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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Animals , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-949021

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to explore the activity of Codonopsis canescens extract against rheumatoid arthritis(RA) based on the Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)/nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) signaling pathways and its mechanism. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify the components of C. canescens extract. Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely the normal group, the model group, the methotrexate(MTX) tablet group, and the low, medium, and high-dose C. canescens extract(ZDS-L, ZDS-M, and ZDS-H) groups, with 8 rats in each group. The model of collagen-induced arthritis in rats was induced by injection of bovine type Ⅱ collagen emulsion. MTX(2.5 mg·kg~(-1)), ZDS-L, ZDS-M, and ZDS-H(0.3 g·kg~(-1), 0.6 g·kg~(-1), and 1.2 g·kg~(-1)) were administrated by gavage. Rats in the normal group and the model group received distilled water. MTX was given once every three days for 28 days, and the rest medicines were given once daily for 28 days. Body weight, degree of foot swelling, arthritis index, immune organ index, synovial histopathological changes, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were observed. Protein expressions of TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK, and p-p38 MAPK in rats were determined by Western blot. Thirty-four main components were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including 15 flavonoids, 7 phenylpropanoids, 4 terpenoids, 4 organic acids, 2 esters, and 2 polyalkynes. As compared with the normal group, the body weight of the model group was significantly decreased(P<0.01), and foot swelling(P<0.05, P<0.01), arthritis index(P<0.01), and the immune organ index(P<0.01) were significantly increased. The synovial histopathological injury was obviously observed in the model group. The serum levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly increased(P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB p65, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in the synovial tissue were significantly increased(P<0.01) in the model group. As compared with the model group, the body weights of the ZDS dose groups were increased(P<0.01), and the degree of foot swelling(P<0.01) and the arthritis index were decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01). The immune organ index was decreased(P<0.01) in the ZDS dose groups, and the synovial tissue hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration were alleviated. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, NF-κB p65, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK were decreased(P<0.05, P<0.01) in the ZDS dose groups. C. canescens extract containing apigenin, tricin, chlorogenic acid, aesculin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and oleanolic acid has a good anti-RA effect, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of TLRs/MAPKs/NF-κB signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Body Weight , Codonopsis/chemistry , Interleukin-6/blood , NF-kappa B/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948924

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the mechanism of "simultaneous treatment of the brain and the heart" of Naoxintong Capsules(NXT) under cerebral ischemia based on Toll-like receptor(TLR) signaling pathway.Male SD rats were randomized into sham operation group, model group, NXT group, and positive drug group.Middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) model rats were used in model group, NXT group, and positive drug group, respectively.Neurological function was scored with the Bederson scale, and brain infarct rate was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining.Brain edema was detected with wet-dry weight method.Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining were used to observe and count apoptotic cardiocytes.In addition, serum myocardial enzymes were measured.The expression of 8 TLR signaling pathway-related proteins interferon-α(IFN-α), interferon regulatory factor-3(IRF3), interferon regulatory factor-7(IRF7), TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the cerebral cortex and heart of rats was detected by Western blot. Brain infarct rate, neurological function score, and brain water content in NXT group decreased significantly compared with those in the model group. At the same time, the reduction in apoptosis rate of cardiocytes and the content of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), creatine kinase(CK), and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) were decreased in the NXT group.Systems pharmacological results and previous research showed that TLR signaling pathway played an important role in immune inflammatory response.The study of TLR signaling pathway and related proteins is helpful to elucidate the mechanism of "simultaneous treatment of the brain and the heart". Western blot results showed that NXT significantly inhibited the expression of IRF3, IRF7, TLR2, TLR7, and TNF-α in cerebral cortex and heart under cerebral ischemia.Cerebral ischemia influences cardiac functions, and TLR signaling pathway is one of the pathways for "simultaneous treatment of the brain and the heart" of NXT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Male , Myocytes, Cardiac , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948897

