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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 618-624, abr. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440303

ABSTRACT

El conocimiento de la relación entre el seno maxilar y los ápices de los dientes posterosuperiores es fundamental para evitar complicaciones frente a distintos tratamientos. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con muestra por conveniencia de 383 imágenes de raíces de dientes posterosuperiores obtenidas por medio de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (TCHC) de un centro radiológico en Viña del Mar, Chile. Cada raíz fue clasificada según su relación vertical con el seno en 4 categorías (0: ápice no se encuentra en contacto con contorno inferior del seno; 1: ápice en contacto con seno; 2: ápice lateralmente al seno; 3: ápice se protruye en seno). Además se midió su distancia en mm. Los datos fueron analizados con estadística descriptivas. El diente más lejano al seno maxilar fue el primer premolar superior (4.2 mm), seguido por el segundo premolar superior (1 mm). En el primer molar superior la raíz más lejana fue la mesio-vestibular (MV) 1mm, seguida por la raíz disto-vestibular (DV) 0.6mm y la raíz palatina (P) -1mm. En el segundo molar superior la raíz más lejana fue P 0.4mm, luego la DV 0.3mm, y MV -0,11mm. En cuanto a las categorías, se observó que la mayoría de las raíces se encuentran alejadas del seno siendo la raíz P del primer molar superior y la raíz MV del segundo molar superior las que se encuentran mayormente protruidas (42 % y 26 % respectivamente). El primer premolar es el diente posterosuperior que se encuentra más alejado del seno maxilar y a medida que se avanza hacia posterior hay tendencia a disminuir la distancia entre los ápices y el seno maxilar.


SUMMARY: Knowledge of the relationship between the maxillary sinus and the apices of the upper posterior teeth is crucial to avoid complications when considering different treatments. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, with a convenience sample of 383 images of upper posterior teeth roots, obtained by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) from a radiological center in Viña del Mar, Chile. Each root was classified according to its vertical relationship with the sinus into 4 categories (0: apex is not in contact with the lower contour of the sinus; 1: apex is in contact with the sinus; 2: apex laterally to the sinus; 3: apex protrudes in sinus). In addition, its distance was measured in mm. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The tooth farthest from the maxillary sinus was the maxillary first premolar (4.2 mm), followed by the maxillary second premolar (1 mm). In the upper first molar, the most distant root was the mesiobuccal (MV) 1mm, followed by the distobuccal root (DV) 0.6mm and the palatal root (P) -1mm. In the upper second molar, the furthest root was P 0.4mm, then DV 0.3mm, and MV -0.11mm. In reference to the categories, it was observed that most of the roots are far from the sinus, with the P root of the first upper molar and the MV root of the second upper molar being the most protruding (42 % and 26 % respectively). The first premolar is the posterior maxillary tooth that is furthest from the maxillary sinus and as one advances posteriorly there is a tendency to decrease the distance between the apices and the maxillary sinus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Sinus/anatomy & histology
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(4): 1-11, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1523867

ABSTRACT

Foraminal enlargement has been recommended to optimize the disinfection of infected root canals, although some authors still claim that the foramen should be kept in its original shape and position. This study aimed to evaluate morphological alterations of apical foramen after foraminal enlargement through a systematic review. An electronic search was conducted until April 2022. Ex vivo studies evaluating influence of foraminal enlargement in the morphologic changes of apical foramen were included. Studies without a control group or available full text were excluded. Foraminal deformation and area increase were considered as primary outcomes. Risk-of-bias assessment was performed according to a modified Joanna Briggs Institute's Checklist. From 702 studies retrieved, five were eligible. Most studies used single-rooted teeth, and rotary systems for instrumentation ranging from ­ 2 mm to + 1 mm to the apex. All studies found increased major foramen deformation after foraminal enlargement. Among four studies that evaluated foraminal area, all found increased area after foraminal enlargement. Insufficient data for touched/untouched walls by instruments and dentinal microcrack formation was observed. A low risk of bias was found. Foraminal enlargement during root canal preparation seems to increase deformation and major apical foramen area. Future investigations with standardized methodologies are encouraged (AU)


A ampliação foraminal tem sido recomendada para otimizar a desinfecção de canais radiculares infectados, embora alguns autores ainda afirmem que o forame deve ser mantido em sua forma e posição originais. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar alterações morfológicas do forame apical após ampliação foraminal por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Uma busca eletrônica foi realizada até abril de 2022. Foram incluídos estudos ex vivo que avaliaram a influência da ampliação foraminal nas alterações morfológicas do forame apical. Foram excluídos estudos sem grupo controle ou com texto completo indisponível. A deformação foraminal e o aumento da área foram considerados desfechos primários. A avaliação do risco de viés foi realizada de acordo com uma lista de verificação modificada do Instituto Joanna Briggs. Dos 702 registros recuperados, cinco foram elegíveis. A maioria dos estudos utilizou dentes unirradiculares e sistemas rotatórios para instrumentação, com comprimento de trabalho variando de ­ 2 mm a + 1 mm até o ápice. Todos os estudos encontraram aumento da deformação do forame maior após ampliação foraminal. Dos quatro estudos que avaliaram a área foraminal, todos encontraram aumento de área após alargamento foraminal. Foram observados dados insuficientes para paredes tocadas/intocadas pelos instrumentos e formação de microfissuras dentinárias. Um baixo risco de viés foi encontrado. A ampliação foraminal durante o preparo do canal radicular parece aumentar a deformação e a área do forame apical. Futuras investigações com metodologias padronizadas são incentivadas (AU)


Subject(s)
Root Canal Therapy , Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Endodontics
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e231400, Jan.-Dec. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1524336

