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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 756-772, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355748

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Los endoparásitos y ectoparásitos en perros son de distribución mundial. La estrecha relación entre los perros y el hombre implica un riesgo de transmisión de parasitosis zoonóticas, por lo cual es necesario conocer las especies que parasitan a los perros de esta zona y determinar los factores asociados. Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia de endoparásitos y ectoparásitos, identificarlos en perros domiciliados de la zona metropolitana de Toluca, México, y determinar la prevalencia de Dipyilidium caninum en pulgas del género Ctenocephalides spp. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron muestras de 402 perros que fueron llevados a consulta en cuatro hospitales de referencia de Toluca. En el diagnóstico de endoparásitos, se utilizaron las técnicas coproparasitoscópicas de frotis directo, flotación y sedimentación; además, se recolectaron ectoparásitos para su identificación taxonómica. Por último, la detección de D. caninum en pulgas se hizo mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Resultados. El 37,2 % de los perros resultó positivo para endoparásitos. Los géneros o especies identificados fueron Toxocara spp., Giardia spp., Ancylostoma spp., Cystoisospora spp., D. caninum, Taenia spp. y Trichuris vulpis. Se determinó una prevalencia de ectoparásitos de 13,13 %. Se identificaron pulgas de las especies Ctenocephalides felis y C. canis, en tanto que solo un animal presentó parasitosis por Rhipicephalus sanguineus y otro por Trichodectes canis. La prevalencia de D. caninum en pulgas fue del 9,5 %. Conclusión. La prevalencia de endoparásitos fue de 37,2 % y, la de ectoparásitos, de 13,1 %. Por primera vez en México se hizo un análisis de endoparásitos y ectoparásitos en una misma población de perros, así como el diagnóstico molecular de D. caninum.


Abstract | Introduction: Endoparasites and ectoparasites in dogs are of global distribution. The close relationship between dogs and man implies a risk for the transmission of zoonotic parasites. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the parasites hosted by dogs in specific areas and the factors associated with their presence. Objectives: To identify and to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites and ectoparasites in domiciled dogs in the Metropolitan area of Toluca, México, and the prevalence of D. caninum in fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides spp. Materials and methods: We collected samples from 402 domiciled dogs in four reference hospitals in the area in Toluca. We diagnosed endoparasites using direct smear, flotation, and sedimentation techniques and we performed the taxonomic identification of ectoparasites. Finally, the molecular diagnosis of D. caninum in fleas was made using the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). Results: A total of 37.2% of dogs were positive for endoparasites; the genera or species identified were Toxocara spp., Giardia spp., Ancylostoma spp., Cystoisospora spp., D. caninum, Taenia spp., and Trichuris vulpis; the prevalence of ectoparasites was 13.13%. We identified fleas of the species Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis; only one animal was parasitized with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and another one with Trichodectes canis; the prevalence of D. caninum in fleas was 9.5%. Conclusion: The prevalence of endoparasites was 37.2% while that of ectoparasites was 13.1%; this is the first analysis of endoparasites and ectoparasites conducted in the same population of dogs in México together with the molecular diagnosis of D. caninum in fleas.


Subject(s)
Zoonoses/epidemiology , Mexico , Toxocara canis , Ctenocephalides , Giardia , Ancylostoma
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 91-96, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpureocillium lilacinum is a nematophagous fungus used in biological control against some parasites, including Toxocara canis. This study researched the infectivity of embryonated T. canis eggs after exposure to the fungus P. lilacinum. T. canis eggs were exposed to P. lilacinum for 15 or 30 days and subsequently administered to Swiss mice (n=20). Control group consisted of mice who received T. canis embryonated eggs without fungal exposure. Forty-eight hours after infection, heart, lung, and liver from animals of each group were collected to assess larval recovery. The organs of mice that received embryonated eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower average larval recovery (P<0.05) suggesting that exposure of T. canis eggs to P. lilacinum was able to reduce experimental infection. Under the evaluated conditions, the interaction time between the fungus and the parasite eggs was not a significant factor in larvae recovery. P. lilacinum may be considered a promising T. canis biological control agent. However, further studies are needed to determine a protocol for the use of this fungus as a biological control agent.