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the inhibitory effect and mechanism of tectorigenin derivative(SGY) against herpes simplex virus type Ⅰ(HSV-1) by in vitro experiments. The cytotoxicity of SGY and positive drug acyclovir(ACV) on African green monkey kidney(Vero) cells and mouse microglia(BV-2) cells was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) method, and the maximum non-toxic concentration and median toxic concentration(TC_(50)) of the drugs were calculated. After Vero cells were infected with HSV-1, the virulence was determined by cytopathologic effects(CPE) to calculate viral titers. The inhibitory effect of the tested drugs on HSV-1-induced cytopathy in Vero cells was measured, and their modes of action were initially explored by virus adsorption, replication and inactivation. The effects of the drugs on viral load of BV-2 cells 24 h after HSV-1 infection and the Toll-like receptor(TLR) mRNA expression were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR). The maximum non-toxic concentrations of SGY against Vero and BV-2 cells were 382.804 μg·mL~(-1) and 251.78 μg·mL~(-1), respectively, and TC_(50) was 1 749.98 μg·mL~(-1) and 2 977.50 μg·mL~(-1), respectively. In Vero cell model, the half maximal inhibitory concentration(IC_(50)) of SGY against HSV-1 was 54.49 μg·mL~(-1), and the selection index(SI) was 32.12, with the mode of action of significantly inhibiting replication and directly inactivating HSV-1. RT-qPCR results showed that SGY markedly reduced the viral load in cells. The virus model group had significantly increased relative expression of TLR2, TLR3 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3(TRAF3) and reduced relative expression of TLR9 as compared with normal group, and after SGY intervention, the expression of TLR2, TLR3 and TRAF3 was decreased to different degrees and that of TLR9 was enhanced. The expression of inflammatory factors inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) was remarkably increased in virus model group as compared with that in normal group, and the levels of these inflammatory factors dropped after SGY intervention. In conclusion, SGY significantly inhibited and directly inactivated HSV-1 in vitro. In addition, it modulated the expression of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR9 related pathways, and suppressed the increase of inflammatory factor levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/metabolism , Isoflavones , Mice , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium QH06 on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats and explore the mechanisms in light of intestinal flora and intestinal immunity.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized equally into control group, UC model group, and E.faecium QH06 intervention group. The rats in the latter two groups were subjected to colonic enema with 5% TNBS/ethanol to induce UC, followed by treatment with intragastric administration of distilled water or E.faecium QH06 at the dose of 0.21 g/kg. After 14 days of treatment, the rats were examined for colon pathologies with HE staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ in the colon tissues were detected using RT-qPCR and ELISA, and the expression of TLR2 protein was detected with immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Illumina Miseq platform was used for sequencing analysis of the intestinal flora of the rats with bioinformatics analysis. The correlations of the parameters of the intestinal flora with the expression levels of TLR2 and cytokines were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The rats with TNBS- induced UC showed obvious weight loss (P < 0.01) and severe colon tissue injury with high pathological scores (P < 0.01). The protein expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and TLR2 (P < 0.01) and the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-10 (P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the colon tissues of the rats with UC. Illumina Miseq sequence analysis showed that in UC rats, the Shannon index (P < 0.05) ACE (P < 0.01)and Chao (P < 0.05) index for the diversity of intestinal flora both decreased with a significantly increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.01) and a lowered abundance of Burkholderiaceae (P < 0.05). Compared with the UC rats, the rats treated with E. faecium QH06 showed obvious body weight gain (P < 0.05), lessened colon injuries, lowered pathological score of the colon tissue (P < 0.05), decreased protein expressions of IFN- γ, IL- 12, and TLR2 and mRNA expressions of IFN- γ and IL-12 (P < 0.01 or 0.05), and increased protein expressions of IL- 4 (P < 0.05). The Shannon index ACE (P < 0.05) and Chao (P < 0.05) index of intestinal microflora were significantly increased, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was lowered and that of Burkholderiaceae and Rikenellaceae was increased in E.faecium QH06- treated rats (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that IFN-γ was positively correlated with the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, and IFN-γ was negatively correlated with the abundance of Prevotellaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, norank_o_Mollicutes_RF39 and Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group; TLR2 was negatively correlated with Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group, norank_o_Mollicutes_RF39 and Prevotellaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#E.faecium QH06 can alleviate TNBS-induced colonic mucosal injury in rats, and its effect is mediated possibly by increasing the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria such as Prevotellaceae and inhibiting abnormal immune responses mediated by TLR2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colon/metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12/therapeutic use , Male , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(3): 281-286, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888657