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to assess the shaping ability of Reciproc Blue in the apical third and apical foramen of moderately curved canals at different working lengths (WLs), by micro-computed tomography. Methods: Thirty-six mesial roots (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals) were included, each with 2 separate root canals and independent apical foramina, according to type IV of Vertucci's classification of first and second mandibular molars. The canals were instrumented at three different WLs: G-1, 1mm short of the major apical foramen; G0, at the major apical foramen; G+1, 1mm beyond the major apical foramen. The groups were assessed for changes in root canal volume and untouched wall area in the apical third. Groups G0 and G+1 were also compared for percentage of untouched walls at the apical foramen. One-way ANOVA (post hoc Tukey test) and Student's t-test adopted a 5% level of significance. Results: Root canal volumes (mm3) in the apical third were 22.86±10.46, 44.48±24.91, and 55.71±21.32 in G-1, G0 and G+1, respectively. G-1 volume following instrumentation increased significantly less than that of G0 or G+1 (P>.05); G0 did not differ from G+1. The percentage of untouched wall area in the apical third did not differ among the three groups (P>.05). G0 and G+1 did not differ regarding untouched walls in the major apical foramem walls. Conclusion: Extending the WL from 1mm short of the apical foramen to a point at and beyond the WL increases the apical third volume without increasing the prepared area. Untouched surface areas of the apical foramen were not modified by instrumentation at or beyond the foramen


Subject(s)
Periapical Periodontitis , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth Apex , Dental Pulp Cavity , X-Ray Microtomography
4.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(3): 48-53, set.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381107

ABSTRACT

A ciência endodôntica possui um vasto conhecimento e com esse conhecimento os seus inúmeros questionamentos. Algumas teorias e conceitos mudam constantemente e trazem à tona contradições e divergências clínicas no âmbito biológico e prático. A patência foraminal é uma prática que permite que um instrumento de pequeno calibre ultrapasse o forame apical, com o intuito de limpar passivamente e prevenir o acúmulo de detritos e inibir a proliferação de microorganismos que podem causar infecções pós tratamento endodôntico. Essa prática gera discussão interna entre especialistas da área, mas as vantagens da técnica são inúmeras, principalmente no que diz respeito aos casos de polpa necrosada. Casos como esse não são solucionados com sucesso sem a utilização da patência apical. Por outro lado, existem contradições em relação aos casos em que a polpa está viva. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as vantagens e desvantagens da patência apical, bem como, se os benefícios excedem os possíveis danos que ela pode trazer(AU)


Endodontic science has vast knowledge and with this knowledge its countless questions. Some theories and concepts are constantly changing and bring to light clinical contradictions and divergences in the biological and practical scope. Foraminal patency is a practice that allows a small-caliber instrument to go beyond the apical foramen, in order to passively clean and prevent the accumulation of debris in the region and inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms that can cause infections after endodontic treatment. This practice generates internal discussion among specialists in the field, but the advantages of the technique are numerous, especially with regard to cases of necrotic pulp. Cases like this are not successfully resolved without the use of apical patency. On the other hand, there are contradictions regarding the cases where the pulp is alive. This work aims to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of apical patency, as well as whether the benefits exceed the harm it can bring(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Root Canal Therapy , Tooth Apex , Root Canal Preparation , Infections
5.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-10, nov. 23, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435194

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the accuracy of the panoramic radiography with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in measuring the distances between root apexes and the adjacent anatomical structures including the maxillary sinus and the mandibular canal. Material and Methods: A total of 200 CBCT scans (100 maxillary and 100 mandibular) from patients who also had corresponding panoramic radiography were selected. Linear measurements (in mm) presenting centralized image were made between the apexes of the maxillary teeth and the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus, and between the apexes of the mandibular teeth and the superior border of the mandibular canal by using specific software for panoramic radiography and the measurements on the coronal sections in CBCT scans. Data were submitted to inferential statistical analysis and Student's t-test for comparison between measurements. Results: CBCT scans were significantly more accurate than panoramic radiography to measure the distances between the apexes of the maxillary teeth and the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus (p<0.05) and between the apexes of the mandibular teeth and the superior border of the mandibular canal or mental foramen (p<0.05). Conclusion: CBCT scans present more accurate measurements than panoramic radiography.


Objetivo: Comparar la precisión de la radiografía panorámica con las exploraciones de la tomografía computarizada dental de haz en cónico (CBCT) para medir las distancias entre los vértices radiculares y las estructuras anatómicas adyacentes, incluidos el seno maxilar y el canal mandibular. Material y Métodos: Se seleccionaron un total de 200 tomografías CBCT (100 maxilares y 100 mandibulares) de pacientes que además tenían la correspondiente radiografía panorámica. Se realizaron mediciones lineales (en mm) que presentaban imagen centralizada entre los ápices de los dientes maxilares y la pared inferior del seno maxilar, y entre los ápices de los dientes mandibulares y el borde superior del canal mandibular mediante software específico para radiografía panorámica. y las mediciones en las secciones coronales en escaneos CBCT. Los datos se sometieron a análisis estadístico inferencial y prueba t de Student para comparación entre mediciones. Resultados: Las exploraciones CBCT fueron significativamente más precisas que la radiografía panorámica para medir las distancias entre los ápices de los dientes maxilares y la pared inferior del seno maxilar (p<0,05) y entre los ápices de los dientes mandibulares y el borde superior de los dientes mandibulares. canal o agujero mentoniano (p<0.05). Conclusión: Las exploraciones CBCT presentan mediciones más precisas que la radiografía panorámica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Mandibular Canal/diagnostic imaging , Anatomy, Regional , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 110(1): 20-25, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar radiográficamente tratamientos en- dodónticos del sector posterior de la cavidad bucal y com- parar la frecuencia de aceptabilidad en cada pieza dentaria involucrada. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluaron 5000 radiogra- fías de archivo de tratamientos endodónticos realizados apro- ximadamente entre 2005 y 2019 en premolares y molares mandibulares y maxilares en Argentina. Se consideraron tratamientos correctos e incorrectos de acuerdo con: 1) con- formación de la preparación quirúrgica; 2) límite apical de la obturación; 3) homogeneidad de la obturación. Se obtuvo la fre- cuencia absoluta y relativa de correctos e incorrectos. El aná- lisis entre frecuencias y pieza dentaria se realizó con la prueba de chi cuadrado y el cálculo del coeficiente V de Cramer. Para la comparación entre grupos de piezas dentarias se utilizó la partición del valor de chi cuadrado obtenido en los corres- pondientes grados de libertad. Nivel de significación P <0.05. Resultados: La partición del valor de chi cuadrado no mostró diferencias significativas entre primeros y segundos premolares mandibulares. Las otras comparaciones exhibie- ron diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Un alto porcentaje de los tratamientos endodónticos de la población estudiada tiene por lo menos una condición que permite categorizarlos como incorrectos según el criterio establecido en este trabajo. Este porcentaje es más preponderante en anatomías complejas (AU)


