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1.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 25(3): 55-66, Sep.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1529069

ABSTRACT

Abstract To evaluate the accuracy of complete arch scanning with multiple implant titanium scan bodies using laboratory scanners. A master model of an edentulous maxillary arch with 6 implants was fabricated. Titanium scan bodies were inserted into the model. Three laboratory scanners were used: D2000 (3Shape), Vinyl High Resolution (Smart Optics), and inEos X5 (Dentsply Sirona). The master model was consecutively scanned ten times using dental laboratory scanners (LS) without detaching and repositioning the scan bodies. Linear and angular accuracy between adjacent implants was measured using inspection software (Control X, Geomagic). The accuracy of the complete arch scans was calculated. Implant regions were defined as; parallel (R1: #24-26 and #16-14), angled (R2: #22-24 and #14-12), angled to occlusal plane (R3: #12-22), and cross-arch (R4: #16-26). The effect of LS and implant region on accuracy was compared using two-Way ANOVA (α=0.05). Significant greater linear distortion was noted in R4 (61.2±17.9µm) compared to R1 (23.4±15.5µm) and R2 (26±17.7µm) (p<0.01). Greater linear distortions were noted in R4 with D2000 (0.07±0.016 degrees) and Vinyl High Resolution (0.067±0.02 degrees) than inEos X5 (0.032±0.021 degrees) (p>0.05). Greater mean linear precisions were noted in R1 (9±8µm) and R3 (9.3±8.3µm) than R4 (12.6±10.3µm) (p<0.05). The highest linear precision was noted in D2000 (7.2±7.6µm) (p<0.05). The angular precision of D2000 (0.02±0.015 degrees) was the highest (p<0.01). The angular precisión of R4 (0.036±0.018 degrees) was the lowest (p<0.01). This study revealed that the trueness was affected by the implant region and the precision was affected by both LS and implant region.


Resumen Evaluar la precisión del escaneado de la arcada completa con cuerpos de escaneado de titanio de múltiples implantes utilizando escáneres de laboratorio. Se fabricó un modelo maestro de una arcada maxilar edéntula con 6 implantes. Se insertaron cuerpos de escaneo de titanio en el modelo. Se utilizaron tres escáneres de laboratorio: D2000 (3Shape), Vinyl High Resolution (Smart Optics) e inEos X5 (Dentsply Sirona). El modelo maestro se escaneó consecutivamente diez veces usando escáneres de laboratorio dental (LS) sin separar y reposicionar los cuerpos de escaneo. La precisión lineal y angular entre implantes adyacentes se midió utilizando un software de inspección (Control X, Geomagic). Se calculó la precisión de los escaneos completos del arco. Las regiones del implante se definieron como; paralelo (R1: #24-26 y #16-14), angulado (R2: #22-24 y #14-12), angulado al plano oclusal (R3: #12-22) y cruzado (R4: #16-26). El efecto de LS y la región del implante en la precisión se comparó mediante ANOVA de dos vías (α=0,05). Se observó una distorsión lineal significativamente mayor en R4 (61,2±17,9µm) en comparación con R1 (23,4±15,5µm) y R2 (26 ±17,7µm) (p<0,01). Se observaron mayores distorsiones lineales en R4 con D2000 (0,07±0,016 grados) y vinilo de alta resolución (0,067±0,02 grados) que en inEos X5 (0,032±0,021 grados) (p>0,05). Se observaron precisiones lineales medias mayores en R1 (9±8µm) y R3 (9,3±8,3µm) que en R4 (12,6±10,3µm) (p<0,05). La mayor precisión lineal se observó en D2000 (7,2±7,6 µm) (p<0,05). La precisión angular de D2000 (0,02±0,015 grados) fue la más alta (p<0,01). La precisión angular de R4 (0,036±0,018 grados) fue la más baja (p<0,01). Este estudio reveló que la veracidad se vio afectada por la región del implante y la precisión se vio afectada tanto por LS como por la región del implante.


Subject(s)
Titanium , Dental Implants , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Dental Arch/diagnostic imaging
3.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32405, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391416

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O enfisema pulmonar congênito (EPC) é uma doença rara, possuindo uma incidência de 1:20-30 mil nascimentos, é mais comum no sexo masculino do que no feminino, em uma razão de 3:1 e sua etiologia permanece desconhecida. Um terço dos casos são sintomáticos ao nascer e praticamente todos são diagnosticados nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Relato de Caso: Recém-nascido (RN) do sexo masculino, evoluiu com desconforto respiratório precoce, sendo encaminhado ao centro de terapia intensiva. Após uso de continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) e cateter nasal de oxigênio de 12 horas, resultou em bom padrão respiratório e boa saturação. Após realização de tomografia computadorizada, foi diagnosticado o EPC. Conclusão: O EPC é uma patologia rara e deve ser suspeitado em RN com desconforto respiratório, atribuindo-se importância aos vários diagnósticos diferenciais possíveis. Apesar da etiologia incerta, é de fácil diagnóstico e possui opções de manejo clínico e cirúrgico.