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to find the role of TLR2 signaling pathway in reducing osteoclast activity and promoting osteoblast growth by inducing a combination of Aloe vera and cancellous bovine xenograft (XCB) into dental extraction socket. Forty-eight Cavia cobayas were used. They were divided into eight groups (n=6). For control group, their mandibular incisors were extracted and filled with PEG. For treatment groups, they were extracted and filled with XCB, Aloe vera and the combination of Aloe vera and XCB. The first four groups were sacrificed after 7 days and the other groups after 30 days. Immunohistochemistry and histopathology examination were conducted to examine TLR2, TNFa, OPG, collagen-1, and the osteoblast and osteoclast expressions. The expressions of TLR2, OPG and Collagen-1, as well as the number of osteoblast were increased. Meanwhile, the expressions of TNFa and osteoclast were decreased. The study finding was that TLR2 signaling pathway influenced alveolar bone osteogenesis process by reducing osteoclast activity and stimulating osteoblast growth induced by the combination of Aloe vera and XCB.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o papel da via de sinalização de TLR2 na redução da atividade osteoclástica e na promoção do crescimento de osteoblastos, induzindo uma combinação de Aloe vera e enxerto de osso esponjoso bovino (EOEB) em alvéolo de extração dentária. Quarenta e oito Cavia cobayas foram utilizados e divididos em 8 grupos (n = 6). Para o grupo de controle, seus incisivos mandibulares foram extraídos e preenchidos com polietilenoglicol (PEG). Para grupos de tratamento, os dentes foram extraídos e preenchidos com EOEB, Aloe vera e a combinação de Aloe vera e EOEB. Os primeiros quatro grupos foram sacrificados após 7 dias e os outros grupos após 30 dias. As análises de imunohistoquímica e histopatologia foram realizada para examinar TLR2, TNFa OPG, colágeno-1 e as expressões de osteoblastos e osteoclastos. Houve maior expressão de TLR2, FGF2, OPG e colágeno-1, bem como maior número de osteoblastos. Enquanto isso, a expressão de TNFa e osteoclastos estava diminuída. O principal achado do estudo foi que a via de sinalização de TLR2 influenciou o processo de osteogênese do osso alveolar, reduzindo a atividade dos osteoclastos e estimulando o crescimento de osteoblastos induzido pela combinação de Aloe vera e EOEB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Aloe , Alveolar Process/growth & development , Cancellous Bone/transplantation , Osteogenesis , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Guinea Pigs , Heterografts , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , Tooth Socket , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 82-92
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158381

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors identifying pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They play a critical role in the innate immune response during the initial interaction between the infecting microorganism and phagocytic cells. Here, we verified the presence of TLR-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and their modulation after infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. It was seen that TLR-2 gene transcribed to its respective mRNA on S. aureus infection, in thymus, spleen and lymph node of mice but their levels and mode of expression varied. When challenged with LPS no prominent changes in the expression of TLR-2 receptor was observed but its expression increased gradually with time in the thymus, spleen and lymph node of S. aureus infected mice. TLR-2 expression was also found enhanced in infected splenic macrophages. By studying the serum cytokine profile the functionality of the receptor was measured. The results indicate the presence of TLR-2 in thymus, spleen and lymph node of Swiss albino strain of mice and that they are modulated by S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Expression/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/microbiology , Male , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spleen/immunology , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology , Thymus Gland/immunology , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/microbiology , Time Factors , Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55050

ABSTRACT

When mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were stimulated with serum amyloid A (SAA), which is a major acute-phase protein, there was strong inhibition of osteoclast formation induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand. SAA not only markedly blocked the expression of several osteoclast-associated genes (TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and osteoclast-associated receptor) but also strongly induced the expression of negative regulators (MafB and interferon regulatory factor 8). Moreover, SAA decreased c-fms expression on the cell surface via shedding of the c-fms extracellular domain. SAA also restrained the fusion of osteoclast precursors by blocking intracellular ATP release. This inhibitory response of SAA is not mediated by the well-known SAA receptors (formyl peptide receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4). These findings provide insight into a novel inhibitory role of SAA in osteoclastogenesis and suggest that SAA is an important endogenous modulator that regulates bone homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Humans , Macrophages/cytology , Mice , Osteoclasts/cytology , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics , Receptors, Formyl Peptide/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jan; 52(1): 17-29
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150328

ABSTRACT

In experimental visceral leishmaniasis the causative obligate protozoan parasite, L. donovani invades and multiplies inside of macrophages, one of the sentries of the mammalian immune system. The initial host-parasite interaction between the Leishmania promastigote and the macrophage takes place at the plasma membrane interface. To trace any possible interaction between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) during early Leishmania-macrophage interactions, it was observed that the expression of both TLR2 and CCR5 were significantly increased, along with their recruitment to the lipid raft. TLR2 silencing attenuates CCR5 expression and restricts L. donovani infection, indicating a regulatory role of TLR2 and CCR5 during infection. Silencing of CCR5 and TLR2 markedly reduced the number of intracellular parasites in macrophages by host protective cytokine responses, while raft disruption using β-MCD affected TLR2/CCR5 cross-talk and resulted in a significant reduction in parasite invasion. In vivo RNA interference of TLR2 and CCR5 using shRNA plasmids rendered protection in Leishmania donovani-infected mice. Thus, this study for the first time demonstrates the importance of TLR2/CCR5 crosstalk as a significant determinant of Leishmania donovani entry in host macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Infections/metabolism , Infections/parasitology , Leishmania donovani/metabolism , Leishmania donovani/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/metabolism , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Macrophages/metabolism , Membrane Microdomains , Mice , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17803