Resumo Purpureocillium lilacinum é um fungo nematófago com potencial para uso no controle biológico de parasitos, incluindo Toxocara canis. Este estudo pesquisou a infectividade de ovos de T. canis embrionados após exposição ao fungo P. lilacinum . Ovos de T. canis foram expostos ao fungo por 15 ou 30 dias e subsequentemente administrados a camundongos Swiss (n=20). O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos que receberam ovos embrionados do parasita sem exposição ao fungo. Quarenta e oito horas após a infecção, coração, pulmão e fígado dos camundongos foram coletados para avaliar a recuperação larval. Os órgãos dos animais que receberam ovos embrionados expostos ao fungo apresentaram menor média de recuperação larval (P<0,05) do que os infectados com ovos sem exposição ao fungo, sugerindo que a exposição dos ovos de T. canis a P. lilacinum foi capaz de reduzir a infecção experimental. Nas condições avaliadas, o tempo de interação entre o fungo e os ovos do parasito não foi um fator significativo na recuperação das larvas. P. lilacinum pode ser considerado um promissor agente de controle biológico de T. canis, no entanto, mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o emprego deste fungo como um agente de controle biológico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/microbiology , Toxocara canis/microbiology , Biological Control Agents , Hypocreales/physiology , Ovum/ultrastructure , Toxocara canis/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning , Mice
4.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 549-552, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761767

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasitic infections and associated risk factors for the human infection among the people of Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Infection status of helminths including Echinococcus granulosus was surveyed in domestic and wild animals from 4 sites in the Samarkand region, Uzbekistan during 2015–2018. Fecal samples of each animal were examined with the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and the recovery of intestinal helminths was performed with naked eyes and a stereomicroscope in total 1,761 animals (1,755 dogs, 1 golden jackal, and 5 Corsac foxes). Total 658 adult worms of E. granulosus were detected in 28 (1.6%) dogs and 1 (100%) golden jackal. More than 6 species of helminths, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium nolleri, Mesocestoides lineatus, Toxocara canis, and Trichuris vulpis, were found from 18 (1.0%) dogs. Six (T. hydatigena, Toxascaris leonina, Alaria alata, Uncinaria stenocephala, D. caninum, and M. lineatus) and 2 (D. nolleri and M. lineatus) species of helminths were also detected from 5 Corsac foxes and 1 golden jackal, respectively. Taeniid eggs were found in 2 (20%) out of 10 soil samples. In the present study, it was confirmed that the prevalences of helminths including E. granulosus are not so high in domestic and wild animals. Nevertheless, the awareness on the zoonotic helminth infections should be continuously maintained in Uzbekistan for the prevention of human infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals, Wild , Echinococcus granulosus , Eggs , Foxes , Helminths , Jackals , Mesocestoides , Ovum , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Soil , Taenia , Toxascaris , Toxocara canis , Trichuris , Uzbekistan
5.
Bio sci. (En línea) ; 2(4): 51-59, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1141225

ABSTRACT

La Toxocariosis es una enfermedad parasitaria ocasionada por larvas del género Toxocara. El parásito T. canis es uno de los tres nematodos más prevalentes en los estudios llevados a cabo en zonas urbanas de países como Bolivia, Perú, Argentina y México. Los huevos de T. canis son altamente resistentes a condiciones ambientales. El presente trabajo de investigación que se realizó en el mes de diciembre de 2017, tuvo como objetivo principal determinar la Incidencia de Toxocara canis en materia fecal de canes del Albergue Asociación Protectora de Animales Chuquisaca, en muestras de heces de 123 perros, las cuales fueron procesadas y analizadas en el laboratorio de la Caja de Salud Cordes del departamento de Chuquisaca, utilizando el método de Faust, dando como resultado que del total de perros muestreados el 17 % dieron positivo a Toxocara canis. Con relación a la edad, los perros más afectados fueron los del rango pertenecientes a menores de seis meses con un 91 %, en cuanto a la relación con el sexo del animal, no hubo una significancia importante, ya que las hembras positivas fueron de 51.9 %, mientras que en los machos fue de 48.1 %. El poco conocimiento de los encargados del Albergue y la falta de protección del mismo en el contacto con los animales puede llevar a contraer las diferentes enfermedades en el humano. Con todo esto se concluye que los cachorros menores de seis meses, sin importar su sexo, siempre serán los más afectados por este tipo de parásitos. Por lo cual se recomienda realizar una correcta desparasitación en los cachorros y en las hembras gestantes.


