased and the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) was prolonged in the medication group (P<0.05), while the scores of three items of OFT were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the immobility time of FST and TST was shortened in the wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the immobility time of TST and FST in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was shorter (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were increased (P<0.01, P<0.001), while the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.001). Compared with the model group, the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were increased, while the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were decreased in the medication group and wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR, GR in the hippocampus in the model group was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001); compared with the model group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the medication group were increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of MR, GR and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, the expression of MR mRNA in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion could significantly improve thyroid function and depression in rats with hypothyroidism. Its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the protein and mRNA expression of MR and GR in the hippocampus, and then affecting the expression of serum cortisol and 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acupuncture Points , Depression/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/metabolism , Serotonin , Thyrotropin/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 723-729, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350002

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Thyroid functions in preterm newborns may be altered in the first week of life. Hypothyroxinemia has been commonly reported in these babies, which could be due to the immaturity of the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis or acute illness. It could have a long-term impact on the developing brain of these babies. We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP) and to determine its risk factors. Materials and methods: We analyzed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 levels of 64 preterm neonates admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit. TSH and free T4 levels were measured in the first week and then at 14-21 days of life to estimate the incidence of THOP and determine its risk factors. We also estimated the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and delayed TSH elevation in CH. Risk analysis was conducted using simple and multiple logistic regression, and numerical data was compared using the Mann Whitney U test and t test. Results: THOP was seen in 25% of the preterm babies. Caesarean delivery, presence of one or more morbidities, mechanical ventilation, birth weight ≥ 1,500 g, and gestational age ≥ 32 weeks were identified as risk factors for THOP based on simple logistic regression. In multiple regression, mechanical ventilation and gestational age ≥ 32 weeks were significantly associated with THOP. CH was seen in 2 (3.1%) babies, and 1 of these cases had delayed TSH elevation. Conclusion: Thyroid abnormalities are common in preterm admitted neonates. Mechanical ventilation is an independent risk factor for development of THOP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Thyroxine , Infant, Premature , Thyrotropin , Risk Factors
12.
Archiv. med. fam. gen. (En línea) ; 18(3): 3-14, Nov. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1395240

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones de la función tiroidea incluida el hipotiroidismo subclínico son unas de las patologías más frecuentes durante el embarazo, y se asocian a importantes complicaciones maternas, fetales y neonatales. Se han desarrollado múltiples guías de práctica clínica por sociedades internacionales en busca de unificar el enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico de las patologías tiroideas durante la gestación, sin embargo hay evidencia insuficiente sobre la realización de tamizaje y aún más sobre las intervenciones terapéuticas en caso del hipotiroidismo subclínico, se presenta la siguiente revisión de la literatura para vislumbrar a la luz de información actualizada como realizar el abordaje integral de las pacientes gestantes con hipotiroidismo subclínico (AU)


Alterations in thyroid function, including subclinical hypothyroidism, are one of the most frequent pathologies during pregnancy, and are associated with important maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Multiple clinical practice guidelines have been developed by international societies in search of unifying the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid pathologies during pregnancy, however there is insufficient evidence on screening and even more on therapeutic interventions in case of subclinical hypothyroidism , the following review of the literature is presented to envision in the light of updated information how to carry out a comprehensive approach to pregnant patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Thyroxine/blood , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyrotropin/blood , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 592-600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.


