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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 105-114, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a type of highly invasive breast cancer with a poor prognosis. According to new research, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a significant role in the progression of cancer. Although the role of lncRNAs in breast cancer has been well reported, few studies have focused on TNBC. This study aimed to explore the biological function and clinical significance of forkhead box C1 promoter upstream transcript (FOXCUT) in triple-negative breast cancer.@*METHODS@#Based on a bioinformatic analysis of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database, we detected that the lncRNA FOXCUT was overexpressed in TNBC tissues, which was further validated in an external cohort of tissues from the General Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. The functions of FOXCUT in proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected in vitro or in vivo. Luciferase assays and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to reveal that FOXCUT acted as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for the microRNA miR-24-3p and consequently inhibited the degradation of p38.@*RESULTS@#lncRNA FOXCUT was markedly highly expressed in breast cancer, which was associated with poor prognosis in some cases. Knockdown of FOXCUT significantly inhibited cancer growth and metastasis in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistically, FOXCUT competitively bounded to miR-24-3p to prevent the degradation of p38, which might act as an oncogene in breast cancer.@*CONCLUSION@#Collectively, this research revealed a novel FOXCUT/miR-24-3p/p38 axis that affected breast cancer progression and suggested that the lncRNA FOXCUT could be a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , MAP Kinase Signaling System , MicroRNAs/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 338-349, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer associated with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The androgen receptor (AR) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for luminal androgen receptor (LAR) TNBC. However, multiple studies have claimed that anti-androgen therapy for AR-positive TNBC only has limited clinical benefits. This study aimed to investigate the role of AR in TNBC and its detailed mechanism.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry and TNBC tissue sections were applied to investigate AR and nectin cell adhesion molecule 4 (NECTIN4) expression in TNBC tissues. Then, in vitro and in vivo assays were used to explore the function of AR and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in TNBC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), molecular docking method, and luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify key molecules that affect the function of AR.@*RESULTS@#Based on the TNBC tissue array analysis, we revealed that ERβ and AR were positive in 21.92% (32/146) and 24.66% (36/146) of 146 TNBC samples, respectively, and about 13.70% (20/146) of TNBC patients were ERβ positive and AR positive. We further demonstrated the pro-tumoral effects of AR on TNBC cells, however, the oncogenic biology was significantly suppressed when ERβ transfection in LAR TNBC cell lines but not in AR-negative TNBC. Mechanistically, we identified that NECTIN4 promoter -42 bp to -28 bp was an AR response element, and that ERβ interacted with AR thus impeding the AR-mediated NECTIN4 transcription which promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor progression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests that ERβ functions as a suppressor mediating the effect of AR in TNBC prognosis and cell proliferation. Therefore, our current research facilitates a better understanding of the role and mechanisms of AR in TNBC carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androgens/therapeutic use , Estrogen Receptor beta/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/therapeutic use , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Cell Line, Tumor
3.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(2): 162-171, 14 de agosto del 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451581

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de mama triple negativo (TNBC) se caracteriza por la ausencia de receptores hormonales estrogénicos y progesterona; así como, del receptor 2 del factor de crecimiento epidérmico humano (HER2). Los TNBC se asocian con altas tasas de recurrencia, metástasis rápidas, supervivencia deficiente y mayor mortalidad en comparación con otros subtipos histológicos de cáncer de mama. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia del TNBC; Así también, las características clínicas, en pacientes atendidas en un centro oncológico de referencia en Bogotá. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo transversal observacional, donde se evaluó la frecuencia del cáncer de mama subtipo triple negativo, Asimismo, las variables clínicas. En mujeres atendidas en la Organización Clínica Bonnadona Prevenir S.A.S. en Barranquilla, Colombia en el periodo 2021-2022. Resultados: Se estudiaron 350 pacientes, de los cuales 61 pacientes (17.4%) presentaban el inmunofenotipo triple negativo. La edad promedio fue de 54.5 años, 74% eran multíparas, 85% brindaron lactancia materna, 70% eran postmenopáusicas y el estadio clínico más frecuente fue el IIIB. Conclusión: En el presente estudio el 57.35% de la población exhibió un estadio clínico avanzado en el momento del diagnóstico; así mismo, las características clínicas son congruentes con los reportes en la literatura.