Toxocariosis is a parasitic disease caused by larvae of the genus Toxocara. The T. canis parasite is one of the three most prevalent nematodes in studies carried out in urban areas of countries such as Bolivia, Perú, Argentina and Mexico. T. canis eggs are highly resistant to environmental conditions. The present research work that was carried out in December 2017, had as main objective to determine the Incidence of Toxocara canis in fecal matter of dogs of the Chuquisaca Animal Protective Association Shelter, in samples of feces of 123 dogs, which were processed and analyzed in the laboratory of the Cordes Health Department of the department of Chuquisaca, using the Faust method, resulting in the total number of dogs sampled 17% tested positive for Toxocara canis. With regard to age, the most affected dogs were those of the range belonging to children under six months with 91%, regarding the relationship with the sex of the animal, there was no significant significance, since the positive females were 51.9 %, while in males it was 48.1%. The little knowledge of the managers of the Shelter and the lack of protection of the same in the contact with the animals can lead to contracting the different diseases in the human. With all this it is concluded that puppies under six months, regardless of sex, will always be the most affected by these types of parasites. Therefore, it is recommended to perform a correct deworming in puppies and in pregnant females.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases , Toxocara canis , Shelter , Urban Area , Feces , Laboratories , Nematoda
6.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(4): 441-449, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001068

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la situación epidemiológica de toxocariosis en un hábitat ribereño. Se determinaron anticuerpos anti-toxocara por ELISA en sueros de 34 niños y 64 adultos, y se hallaron seroprevalencias de 32,3% y 45,3%, respectivamente. Esta fue alta en adultos y en niños de 2 a 3 años. Se realizaron 217 análisis coproparasitológicos de caninos y 23,04% fueron positivos para huevos de Toxocara canis. La distribución de caninos positivos por rango etario fue de 66% entre 1 y 6 meses; de 20,7% entre 6 y 12 meses; y de 10,3% en mayores de 12 meses. El porcentaje de animales parasitados por T. canis fue significativamente menor en relación a otros parásitos y disminuyó marcadamente con el aumento de la edad. Se analizaron 104 muestras de suelo y 1,92% de las mismas fueron positivas para huevos de T. canis. La escasa cantidad de huevos en suelos podría deberse a que los cachorros no se encontraban libres en los espacios públicos. En este barrio podría inferirse que el suelo no actuó como diseminador de esta parasitosis, sino que fueron de mayor relevancia factores como la tenencia de caninos menores de 1 año, el contacto estrecho con los mismos en ámbitos domiciliarios y las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias poco saludables.


The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of toxocariasis in a coastal habitat. Blood samples of 34 children and 64 adults were analyzed in order to determinate antibodies anti-toxocara by ELISA method. Prevalences of 32.3% and 45.3% were obtained respectively. A total of 217 coproparasitological canine analyses were performed, and 104 soil samples were analyzed. In humans, the seroprevalence of 32.4% in children and 45.3% in adults was found. In dogs, 50 samples were positive for T. canis eggs (23.04%). The distribution of canine positive for each age range yielded the following results: from 1 to 6 months, 66%; from 6 to 12 months, 20.7% and over 12 months, 10.3%. In soils, only 2 samples (1.92%) were positive for T. canis eggs. Seroloprevalence in humans was high, especially in adults and children aged 2 to 3 years. The percentage of parasitized animals by Toxocara was significantly lower in relation to other canine parasites and the percentage of dogs parasitized diminished significantly by increasing the age range. The low number of eggs found in soils could be due to the absence of puppies in public spaces. In this neighborhood, it can be inferred that the ground of public spaces did not act as a disseminator of this parasitosis, but that there were more relevant factors such as the possession of canines under 1 year of age, the close contact with them in residential areas, and unhealthy sanitary conditions.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a situação epidemiológica da toxocaríase em um habitat ripícola. Os anticorpos anti-toxocara foram determinados por ELISA em soros de 34 crianças e 64 adultos, com soroprevalência de 32,3% e 45,3%, respectivamente. Ela foi alta em adultos e em crianças de 2 a 3 anos de idade. Foram realizadas 217 análises coproparasitológicas caninas e 23,04% foram positivas para os ovos de Toxocara canis. A distribuição de caninos positivos por faixa etária foi de 66%, entre 1 e 6 meses, de 20,7%, entre 6 e 12 meses, e de 10,3% em maiores de 12 meses. A porcentagem de animais parasitados por T. canis foi significativamente menor em relação a outras parasitas e diminuiu marcadamente com o aumento da idade. Foram analisadas 104 amostras de solo e 1,92% delas foram positivas para ovos de T. canis. A escassa quantidade de ovos nos solos pode ser o resultado do fato de que os filhotes não estivessem livres nos espaços públicos. Poderia ser inferido que, nesse bairro, o solo não atuou como disseminador dessa parasitose, mas fatores como a posse de caninos menores de 1 ano de idade, um contato próximo com eles em ambientes domésticos e condições higiênico-sanitárias insalubres foram fatores de maior relevância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Dogs , Soil/parasitology , Toxocariasis/epidemiology , Toxocara canis/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Prevalence
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(3): 249-254, set. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977239