Introduction: Congenital pulmonary emphysema (EPC) is a rare disease, with an incidence of 1:20-30 thousand births, it is more common in males than in females, in a ratio of 3:1 and its etiology remains unknown. One third of the cases are symptomatic at birth and practically all are diagnosed in the first six months of life. Case Report: Newborn (NB) male, developed early respiratory distress, being referred to the intensive care unit. After using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and a 12-hour oxygen nasal catheter, it resulted in a good breathing pattern and good saturation. After performing computed tomography, EPC was diagnosed. Conclusion: EPC is a rare pathology and should be suspected in newborns with respiratory distress, with importance being given to the various possible differential diagnoses. Despite its uncertain etiology, it is easy to diagnose and has options for clinical and surgical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Pulmonary Emphysema/congenital , Pulmonary Emphysema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Emphysema/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential
4.
Ghana med. j ; 56(4): 295-302, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1402088

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To review the Computed Tomography( CT )features of pediatric oncological patients with abdominal and pelvic tumours and correlate these findings with their histopathological diagnosis Design: This was a retrospective cross-sectional facility-based study. Setting: This study was conducted in the Pediatric Oncology Unit and Radiology Department of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Participants: Fifty-six pediatric oncology patients with contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT scans. Data Collection: The abdominal and pelvic CT scans findings, patient biodata, and histopathology reports of oncology patients over four years were reviewed Statistical analysis: Simple descriptive statistics using frequency distribution, percentages, means, and standard deviation were used to describe the various variables and presented tables. Results: The four commonest tumours were nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, and hepatoblastoma. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years, with a slightly higher male predominance. The majority of the tumours were extremely large at presentation. Overall, the CT ­ histopathology concordance was 79.2%. Conclusion: Abdominal and pelvic CT scans play an important role in the diagnostic workup of pediatric malignancies by ensuring early and accurate diagnosis of these tumour


Subject(s)
Humans , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Integrative Pediatrics , Neoplasm, Residual , Abdominal Neoplasms , Neoplasms
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 568-572, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922061

ABSTRACT

Virtual monochromatic images (VMI) that reconstructed on dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) have further application prospects in radiotherapy, and there is still a lack of clinical dose verification. In this study, GE Revolution CT scanner was used to perform conventional imaging and gemstone spectral imaging on the simulated head and body phantom. The CT images were imported to radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS), and the same treatment plans were transplanted to compare the CT value and the dose distribution. The results show that the VMI can be imported into TPS for CT value-relative electron density conversion and dose calculation. Compared to conventional images, the VMI varies from 70 to 140 keV, has little difference in dose distribution of 6 MV photon treatment plan.


Subject(s)
Electrons , Phantoms, Imaging , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 345-355, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040247

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that aldosterone plays a role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on the progression of coronary calcification (CC) in peritoneal dialysis patients and to identify the factors involved in this progression. Methods: Thirty-three patients with a coronary calcium score (CCS) ≥ 30, detected through multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and expressed in Agatston units, were randomly assigned to a group receiving 25mg spironolactone per day for 12 months (spironolactone group) and a control group not receiving this drug. The primary outcome was a percentage change in CCS from baseline to end of the study (relative progression), when a further MDCT was conducted. Patients who had progression of CC were compared with those who did not progress. Results: Sixteen patients, seven in the spironolactone group and nine in the control group, concluded the study. The relative progression of the CCS was similar in both groups, 17.2% and 27.5% in the spironolactone and control groups respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the treated patients and 67% of those in the control group presented progression in the CC scores (p = 0.697). Progressor patients differed from non-progressors because they presented higher levels of calcium and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower levels of albumin. Conclusion: In peritoneal dialysis patients, spironolactone did not attenuate the progression of CC. However, large-scale studies are needed to confirm this observation. Disorders of mineral metabolism and dyslipidemia are involved in the progression of CC.


RESUMO Introdução: Existem evidências de que a aldosterona exerça um papel na patogênese da calcificação vascular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da espironolactona, um antagonista do receptor mineralocorticoide, na progressão da calcificação coronariana (CC) de pacientes em diálise peritoneal, e identificar os fatores envolvidos nessa progressão. Métodos: Trinta e três pacientes com escore de cálcio coronariano (ECC) ≥ 30, detectado por tomografia computadorizada com múltiplos detectores (TCMD) e expresso em unidades de Agatston, foram randomizados para um grupo que recebeu 25 mg de espironolactona por dia durante 12 meses (grupo espironolactona) e um grupo controle que não recebeu este medicamento. O desfecho primário foi a mudança percentual do ECC do início para o final do estudo (progressão relativa), quando uma nova TCMD foi realizada. Os pacientes que tiveram progressão de CC foram comparados com aqueles que não progrediram. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes, sete no grupo espironolactona e nove no grupo controle, concluíram o estudo. A progressão relativa do ECC foi semelhante nos dois grupos, 17,2% e 27,5% nos grupos espironolactona e controle, respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tratados e 67% daqueles no grupo controle apresentaram progressão nos escores de CC (p = 0,697). Os pacientes progressores diferiram dos não progressores porque apresentaram níveis séricos mais elevados de cálcio e LDL-colesterol e menores níveis de albumina. Conclusão: Em pacientes em diálise peritoneal, a espironolactona não atenuou a progressão da CC. No entanto, estudos em grande escala são necessários para confirmar essa observação. Distúrbios do metabolismo mineral e dislipidemia estão envolvidos na progressão da CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Dialysis , Disease Progression , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Vascular Calcification/drug therapy , Vascular Calcification/blood , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Pilot Projects , Calcium/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Lost to Follow-Up , Vascular Calcification/pathology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
9.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 29(2): 145-152, 30 de Agosto del 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015498