Aim: To evaluate radiographically endodontic treat- ments performed in the posterior area of the oral cavity and compare the frequency of acceptability in each tooth involved. Materials and methods: 5,000 archival radiographs of endodontic treatments performed between 2005 and 2019 on mandibular and maxillary premolars and molars in Argentina were evaluated. The percentages of correct and incorrect treatments were considered according to 1) shaping of the preparation; 2) apical limit of the obturation; 3) homogeneity of the obturation. The absolute and relative frequencies of correct and incorrect treatments were calcu- lated. The association between these frequencies and tooth type was analyzed using the chi-square test and Cramer's V coefficient. For the comparison between groups of teeth, the partition of the chi-square value obtained in the corre- sponding degrees of freedom was used. Level of significance was P <0.05. Results: The partition of the chi-square value did not show a significant difference between the first and second lower premolars. The differences were significant in the other comparisons. Conclusions: A high percentage of the endodontic treat- ments in the study population have at least one condition war- ranting their classification as incorrect according to the crite- ria established in this study. This percentage is more prevalent in complex anatomies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Root Canal Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Bicuspid , Tooth, Nonvital/diagnostic imaging , Molar , Argentina/epidemiology , Root Canal Obturation/statistics & numerical data , Chi-Square Distribution , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Mandible , Maxilla
7.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(87): 55-65, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551241

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue realizar una técnica de apexificación en una cita, evaluando clínica y radiográficamente la formación de barrera dura apical, con seguimiento a nueve meses, al utilizar material biocerámico en dien-tes permanentes jóvenes. Se trataron 30 incisivos su-periores permanentes con ápice abierto y anteceden-tes de trauma, en pacientes de ambos géneros y 18-40 años. Las piezas (n=30) se dividieron en dos grupos (n=15). Grupo experimental: tratamiento de apexifica-ción con EndoSequence Root Repair Material (EERR), y grupo control: tratamiento con impresión apical. Se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencias y esta-dísticas descriptivas para cada variable, según es-cala de medición y distribución. Se realizaron IC 95%, test de Chi cuadrado con cálculo de residuos estan-darizados ajustados y test de Fisher. Se fijó nivel de significación p=0.05. Las diferencias de manifestacio-nes preoperatorias y postoperatorias según grupo fueron no significativas (p Fisher = 0.9140) y (p Fisher = 0.992), respectivamente. No se hallaron diferencias entre proporciones de hallazgos radiológicos preope-ratorios según grupo. Medidas trimestralmente, no hubo diferencias significativas entre proporciones de piezas con continuidad de cortical ósea y radiolucidez periapical postoperatoria según grupo, (p Fisher = 0.7780) y (p Fisher = 0.7909), respectivamente. Debi-do la escasa cantidad de trabajos que reportan el uso de EERR para esta técnica, se requiere de nuevos en-sayos clínicos con tamaños muestrales amplios, para compararlo con otros materiales y técnicas, y deter-minar si su tasa de éxito a largo plazo es mayor que a de los materiales y técnicas usadas actualmente (AU)


To perform apexification technique in one appointment, clinically and radiographically evaluating the formation of apical hard barrier, with follow-up at nine months, when using bioceramic material in young permanent teeth. Materials and methods: 30 permanent upper incisors with open apex and history of trauma were treated, in patients of both genders and 18-40 years of ages. The teeth (n=30) were divided into two groups (n=15). Experimental group: apexification treatment was performed with EndoSequence Root Repair Material (EERR), control group: treatment with apical impression. Frequency distributions and descriptive statistics were determined for each variable according to scale of measurement and distribution. 95% CI, Chi-square test with calculation of adjusted standardized residuals and Fisher's test were performed. The level of significance p=0.05 was set. The differences in preoperative and postoperative manifestations according to group were not statistically significant (Fisher's p = 0.9140) and (Fisher's p = 0.992), respectively. No differences were found between proportions of preoperative radiological findings according to group. Measured quarterly, there were no significant differences between proportions of teeth with bone cortical continuity and with postoperative periapical radiolucency according to group, (p Fisher = 0.7780) and (p Fisher = 0.7909), respectively. Due to the small number of works that report its use for this technique, is necessary to carry out new clinical trials with larger sample sizes, to compare it with other materials and techniques, and determine if its success rate in the long term is greater than that of currently used materials and techniques (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tooth Apex/physiology , Organically Modified Ceramics , Argentina , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Schools, Dental
8.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 12(1): 202542, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1418978