ABSTRACT

The degree of antagonism exercised by fungi on geohelminth development varies according to the morphological alterations caused by different fungal species. Saprophytic fungi may exert ovicidal or ovistatic effects. The aim of this study was to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the action of two soil saprophytic species of Chrysosporium (C. indicum and C. keratinophylum) on Toxocara canis eggs. The fungal strains to be tested were incubated for 28 days at 28 °C in 2% water agar with a suspension of unembryonated T. canis eggs. A suspension of T. canis eggs in 2% water agar was used as control group. The assay was done in triplicate for each fungus and the control group. SEM observations were performed on the 4th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after inoculation. The effect of the fungi on eggs was evaluated in accordance with the alterations observed on the surface and the changes in the normal characteristics of the eggs. Hyphae around the eggs, appresoria penetrating the shell and changes in the typical egg membrane were observed in this assay. Type 3 effect (alterations that occur both in the embryo and the shell, and hyphal penetration of the eggs) was the prevalent effect. SEM allowed us to observe clearly the morphological alterations in T. canis eggs due to the effect of C. indicum and C. keratinophylum. Both saprophytic species of Chrysosporium alter the egg structure and alterations increase as exposure increases.


El grado de antagonismo ejercido por los hongos sobre el desarrollo de los geohelmintos depende de la especie fúngica y las alteraciones morfológicas que causan. Los hongos saprofitos pueden tener efecto ovicida u ovistático sobre los huevos. El objetivo fue aplicar la microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) para observar la acción de 2 especies de Chrysosporium (C. indicum y C. keratinophylum) saprofitas de suelos, sobre huevos de Toxocara canis.Las especies a ensayar se sembraron en agar agua al 2% con una suspensión de huevos no embri-onados de T. canis y se incubaron 28 días a 28 °C. Como grupo control se utilizó una suspensión de huevos de T. canis en agar agua al 2%. El ensayo se realizó por triplicado para cada hongo y el grupo control. Las observaciones con MEB se realizaron a los 4, 7, 14, 21 y 28 días de incubación. La acción de los hongos se evaluó según las alteraciones en la superficie y los cambios en las características normales de los huevos. En este ensayo se observaron: hifas rodeando los huevos, appresorios penetrando la cubierta y cambios en la membrana característica del huevo, prevaleciendo el efecto tipo 3 (alteraciones que se producen tanto en el embrión como en la cubierta y penetración de hifas al interior de los huevos). La aplicación de la MEB permitió observar claramente que las 2 especies de Chrysosporium saprofitas de suelos, afectan el normal desarrollo de los huevos de T. canis, alteran su estructura y las alteraciones aumentan con el tiempo de exposición.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chrysosporium , Toxocara canis , Ovum , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Chrysosporium/pathogenicity , Toxocara canis/microbiology , Fungi
8.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-989562

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Toxocariasis is a zoonosis caused by the Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati nematodes larvae. These are intestinal parasites found in canids and felids, respectively. Case presentation: This paper presents the case of a 22-year-old woman from Caquetá, with a three-month history of vision loss in her left eye, eye pain, diplopia, photophobia and bilateral red eye. Retinal detachment in the left eye was diagnosed by ultrasound. The ophthalmology service made a differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma and pars planitis. Symptomatic management was initiated with oral and topical corticosteroids, obtaining symptom improvement, although loss of visual acuity persisted. Discussion: Coexistence and cohabitation of the patient with pets (dogs and cats) was an important factor to consider ocular toxocariasis. Complete blood count revealed mild leukocytosis and lymphocytosis without eo-sinophilia. Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Taenia solium cysticercus were negative, as well as the VDRL. The ELISA test for Toxocara canis was positive, with IgG titers of 1:64 (positive >1:32, specificity >90%). Management with ophthalmic and systemic corticosteroids, albendazole and vitrectomy was initiated. The vitreous band was released by means of surgery, making the diplopia disappear, although residual peripheral granuloma persisted and will be operated by ophthalmology. Conclusions: Knowledge on ocular toxocariasis is important for physicians because it might be mistaken with retinoblastoma, a malignant neoplasm that may require enucleation of the eye.