Introduction: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen, progesterone hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). TNBC is associated with an increased recurrence rate, distant metastasis, poor survival, and higher mortality than other pathological breast cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of TNBC, likewise, with the clinical characteristics, in patients treated in a reference cancer center in Bogotá. Methodology: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional observational study, where the frequency of triple negative subtype breast cancer was evaluated, as well as clinical variables and gynecologic and obstetric history, women treated at the Organización Clínica Bonnadona Prevenir S.A.S. in Barranquilla, Colombia in the period 2021-2022. Results: 350 patients were studied, of which 61 (17.4%) presented the triple-negative immunophenotype. The average age was 54, 74% were multiparous, 85% were breastfed, 70% were menopausal, and the most frequent clinical stage was IIIB. Conclusion: In this study, 57.35% of the population exhibited an advanced clinical stage at the time of diagnosis; Likewise, the clinical characteristics are consistent with the reports in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Risk Factors , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Epidemiology
4.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-5, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1443369

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama triple negativo es una presentación clínica poco frecuente,pero de manejo difícildel cáncer de mama, en el que lametástasis a partes blandas como primera manifestación clínica es rara.En los estados unidos 1 de cada 8 mujeres desarrollara cáncer de mama invasivo en el transcurso de su vida. El objetivo del trabajo es demostrarel comportamiento inusual de la manifestación del cáncer de mama, por medio de una presentación de un caso clínico. Se obtuvo el diagnóstico del origen primario gracias a la realización de la inmunohistoquímica de la resección del tumor metastásico en piel. El caso aquí reportado integra tres puntos de interés: cáncer de mama triple negativo, afectaciónde una mujer de 58 años y tumor interescapularmetastásico a tejido blando, lo que torna un comportamiento inusual del cáncer de mama debido a que las metástasis cutáneas ocurren entre el 0,6% y 10,4%en ese tipo de cáncer de mama. Palabras Clave:neoplasias de mama; metástasis neoplásica;neoplasias en tejidos blandos;neoplasias de mama triple negativo


Triple-negative breast cancer is a rare but difficult-to-manage clinical presentation of breast cancer, of which soft tissue metastasis as the first clinical manifestation is rare.In the United States, 1 in 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. The objective of the work is to demonstrate unusual behavior of the manifestation of breast cancer, through a presentation of a clinical case. The diagnosis of the primary was obtained thanks to immunohistochemistry of the resection of the metastatic tumor in the skin. The case reported here integrates three points of interest: triple negative breast cancer, it affects a 58-year-old woman and metastatic interscapular tumor to soft tissue, which makes an unusual behavior of breast cancer since skin metastases occur between 0.6% and 10.4% in this type of breast cancer. Key Words:breast neoplasms; neoplasm metastasis; soft tissue neoplasms;triple negative breast neoplasms


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1123-1140, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010587

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that seriously endangers women's lives. The prognosis of breast cancer patients differs among molecular types. Compared with other subtypes, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been a research hotspot in recent years because of its high degree of malignancy, strong invasiveness, rapid progression, easy of recurrence, distant metastasis, poor prognosis, and high mortality. Many studies have found that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in the occurrence, proliferation, migration, recurrence, chemotherapy resistance, and other characteristics of TNBC. Some lncRNAs are expected to become biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of TNBC, and even new targets for its treatment. Based on a PubMed literature search, this review summarizes the progress in research on lncRNAs in TNBC and discusses their roles in TNBC diagnosis, prognosis, and chemotherapy with the hope of providing help for future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4483-4492, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008703

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of hydnocarpin(HC) in treating triple negative breast cancer(TNBC). Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), xCELLigence real-time cellular analysis(RTCA), and colony formation assay were employed to determine the effects of HC on the proliferation of two TNBC cell lines: MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. The effects of HC on the migration and invasion of TNBC cells were detected by high-content analysis, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay. The changes in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) and the expression of invasion-and migration-associated proteins [E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), and MMP-9] were detected by Western blot. Western blot and RT-qPCR were employed to determine the protein and mRNA levels of Yes-associated protein(YAP) and downstream targets(CTGF and Cyr61). TNBC cells were transfected with Flag-YAP for the overexpression of YAP, and the role of YAP as a key target for HC to inhibit TNBC malignant progression was examined by CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay, and wound-healing assay. The pathway of HC-induced YAP degradation was detected by the co-treatment of proteasome inhibitor with HC and ubiquitination assay. The binding of HC to YAP and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ccr4-not transcription complex subunit 4(CNOT4) was detected by microscale thermophoresis(MST) assay and drug affinity responsive target stability(DARTS) assay. The results showed that HC significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and EMT of TNBC cells. HC down-regulated the protein and mRNA levels of CTGF and Cyr61. HC down-regulated the total protein level of YAP, while it had no effect on the mRNA level of YAP. The overexpression of YAP antagonized the inhibitory effects of HC on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells. HC promoted the degradation of YAP through the proteasome pathway and up-regulated the ubiquitination level of YAP. The results of MST and DARTS demonstrated direct binding between HC, YAP, and CNOT4. The above results indicated that HC inhibited the malignant progression of TNBC via CNOT4-mediated degradation and ubiquitination of YAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Movement , Ubiquitination , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Transcription Factors/metabolism
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4981-4992, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008668