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los casos de tiroides ectópica localizados en la base de la lengua son anormalidades congénitas raras y difíciles de diagnosticar. Razón de presentación del caso. Caso Clínico: El caso corresponde a una mujer de 41 años con tiroides en base de la lengua diagnosticada incidentalmente con tomografía computarizada (TC), con antecedentes de hipotiroidismo y cáncer de mama derecha. Al examen físico de cuello no se palpa glándula tiroidea ni se observa masa o protuberancia en cavidad bucal. Por control del cáncer de mama, se solicita tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) y ecografía de cuello, reportándose captación del radiofármaco en la región cervical anterior y superior de cuello, y ausencia de tejido glandular tiroideo a nivel habitual, respectivamente. Por cuanto, se realiza TC simple y contrastada observándose a nivel de la raíz de la lengua una imagen nodular hipercaptante que mide 23x20x20 mm, bien definida, contornos regulares, no infiltra tejidos adyacentes, impronta luz de la orofaringe, sin individualizar la glándula tiroides a nivel habitual, corroborando así el diagnóstico de tiroides ectópica lingual. Conclusión: El diagnóstico de tiroides ectópica en paciente adulto hipotiroideo es raro, por lo que debe considerarse la realización de TC si al examen físico y ecográfico no es palpable ni observable


Introduction: Cases of ectopic thyroid located at the base of the tongue are rare and difficult to diagnose congenital abnormalities. Reason for presenting the case. Clinical case: The case corresponds to a 41-year-old woman with thyroid based on the tongue diagnosed incidentally with computed tomography (CT), with a history of hypothyroidism and right breast cancer. On the physical examination of the neck, the thyroid gland is not palpated, and no mass or bump is observed in the oral cavity. For breast cancer control, positron emission tomography (PET) and neck ultrasound are requested, radiopharmaceutical uptake is reported in the anterior and upper cervical neck region, and absence of thyroid glandular tissue at the usual level, respectively. As a simple and contrasted CT scan, a hypercapting nodular image measuring 23x20x20 mm, well defined, regular contours is observed at the root of the tongue, does not infiltrate adjacent tissues, oropharynx light imprint, without individualizing the thyroid gland to usual level, thus corroborating the diagnosis of lingual ectopic thyroid. Conclusion: The diagnosis of ectopic thyroid in an adult hypothyroid patient is rare, so CT should be considered if the physical and ultrasound examination is not palpable or observable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Lingual Thyroid , Thyroid Dysgenesis , Thyroid Diseases , Chronic Disease , Ecuador
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39: e175434, jan.-mar.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1098511

ABSTRACT

A aquisição de uma deficiência pode ter extenso impacto na vida de uma pessoa, pois ocorre, muitas vezes, sob condições traumáticas e obriga tanto a ressignificações subjetivas quanto a adaptações práticas no cotidiano. O principal objetivo do trabalho aqui descrito consistiu em compreender aspectos psicossociais do processo de aquisição de uma deficiência, considerando diversos fatores que podem interferir nestas experiências. Para a realização da pesquisa, foram entrevistadas, de forma semiestruturada, 13 pessoas que adquiriram uma deficiência física, auditiva ou visual na idade adulta, sendo os relatos analisados pelo método de análise de conteúdo. Ao se discutir as falas dos pesquisados, são traçadas algumas semelhanças e distinções entre as experiências dos participantes, buscando também tecer considerações com base na literatura acadêmico-científica sobre o tema. Observou-se que os processos psicossociais de aquisição da deficiência foram permeados tanto por sentimentos negativos, relacionados à angústia e à depressão, bem como por reações mais harmônicas e de valorização da vida, em que se relativiza a perda do membro ou da capacidade sensorial. Representando um momento marcante na vida de quem a adquire, a deficiência pode levar à aprendizagem e ao amadurecimento, à medida que o tempo após a aquisição aumenta. Entende-se que os estudos acerca da deficiência, em especial a adquirida, devem ser ampliados e aprofundados, tendo em vista que o campo de estudos sobre esta temática ainda precisa de mais contribuições a respeito.(AU)