RESUMEN Introducción. La toxocariasis es una zoonosis producida por las larvas de los nemato-dos Toxocara canis y Toxocara cati, parásitos intestinales de los cánidos y los félidos, respectivamente. Presentación del caso. Paciente femenino de 22 años de edad, procedente de Caquetá, Colombia, con un cuadro de 3 meses de evolución con pérdida de visión en ojo izquierdo, acompañada de dolor ocular, diplopia, fotofobia y ojo rojo bilateral, quien presenta desprendimiento de retina en ojo izquierdo diagnosticado por ecografia. La mujer asiste a oftalmologia, donde se hace diagnóstico diferencial con retinoblastoma y pars planitis. Se inicia manejo sintomático con corticoides orales y tópicos, con mejoria de la sintomatologia, pero persistencia de pérdida de la agudeza visual. Discusión. Al revisar historial de antecedentes socioeconómicos, la paciente convive con perros y gatos, por lo que se piensa en toxocariasis ocular. En el cuadro hemático se observa ligera leucocitosis y linfocitosis, sin eosinofilia. La determinación de anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii y anti-cisticerco de Taenia solium resultaron negativas, al igual que el VDRL. El test de ELISA para T. canis fue positivo, con unos titulos IgG de 1:64 (positivo >1:32, especificidad >90%). Se inicia manejo con corticoide oftálmico, sistémico, albendazol y vitrectomia. Con la intervención quirúrgica se libera banda vitrea, logrando la desaparición de la diplopia, pero persiste granuloma periférico residual, el cual será intervenido por oftalmologia. Conclusiones. Dada la posibilidad de ser confundida con un retinoblastoma -una neoplasia maligna que puede requerir la enucleación del ojo-, el conocimiento de esta forma de presentación de la toxocariasis es de suma importancia para los clinicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neglected Diseases , Larva Migrans , Toxocara canis , Diagnosis
9.
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(2): 111-115, jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913770

ABSTRACT

The presence of Toxocara canis third instar larvae in the cerebellum of Rattus norvegicus may alter rodent behavior and movement. In this study, we investigated whether the sex of the rodent affects the migration of larvae to the cerebellum. Thirty-six Rattus norvegicus specimens (18 males and 18 females) were infected with 300 T. canis eggs and were euthanized after 60 days. The cerebellum was removed and treated with 0.5% HCl to recover the T. canis larvae. The number of larvae recovered from male rodents was significantly higher than in females, suggesting that the sex of the animal influences larval migration to the cerebellum


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats , Cerebellum , Toxocara canis , Larva
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(2): 189-197, ene.-jun. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Toxocariasis is a soil-transmitted zoonotic disease caused mainly by ingestion of larvated eggs of Toxocara canis. Objectives: To study the morphology of the intraovular developmental stages of Toxocara canis in culture, characterize non-viable eggs and the sequences of larval molting and compare the viability of eggs at the early stages of division and at reaching full maturation. Material and methods: Observation of developing embryos and characterization of non-viable eggs were done using light microscope. The proportions of viable eggs during embryonation were compared to the proportions of viable mature eggs. Results: Cell division commenced after 24 hours of cultivation. Early stages were found to be present over a period of 3-5 days. The developmental stages identified were eggs with: One cell, two cells, three cells, four cells, early morula, late morula, blastula, gastrula, tadpole, pre-larva, first, second and third stage larva. Two larval molts occurred. Non-viable eggs had degenerated cytoplasm, thin or collapsed shell and the larvae did not move after exposure to light. No significant differences were found between the proportions of viable eggs from day five to day 21 as compared to viability of fully mature eggs (30 days). Conclusion: Developing embryos in the environment may be considered as a potential threat to the public health. The precise identification of developmental stages and the clear differentiation of viable and non-viable eggs can help in determining an accurate baseline rate of development that could be used in studies of ovicidal compounds.


RESUMEN Introducción. La toxocariasis es una enfermedad zoonótica transmitida por contacto con el suelo contaminado y causada principalmente por la ingestión de huevos larvados de Toxocara canis. Objetivos. Estudiar la morfología de los estadios intraovulares en desarrollo de T. canis en cultivo, caracterizar los huevos no viables y las secuencias de las mudas larvarias, y comparar la viabilidad de los huevos en las etapas tempranas de división y al alcanzar la maduración completa. Materiales y métodos. Se observó el desarrollo de los embriones y se caracterizaron los huevos no viables, mediante microscopía de luz. Se comparó la proporción de huevos viables con embrión con la de huevos maduros viables. Resultados. La división celular comenzó 24 horas después de iniciado el cultivo. Los estadios tempranos estuvieron presentes por un periodo de tres a cinco días. Los estadios de desarrollo identificados fueron: huevos con una célula, con dos células, con tres células y con cuatro células;mórula temprana, mórula tardía, blástula, gástrula, renacuajo, prelarva, primer, segundo y tercer estado larvario. Se presentaron dos mudas larvarias. Los huevos no viables tenían el citoplasma degradado, cubierta exterior delgada o colapsada, y su larva no se movía al exponerla a la luz. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la proporción de huevos viables del día 5 al día 21, al compararla con la viabilidad de los huevos completamente maduros (30 días). Conclusión. Los embriones en desarrollo en el medio ambiente pueden considerarse como un riesgo potencial para la salud pública. La identificación precisa de los estadios de desarrollo y la clara diferenciación de huevos viables y no viables, pueden ayudar a determinar con exactitud una tasa basal de desarrollo, la cual sería útil en el estudio de compuestos ovicidas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovum/growth & development , Toxocara canis/embryology , Toxocara canis/growth & development , Parasitology/methods , Larva/anatomy & histology , Larva/growth & development
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 454-462, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902298