ABSTRACT

This study constructed a nano-drug delivery system, A3@GMH, by co-delivering the stapled anoplin peptide(Ano-3, A3) with the light-harvesting material graphene oxide(GO), and evaluated its oncolytic immunotherapy effect on triple-negative breast cancer(TNBC). A3@GMH was prepared using an emulsion template method and its physicochemical properties were characterized. The in vivo and in vitro photothermal conversion abilities of A3@GMH were investigated using an infrared thermal imager. The oncoly-tic activity of A3@GMH against TNBC 4T1 cells was evaluated through cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) release, live/dead cell staining, and super-resolution microscopy. The targeting properties of A3@GMH on 4T1 cells were assessed using a high-content imaging system and flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the antitumor mechanism of A3@GMH in combination with photothermal therapy(PTT) through inducing immunogenic cell death(ICD) in 4T1 cells. The results showed that the prepared A3@GMH exhibited distinct mesoporous and coated structures with an average particle size of(308.9±7.5) nm and a surface potential of(-6.79±0.58) mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of A3 were 23.9%±0.6% and 20.5%±0.5%, respectively. A3@GMH demonstrated excellent photothermal conversion ability and biological safety. A3@GMH actively mediated oncolytic features such as 4T1 cell lysis and LDH release, as well as ICD effects, and showed enhanced in vitro antitumor activity when combined with PTT. In vivo, A3@GMH efficiently induced ICD effects with two rounds of PTT, activated the host's antitumor immune response, and effectively suppressed tumor growth in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, achieving an 88.9% tumor inhibition rate with no apparent toxic side effects. This study suggests that the combination of stapled anoplin peptide and PTT significantly enhances the oncolytic immunotherapy for TNBC and provides a basis for the innovative application of anti-tumor peptides derived from TCM in TNBC treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Photothermal Therapy , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Immunotherapy/methods , Cell Line, Tumor , Phototherapy/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3472-3484, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981482

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg_3, an active component of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), was used as the substitute for cholesterol as the membrane material to prepare the ginsenoside Rg_3-based liposomes loaded with dihydroartemisinin and paclitaxel. The effect of the prepared drug-loading liposomes on triple-negative breast cancer in vitro was evaluated. Liposomes were prepared with the thin film hydration method, and the preparation process was optimized by single factor experiments. The physicochemical properties(e.g., particle size, Zeta potential, and stability) of the liposomes were characterized. The release behaviors of drugs in different media(pH 5.0 and pH 7.4) were evaluated. The antitumor activities of the liposomes were determined by CCK-8 on MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. The cell scratch test was carried out to evaluate the effect of the liposomes on the migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Further, the targeting ability of liposomes and the mechanism of lysosome escape were investigated. Finally, H9c2 cells were used to evaluate the potential cardiotoxicity of the preparation. The liposomes prepared were spheroid, with uniform particle size distribution, the ave-rage particle size of(107.81±0.01) nm, and the Zeta potential of(2.78±0.66) mV. The encapsulation efficiency of dihydroartemisinin and paclitaxel was 57.76%±1.38% and 99.66%±0.07%, respectively, and the total drug loading was 4.46%±0.71%. The accumulated release of dihydroartemisinin and paclitaxel from the liposomes at pH 5.0 was better than that at pH 7.4, and the liposomes could be stored at low temperature for seven days with good stability. Twenty-four hours after administration, the inhibition rates of the ginsenoside Rg_3-based liposomes loaded with dihydroartemisinin(70 μmol·L~(-1)) and paclitaxel on MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells were higher than those of the positive control(adriamycin) and free drugs(P<0.01). Compared with free drugs, liposomes inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells(P<0.05). Liposomes demonstrated active targeting and lysosome escape. In particular, liposomes showed lower toxicity to H9c2 cells than free drugs(P<0.05), which indicated that the preparation had the potential to reduce cardiotoxicity. The findings prove that ginsenoside Rg_3 characterized by the combination of drug and excipient is an ideal substitute for lipids in liposomes and promoted the development of innovative TCM drugs for treating cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Liposomes/chemistry , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 303-310, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981268

