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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3317-3326, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981469

ABSTRACT

In recent years, reports of adverse reactions related to traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) have been on the rise, especially some traditionally considered "non-toxic" TCM(such as Dictamni Cortex). This has aroused the concern of scholars. This study aims to explore the metabolomic mechanism underlying the difference in liver injury induced by dictamnine between males and females through the experiment on 4-week-old mice. The results showed that the serum biochemical indexes of liver function and organ coefficients were significantly increased by dictamnine(P<0.05), and hepatic alveolar steatosis was mainly observed in female mice. However, no histopathological changes were observed in the male mice. Furthermore, a total of 48 differential metabolites(such as tryptophan, corticosterone, and indole) related to the difference in liver injury between males and females were screened out by untargeted metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis. According to the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve, 14 metabolites were highly correlated with the difference. Finally, pathway enrichment analysis indicated that disorders of metabolic pathways, such as tryptophan metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and ferroptosis(linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism), may be the potential mechanism of the difference. Liver injury induced by dictamnine is significantly different between males and females, which may be caused by the disorders of tryptophan metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and ferroptosis pathways.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Animals , Mice , Tryptophan , Metabolomics , Fatty Liver , Steroids , Hormones
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2193-2202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981350

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of tryptanthrin on potential metabolic biomarkers in the serum of mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and predict the related metabolic pathways. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a tryptanthrin group, a sulfasalazine group, a control group, and a model group. The mouse model of UC was established by free drinking of 3% DSS solution for 11 days, and corresponding drugs were adminsitrated at the same time. The signs of mice were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) score was recorded from the first day. Colon tissue samples were collected after the experiment and observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-10(IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-8(IL-8) in the serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The serum samples were collected from 6 mice in each group for widely targeted metabolomics. The metabolic pathways were enriched by MetaboAnalyst 5.0. The results showed that compared with the model group, tryptanthrin treatment decreased the DAI score(P<0.05), alleviated the injury of the colon tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and elevated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. The metabolomic analysis revealed 28 differential metabolites which were involved in 3 metabolic pathways including purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. Tryptanthrin may restore the metabolism of the mice with UC induced by DSS to the normal level by regulating the purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study employed metabolomics to analyze the mechanism of tryptanthrin in the treatment of UC, providing an experimental basis for the utilization and development of tryptanthrin.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Tryptophan , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Colon , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Metabolomics , Purines/therapeutic use , Dextran Sulfate/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2359-2374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981206

ABSTRACT

As an essential amino acid, l-tryptophan is widely used in food, feed and medicine sectors. Nowadays, microbial l-tryptophan production suffers from low productivity and yield. Here we construct a chassis E. coli TRP3 producing 11.80 g/L l-tryptophan, which was generated by knocking out the l-tryptophan operon repressor protein (trpR) and the l-tryptophan attenuator (trpL), and introducing the feedback-resistant mutant aroGfbr. On this basis, the l-tryptophan biosynthesis pathway was divided into three modules, including the central metabolic pathway module, the shikimic acid pathway to chorismate module and the chorismate to tryptophan module. Then we used promoter engineering approach to balance the three modules and obtained an engineered E. coli TRP9. After fed-batch cultures in a 5 L fermentor, tryptophan titer reached to 36.08 g/L, with a yield of 18.55%, which reached 81.7% of the maximum theoretical yield. The tryptophan producing strain with high yield laid a good foundation for large-scale production of tryptophan.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolism , Tryptophan , Metabolic Engineering , Bioreactors , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5356-5364, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008733