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La larva migrans visceral es una enfermedad que se produce al ingerir huevos infectantes de nematodos parásitos de gatos y perros (Toxocaracanis y Toxocaracati); los cuales eclosionan en el intestino del hombre y las larvas se distribuyen en todo el organismo, principalmente hígado, pulmón, corazón y cerebro. Las larvas en su migración dejan trazos de hemorragias, necrosis y células inflamatorias; algunas son destruidas por la respuesta inmune del huésped y otras forman granulomas eosinofílicos. Los síntomas dependen del tejido u órgano afectado, de la intensidad de la infección y del grado de la respuesta inmunológica inducida. Se presenta un caso del sexo masculino de 72 años que ingresa en el Servicio de Medicina del Hospital Militar Docente “Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy”, de Matanzas, por cuadro de fiebre, diarreas, tos seca, astenia, anorexia y pérdida de peso al que se le diagnosticó larva migrans visceral. Por lo atípico de la edad del paciente y la complejidad del diagnóstico decidimos presentar este caso (AU).


ABSTRACT Visceral larva migrans is a disease produced after the ingestion of infectant eggs of cat´s and dog´s nematode parasites (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati). These parasites harch in the men´s intestines and the larvas are distributed around the organism, mainly in the following organs: liver, lungs, hearth and brain. In their migration, the larvas leave traces of hemorrhage, necrosis and inflammatory cells; several of them are destroyed by the host´s immune answer and others form eosinophilic granulomas. The symptoms depend on the affected tissue or organ, on the infection intensity and on the level of induced immunologic answer. The case of a male patient, aged 72 years-old is presented. He entered the Medicine Service of the Teaching Military Hospital “Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy”, of Matanzas with fever, diarrhea, dry cought, asthenia, anorexia and weight loss.Visceral larva migrans was diagnosed. The presentation of the case was decided because of the atypical patient´s age and the complexity of the diagnosis (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Toxocara , Larva Migrans, Visceral/complications , Larva Migrans, Visceral/diagnosis , Larva Migrans, Visceral/etiology , Larva Migrans, Visceral/drug therapy , Larva Migrans, Visceral/diagnostic imaging , Toxocara canis , Parasitology/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Risk Factors , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Latin America/epidemiology
12.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 113-118, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740131

ABSTRACT

Hepatic toxocariasis is a type of visceral larva migrans caused by the migration of second-stage larvae of certain nematodes such as Toxocara canis to the liver. Histologically, the condition is characterized by granulomatous lesions containing eosinophils and inflammatory cells. We report a case of hepatic toxocariasis with atypical clinical and radiologic findings presenting as distinct, solitary hepatic nodule detected in a middle-aged woman.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Eosinophils , Larva , Larva Migrans, Visceral , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Toxocara canis , Toxocariasis
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 482-486, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717446

ABSTRACT

Human toxocariasis is a common helminthozoonosis due to the infestation of toxocara canis or toxocara cati larvae, and is a common cause of blood eosinophilia in Korea. Toxocariasis has various clinical manifestations depending on the involved organ, and cardiac involvement can range from asymptomatic to fulminant myocarditis with cardiogenic shock. Treatment of toxocariasis is based on corticosteroid and anthelmintic therapies. Here, we report a case of a 57-year-old male with eosinophilic myocarditis caused by toxocariasis as diagnosed via serial echocardiography follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Echocardiography , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Larva , Larva Migrans, Visceral , Myocarditis , Shock, Cardiogenic , Toxocara , Toxocara canis , Toxocariasis
14.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 160-163, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715237