Resumo Compreender a relação entre os fatores de estresse ambiental e o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide (HPT) pode reduzir a suscetibilidade a doenças da tireoide. Em nosso estudo, a disfunção tireoidiana foi induzida em ratos fêmeas pela administração de 40 mg Na F/kg.bw/dia durante um mês. A administração concomitante do extrato aquoso de Arca noae (300 mg/kg.Pc) foi testada como tratamento para a disfunção tireoidiana induzida por Na F. Um grupo de ratos injetados apenas com extrato de Arca noae (300 mg/kg. Pc) foi pré-formado com o intuito de observar o impacto do extrato no eixo (HPT), além do grupo controle normal. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, proteína total e albumina no grupo suplementado com fluoreto, além de níveis anormais de TSH, (T4) e (T3) em comparação ao grupo controle. No grupo tratado, houve uma melhora no nível de proteínas e perfil lipídico. Os níveis séricos pseudocorrigidos (T4) e (T3) foram observados, além de um aumento contínuo no nível de TSH. Os achados histológicos confirmaram o efeito prejudicial do flúor nos grupos não tratado e tratado. Consequentemente, a suplementação de flúor é considerada um estresse prejudicial que pode afetar permanentemente o eixo HPT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Thyroid Diseases , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Aquatic Organisms
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 428-435, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin (STg) after total thyroidectomy is a prognosis marker for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). As Tg level is influenced by thyrotropin (TSH), perhaps the STg/TSH ratio is also a prognosis marker for these tumours. We aimed to compare STg/TSH ratio and first STg level in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients for their ability to predict the long-term response to initial treatment. Subjects and methods: This retrospective study evaluated data from 181 DTC patients for first (1st) STg and STg/TSH ratio, at 1-3 months post-total thyroidectomy and before iodine-131 therapy, according to response to initial therapy [Excellent/Indeterminate or Incomplete (Biochemical/Structural)] observed at final evaluation, and with the survival time with excellent/indeterminate response. Results: Cases with incomplete response presented higher STg level [225.13 ± 585.26 ng/mL versus (vs) 20.4 ± 192.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001] and STg/TSH ratio (3.01 ± 7.8 vs 0.27 ± 2.58; p < 0.001). Cutoffs of 5 ng/mL for STg and 0.085 for STg/TSH displayed sensitivities of 76.7% and 76.9%, and specificities of 79.2% and 82.6%, respectively, in predicting response to therapy. Values below these cutoffs were associated with longer survival time in excellent/indeterminate response (140.4 vs 15.9 and 144.6 vs 15.9 months, respectively). Conclusion: STg/TSH ratio has a similar performance to the 1st STg in predicting long-term response to initial therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 468-478, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate incidence of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Subjects and methods: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study of 15,105 civil servants, examined at baseline and over a 4-year follow-up. This analysis included 9,705 participants with normal thyroid function at baseline, follow-up information about thyroid function and with no report of using drugs that may interfere in the thyroid function. Thyroid function was defined by TSH/FT4 levels or routine use of thyroid hormones/anti-thyroid medications. Annual and cumulative (over 4-year) incidence rates were presented as percentages (95% Confidence Intervals). Results: The incidence of all overt and subclinical thyroid disease was 6.7% (1.73%/year): 0.19% for overt hyperthyroidism (0.048%/year), 0.54% for subclinical hyperthyroidism (0.14%/year), 1.98% for overt hypothyroidism (0.51%/year), and 3.99% for subclinical hypothyroidism (1.03%/year). The incidence of all thyroid diseases was higher in women, when compared to men, with a low women:men ratio (1.36). For Blacks the highest incidence was for overt hyperthyroidism, while for Whites, the highest incidence was for overt hypothyroidism. However, the highest incidence of overt hyperthyroidism was detected in Asian descendants. The presence of antithyroperoxidase antibodies at baseline was associated with higher incidence of overt thyroid diseases. Conclusion: These results showed a high incidence of hypothyroidism, which is compatible with a country with a more-than-adequate iodine intake. The low women:men ratio of the incidence of thyroid dysfunction highlights the importance of the diagnosis of thyroid diseases among men in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyrotropin , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 450-454, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339113

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The effects of maternal thyroid hormone levels on the course of pregnancy and birth weight have attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to consider FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio in the evaluation of the effects of maternal thyroid functions in gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT). Materials and methods: This case-control study included 45 patients with GTT and 45 healthy pregnant women. Maternal history before pregnancy, thyroid function tests, thyroid autoantibodies, and thyroid ultrasonography results in 6th to 10th weeks of pregnancy were used in the differential diagnosis of GTT. In both groups, the effects of FT3, FT4 and FT3/FT4 ratios on gestational age and birth weight were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in the gestational age between the GTT and control groups (39,3±1,0 weeks and 39,2±1,2 weeks, respectively). Birth weights were similar in both groups (3205,2±4899 g and 3196,6±309,3 g, respectively). When maternal weight was adjusted, a positive correlation was observed between maternal FT3/FT4 ratio and birth weight (r=0,317, p=0,017). Additionally there was a positive correlation between the gestational age and the birth weight in the control group (ρ=0,726, p=0,001). Conclusion: GTT had no significant effect on the gestational age and the birth weight. On the other hand an increase in the maternal FT3/FT4 ratio had a positive effect on the birth weight in the patient with GTT. Maternal characteristics (age, weight, BMI) and FT3/FT4 ratio should be taken into consideration in future impact assessment studies on this issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Triiodothyronine , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroxine , Thyrotropin , Case-Control Studies
17.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 31(2): 131-140, 31 de agosto 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284451