Becoming disabled may cause a considerable impact in someone's life, because, in most of the cases, it happens under traumatic conditions and it results in subjective resignification and practical adaptations. The main objective of this study is to understand the psychosocial aspects involved in becoming disabled, considering several factors which may interfere these experiences. For this research, 13 people who got a physical disability, a hearing or visual impairment in adulthood were interviewed in a semi-structured way and the results were evaluated using the content analysis method of Bardin (2011). When the speeches of the interviewed people are evaluated, some comparisons and distinctions among experiences of the participants are made for establishing relations with academic-scientific literature on this theme. It was noticed that the psychosocial processes involved in becoming disabled were permeated by negative feelings related to anguish and depression, as well as more harmonic reactions and valorization of life, in which the loss of a member or of a sensorial capability is relativized. As a defining moment in the lives of those who acquired it, the disability may result in learning and maturating over the years after the event. It is recommended that the studies concerning disability, especially the acquired ones, get broadened and deepened because there is a need for more contributions about this subject.(AU)


La adquisición de una discapacidad puede tener un amplio impacto en la vida de una persona, pues ocurre, muchas veces, bajo condiciones traumáticas y requiere tanto la reinterpretación subjetiva como las adaptaciones prácticas en la vida cotidiana. El principal objetivo del trabajo que se describe aquí fue entender los aspectos psicosociales del proceso de adquisición de una discapacidad, teniendo en cuenta diversos factores que pueden interferir en estas experiencias. Para la investigación, fueron entrevistadas de manera semiestructurada, 13 personas que adquirieron una discapacidad física, auditiva o visual en la edad adulta, siendo los relatos analizados por el método de análisis de contenido. En la discusión de los relatos de los entrevistados, son trazadas algunas similitudes y diferencias entre las experiencias de los participantes, buscando también tejer consideraciones con base en la literatura académica y científica sobre el tema. Se observó que los procesos psicosociales de adquisición de la discapacidad fueron permeados tanto por sentimientos negativos relacionados con la angustia y la depresión, así como por las reacciones más armónicas y de valorización de la vida, en que se relativiza la pérdida de un miembro o la capacidad sensorial. Representando un momento decisivo en la vida de quién la adquiere, la discapacidad puede llevar al aprendizaje y al crecimiento, a medida que el tiempo después de la adquisición aumenta. Se entiende que los estudios acerca de la discapacidad, en especial la adquirida, deben ser ampliados y profundizados, teniendo en cuenta que el campo de los estudios sobre este tema aún necesita más contribuciones al respecto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Paraplegia , Stereotyping , Vision Disorders , Wounds and Injuries , Disabled Persons , Adult , Deafness , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Paralysis , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Architectural Accessibility , Prejudice , Prostheses and Implants , Protective Devices , Psychology , Public Policy , Rehabilitation , Rejection, Psychology , Safety , Self Concept , Self-Help Devices , Sensory Aids , Shame , Social Adjustment , Psychological Distance , Social Environment , Social Identification , Social Isolation , Social Perception , Social Security , Social Support , Socialization , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , General Surgery , Taboo , Therapeutics , Unemployment , Wheelchairs , World Health Organization , Adaptation, Psychological , Career Mobility , Accidents, Occupational , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Trauma Severity Indices , Homeopathic Cure , Blindness , Health Status , Mental Health , Chronic Disease , Disease , Physical Therapy Modalities , Workplace , Communication Aids for Disabled , Interview , Legislation , Stroke , Disaster Vulnerability , Cultural Characteristics , Psychosocial Impact , Personal Autonomy , Death , Diagnosis , Disasters , Education , Empathy , Employment , Job Market , Professional Training , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Social Discrimination , Return to Work , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychological Trauma , Social Segregation , Disability Studies , Embarrassment , Sadness , Empowerment , Transtheoretical Model , Social Inclusion , Social Status , Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Family Support , Working Conditions , Job Security , Health Policy , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Amputation, Surgical , Individuality , Interpersonal Relations , Leisure Activities , Life Style , Intellectual Disability , Motor Activity
11.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 32(3): e1455, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038026

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the usual surgical option for curative treatment of periampullary cancer and carries a significant mortality. Arterial anomalies of the celiac axis are not uncommon and might lead to iatrogenic lesions or requiring arterial resection/reconstruction in a pancreatoduodenectomy. Aim: Determine the prevalence of arterial variations having implications in pancreatoduodenectomy. Methods: Celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system anatomy was retrospectively evaluated in 200 abdominal enhanced computed tomography studies. Results: Normal anatomy of hepatic arterial system was found in 87% of cases. An anomalous right hepatic artery was identified in 13% of cases. In 12 cases there was a substitute right hepatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery and in two cases an accessory right hepatic artery with similar origin. A hepatomesenteric trunk was identified in seven cases and in five there was a right hepatic artery directly from the celiac trunk. All cases of anomalous right hepatic artery had a route was behind the pancreatic head and then, posteriorly and laterally, to the main portal vein before reaching the liver. Conclusions: Hepatic artery variations, such as anomalous right hepatic artery crossing posterior to the portal vein, are frequently seen (13%). These patients, when undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy, may require a change in the surgical approach to achieve an adequate resection. Preoperative imaging can clearly identify such variations and help to achieve a safer pancreatic head dissection with proper surgical planning.