ABSTRACT

Toxocara canis is an important roundworm of canids and a fearsome animal parasite of humans. Human infections can lead to syndromes called visceral larva migrans (VLM), ocular larva migrans, neurotoxocariasis, and covert toxocariasis. VLM is most commonly diagnosed in children younger than 8 years of age, but adult cases are relatively frequent among those infected by ingesting the raw tissue of paratenic hosts in East Asia. This research reports the case of a 59-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer, who visited our institution for surgery. An intraperitoneal mass was found on preoperative computed tomography, and it was thought to be a metastatic mass from sigmoid colon cancer. A postoperative histologic examination and serum test showed eosinophilic granuloma due to toxocariasis. Diagnosis of VLM is often difficult and highly suspicious in adults. Researchers suggest, although rarely, that VLM be included in the differential diagnosis as a cause of intraperitoneal tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Colon, Sigmoid , Colonic Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosinophilic Granuloma , Asia, Eastern , Larva Migrans , Larva Migrans, Visceral , Neoplasm Metastasis , Parasites , Research Report , Sigmoid Neoplasms , Toxocara canis , Toxocara , Toxocariasis
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(2): 112-115, 20170000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875563

ABSTRACT

A toxocaríase humana é uma infecção parasitária de distribuição mundial causada pelos nematelmintos das espécies Toxocara canis e Toxocara cati, presentes no intestino do cão e do gato, respectivamente. Clinicamente, na maioria das vezes, é assintomática, porém pode apresentar-se de duas formas: visceral ou ocular. Visceralmente, gera uma síndrome hipereosinofílica crônica, acompanhada por leucocitose e hepatomegalia, podendo ocorrer algum grau de infiltrado pulmonar e febre. Na toxocaríase ocular, ocorre uveite intermediária ou posterior, podendo haver formação de granuloma, geralmente unilateral. O acometimento misto é raro, o que motivou este relato. Trata-se de paciente de 19 anos, sexo masculino, que apresentou como sintoma inicial perda da acuidade visual em olho esquerdo. Recebeu tratamento, sem melhora, com sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima e corticoide, fazendo farmacodermia. Evoluiu com diarreia, febre, dor abdominal e hepatoesplenomegalia. Descartadas infecções agudas por toxoplasmose, sífilis, vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), citomegalovirose e dengue; apresentou leucocitose com hipereosinofilia. Foi solicitada sorologia para toxocaríase, confirmando esta infecção. Após o tratamento, apresentou completa remissão dos sintomas. O objetivo aqui foi debater os fatores confundidores, diagnósticos diferenciais, necessidade de exames complementares específicos e conduta terapêutica, de acordo com o quadro clínico.(AU)


Human toxocariasis is a worldwide parasitic infection caused by ascarid nematodes species: Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, that are present in the intestines of dogs and cats, respectively. Although clinically, most human infections are asymptomatic, two syndromes of human toxocariasis are recognized: visceral and ocular. The visceral form is a hypereosinophilic syndrome accompanied by leukocytosis, hepatomegaly, some degree of pulmonary infiltrate and fever. In ocular toxacariasis there is intermediate or posterior uveitis, and there may be granuloma formation, usually unilateral. The simultaneous involvement of the two forms is rare, which is what, motivated this report. It is a 19-year-old male patient who initially presented loss of visual acuity in the left eye. He received treatment, without improvement, with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and corticoid, causing a pharmacodermia. He developed diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain and hepatosplenomegaly. It was discarded acute infections by toxoplasmosis, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus and dengue. The patient also manifested leukocytosis with hypereosinophilia. Serological testing for toxacariasis was requested, diagnosing the infection. After treatment, he progressed with full symptoms remission. The aim of this study was to discuss confounding factors, differential diagnoses, the need for specific complementary exams and therapeutic management, according to the clinical aspects.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Toxocara canis/pathogenicity , Toxocariasis , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/drug therapy , Uveitis/diagnosis , Uveitis/drug therapy
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 382-386, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841796