ABSTRACT

Introducción:La revascularización pulpar es la terapia de primera elección para tratar al diente permanente inmaduro afectado por necrosis pulpar con periodontitis o absceso apical. Las evidencias indican que esta técnica induce la reparación de los tejidos dañados o perdidos, dentro y en la periferia, del conducto radicular. Durante los controles postoperatorios, el clínico dispone, fundamentalmente, de los hallazgos clínicos, radiográficos o imagenológicos, para interpretar y evaluar los resultados obtenidos con la terapia. Objetivo: Identificar los hallazgos clínicos, radiográficos e imagenológicos que determinan el éxito de la revascularización pulpar. Materiales y métodos: El desarrollo de la presente revisión narrativa se llevó a cabo mediante una estrategia de búsqueda en la base electrónica de datos y la consulta directa de portales web especializados. Además, se realizó una pesquisa en búsqueda de artículos primarios citados indiferentemente del año de publicación. Resultados: Fueron seleccionadas 25 publicaciones por su aporte y relevancia, de forma tal, que la presente revisión pueda cumplir con su objetivo. Conclusiones: Desde el punto de vista clínico, tanto para el control de los signos y síntomas de la infección como para inducir la reparación periapical, resulta una terapia exitosa. Ha demostrado que puede engrosar las paredes radiculares y estrechar el foramen apical a expensas de la deposición de un tejido mineralizado. Sin embargo, el alargamiento radicular sigue siendo un resultado incierto. La respuesta positiva a las pruebas de sensibilidad sugiere la existencia de un tejido vital en el interior del conducto radicular.


Introdução: A revascularização pulpar é a terapia de primeira escolha para o tratamento de dentes permanentes imaturos acometidos por necrose pulpar com periodontite ou abscesso apical. Evidências indicam que esta técnica induz o reparo de tecido danificado ou ausente dentro e ao redor do canal radicular. Durante os controles pós-operatórios, o clínico tem basicamente os achados clínicos, radiográficos ou de imagem para interpretar e avaliar os resultados obtidos com a terapia. Objetivo: Identificar os achados clínicos, radiográficos e de imagem que determinam o sucesso da revascularização pulpar. Materiais e métodos: O desenvolvimento desta revisão narrativa foi realizado por meio de uma estratégia de busca na base de dados eletrônica e consulta direta de portais especializados. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca em busca de artigos primários citados independente do ano de publicação. Resultados: 25 publicações foram selecionadas por sua contribuição e relevância, para que esta revisão possa cumprir seu objetivo. Conclusões: Do ponto de vista clínico, tanto para controlar os sinais e sintomas da infecção quanto para induzir o reparo periapical, é uma terapia de sucesso. Foi demonstrado que pode engrossar as paredes radiculares e estreitar o forame apical às custas da deposição de tecido mineralizado. No entanto, o alongamento da raiz continua sendo um resultado incerto. Uma resposta positiva aos testes de sensibilidade sugere a existência de tecido vital dentro do canal radicular.


Introduction: Pulpal revascularization is the first-choice therapy to treat immature permanent teeth affected by pulpal necrosis with periodontitis or apical abscess. Evidence indicates that this technique induces repair of damaged or missing tissue within and around the root canal. During the postoperative controls, the clinician basically has the clinical, radiographic or imaging findings to interpret and evaluate the results obtained with the therapy. Objective: To identify the clinical, radiographic and imaging findings that determine the success of pulpal revascularization. Materials and methods: The development of this narrative review was carried out through a search strategy in the electronic database and direct consultation of specialized web portals. In addition, a search was carried out in search of primary articles cited regardless of the year of publication. Results: 25 publications were selected for their contribution and relevance, so that this review can fulfill its objective. Conclusions: From the clinical point of view, both to control the signs and symptoms of the infection and to induce periapical repair, it is a successful therapy. It has been shown that it can thicken the root walls and narrow the apical foramen at the expense of the deposition of mineralized tissue. However, root elongation remains an uncertain outcome. A positive response to sensitivity tests suggests the existence of vital tissue within the root canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Dental Pulp Cavity , Periodontitis , Review Literature as Topic , Dentition, Permanent , Tooth Apex , Abscess
9.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e21378, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1254637

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the apical extrusion of debris in flat-oval canals, using three reciprocating systems at two different working lengths (WL), 0 mm and 1 mm from the apical foramen. Methods: Ninety mandibular incisors were randomly divided into three groups based on the systems: WaveOne Gold #25.07 (WOG), ProDesign R #25.06 (PDR), and X1 Blue #25.06 (X1B). Extruded debris were collected and dried in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. Three consecutive weighings were performed for each tube, and the mean was calculated. If the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance were not met, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the amount of extruded debris between groups with the same WL, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison within groups for each WL. Results: All groups had extruded debris, with higher median values occurring at 1 mm. No significant difference regarding the amount of debris extrusion was observed at 0 mm (p>0.05) and 1 mm (p>0.05) between groups. However, within the groups, at different WL, there was greater extrusion at 1 mm (p<0.05), with PDR differing significantly from the other systems (p<0.05). Conclusion: The extrusion of debris occurred regardless of the group, with higher values at 1 mm. However, using PDR at 1 mm from the apical foramen showed the highest values of extrusion


Subject(s)
Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Dental Pulp Cavity
10.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(2): e055, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254594

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue comparar la precisión de los localizadores electrónicos apicales Propex Pixi y Raypex 6 en la determinación de la longitud de trabajo de piezas dentarias con perforaciones simuladas a diferentes niveles del conducto radicular. Materiales y Métodos: Se utilizaron 36 premolares inferiores unirradiculares con un conducto, divididos aleatoriamente en tres grupos de 12 piezas dentarias cada uno. En el primer grupo, se realizaron dos perforaciones simuladas que fueron a nivel medio y a nivel apical; en el segundo grupo, se realizó una perforación simulada a nivel cervical, y en el tercer grupo, se realizó una perforación simulada a nivel apical. Se emplearon dos localizadores electrónicos apicales Propex Pixi y Raypex 6. La longitud real del conducto fue medida con un calibrador Vernier digital. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y estadística inferencial con la prueba de Friedman a un nivel de confianza del 95%. Resultados: Al comparar la precisión de las longitudes obtenidas por los localizadores electrónicos apicales Propex Pixi y Raypex 6 en premolares inferiores con perforaciones simuladas a nivel medio y apical, premolares inferiores con perforación simulada a nivel cervical y premolares inferiores con perforación simulada a nivel apical, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la longitud real del conducto, p < 0,001, p = 0,008 y p = 0,006, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El localizador electrónico apical Propex Pixi (Dentsply Maillefer, Alemania) presentó mayor precisión en la determinación de la longitud real del conducto en piezas dentarias con perforaciones simuladas a diferentes niveles del conducto radicular. (AU)


Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the precision of the Propex Pixi and Raypex 6 electronic apical locators in determining the working length of teeth with simulated perforations at different levels of the root canal. Materials and Methods: 36 uniradicular lower premolars were used with a canal randomly divided into three groups of 12 teeth each. In the first group two simulated perforations were made at the middle and apical level. In the second group a simulated cervical perforation was made, and in the third group a simulated perforation was performed at the apical level. Two electronic apical locators Propex Pixi and Raypex 6 were used, and the real length of the canal was measured with a digital Vernier caliper. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied with the Friedman test at a confidence level of 95%. Results: When comparing the precision of the lengths obtained by the Propex Pixi and Raypex 6 apical electronic locators, statistically significant differences were found in the real length of the canal (p= 0.006) between simulated perforation of lower premolars at the cervical (p<0.001) and the apical level (p=0.008), Conclusion: The Propex Pixi apical electronic locator (Dentsply Maillefer - Germany) presented greater precision in the determination of the real canal length in teeth with simulated perforations at different levels of the root canal. (AU)


Subject(s)
Bicuspid , Tooth Apex , Alginates , Endodontics
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 21-31, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345507

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth reinforced with calcium aluminate cement (CAC) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3). The microstructural arrangement of the cements and their chemical constitution were also evaluated. Forty-eight canines simulating immature teeth were distributed into 6 groups (n=8): Negative control - no apical plug or root canal filling; CAC - apical plug with CAC; CAC/nano-CaCO3 - apical plug with CAC+5% nano-CaCO3; MTA - apical plug with MTA; MTA/nano-CaCO3 - apical plug with MTA+5% nano-CaCO3; and Positive control - root canal filling with MTA. The fracture resistance was evaluated in a universal testing machine. Samples of the cements were analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to determine their microstructural arrangement. Chemical analysis of the cements was performed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The fracture resistance of CAC/nano-CaCO3 was significantly higher than the negative control (p<0.05). There was no significant difference among the other groups (p>0.05). Both cements had a more regular microstructure with the addition of nano-CaCO3. MTA samples had more calcium available in soluble forms than CAC. The addition of nano-CaCO3 to CAC increased the fracture resistance of teeth in comparison with the non-reinforced teeth. The microstructure of both cements containing nano-CaCO3 was similar, with a more homogeneous distribution of lamellar- and prismatic-shaped crystals. MTA had more calcium available in soluble forms than CAC.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a resistência à fratura de dentes imaturos simulados reforçados com cimento de aluminato de cálcio (CAC) ou trióxido agregado mineral (MTA) contendo nanopartículas de carbonato de cálcio (nano-CaCO3). O arranjo microestrutural dos cimentos e sua constituição química também foram avaliados. Quarenta e oito caninos simulando dentes imaturos foram distribuídos em 6 grupos (n=8): Controle negativo - sem plug apical ou obturação do canal radicular; CAC - plug apical com CAC; CAC/nano-CaCO3 - plug apical com CAC + 5% nano-CaCO3; MTA - plug apical com MTA; MTA/nano-CaCO3 - plug apical com MTA + 5% nano-CaCO3; e Controle positivo - obturação dos canais radiculares com MTA. A resistência à fratura foi avaliada em máquina universal de ensaios. Amostras dos cimentos foram analisadas em Microscópio Eletrônico de Varredura (MEV) para determinar seu arranjo microestrutural. A análise química dos cimentos foi realizada por Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva de Raio-X (EDS). A resistência à fratura de CAC/nano-CaCO3 foi significativamente maior do que o controle negativo (p<0,05). Não houve diferença significativa entre os outros grupos (p>0,05). Ambos os cimentos apresentaram microestrutura mais regular com a adição de nano-CaCO3. As amostras de MTA apresentaram mais cálcio disponível em formas solúveis do que CAC. A adição de nano-CaCO3 ao CAC aumentou a resistência à fratura dos dentes em comparação aos dentes não reforçados. A microestrutura de ambos os cimentos contendo nano-CaCO3 foi semelhante, com uma distribuição mais homogênea de cristais de formato lamelar e prismático. MTA apresentou mais cálcio disponível nas formas solúveis do que CAC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Tooth Fractures , Oxides , Root Canal Obturation , Silicates , Calcium Compounds , Aluminum Compounds , Tooth Apex , Dental Cements , Drug Combinations
12.
Odontol. Clín.-Cient ; 20(2): 25-31, abr.-maio 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1369097

ABSTRACT

Este estudo analisou a precisão de medição dos aparelhos ROMIAPEX A 15® e ROOT ZX MINI®, in vitro, comparativamente pelo método radiográfico e eletrônico no que diz respeito à precisão e confiabilidade na determinação do Comprimento Real de Trabalho (CRT) e Comprimento Real do Dente (CRD). Vinte dentes humanos (incisivos superiores e pré-molares superiores/inferiores) foram avalia das e seus CRD's e CRT's aferidos de forma direta por meio de lima tipo k nº 10 ou 15 (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Suíça), pelo método radiográfico e método eletrônico. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre as medidas para CRD (p=0,003) e CRT (p=0,042) entre os métodos direto, radio gráfico e eletrônico. Ambos os métodos ficaram próximos da medida real, quando por vezes também definiram a mesma medida real. Os CRD's obtidos pelos métodos radiográfico e eletrônico foram sub metidos ao Teste t de Student (p<0,024) apontando relação estatística significativa para a verificação da odontometria, sugerindo que ambos os métodos são eficazes na determinação do comprimento real do dente quanto de trabalho. O método eletrônico apresentou eficácia satisfatória estatistica mente nos casos comparativamente aos outros métodos também avaliados. Os dados sugerem que os localizadores citados podem auxiliar as tomadas de decisões para determinação do CRD e CRT