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of Linderae Radix water extract(LRWE) in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome(IBS-D) based on serum metabolomics. Eighteen 2-week-old male SD rats were randomized into control, IBS-D model, and LRWE groups. The rats in other groups except the control group received gavage of senna concentrate combined with restraint stress for the modeling of IBS-D. The rats in the LRWE group were administrated with LRWE(5.4 g·kg~(-1)) by gavage, and those in the control and IBS-D model groups with an equal volume of distilled water for a total of 14 days. The visceral sensitivity was evaluated by the abdominal withdrawal reflex(AWR) score, and the degree of diarrhea was assessed by the fecal water content(FWC). The morphological changes of the colon and the morphology and number of goblet cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) and periodic acid-schiff(PAS) staining, respectively. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) was used for the screening of the potential biomarkers in the rat serum and their related metabolic pathways. The results showed that LRWE reduced the AWR score, decreased FWC, and alleviated visceral sensitivity and diarrhea symptoms in IBS-D rats. HE and PAS staining showed that LRWE mitigated low-grade intestinal inflammation and increased the number of mature secretory goblet cells in the colonic epithelium of IBS-D rats. A total of 25 potential biomarkers of LRWE in treating IBS-D were screened out in this study, which were mainly involved in riboflavin, tryptophan, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and cysteine and methionine metabolism. The regulatory effects were the most significant on the riboflavin and tryptophan metabolism pathways. LRWE may alleviate the visceral hypersensitivity by promoting energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism, enhancing intestinal barrier function, and improving intestinal immune function in IBS-D rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/metabolism , Water , Chromatography, Liquid , Tryptophan , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Riboflavin
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4039-4045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008599

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus in improving the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice by serum metabolomics, screen the differential metabolites of Psoraleae Fructus on APP/PS1 mice, and reveal its influence on the metabolic pathway of APP/PS1 mice. Thirty 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into a model group and a Psoraleae Fructus extract group, and another 15 C57BL/6 mice of the same age were assigned to the blank group. The learning and memory ability of mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, and metabolomics was used to analyze the metabolites in mouse serum. The results of the Morris water maze test showed that Psoraleae Fructus shortened the escape latency of APP/PS1 mice(P<0.01), and increased the number of platform crossing and residence time in the target quadrant(P<0.01). The results of the novel object recognition test showed that Psoraleae Fructus could improve the novel object recognition index of APP/PS1 mice(P<0.01). Eighteen differential metabolites in serum were screened out by metabolomics, among which the levels of arachidonic acid, tryptophan, and glycerophospholipid decreased after drug administration, while the levels of glutamyltyrosine increased after drug administration. The metabolic pathways involved included arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism. Therefore, Psoraleae Fructus can improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice, and its mechanism may be related to the effects in promoting energy metabolism, reducing oxidative damage, protecting central nervous system, reducing neuroinflammation, and reducing Aβ deposition. This study is expected to provide references for Psoraleae Fructus in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD) and further explain the mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus in the treatment of AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Arachidonic Acid , Tryptophan , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Maze Learning , Glycerophospholipids , Disease Models, Animal , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
6.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 764-768, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982671

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection. Despite significant advances in anti-infective, immunomodulatory, and organ function support technologies, the precise and targeted management of sepsis remains a challenge due to its high heterogeneity. Studies have identified disturbed tryptophan (TRP) metabolism as a common mechanism in multiple diseases, which is involved in both immune regulation and the development of multi-organ damages. The rise of research on intestinal microflora has further highlighted the critical role of microflora-regulated TRP metabolism in pathogen-host interactions and the "cross-talk" among multi-organs, making it a potential key target for precision medicine in sepsis. This article reviews TRP metabolism, the regulation of TRP metabolism by the intestinal microflora, and the characteristics of TRP metabolism in sepsis, providing clues for further clinical targeting of TRP metabolism for precision medicine in sepsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Tryptophan/metabolism , Precision Medicine , Sepsis
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 78-85, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To clarify the functional effects of differential expression of ring finger and tryptophan-aspartic acid 2 (RFWD2) on dendritic development and formation of dendritic spines in cerebral cortex neurons of mice.@*METHODS@#Immunofluorescent staining was used to identify the location and global expression profile of RFWD2 in mouse brain and determine the co-localization of RFWD2 with the synaptic proteins in the cortical neurons. We also examined the effects of RFWD2 over-expression (RFWD2-Myc) and RFWD2 knockdown (RFWD2-shRNA) on dendritic development, dendritic spine formation and synaptic function in cultured cortical neurons.@*RESULTS@#RFWD2 is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, and its expression level was positively correlated with the development of cerebral cortex neurons and dendrites. RFWD2 expression was detected on the presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane of the neurons, and its expression levels were positively correlated with the length, number of branches and complexity of the dendrites. In cultured cortical neurons, RFWD2 overexpression significantly lowered the expressions of the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (P < 0.01) and postsynapic density protein 95 (P < 0.01), while RFWD2 knockdown significantly increased their expressions (both P < 0.05). Compared with the control and RFWD2-overexpressing cells, the neurons with RFWD2 knockdown showed significantly reduced number of dendritic spines (both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#RFWD2 can regulate the expression of the synaptic proteins, the development of the dendrites, the formation of the dendritic spines and synaptic function in mouse cerebral cortex neurons through ubiquitination of Pea3 family members and c-Jun, which may serve as potential treatment targets for neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Synapses , Tryptophan/metabolism
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 129 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415356