ABSTRACT

The research on androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer is advancing.Although the prognostic value of AR in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is controversial,a variety of studies have demonstrated that the lack of AR expression exacerbates disease progression.Moreover,the TNBC subtype of AR(-) is more aggressive than that of AR(+) due to the lack of prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.With the discovery and deepening research of novel therapeutic targets such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 signaling pathways,as well as the emerging of immunotherapies,the treatment options for TNBC are increasing.Regarding the role of AR in TNBC,the studies about the tumor biology of AR(-)TNBC and novel biomarkers for improved management of the disease remain insufficient.In this review,we summarize the research progress of AR in TNBC,put forward avenues for future research on TNBC,and propose potential biomarkers and therapeutic strategies that warrant investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Prognosis , Biomarkers , Signal Transduction
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 560-567, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of inhibition of RAB27 protein family, which plays a pivotal role in exosome secretion, on biological behaviors of triple-negative breast cancer cells.@*METHODS@#Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to examine the expressions of RAB27 family and exosome secretion in 3 triple-negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and Hs578T) and a normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A). The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of RAB27a and RAB27b on exosome secretion in the 3 breast cancer cell lines was detected using Western blotting, and the changes in cell proliferation, invasion and adhesion were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal breast epithelial cells, the 3 triple-negative breast cancer cell lines exhibited more active exosome secretion (P < 0.001) and showed significantly higher expressions of RAB27a and RAB27b at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Silencing of RAB27a in the breast cancer cells significantly down-regulated exosome secretion (P < 0.001), while silencing of RAB27b did not significantly affect exosome secretion. The 3 breast cancer cell lines with RAB27a silencing-induced down-regulation of exosome secretion showed obvious inhibition of proliferation, invasion and adhesion (P < 0.01) as compared with the cell lines with RAB27b silencing.@*CONCLUSION@#RAB27a plays central role in the exosome secretion in triple-negative breast cancer cells, and inhibiting RAB27a can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and adhesion of the cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line, Tumor , rab27 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
11.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 891-897, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009445

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of paclitaxel and doxorubicin on the immune microenvironment of breast cancer in mice. Methods The CTR-DB database, a database for analysis of gene expression profiles and drug resistance characteristics related to tumor drug response, was used to analyze the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs on the immune microenvironment of breast cancer. Mouse models with breast cancer were established by in situ injection with 4T1 cells, a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Then they were treated with doxorubicin and paclitaxel, respectively. The sizes of tumor were recorded and analyzed by growth curve. The number of different types of immune cells was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expressions of Ki67, S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The cell cycles of 4T1 cells in paclitaxel group and doxorubicin group were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results The results of CTR_Microarray_75 analysis showed that the immune scores, and the number of cytotoxic lymphocytes, B lineages, CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), monocytic lineages and natural killer (NK) cells in chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer were higher than those in chemotherapy-insensitive breast cancer. Through growth curve analysis in mice with breast cancer, we found that both paclitaxel and doxorubicin could inhibit the increase of the tumor sizes, and the paclitaxel showed a higher inhibitory effect. The results of cytometry displayed that both paclitaxel and doxorubicin could restrain the expression of Ki67 and increase the number of breast cancer cells in G2/M phase, and in the paclitaxel group, the expression of Ki67 was lower and the number of breast cancer cells in G2/M phase was larger. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin enhanced the infiltration of CD45+ immune cells but decreased the infiltration of neutrophils. Additionally, paclitaxel promoted the infiltration of CD3+CD4+ T helper cells, CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD45+CD19+B cells, while doxorubicin increased the infiltration of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). The results of immunohistochemistry displayed that the paclitaxel significantly inhibited the expression of S100A9, while the doxorubicin significantly restrained the expression of MMP9. Conclusion Paclitaxel and doxorubicin can effectively inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and change immune microenvironment of TNBC by regulating the different patterns of cell infiltration and the expression of different extracellular matrix components.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Ki-67 Antigen , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Calgranulin B , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4168-4188, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008019