RESUMO Racional: Pancreatoduodenectomia consiste no procedimento cirúrgico usual para tratamento curativo de neoplasias periampulares e apresenta mortalidade significativa. Variações arteriais do tronco celíaco não são incomuns e podem favorecer lesões iatrogênicas ou exigirem realização de ressecção/reconstrução arterial durante pancreatoduodenectomia. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de variações arteriais que apresentam implicações durante pancreatoduodenectomia. Métodos: A anatomia do tronco celíaco e sistema arterial hepático foi investigada retrospectivamente em 200 exames tomográficos contrastados do abdome. Resultados: Anatomia normal do sistema arterial hepático foi observada em 87% dos casos. Presença de uma artéria hepática direita anômala foi identificada em 13%. Em 12 casos houve uma artéria hepática direita substituta originária da artéria mesentérica superior, em dois uma artéria hepática direita acessória com origem similar. Tronco hepaticomesentérico foi identificado em sete casos e em cinco houve uma artéria hepática direita originária diretamente do tronco celíaco. Em todos casos de artéria hepática direita anômala seu curso foi por trás da cabeça do pâncreas e com trajeto passando posteriormente ao tronco da veia porta e após percorrendo sua face lateral direita antes de alcançar o fígado. Conclusões: Variações arteriais hepáticas, como artéria hepática direita anômala com trajeto posterior à veia porta, são frequentes (13%). Nestes pacientes, quando submetidos à pancreatoduodenectomia, pode ser necessária alteração na abordagem cirúrgica para ressecção adequada. Exames de imagem pré-operatórios podem claramente identificar estas variações e auxiliar na realização de dissecção segura da cabeça do pâncreas com adequado planejamento cirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Hepatic Artery/anatomy & histology , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Celiac Artery/anatomy & histology , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Dissection , Anatomic Variation , Hepatic Artery/abnormalities , Hepatic Artery/diagnostic imaging
12.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 77(227): 13-17, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122775

ABSTRACT

La osteoartrosis es una enfermedad degenerativa que, instalada en la articulación temporomandibular, genera efectos deletéreos en los tejidos blandos y óseos que la constituyen. En los tejidos duros se destaca la aparición de procesos osteolíticos a nivel condilar y de la cavidad glenoidea con cambios morfológicos importantes. Estas modificaciones están íntimamente relacionadas con el debilitamiento y/o destrucción de los tejidos blandos que ocurren previamente. Los síntomas que se presentan con mayor frecuencia en esta afección son la alteración del rango de movimiento, el dolor y, el más característico, la crepitación durante el examen con estetoscopio. La frecuencia de aparición alcanza entre un 8% y un 18%. Las causas para su documentación son variables y están vinculadas al desplazamiento discal, el trauma, hormonales y la inestabilidad oclusal, siendo el aumento de carga (bruxismo) la de mayor significación. El examen imagenológico puede documentar aplanamiento de los componentes óseos, disminución del espacio articular, discontinuidad de las corticales, esclerosis subcondral, osteofitos, quistes subcondrales y cuerpos libres periarticulares. En ocasiones la radiografía panorámica puede ser poco demostrativa para la documentación de esas particularidades; por el contrario, la tomografía computada es un excelente procedimiento diagnóstico. El aporte de la IRM es relevante en la ubicación del disco articular; asimismo, posibilita la observación de colección de fluido en los espacios articulares, generando una señal hiperintensa. Tratamiento: actuar principalmente para disminuir la carga sobre la ATM y,`por lo tanto, concientizar al paciente de la presencia del bruxismo, instalar un dispositivo oclusal miorrelajante (DOM) y suplementar con analgésicos, antiinflamatorios y antiartrósicos. Cuando la OA está asociada al desplazamiento discal, debe indicarse un dispositivo oclusal de desplazamiento anterior mandibular (DODAM) (AU)