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma formulação de bebida láctea bubalina probiótica adicionada de polpa de morango, comparando os efeitos do uso do leite de búfala e de vaca na elaboração dos produtos e verificando a possibilidade de suplementação com triptofano nos produtos lácteos probióticos. Como primeira etapa do trabalho, bebidas lácteas probióticas foram elaboradas a partir de leite bubalino e bovino, fermentadas com Streptococcus thermophilus TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 e Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, e formuladas com 0, 25 e 50% de soro em sua formulação. As bebidas foram avaliadas quanto à cinética de fermentação das culturas láticas utilizadas, ao teor de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais não gordurosos, pós-acidificação, viabilidade das culturas fermentadoras e sua capacidade de sobrevivência ao estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas apresentaram resultados superiores as bebidas bovinas. O uso do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas promoveu benefícios quanto as culturas láticas presentes nos produtos, exercendo efeito protetivo e influindo na preservação da viabilidade das bactérias ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado e durante a simulação do estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 25% apresentaram os resultados mais próximos aos obtidos pelos produtos controle, sem adição de soro, sendo selecionadas para a segunda parte do estudo. Nesta etapa, as formulações de bebida láctea com 25% de soro, foram acrescidas de um preparado com polpa de morango e bebidas sem adição da fruta, utilizadas como controle. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas, apresentaram menor teor de gordura e melhores características reológicas, com maior viscosidade e consistência do que os produtos controle, sem afetar a pós-acidificação, o perfil de ácido graxo, assim como, a viabilidade e a resistência às condições de estresse gastrointestinal in vitro das culturas fermentadoras. A avaliação da possibilidade de suplementar lácteos probióticos com triptofano foi realizada em conjunto com a Universidade de Milão. Para isso, iogurtes probióticos receberam adição de triptofano antes ou após a fermentação, sendo avaliados com relação ao perfil de pós-acidificação, quantidade de triptofano nos produtos, número de células viáveis por plaqueamento e citometria de fluxo ao longo do armazenamento a 25° e 4°C. Complementarmente, a influência da presença do triptofano no crescimento e produção de compostos antimicrobianos pelas culturas láticas, também foi avaliada. A adição de triptofano após a fermentação dos iogurtes, que foram armazenados sob refrigeração (4°C), além de não afetar a pós-acidificação dos produtos, apresentou benefícios quanto a viabilidade L. acidophilus, redução do dano e aumento do número de células vivas, promovendo teor maior do aminoácido nos iogurtes. A presença do triptofano nos meios de cultivo, também influenciou de forma positiva o crescimento de S. thermophilus e L. acidophilus, melhorando o desenvolvimento das bactérias durante a fermentação e influindo em uma maior atividade antilistérica por parte do S. thermophilus. Diante da influência positiva da aplicação do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas, assim como, a adição do triptofano em iogurtes probióticos, a suplementação do aminoácido em bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas permitiria a obtenção de um produto funcional, onde seus benefícios estariam relacionados tanto ao consumo do probiótico presente no produto quanto a complementação de triptofano na dieta do consumidor