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La acromegalia se produce por un adenoma hipofisario somatotropo, que secreta una excesiva producción de GH e IGF1, se relaciona con mayor riesgo de tumores malignos, no guardando asociación con un patrón especifico de presentación y el objetivo de este estudio es analizar la evolución del cáncer papilar de tiroides en acromegalia. Casos: Se trata de tres pacientes diagnosticados de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) con diferente pronóstico, con características faciales, y sintomatología como cefalea, alteraciones del campo visual, alteraciones menstruales, que condujeron a la realización de estudios bioquímicos, de imagen y al diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolución: La aparición de cáncer de tiroides varía en el tiempo de evolución de la acromegalia, en dos de los casos lo antecedió y en el tercero se presentó a la par con esta patología. La respuesta al tratamiento en el CPT es indeterminada en la primera paciente y \excelente en los otros casos; en una paciente se alcanzó remisión. Conclusiones: la coexistencia de acromegalia con cáncer tiroides es posible, que los cambios acrales, faciales y la sintomatología expansiva del tumor conducen al diagnóstico de acromegalia y que la identificación de malignidades no guarda relación con la evolución de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Acromegaly is produced by a somatotropic pituitary adenoma, which secretes an excessive production of GH and IGF1, it is related to a higher risk of malignant tumors, not being associated with a specific pattern of presentation and the objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of papillary thyroid cancer in acromegaly. Cases report: These were three patients diagnosed with CPT with different prognosis, with facial characteristics, and symptoms such as headache, visual field alterations, menstrual alterations, which led to biochemical and imaging studies and the diagnosis of acromegaly. Evolution: The appearance of thyroid cancer in the time of evolution of acromegaly is different, in two of the cases it preceded it and in the third it was presented alongside this pathology. The re-sponse to treatment in CPT is indeterminate in the first patient and excellent in the other cases; re-mission was achieved in one patient. Conclusions: It is concluded that the coexistence of acromegaly with thyroid cancer is possible, that the acral and facial changes and the expansive symptomatology of the tumor lead to the diag-nosis of acromegaly and that the identification of malignancies is not related to the evolution of the disease.


Introdução: A acromegalia é produzida por um adenoma hipofisário somatotrópico, que secreta uma produção excessiva de GH e IGF1, está relacionada a um maior risco de tumores malignos, não estando associada a um padrão específico de apresentação e o objetivo deste estudo é analisar a evolução de câncer papilar de tireoide na acromegalia. Casos: São três pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma papilífero de tireoide (CPT) de prognóstico diferente, com características faciais e sintomas como cefaleia, alterações do campo visual, alterações menstruais, que levaram à realização de estudos bioquímicos, de imagem e diagnóstico de acromegalia. Evolução: O aparecimento do câncer de tireoide varia com o tempo de evolução da acromegalia, em dois dos casos ela o precedeu e no terceiro foi apresentado concomitantemente a esta patologia. A resposta ao tratamento no CPT é indeterminada no primeiro paciente e excelente nos demais casos; a remissão foi alcançada em um paciente. Conclusões: a coexistência de acromegalia com câncer de tireoide é possível, que as alterações acrais e faciais e a sintomatologia expansiva do tumor levam ao diagnóstico de acromegalia e que a identificação de neoplasias não está relacionada à evolução da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Growth Hormone , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Iodine Radioisotopes , Thyroglobulin/classification , Thyrotropin , Suppression , Endothelial Growth Factors
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 32-39, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152894

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Subclinical hypothyroidism (Shypo) is an increasingly frequent condition in common medical practice. Its diagnosis continues to pose a challenge since a series of non-thyroidal and temporary conditions can elevate serum TSH levels. In addition, the consequences of Shypo are still up for debate. Although detrimental cardiovascular effects have been consistently demonstrated in the young, they are less evident in older adults (65-79 years), and even more so in the oldest old (≥80 years). In the absence of evidence of any benefits of treating Shypo in patients' clinical manifestations and unfavorable outcomes, the most effective decision-making approach should include a thorough investigation of the patient's condition integrating all relevant clinical data, such as TSH levels, age, quality of life, comorbidities, cardiovascular risk, safety, and personal preferences. The decision-making process needs to take into account the risk of levothyroxine overtreatment and the resulting adverse consequences, such as reduction of bone mineral density, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Hence, current evidence suggests that individuals with TSH > 10 mU/L, who test positive for TPO Ab or are symptomatic may benefit from levothyroxine treatment. However, a more cautious and conservative approach is required in older (≥65 years of age), and oldest-old (≥80 years) patients, particularly those with frailty, in which the risk of treatment can outweigh potential benefits. The latter may benefit from a wait-and-see approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Failure , Hypothyroidism , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyrotropin
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37022, Jan.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359872