ABSTRACT

Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane glycoprotein receptor capable of binding and transporting fatty acid. Nogo-B regulates the metabolism of fatty acids in the liver and affects the development of liver cancer. To date, it remains unclear whether the interaction between CD36 and Nogo-B affects the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether the interference of CD36 and Nogo-B affects the proliferation and migration of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The results showed that inhibition of CD36 or Nogo-B alone can inhibit the proliferation and migration of TNBC cells, and the inhibitory effect was more pronounced when CD36 and Nogo-B were inhibited simultaneously. Meanwhile, it was found that inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression can inhibit the expression of Vimentin, B-cell lympoma-2 (BCL2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vivo, knockdown of CD36 or Nogo-B in E0771 cells reduced its tumorigenic ability, which was further enhanced by knockdown of CD36 and Nogo-B simultaneously. Mechanistically, inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression can decrease fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) expression. Moreover, overexpression of CD36 and Nogo-B-induced cell proliferation was attenuated by FABP4 siRNA, indicating that inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression could inhibit the absorption and transport of fatty acids, thereby inhibiting the proliferation and migration of TNBC. Furthermore, inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B expression activated the P53-P21-Rb signaling pathway which contributed to the CD36 and Nogo-B-inhibited proliferation and migration of TNBC. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of CD36 and Nogo-B can reduce the proliferation and migration of TNBC, which provides new targets for the development of drugs against TNBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Fatty Acids
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1003-1017, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007383

ABSTRACT

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors have led transformative breakthrough of clinical therapy for hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-negative breast cancer patients. CDK4/6 inhibitors that have been marketed in China include Ribociclib, Palbociclib, Abemaciclib and Dalpiciclib. For HR-positive HER-2-negative locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with endocrine therapy have become standard regimen, which can prolong the survival of patients. In the adjuvant treatment stage of early breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitors have also achieved positive results and been approved for indications. At present, CDK4/6 inhibitors have been widely used in clinical practice in China. In order to further improve the standardized application of CDK4/6 inhibitors in China, the Breast Cancer Expert Committee of the National Center for Cancer Quality Control and the Professional Committee of Clinical Research of Cancer Drugs of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association organized the related expert to update the consensus based on the "CDK4/6 inhibitor consensus on clinical application of in the treatment of hormone receptor positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative advanced breast cancer (2021 edition)" . The updated consensus systematically introduces the pharmacological characteristics, drug monitoring and adverse event management, etc., of CDK4/6 inhibitors to promote the accuracy of clinical decision-making with the ultimate goal to prolong the overall survival of patients and improve the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Consensus , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 165-169, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969820

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the clinical pathology features, and immune microenvironment of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneity breast cancer. Methods: Thirty cases of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneous breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from November 2017 to June 2020. HER-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and verified by dual color silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (D-SISH). HER-2 intratumoral positive and negative regions were divided. The pathological characteristics, subtype, and the level of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated respectively. Results: The proportion of HER-2 positive cells of the breast cancer ranged from 10% to 90%. The pathological type was mainly invasive non-special typecarcinoma. Six cases presented different pathological types between HER-2 positive and negative regions. The HER-2-positive areas included 2 cases of carcinoma with apocrine differentiation, and the negative areas included 2 cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma, 1 case of invasive papillary carcinoma, and 1 case of carcinoma with apocrine differentiation. In HER-2 positive regions, 17 cases were Luminal B and 13 cases were HER-2 overexpressed types. There were 22 cases of Luminal B and 8 cases of triple negative tumors in the HER-2 negative areas. The levels of TILs in HER-2 positive and negative areas accounted for 53.3% (16/30) and 26.7% (8/30), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.035). The positive expression of PD-L1 in HER-2 positive area and HER-2 negative area were 6 cases and 9 cases, respectively. Among 8 cases with HER-2 negative regions containing triple negative components, 4 cases were positive for PD-L1 expression. Conclusions: In the case of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneity, it is necessary to pay attention to both HER-2 positive and negative regions, and evaluate subtype separately as far as possible. For HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneous breast cancer containing triple negative components, the treatment mode can be optimized by refining the intratumoral expression of PD-L1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22304, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential angiogenic factor in breast cancer development and metastasis. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can specifically silence genes via the RNA interference pathway, therefore were investigated as cancer therapeutics. In this study, we investigated the effects of siRNAs longer than 30 base pairs (bp) loaded into chitosan nanoparticles in triple-negative breast cancer cells, compared with conventional siRNAs. 35 bp long synthetic siRNAs inhibited VEGF gene expression by 51.2% and increased apoptosis level by 1.75-fold in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Furthermore, blank and siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles induced expression of IFN-γ in breast cancer cells. These results suggest that long synthetic siRNAs can be as effective as conventional siRNAs, when introduced into cells with chitosan nanoparticles