Osteoarthrosis is a degenerative disease. When is located in the TMJ produces deleterious effects in its soft and hard tissues, osteolytic processes on condyle and glenoid cavity in the latter, with significant morphological changes, closely related to weakening and destruction of the tissues that had happened previously. Symptoms most frequent are alteration of the range of movement, pain and,the most characterystic, cracking while examination through stethoscope. Its frequency is between 8 and 18%.Causes for its documentation are variable and related to disc displacement, trauma, hormones and occlusal unsteadiness, being de increase of charge (clenching) the most relevant. Imaging can show flattening on osseusparts,, the articular space, discontinuation of cortexes, subchondral sclerosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts,and loose particular bodies. Sometimes orthopantomograph may be barely demonstrative to document these phenomena, conversely CT is an excellent diagnostic procedure. The contribution of MRI is relevant to locate articular disc, and facilitate visualize fluid collection within the articular spaces, producing a hiperintense signal. Treatment: to act mainly for diminishing charge on the TMJ, so to raise patients conscience of the presence of clenching, install a myorelaxant occlusal device (DOM) and additionally analgesics, antiinflamatories and antiarthrosis When osteoarthrosis is associated with disc displacement and occlusal device for anterior mandibular displacement (DODAM) is suitable(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Signs and Symptoms , Bruxism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Chronic Disease , Chondroitin Sulfates/therapeutic use , Occlusal Splints , Age and Sex Distribution , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
13.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 5(2): 48-55, jun.- dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999429

ABSTRACT

El quiste periapical se deriva del epitelio de revestimiento por una proliferación de pequeños residuos epiteliales de Malassez, el presente reporte señala características clínico-patológicas de un quiste periapical y la incorporación del uso de la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) como método de diagnóstico y el procedimiento de biopsia para descartar malignidad. Por lo general, en el protocolo de intervención, el odontólogo no emplea la realización de biopsia ni estudios histopatológicos a lesio-nes que aparentan ser benignas, con base en la literatura y experiencia del caso clíni-co, se pretende que el estudiante de pregra-do, odontólogo general y especialista incor-pore la CBCT y biopsia en el diagnóstico. Paciente femenina de 45 años, acudió a las clínicas estomatológicas de la Carrera de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras en el Valle de Sula (UNAH-VS). En el exámen intraoral se observó fracturas de coronas fijas de cerá-mica en el incisivo central e incisivo lateral superior izquierdo, presencia de tumefac-ción fluctuante en el rafe palatino medio, dolor a la palpación y presencia de fístula activa. Se realizó una CBCT para elabora-ción del plan de tratamiento; el abordaje clínico fue terapia endodóntica convencio-nal, apicectomía con obturación retrógrada en los dientes involucrados, remoción del quiste, realización de biopsia y estudiosanatomopatológicos que corroboran el diag-nóstico presuntivo de epitelio escamoso típico densamente infiltrado de linfocitos, el corion muestra infiltrados linfoplasmocitarios de un quiste periapical. La paciente evolu-cionó sin complicaciones permaneciendo asintomática; en 12 meses radiografía peria-pical evidenció formación de tejido óseo en el área tratada...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Radicular Cyst/diagnostic imaging , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Biopsy/methods
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(9): 1070-1073, set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978799

ABSTRACT

Vasculitic midline destructive lesions can be a complication of cocaine use. We report a 44-year-old man who presented with a two months history of left facial pain associated with ipsilateral facial paralysis and a cheek phlegmon. Magnetic resonance imaging showed broad soft tissue destruction linked to important cranial nerve involvement. Antibiotic and antifungal therapy was started and multiple surgical debridement procedures were performed, with no clinical improvement. Microbiological analysis was negative. Finally, thanks to the histologic findings corresponding to vasculitis and granuloma formation and the history of cocaine abuse, a cocaine induced midline destructive lesion was diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Nose Diseases/diagnosis , Nose Diseases/chemically induced , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Nasal Septum/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/diagnosis , Nose Diseases/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 80-93, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953026

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dentofacial deformities usually are surgically treated, and 3D virtual planning has been used to favor accurate outcomes. Cases reported in the present article show that orthognathic surgery carried out to correct facial asymmetries does not comprise only one treatment protocol. 3D virtual planning might be used for surgical planning, but it should also be used to diagnose the deformity, thus allowing for an analysis of the best-recommended possibilities for the orthodontic preparation that suits each individual case.


RESUMO As deformidades dentofaciais são, geralmente, tratadas de forma cirúrgica, e o planejamento virtual 3D tem sido utilizado para aumentar a precisão dos resultados. Os casos exemplificados no presente artigo mostram que a cirurgia ortognática para correção das assimetrias faciais não apresenta um único protocolo de tratamento. O planejamento virtual 3D pode ser adotado para planejar a cirurgia, mas também deve ser utilizado na fase de diagnóstico da deformidade, assim permitindo uma análise das possibilidades mais indicadas para o preparo ortodôntico mais adequado em cada caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Patient Care Planning , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Facial Asymmetry/surgery , Facial Asymmetry/diagnostic imaging , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/methods , Radiography, Panoramic , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Dentofacial Deformities/surgery , Dentofacial Deformities/diagnostic imaging
16.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 59(2): 7-12, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051053