This study analyzed the measurement accuracy of the ROMIAPEX A15® and ROOT ZX MINI® locators, in vitro, comparatively by the radiographic and electronic methods with regard to the precision and reliability in the determination of the Real Working Length (RWL) and Real Tooth Length (RTL). Twenty human teeth (upper incisors and upper/lower premolars) were evaluated it had the RTL and RWL measured through rasp k No 10/15 (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) by radiographic and electronic methods. There were no significant differences between the measures for RTL (p = 0,003) and RWL (p = 0,042) for the methods. It means that both methods were very close to the real measure, when sometimes they also defined the same real measure. The RTL obtained by methods radiographic and electronic, were submitted to Student's t test (p <0,024), showed statistical significance in relation to the methods used for verification of odontometry, which means that both methods are effective to determine an actual length of the element and the length of actual work. The electronic method showed statistically satisfactory effectiveness in the cases compared to the other methods.The data suggest that these locators can assist decision making to determine RTL and RWL ... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Apex , Endodontics , Odontometry , Radiography, Dental, Digital
13.
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 78-83, Jan-Apr2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348257

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A infecção endodôntica pode alcançar a saída foraminal e, inclusive, ir além dela. Logo, a determinação da constrição apical como o limite ideal para instrumentação e obturação tem sido questionada. A instrumentação foraminal intencional é realizada com o intuito de diminuir o contingente microbiano a níveis mais favoráveis ao reparo. Entretanto, repercussões locais e sistêmicas estão associadas à sua execução. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão crítica da literatura sobre repercussões locais e sistêmicas relativas à instrumentação foraminal intencional. Métodos: Em março de 2018, uma busca eletrônica realizada na base de dados PUBMED utilizando os termos "foraminal enlargement" OR "foraminal widening" OR "apical limit" AND "endodontics" identificou 74 artigos científicos. Esses artigos, a análise de suas referências bibliográficas e a utilização de mais 5 artigos base resultaram nos 111 estudos consultados para a realização dessa pesquisa. Resultados: A ampliação foraminal intencional nem sempre pode ser praticada em virtude de razões anatômicas e morfológicas. Quanto maior a ampliação do forame apical, maior a possibilidade de extravasamento de substâncias e/ou materiais utilizados para a realização do tratamento endodôntico. A instrumentação foraminal intencional parece ser contraindicada em pacientes que fazem ou fizeram uso de bisfosfonatos recentemente, com distúrbios de coagulação e/ou sob uso crônico de anticoagulantes e com alto risco de bacteremia. Conclusões: Os impactos da instrumentação foraminal intencional sobre o sucesso do tratamento endodôntico devem ser investigados. Contudo, os delineamentos metodológicos dos estudos clínicos devem ser cuidadosos, principalmente no tocante às condições sistêmicas dos pacientes que farão parte do universo amostral (AU).


Introduction: endodontic infection can reach and even go beyond the apical foramen. Therefore, determining apical constriction as the ideal limit for instrumentation and obturation has been questioned. Intentional foraminal enlargement is performed for the purpose of reducing the microbial contingent to levels more favorable to repair. However, local and systemic repercussions have been associated with this approach. Objectives: to critically review the literature on local and systemic repercussions relative to intentional foraminal enlargement. Methods: in March 2018, an electronic search performed on the PUBMED database using the terms "foraminal enlargement" OR "foraminal widening" OR "apical limit" AND "endodontics" identified 74 scientific articles. These articles, analysis of their references and use of another 5 base articles resulted in the 115 studies used for performing this research. Results: intentional foraminal enlargement cannot always be performed due to the anatomical and morphological conditions. The greater the apical foramen enlargement, the greater the possibility of extrusion of substances and/or materials used to perform endodontic treatment. Intentional foraminal enlargement seems to be contraindicated in patients who are taking or have recently used bisphosphonates, those with coagulation disorders and/ or under chronic use of anticoagulants and at high risk for bacteremia. Conclusions: the impacts of intentional foraminal enlargement on the success of endodontic treatment should be investigated. However, the methodological procedures of clinical studies should be carefully designed, especially taking into consideration the systemic conditions of patients who will be part of the sample (AU).


Subject(s)
Tooth Apex , Endodontics/instrumentation , Anticoagulants , Diphosphonates , Infections
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37004, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359866

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate apical transportation and apical root canal sealing after root canal filling in human teeth prepared with MTwo® Rotary System with and without apical foramen enlargement. Twenty mandibular premolars were divided into two groups (n=10). Group 1 had root canals prepared 1mm beyond the apical foramen. Group 2 had root canals prepared 1mm below the root canal length. After chemo-mechanical preparation, samples were submitted to scanning electronic microscopy. Apical foramen images had 75x magnification at standardized positions, allowing measurements from the apical foramen area before and after root canal preparation, and after root canal filling. Apical foramen shape and apical transportation, as well as its level of circumferential filling after root canal preparation were accessed using the Image Subtraction System. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis demonstrated that samples of Group 1 showed larger foraminal diameter than samples of Group 2 (p<0.05). Apical foramen transportation was statistically different between Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0108). Furthermore, the apical foramen sealing also differed statistically between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0007) and 100% of samples of Group 1 showed apical root canal sealing. Apical root canal sealing was more effective when the root canal was prepared with apical foramen enlargement, even when the apical transportation was detected.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Tooth Apex
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e080, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1278598