Subject(s)
RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Chitosan/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/classification , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis
16.
Mastology (Online) ; 332023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433878

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with various histological and molecular subtypes. Among them, salivary gland tumors are rare and can be divided into three groups: pure myoepithelial differentiation, pure epithelial differentiation and myoepithelial with mixed epithelial differentiation. In the last group, adenoid cystic carcinoma stands out, a rare entity with low malignant potential. It represents less than 0.1­3% of breast cancer cases and has the most frequent clinical presentation as a palpable mass. The diagnosis is confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Classically, they are low-aggressive triple-negative tumors, with overall survival and specific cancer survival at five and ten years greater than 95%. However, there are rare reports of aggressive variants with a risk of distant metastasis and death. Treatment is based on surgical resection with margins. Lymphatic dissemination is rare, and there is no consensus regarding the indication of an axillary approach. Adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of conservative surgery and should be discussed in other cases. The benefit of chemotherapy remains uncertain, as most tumors are indolent. We report a case that required individualized decisions based on its peculiarities of presentation, diagnosed in an asymptomatic elderly patient during screening, in which mammography showed heterogeneous gross calcifications clustered covering 1.6 cm. Stereotacticguided vacuum-assisted biopsy was performed, and the area was marked with a clip. The anatomopathological examination led to a diagnosis of salivary gland-type carcinoma, triple-negative. The patient underwent segmental resection of the right breast and sentinel lymph node biopsy. The final anatomopathological result was similar to that of the biopsy, with an immunohistochemicalprofile of the adenoid cystic type and two sentinel lymph nodes free of neoplasia. Considering age and histological subtype, adjuvant therapy was not indicated. Follow-up for three years showed no evidence of disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Salivary Glands/pathology , Carcinoma/diagnosis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma/surgery , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/surgery
17.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 32(1): 71-85, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368949

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma de mama es una enfermedad común, con efectos negativos significativos en la salud predominantemente femenina. Los linfocitos infiltrantes al tumor (TILs) son una manifestación de la respuesta inmune del huésped al cáncer. Este estudio revisa y resume los reportes bibliográficos relacionados con la eficacia pronóstica del porcentaje alto de TILs en cánceres de mama de tipos moleculares rico en HER2 y triple negativo. Se incluyeron estudios y revisiones en inglés buscados en la base de datos PubMed. Un mayor nivel de TILs se corresponde con mejor supervivencia libre de enfermedad tanto en los cánceres triple negativo como los ricos en HER2; por tanto, constituye un marcador histológico que debería ser utilizado rutinariamente en los análisis microscópicos de biop-sias de mama.


Breast cancer is a common disease affecting women, with significant health-related negative effects. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are recognized as manifestations of the host's antitumor im-munity. The following study reviews and summarizes reports on the effectiveness of prognosis of high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on triple negative and HER2-enriched breast cancer molecular subtypes. Studies and reviews in English from Pubmed's database were included. A higher percentage of tumor- infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with better prognosis and survival rate of triple negative and HER2-enriched breast cancer. Consequently, such histological marker should be routinely used in the microscopic analysis of breast biopsies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 227-233, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365336

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The stroma surrounding the tumor cells is important in tumor progression and treatment resistance, besides the properties of tumor cells. Studies on the tumor stroma characteristics will contribute to the knowledge for new treatment approaches. METHODS: A total of 363 breast cancer patients were evaluated for the tumor-stroma ratio. The percentage of stroma was visually assessed on hematoxylin-eosin stained slides. The cases of tumor-stroma ratio more than 50% were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio high, and those less than 50% and below were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio low. RESULTS: Tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors had shorter overall survival (p=0.002). Disease-free survival tended to be shorter in tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors (p=0.082) compared with tumor-stroma ratio-low tumors. Tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter for the total group of patients (p=0.003) and also axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor-stroma ratio was statistically associated (p=0.004). Also, tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter in node-positive Luminal A and B subgroups for overall survival (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tumor-stroma ratio is an independent prognostic parameter that can be evaluated quite easily in all molecular subtypes of all breast cancers and does not require extra cost and time to evaluate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Stromal Cells/pathology , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Disease-Free Survival , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 302-311, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935285