ABSTRACT

Chronic neuroinflammation is an integral pathological feature of major neurodegenerative diseases. The recruitment of microglia to affected brain regions and the activation of these cells are the major events leading to disease-associated neuroinflammation. In a previous study, we showed that neuron-released alpha-synuclein can activate microglia through activating the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathway, resulting in proinflammatory responses. However, it is not clear whether other signaling pathways are involved in the migration and activation of microglia in response to neuron-released alpha-synuclein. In the current study, we demonstrated that TLR2 activation is not sufficient for all of the changes manifested by microglia in response to neuron-released alpha-synuclein. Specifically, the migration of and morphological changes in microglia, triggered by neuron-released alpha-synuclein, did not require the activation of TLR2, whereas increased proliferation and production of cytokines were strictly under the control of TLR2. Construction of a hypothetical signaling network using computational tools and experimental validation with various peptide inhibitors showed that beta1-integrin was necessary for both the morphological changes and the migration. However, neither proliferation nor cytokine production by microglia was dependent on the activation of beta1-integrin. These results suggest that beta1-integrin signaling is specifically responsible for the recruitment of microglia to the disease-affected brain regions, where neurons most likely release relatively high levels of alpha-synuclein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Integrin beta1/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microglia/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71514

ABSTRACT

Legionella bacterium, an intracellular pathogen of mononuclear phagocytes, causes acute fatal pneumonia, especially in patients with impaired cellular immune responses. Until recently, however, the toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement of bacterial proteins derived from Legionella is uncertain. We previously showed that a 19-kDa highly conserved peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) of Legionella pneumophila induced the PAL-specific B cell and T cell responses in mice. In this study, we observed that the rPAL antigen of L. pneumophila, as an effector molecule, activated murine macrophages via TLR2 and produced proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. In both BALB/c and TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice, pretreatment of macrophages with anti-TLR2 mAb showed severely impaired cytokine production in response to the rPAL. In addition, in vitro the rPAL treatment increased the cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC I/II molecules. We further showed that the synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) coadministered with the rPAL enhanced IL-12 and IL-6 production and expression of CD40, CD80 and MHC II compared to the rPAL treatment alone. In conclusions, these results indicate that Legionella PAL might activate macrophages via a TLR2-dependent mechanism which thus induce cytokine production and expression of costimulatory and MHC molecules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, CD/immunology , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Interleukin-12/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Legionella pneumophila/immunology , Legionnaires' Disease/immunology , Lipoproteins/pharmacology , Macrophage Activation/drug effects , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52231

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-16 in the rheumatoid synovium and the role of inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in IL-16 production by fibroblast- like synoviocytes (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a monoclonal antibody to IL-16 in synovial tissues from patients with RA and likewise in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). FLS were isolated from RA synovial tissues and stimulated with IL-15, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-17. The IL-16 mRNA level was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time (RT) PCR and a comparison was made between IL-16 mRNA levels produced by RA-FLS and OA-FLS. Production of IL-16 was identified by a western blot assay, and IL-16 production after stimulation by specific ligands of TLR2 and TLR4 was assessed by RT-PCR. While immunohistochemical staining demonstrated strong expression of IL-16 mRNA in synovial tissues from patients with RA, similar findings were not present in the OA group. Moreover, mRNA expression of IL-16 by RA-FLS increased after treatment with IL-17 but not with IL-15, IL-1beta, and IFN-gamma. Specifically, IL-17 increased IL-16 mRNA level by RA-FLS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-17 did not stimulate IL-16 production in OA-FLS. Peptidoglycan, a selective TLR2 ligand, also increased production of IL-16 by RA-FLS dose- dependently, whereas LPS, a selective TLR4 ligand, had no such stimulatory effect. The results from our data demonstrate that IL-17 and TLR2 ligands stimulate the production of IL-16 by RA-FLS.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Base Sequence , Blotting, Western , DNA Primers , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-16/biosynthesis , Interleukin-17/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
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