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This research evaluated, in vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators - EALs (Root ZXII, E-PEX and FIND) in teeth with vital pulp submitted to biopulpectomy, preserving the periodontal stump. For this study, 90 single-rooted teeth with extraction indication were selected. After positive pulpal cold sensitivity test, pulp chamber access was performed. The cervical and middle thirds of root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R25, and the K#15 file was used as a standard instrument to determine working length, forming 2 groups: Constriction (insertion of the instrument until the apical constriction limit) and Foramen (insertion of the instrument until the foramen and then repositioning at constriction, without removing the file from the canal). The hand file was stabilized with a light-cured flow resin. After extraction, the samples were analyzed through microCT SkyScan 1272, with CTAN software, which evaluated the proximity between the tip of the file to the apical constriction, providing data for comparative analysis using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the abilities of the EALs to detect the apical constriction after reaching the foramen with Root ZX II showing higher accuracy (89%). However, there was no difference in the accuracy of the three EALs in detecting the apical constriction without reaching the foramen. Based on the present results, we conclude that EALs may show accurate measures in detecting apical constriction and foramen, even without damaging the periodontal stump in biopulpectomy.


Subject(s)
Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Cavity , Tooth Root , Root Canal Preparation , X-Ray Microtomography , Odontometry
16.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(83): 49-56, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343547

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar distancia cortical/piso de seno maxilar y ápices de primeros premolares superiores, su asociación con sexo y grupo etario. Se midieron 100 premolares superiores, registrándose la distancia ápices/cortical piso del seno, frecuencia de intrusión apical en seno, relación con sexo y grupo etario. Se utilizó prueba de rangos con signos Wilcoxon y prueba Shapiro-Wilk, con modificaciones. Se estimaró método de Wilson. Se utilizó prueba Chi-cuadrado. Se encontró diferencia significativa (Wilcoxon: p<0,05) en distancia máxima a cortical y no la hubo en distancias mínimas a cortical (Wilcoxon: p=0,41). Hubo distribución heterogénea según clasificación de Kwak (Chi-cuadrado=203,8; gl=4; p<0,05): tipo I más representado (77% IC95; 68% a 84%), tipo V menos frecuente (4%; IC95: 2% a 10%). Hubo asociación signficativa entre tipología y sexo (Chi-cuadrado012,48; gl=4; p<0,05). Ambos sexos tipo I más representado, mujeres tipo II menos representado (3%). Se encontró asociación significativa entre tipología y grupo etario (Chi-cuadrado=42,47; gl=20; p<0,05): todos los grupos, tipo I más representado (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bicuspid , Tooth Apex , Maxillary Sinus , Argentina , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e003, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132743

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The present study investigated the intracanal decontamination and apical extrusion of bacteria and debris from root canals instrumented with rotary and reciprocating systems (ProDesign Logic or ProDesign R), with different file diameters and using conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Eighty extracted mandibular premolars were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and randomly assigned to eight experimental groups according to the root canal instrumentation and irrigation technique employed (n = 10): G1: Prodesign Logic 25.06; G2: Prodesign R 25.06; G3 and G4 were instrumented with the same single-file systems, respectively, using 35.05 diameters and CSI. G5, G6, G7, and G8 were instrumented like the previous groups, but with PUI. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed microtubes. The weight of the empty microtube was subtracted from the final weight to establish the amount of extruded debris. Bacteria from root canals and extruded debris were collected for a microbiological evaluation of colony forming units (CFU/mL). For statistical analyses, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn's tests were used (α = 0.05). All instruments caused extrusion of debris. For irrigation techniques, PUI promoted greater debris and bacterial extrusion (p < 0.05). The CFU/mL count indicated that the instrumentation of the experimental groups were equally effective in the decontamination of the root canal (p > 0.05). The systems tested (regarding file diameter and kinematics) were associated with similar amounts of apically extruded debris and root canal decontamination. PUI was associated with greater debris and bacterial extrusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Ultrasonics , Biomechanical Phenomena , Decontamination , Dental Pulp Cavity
18.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 18-21, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248258

ABSTRACT

Biomaterial de tercera generación con una tasa de degradabilidad en la zona perirradicular y del foramen apical, con una velocidad similar a la que emplea el organismo para formar tejido calcificado y sellar biológicamente el extremo apical del diente. Mediante el recurso tecnológico de la microencapsulación se produce la liberación lenta y controlada de Ca2+ retenido en la superficie y en el interior de las microesferas de alginato de calcio, sin que se modifique de manera significativa las propiedades reológicas básicas del biomaterial de obturación de conductos, tales como la compresibilidad, plasticidad, extensibilidad, fluidez, viscosidad cinemática, viscosidad de compresión y endurecimiento por trabajo (AU)


Third-generation biomaterial with a degradability rate in the periradicular area and the apical foramen, with a speed similar to that used by the body to form calcified tissue and biologically seal the apical end of the tooth. Through the technological resource of microencapsulation, the slow and controlled release of Ca2+ retained on the surface and inside the calcium alginate microspheres is produced, without significantly modifying the basic rheological properties of the duct sealing biomaterial, such as compressibility, plasticity, extensibility, flowability, kinematic viscosity, compression viscosity, and work hardening (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periapical Diseases/therapy , Root Canal Filling Materials/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials , Rheology , Calcium Compounds , Tooth Apex , Drug Compounding , Alginates/chemistry , Microspheres
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(4): 404-408, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132324