ABSTRACT

Thyroid hormones play a significant role in normal human body growth. Abnormalities in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels can result in pregnancy loss due to miscarriages and intrauterine death (IUD). The objective of the study was to assess the levels of association of thyroid stimulating hormone with miscarriages and IUD. The descriptive study involving 110 samples between 18-40 years of age fulfilling inclusion criteria were sampled for TSH testing (2ml blood) after attaining their written informed consent. The mean age of participants was 29.49±4.26 year. The prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism was 3.64% and 2.73%, respectively. Complications like gestational hypertension, depression and oligomenorrhea were found prevalent in these females. Majority of females were taking high/low iodine than recommended iodine level (150mcg). This work shows that there is a significant association between pregnancy loss and disturbed TSH levels among pregnant females.


Subject(s)
Thyrotropin , Abortion, Spontaneous , Intrauterine Devices , Pregnant Women , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 59-64, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283550

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El hipotiroidismo subclínico (HSC) se define bioquímicamente por una elevación en la concentración sérica de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides (TSH), con niveles normales de tiroxina libre (T4L). La asociación entre el HSC y el daño cardiovascular ha sido un tema controversial. OBJETIVO: determinar la asociación entre el HSC y el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular mediante la cuantificación de la proteína C reactiva ultrasensible PCR-us y la determinación de lípidos circulantes asociados a la enfermedad cardiovascular y la ateroesclerosis. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, correlacional de corte transversal realizado en el Hospital IESS de Riobamba, Ecuador en el periodo comprendido desde enero a diciembre de 2019. Se estudiaron 70 individuos (40 pacientes con HSC y 30 controles) con edades entre 18 y 75 años. Se realizaron las historias clínicas y el examen físico a cada paciente y la toma de las muestras sanguíneas para determinar la concentración sérica de los siguientes parámetros bioquímicos y hormonales: colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL colesterol y LDL colesterol, TSH, T4L y PCR-us. RESULTADOS: Se encontró un incremento significativo en la concentración de colesterol total (p<0.0001), LDL colesterol (p<0.01) y PCR-us (p<0.0001) en los pacientes con HSC vs los controles. Se observó una correlación positiva (p<0.0001; r=0.9148) entre la TSH y la PCR-us en los pacientes con HSC. CONCLUSIÓN: los pacientes con HSC experimentan una elevación en los niveles séricos de PCR-us la cual está correlacionada con un incremento en la concentración sérica de TSH. Estos parámetros asociados a un aumento del colesterol total y de la LDL colesterol sugieren un estado inflamatorio de bajo grado que podría estar asociado con el desarrollo de aterosclerosis y daño cardiovascular.


INTRODUCTION: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined biochemically by an elevation in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, with normal levels of free thyroxine (T4L). The association between SH and cardiovascular damage has been a controversial issue. OBJECTIVE: to determine the association between SH and the development of cardiovascular disease through the quantification of the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-PCR) and the determination of circulating lipids associated to cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Observational, correlational cross-sectional study with patients captured in the internal medicine office as well as those attending screening activities at the IESS Hospital in Riobamba- Ecuador, in the period from January to December 2019. Seventy individuals (40 patients with SH and 30 controls) between the ages of 18 and 75 years were studied. Each patient's medical history and physical examination were performed, and blood samples were taken to determine the serum concentration of the following biochemical and hormonal parameters: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, TSH, T4L and hs-PCR. RESULTS: A significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL cholesterol (p<0.01) and hs-PCR (p<0.0001) was found in patients with SH vs. controls. A positive correlation (p<0.0001; r=0.9148) was observed between TSH and hs-PCR in patients with SH. CONCLUSION: patients with SH experience an elevation in serum hs-PCR levels which is correlated with an increase in serum TSH concentration. These parameters associated with an increase in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol suggest a low-grade inflammatory state that may be associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hypothyroidism/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Atherosclerosis , Hypothyroidism/complications , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
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