ABSTRACT

BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5-500 Toxocara canis infective eggs, and bled at 15-120 days post infection (dpi) to evaluate the dynamics of IgG antibody response and larvae distribution. Positive results were observed in all occasions for every inoculum, and a direct proportional relationship between antibody detection and the parasitic load was observed. In samples collected at 60 dpi, detection of IgG was more intense, especially with the 50 and 500 egg doses; also, a correlation between antibody level and egg count was observed with these two inocula. At 120 dpi, a decrease in antibody titer was observed for all groups; and at the end of the experiment, larvae were recovered from carcass, liver and brain. In the liver, larvae were only found in mice inoculated with 500 T. canis eggs. In carcasses, these were recovered in all groups, and the group inoculated with 50 eggs showed the highest percentage of larvae in the brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Toxocariasis/immunology , Toxocara canis/physiology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 523-529, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eosinophilia has numerous diverse causes, and in many patients, it is not possible to establish the cause of eosinophilia. Recently, toxocariasis was introduced as one cause of eosinophilia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis and the clinical impact of albendazole treatment for toxocariasis in patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review. After evaluation of cause of eosinophilia, the patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin performed immunoglobulin G antibody specific assay for the Toxocara canis larval antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: This study evaluated 113 patients, 69 patients (61%) were suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin. Among these 69 patients, the frequency of T. canis infection was very high (45 patients, 65.2%), and albendazole treatment for 45 eosinophilia with toxocariasis was highly effective for a cure of eosinophilia than no albendazole group regardless of steroid (82.3%, p = 0.007). Furthermore, among the nonsteroid treated small group (19 patients), albendazole treatment for eosinophilia were more effective than no albendazole group, too (83.3% vs. 28.6 %, p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of toxocariasis was high among patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin; therefore, evaluation for T. canis infection is recommended for patients with eosinophilia of unknown origin. Furthermore, for patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin who have positive results for T. canis, albendazole treatment may be considered a valuable treatment option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Albendazole , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Toxocara canis , Toxocariasis
19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 523-529, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eosinophilia has numerous diverse causes, and in many patients, it is not possible to establish the cause of eosinophilia. Recently, toxocariasis was introduced as one cause of eosinophilia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis and the clinical impact of albendazole treatment for toxocariasis in patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review. After evaluation of cause of eosinophilia, the patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin performed immunoglobulin G antibody specific assay for the Toxocara canis larval antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: This study evaluated 113 patients, 69 patients (61%) were suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin. Among these 69 patients, the frequency of T. canis infection was very high (45 patients, 65.2%), and albendazole treatment for 45 eosinophilia with toxocariasis was highly effective for a cure of eosinophilia than no albendazole group regardless of steroid (82.3%, p = 0.007). Furthermore, among the nonsteroid treated small group (19 patients), albendazole treatment for eosinophilia were more effective than no albendazole group, too (83.3% vs. 28.6 %, p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of toxocariasis was high among patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin; therefore, evaluation for T. canis infection is recommended for patients with eosinophilia of unknown origin. Furthermore, for patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown origin who have positive results for T. canis, albendazole treatment may be considered a valuable treatment option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Albendazole , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Toxocara canis , Toxocariasis
20.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 554-562, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193502

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical features and treatment outcomes of ocular toxocariasis in Jeju Island using ultra-wide-field fundus photography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 40 eyes of 37 patients who were diagnosed with ocular toxocariasis based on clinical aspects and serologic tests. The quality of history-taking was assessed and peripheral blood samples were analyzed. Ocular characteristics were evaluated using ultra-wide-field fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. Changes in visual acuity and funduscopic findings after treatment were also analyzed. RESULTS: The average age of the patients was 57.9 years and the mean Toxocara canis IgG titer was 1.979 ± 0.486. The most common fundus findings were vitreous opacity (63.6%) and granuloma (60%). Granulomas that were not initially observed within the field of view of conventional fundus photography were found using ultra-wide-field imaging in 15 eyes (62.5%). Ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography showed peripheral vascular leakage in 16 eyes (69.6%). Treatment with oral prednisolone and albendazole resulted in average vision improvements of 0.19 ± 0.07 logMAR (p = 0.031) as well as significant improvements in anterior chamber inflammation and vitreous opacity. Combination therapy led to a significantly lower recurrence rate than prednisolone monotherapy (p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In Jeju Island, the mean Toxocara canis IgG titer of ocular toxocariasis was high. The incidences of vitreous opacity and granulomas were also high. Ultra-wide-field fundus imaging was useful for finding peripheral retinal lesions and peripheral vascular leakage that were not observed within the field of view of conventional fundus photography. Ultra-wide-field fundus imaging was valuable not only during clinical diagnosis, but also on follow-up evaluations of ocular toxocariasis. Treatment with oral prednisolone and albendazole effectively improved ocular inflammation and visual acuity and helped reduce the recurrence rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Albendazole , Anterior Chamber , Diagnosis , Fluorescein Angiography , Follow-Up Studies , Granuloma , Immunoglobulin G , Incidence , Inflammation , Medical Records , Photography , Prednisolone , Recurrence , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Serologic Tests , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Toxocara canis , Toxocariasis , Uveitis , Visual Acuity
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