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different coronal preflaring protocols (absent, conservative and conventional) on the accuracy of Root ZX II, Raypex 6, and RomiApex A-15 electronic foramen locators (EFLs). Twenty mandibular molars with Vertucci's type IV mesial roots were subjected to endodontic exploration and foraminal patency confirmation. Under 16x magnification, its real lengths (RL) were measured and registered (RL1). The canals were then irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and electronically measured (EM1) employing the alginate model; all measurements were performed in triplicate by a blind operator using adjusted endodontic hand-files introduced until the apex foramen. Coronal preflaring procedures were sequentially performed with #25/.06 (conservative) and #25/.12 (conventional) instruments; new RLs extents were performed after each coronal preparation protocol (RL2/RL3), as same as electronic measurements (EM2/EM3). The devices error (mm) was evaluated considering the difference between RLs and EMs at each preparation stage; their precision was stablished adopting ±0.5 mm as tolerance margin. The EFLs error significantly reduced after conventional coronal preflaring protocol (p<0.05), which not occur after the conservative one. The best precisions values were noted after conventional preparation as 90% (Root ZX II), 97.5% (Raypex 6), and 92.5% (RomiApex A-15). No significant differences were found in EFLs comparisons, regardless of the coronal protocol tested (p>0.05). Under the conditions tested it can be concluded that the EFLs evaluated were precise. Moreover, the preflaring protocols influences its accuracy's, where the less conservative one produced the best results.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes protocolos de pré-alargamento cervical (ausente, conservador e convencional) na precisão dos localizadores eletrônicos foraminais (LEFs) Root ZX II, Raypex 6 e RomiApex A-15. Vinte molares inferiores com raízes mesiais do tipo IV de Vertucci foram submetidos à exploração endodôntica e confirmação da patência foraminal. Sob ampliação de 16x, seus comprimentos reais (CR) foram medidos e registrados (CR1). Os canais foram então irrigados com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% e medidos eletronicamente (ME1) utilizando o modelo em alginato; todas as medidas foram realizadas em triplicata por um operador cego, utilizando limas endodônticas ajustadas introduzidas até o forame apical. Os procedimentos de pré-alargamento cervical foram realizados sequencialmente com os instrumentos #25/.06 (conservador) e #25/.12 (convencional); novas determinações de CRs foram realizadas após cada protocolo de preparação cervical (CR2/CR3), da mesma forma que as medidas eletrônicas (ME2/ME3). O erro dos dispositivos (mm) foi avaliado considerando a diferença entre CRs e MEs em cada estágio de preparação; sua precisão foi estabelecida adotando ± 0,5 mm como margem de tolerância. O erro dos LEFs reduziu significativamente após o protocolo convencional de alargamento cervical (p<0,05), o que não ocorreu após o conservador. Os melhores valores de precisão foram observados após a preparação convencional como 90% (Root ZX II), 97,5% (Raypex 6) e 92,5% (RomiApex A-15). Não foram encontradas diferenças significantes nas comparações entre os LEFs, independentemente do protocolo cervical testado (p>0,05). Sob as condições testadas, pode-se concluir que os LEFs avaliados foram precisos. Além disso, os protocolos de alargamento influenciam sua precisão, onde o menos conservador produziu os melhores resultados.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Dental Pulp Cavity , Electronics , Odontometry
20.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 177-182, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090672

ABSTRACT

Revitalization procedures have been extensively studied during the last decade and offers several advantages over root canal treatment, such as the recovery of the natural immune system. Mature teeth have a small apical foramen diameter (AFD), which could impair the ingrowth of tissue into the root canal. We analysed three methods for apical foramen enlargement by instrumentation in in situ human teeth and evaluated the damage over hard tissues produced by the techniques. Tooth length (TL), defined as the length from the most coronal part of the crown to the point at which the file abandons the root canal, was calculated. Forty-four in situ teeth were randomized: Group I: instrumentation 0.5 mm coronal to TL; Group II: at TL level; Group III: 0.5 mm beyond TL. Teeth were instrumented up to K-file #80. The mandibles were scanned in a micro-CT device before and after treatment. Group I: Only 20 % of teeth presented an enlarged AFD, with augmentation of 0.09 mm. No damage to hard tissues was observed. Group II: 71.4 % of the teeth presented an enlarged AFD with augmentation of 0.42 mm. 35.7 % presented damage to periapical tissues. Group III: 86.7 % presented an enlarged AFD with augmentation of 0.43 mm. 46.7 % presented damage to periapical tissues. All groups presented similar prevalence of teeth with dentine thickness less than 1mm. All mandibular incisors presented areas of thickness less than 1mm. Instrumentation 0.5 mm beyond TL is the most effective technique.


La revitalización de dientes necróticos ha sido ampliamente estudiada durante la última década y ofrece varias ventajas sobre la endodoncia convencional, tal como la recuperación del sistema inmunitario natural del diente. Los dientes maduros tienen un diámetro de foramen apical (FA) pequeño, lo que podría afectar el crecimiento de tejido en el conducto. Se evaluaron tres métodos para la ampliación del foramen apical en dientes humanos in situ y se evaluó el daño sobre los tejidos duros producidos por las técnicas. Mediante radiografía periapical se calculó la longitud del diente (TL), definida como la longitud desde la parte más coronal de la corona hasta el punto en que la lima abandonó el conducto radicular. En el estudio fueron aleatorizados 44 dientes in situ: Grupo I: instrumentación 0,5 mm coronal a TL; Grupo II: a nivel TL; Grupo III: 0,5 mm más allá de TL. Los dientes fueron instrumentados hasta la lima K #80. Las mandíbulas se escanearon en un dispositivo de microCT antes y después del tratamiento. Grupo I: solo el 20 % de los dientes presentaron un diámetro de FA ensanchado, con un aumento de 0,09 mm. No se observó daño a los tejidos duros. Grupo II: el 71,4 % de los dientes presentaban un FA ensanchado con un aumento de 0,42 mm. El 35,7 % presentó daño a los tejidos periapicales. Grupo III: el 86,7 % presentó un FA ensanchado con un aumento de 0,43 mm. El 46,7 % presentó daño a los tejidos periapicales. Todos los grupos presentaron una prevalencia similar de dientes con un espesor de dentina inferior a 1mm. Todos los incisivos mandibulares presentaban áreas de grosor inferior a 1mm. La instrumentación 0,5 mm más allá de TL es la técnica más efectiva, aunque se debe tener especial consideración en aspectos como el debilitamiento de la estructura dentaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Regenerative Endodontics , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology
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