ABSTRACT

Podemos definir "quiste" como una bolsa conectivoepitelial, tapizada en su interior por epitelio y recubierta en su cara externa por tejido conectivo, que encierra un contenido líquido o semisólido. Según su patogénesis, los clasificamos como lesiones de desarrollo o de tipo inflamatorio (1, 17). Tanto los quistes de desarrollo como los inflamatorios se caracterizan por un crecimiento lento y una tendencia expansiva. A pesar de ser entidades con un comportamiento benigno, pueden alcanzar un tamaño considerable si no se diagnostican y se tratan a tiempo (2). El tipo de tratamiento de la lesión está condicionado por múltiples factores como el tamaño de la misma, su localización, su relación con estructuras anatómicas vecinas, la posible afectación de estructuras dentales, entre otras. (3) El objetivo es elegir la modalidad de tratamiento que conlleve el menor riesgo posible de recurrencia, el cuidado, en lo posible, de las estructuras nobles vecinas y, por supuesto, la erradicación de la lesión. (4) Dentro de los tratamientos de los quistes maxilares, podemos mencionar la enucleación total de los mismos o técnica de Parstch II, la marsupialización o técnica de Parstch I y la técnica descompresiva, también llamada técnica de Waldron- Axhausen. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de mostrar un caso clínico donde se realizó la técnica descompresiva para el tratamiento de un quiste inflamatorio en el maxilar inferior en íntimo contacto con el nervio dentario inferior y la basal mandibular (AU)


We can define "cyst" like a connective-epitelial bag, upholstered inside by epithelium and covered on the outside by connective tissue, enclosing a liquid or semisolid contents. According to its pathogenesis, classify them as development or inflammatory (1, 17). Injury both the inflammatory and developing cysts are characterized by slow growth and an expansionary trend. Despite being entities with a benign behavior, they can reach a considerable size if not diagnosed and treated in time. (2) The type of treatment of injury, is determined by multiple factors such as the size, its location, its relationship with neighboring anatomical structures, possible involvement of dental structures, among others. (3) The objective is to choose the modality of treatment involving the least possible risk of recurrence, care, as far as possible, of the neighboring noble structures and of course the elimination of the lesion. (4) Inside of the Maxillary cysts treatments we can mention the enucleation total thereof or technical Parstch II, the marsupialization or technique of Parstch I and the decompression technique, also called Waldron - Axhausen technique. The objective of this work is the show a clinical case where took place the decompression technique for the treatment of inflammatory cyst in the lower jaw in intimate contact with the inferior alveolar nerve and the mandibular basal (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Jaw Cysts/surgery , Decompression, Surgical , Tooth Extraction , Biopsy , Jaw Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Follow-Up Studies
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4090, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the characteristics of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods: A retrospective study, between 2012 and 2015, with data from patients of Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. To evaluate possible factors associated with patient's sex and diagnoses of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, χ2 or Fisher's exact tests were used for qualitative variables, and Mann-Whitney test for quantitative or ordinal qualitative variables. Results: A total of 77 patients were evaluated. Age ranged from 6 months to 13.4 years, with a majority of males (54.5%), aged zero to 4 years (54.5%), diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (64.9%), and classified as eutrophic (71.2%). The tuberculin test was positive in 92% and in most cases the values were above 10mm (68.0%). Approximately three-quarters of chest X-ray tests were normal (72.7%). After chest X-ray, computed tomography of thorax was the most ordered exam (29.9%), followed by smear and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the gastric aspirate (28.6%). The frequencies of altered chest X-ray (70.4% versus 4.0%), computed tomography of thorax requests (55.6% versus 16.0%) and other tests requested (81.5% versus 38.0%) were significantly higher in patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis, relative to those with latent tuberculosis infection, respectively. Conclusion: In our sample, proportions of altered chest X-ray, and performing computed tomography of thorax and other tests in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis were higher than in those with latent tuberculosis infection.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as características de pacientes com diagnóstico de tuberculose e de infecção latente por tuberculose. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, entre os anos de 2012 e 2015, com os dados dos pacientes do ambulatório do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. Para se avaliarem possíveis fatores associados ao sexo e aos diagnósticos de tuberculose e infecção latente por tuberculose, foram utilizados os testes χ2 ou exato de Fisher, para variáveis qualitativas, e de Mann-Whitney, para variáveis quantitativas ou qualitativas ordinais. Resultados: Foram avaliados 77 pacientes. A idade variou de 6 meses a 13,4 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (54,5%), na faixa etária de zero a 4 anos (54,5%), com diagnóstico de infecção latente por tuberculose (64,9%) e categorizada como eutrófica (71,2%). Em 92% dos casos, a prova tuberculínica foi positiva, e a maioria mostrou valores acima de 10mm (68,0%). Cerca de três quartos dos exames de raio X de tórax resultaram normais (72,7%). Depois do raio X de tórax, a tomografia computadorizada de tórax foi o segundo exame mais solicitado (29,9%), seguida da baciloscopia e da cultura do bacilo Mycobacterium tuberculosis no aspirado gástrico (28,6%). As frequências de raio X de tórax alterado (70,4% versus 4,0%), solicitações de tomografia computadorizada de tórax (55,6% versus 16,0%) e outros exames (81,5% versus 38,0%) foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com diagnóstico de tuberculose, em relação àqueles com infecção latente por tuberculose, respectivamente. Conclusão: Em nossa amostra, as proporções de raio X de tórax alterados e de realização de tomografia computadorizada de tórax e de outros exames nos pacientes com diagnóstico de tuberculose foram maiores em relação àqueles com infecção latente por tuberculose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Tuberculin Test/statistics & numerical data , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. estomat. salud ; 25(2): 8-9, 20180000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-884126