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the germline mutation status of related genes in breast cancer patients and high-risk individuals by next-generation sequencing. To analyze the correlations between homologous recombination repair (HR) pathway gene mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients. To supplement the database of breast cancer related gene mutations in Chinese population. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. From October 2020 to September 2021, whole blood samples were collected from 350 breast cancer patients and 49 high-risk individuals, admitted to Peking University People's Hospital and accepted genetic testing voluntarily. Germline mutations in 32 breast cancer related genes were detected by NGS. The clinicopathological characteristics, including age at the onset, family history, unilateral/bilateral tumor, Luminal typing (Luminal A subtype, Luminal B subtype, HER2-enriched subtype and triple negative breast cancer), tumor size and metastasis, were analyzed, and the correlations between HR pathway gene mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed by Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: Among 350 breast cancer patients, 64 (18.3%) cases carried gene pathogenic mutations (including pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations), including 47 (13.4%) in BRCA1/2, 16 (4.6%) in non-BRCA1/2 genes, 1 (0.3%) in BRCA2 and FANCL. Among 49 high-risk individuals, 7 (14.3%) cases carried gene pathogenic mutations, including 6 (12.3%) in BRCA1/2 and 1 (2%) in ATM genes. BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations were associated with age at the onset (18%, 8.7%, χ²=6.346, P=0.012), and the BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutation frequency was higher in patients diagnosed at age ≤45 years. HR pathway gene mutations (including pathogenic, likely pathogenic and uncertain significance mutations) were correlated with unilateral/bilateral tumor (49.5%, 68.4%, χ²=4.841, P=0.028) and Luminal typing (45.7%, 62.2%, 32%, 60%, χ²=12.004, P=0.007), and the HR mutation frequencies were higher in patients with bilateral tumor, Luminal B breast cancer and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Conclusion: The BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutation frequency in high-risk individuals is similar to that in breast cancer patients, and BRCA1/2 testing is helpful to guide breast cancer screening and prevention in high-risk individuals. Patients with early onset breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, Luminal B breast cancer and TNBC have higher mutation frequencies of HR pathway genes, and HR pathway genes testing should be conducted as soon as possible to provide laboratory evidence for diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and risk evaluation of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , BRCA1 Protein/genetics , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Germ-Line Mutation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation , Recombinational DNA Repair , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 364-369, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935222

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of real-world eribulin in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Methods: From December 2019 to December 2020, patients with advanced breast cancer were selected from Beijing Chaoyang District Sanhuan Cancer Hospital, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Peking University Cancer Hospital, Baotou Cancer Hospital, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: The median progression-free survival (PFS) of 77 patients was 5 months, the objective response rate (ORR) was 33.8%, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 71.4%. The ORR of patients with triple-negative breast cancer was 23.1%, and the DCR was 57.7%; the ORR of patients with Luminal breast cancer was 40.0%, and the DCR was 77.8%; the ORR of patients with HER-2 overexpression breast cancer was 33.3%, and the DCR was 83.3%. ORR of 50.0% and DCR of 66.7% for patients treated with eribulin as first to second line treatment, ORR of 29.4% and DCR of 76.5% for patients treated with third to fourth line and ORR of 28.6% and DCR of 71.4% for patients treated with five to eleven line. The ORR of patients in the eribulin monotherapy group was 40.0% and the DCR was 66.0%; the ORR of patients in the combination chemotherapy or targeted therapy group was 22.2% and the DCR was 81.5%. Patients with a history of treatment with paclitaxel, docetaxel, or albumin paclitaxel during the adjuvant phase or after recurrent metastasis had an ORR of 32.9% and a DCR of 69.9% when treated with eribulin. The treatment efficacy is an independent prognostic factor affecting patient survival (P<0.001). The main adverse reactions in the whole group of patients were Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ neutrophil decline [29.9% (23/77)], and other adverse reactions were Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ fatigue [5.2% (4/77)], Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ peripheral nerve abnormality [2.6% (2/77)] and Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ alopecia [2.6% (2/77)]. Conclusions: Eribulin still has good antitumor activity against various molecular subtypes of breast cancer and advanced breast cancer that has failed multiple lines of chemotherapy, and the adverse effects can be controlled, so it has a good clinical application value.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Furans/adverse effects , Ketones/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
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