ABSTRACT

La práctica clínica de la odontología avanzó desde los últimos 20 años, con la inmersión del CAD/CAM (Computer-assisted Design and Manufacturing), reduciendo tanto los pasos para la realización de una corona o prótesis, como mejorando la eficiencia, calidad del tratamiento y por consiguiente, la experiencia percibida por los pacientes. En Estados Unidos se estima que, el 15% de los consultorios practican Odontología Digital, es decir, hacen uso de tecnología CAD/CAM e impresión digital 3D. Además, para el año 2017, se estimó el uso de 19,000 unidades de CAD/CAM en las oficinas dentales de odontólogos americanos, mostrando que, los avances de la tecnología que veíamos muy lejanos, son una realidad, hoy (1,2). A pesar de estas cifras, las universidades han adoptado el entrenamiento en tecnología digital odontológica tímidamente, tal como lo han manifestado, según el entusiasmo por parte de docentes y estudiantes. Esto se ve reflejado en la incipiente publicación de artículos científicos en ésta área. La odontología digital se ha desarrollado en varios campos dentro de la odontología. De hecho, se ha utilizado desde el diagnóstico, planificación del tratamiento, hasta el diseño y elaboración de prótesis y restauraciones. Dentro de las herramientas de la odontología digital, se encuentra el escáner intraoral. Los escáneres han permitido capturar información detallada de las estructuras anatómicas dentales, óseas y tejidos blandos del paciente. Por tanto, es una herramienta útil para el diagnóstico y planificación del tratamiento del paciente. Además, los datos pueden ser transferidos para una impresora 3D, permitiendo obtener modelos de estudios de los pacientes sin necesidad de tomar una impresión en hidrocoloide irreversible (alginato) o en silicona. En el área de Periodoncia, la odontología digital ofrece ventajas para el estudio de los sitios quirúrgicos a operar tanto en procedimientos resectivos como regenerativos. De esta forma, la regeneración ósea guiada, la instalación quirúrgica de implantes dentales, entre otros, son procedimientos que serán realizados con mayor supervisión del clínico, haciendo la cirugía más precisa, predecible y segura para el paciente. Por su parte, la odontología pediátrica y ortopedia maxilar ha sido enriquecida en el diagnóstico de pacientes con labio y paladar fisurado, una vez que se puede evitar el uso de materiales como el hidrocoloide irreversible (alginato), disminuyendo la incomodidad que puede causar para el paciente pediátrico, sobre todo en aquellos pacientes con labio y paladar hendido. De otro lado, la ortodoncia ha utilizado la tecnología digital para personalizar los brackets de los pacientes, permitiendo un mayor control de las fuerzas ortodóncicas y, aumentando la eficacia del movimiento dental. Esto se verá traducido en menor tasa de reabsorción radicular, menor tiempo del tratamiento ortodóncico, entre otras ventajas. Finalmente, la odontología digital puede ser explotada para la educación de los pacientes. De hecho, el éxito del tratamiento no solo depende de los procedimientos realizados por el odontólogo sino también por los cuidados que el paciente tenga después de su atención clínica. Así, el uso de una impresión 3D generada a partir de información obtenida desde un escáner intraoral o una tomografía, permite mostrarle al paciente la relación entre el diagnóstico y el plan de tratamiento elegido. Adicionalmente, el paciente puede ser consciente de la evolución de su cicatrización después de la realización del tratamiento. Con todo esto, aún falta mucho por explorar. La era digital en odontología representa una atractiva línea de investigación, para aquellas personas inquietas que buscan mejorar cada vez más los servicios odontológicos. Así, esperamos comenzar en la Universidad del Valle, un camino, una trayectoria para ser pioneros en la odontología digital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computers , Dentistry , Computer Systems , Computer-Aided Design , Computers, Analog , Radiography, Dental, Digital , Tomography , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 232-234, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689824

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect and experience of quality control circle(QCC) in quality control testing for CT scanners, the quality control circle group was set up to determine the theme of quality control circle, and the causes of the failure of the quality control testing for CT scanners were analyzed, then the corresponding corrective measures were formulated and carried out. After the activity of the quality control circle, the qualified rate of CT quality control testing in the second level 2nd Class of public hospitals and private hospitals in Shanghai increased from 40.6% to 86.1%. By conducting quality control circle activities, we found the problems existed in the quality control testing of CT scanners, and put forward many corresponding corrective measures and solutions which finally improved the qualified rate of CT quality control testing.


Subject(s)
China , Quality Control , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Reference Standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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