The aim of this study was to develop a formulation of probiotic buffalo dairy beverage added with strawberry pulp, comparing the effects of using buffalo and cow's milk in the preparation of products and verifying the possibility of tryptophan supplementation in probiotic dairy products. As a first stage of the work, probiotic dairy beverages were made from buffalo and bovine milk, fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, and formulated with 0, 25 and 50% whey in their formulation. The beverages were evaluated for the fermentation kinetics of the used lactic cultures, the levels of protein, fat and total no fat solids, post-acidification, fermenting cultures viability and their ability to survive gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Buffalo milk use in dairy beverages production promoted benefits regarding the lactic cultures present in the products, exerting a protective effect and influencing the viability preservation of bacteria during the cold storage and simulation of gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Dairy beverages made with 25% whey addition showed results similar to those obtained by the control products, without whey addition, being selected for the second part of the study. In this part, the dairy beverages formulations with 25% whey, were added with a preparation were added with a strawberry pulp preparation and dairy beverages without added fruit, used as a control. Fruity bubaline dairy beverages had lower fat content and better rheological characteristics, with higher viscosity and consistency than control products, without affecting post-acidification, fatty acid profile, as well as viability and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal condition of fermented cultures. The possibility of supplementing probiotic dairy products with tryptophan was evaluated in partnership with the University of Milan. For this, probiotic yogurts received the addition of tryptophan before or after fermentation, being evaluated in relation to the post-acidification profile, tryptophan amount in the products, viable cell number per plating and flow cytometry during storage at 25°C and 4°C. In addition, the influence of the tryptophan presence on the growth and production of antimicrobial compounds by lactic cultures was also evaluated. The addition of tryptophan after the yogurt fermentation, which were stored under refrigeration (4°C), in addition to not affecting the post-acidification of the products, showed benefits to the viability of L. acidophilus, reduced the damage and increased the number of cells promoting higher amino acid content in yogurts. Tryptophan presence in the culture media also positively influenced the growth of S. thermophiles and L. acidophilus, improving the development of bacteria during fermentation and influencing better antilisteric activity in the part of S. thermophiles. In view of the buffalo milk positive influence observed after the application in dairy beverage preparation, as well as the addition of tryptophan in probiotic yoghurts, amino acid supplementation in fruity buffalo dairy beverages would allow to obtain a functional product, where its benefits would be related both to the consumption of the probiotic present in the product as to the supplementation of tryptophan in the consumer's diet


Subject(s)
Tryptophan/analogs & derivatives , Yogurt/analysis , Beverages/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Milk/classification , Fruit/classification , Buffaloes/classification , Flow Cytometry/methods
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 129 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392257

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver uma formulação de bebida láctea bubalina probiótica adicionada de polpa de morango, comparando os efeitos do uso do leite de búfala e de vaca na elaboração dos produtos e verificando a possibilidade de suplementação com triptofano nos produtos lácteos probióticos. Como primeira etapa do trabalho, bebidas lácteas probióticas foram elaboradas a partir de leite bubalino e bovino, fermentadas com Streptococcus thermophilus TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 e Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, e formuladas com 0, 25 e 50% de soro em sua formulação. As bebidas foram avaliadas quanto à cinética de fermentação das culturas láticas utilizadas, ao teor de proteína, gordura e sólidos totais não gordurosos, pós-acidificação, viabilidade das culturas fermentadoras e sua capacidade de sobrevivência ao estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas apresentaram resultados superiores as bebidas bovinas. O uso do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas promoveu benefícios quanto as culturas láticas presentes nos produtos, exercendo efeito protetivo e influindo na preservação da viabilidade das bactérias ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado e durante a simulação do estresse gastrointestinal in vitro. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 25% apresentaram os resultados mais próximos aos obtidos pelos produtos controle, sem adição de soro, sendo selecionadas para a segunda parte do estudo. Nesta etapa, as formulações de bebida láctea com 25% de soro, foram acrescidas de um preparado com polpa de morango e bebidas sem adição da fruta, utilizadas como controle. As bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas, apresentaram menor teor de gordura e melhores características reológicas, com maior viscosidade e consistência do que os produtos controle, sem afetar a pós-acidificação, o perfil de ácido graxo, assim como, a viabilidade e a resistência às condições de estresse gastrointestinal in vitro das culturas fermentadoras. A avaliação da possibilidade de suplementar lácteos probióticos com triptofano foi realizada em conjunto com a Universidade de Milão. Para isso, iogurtes probióticos receberam adição de triptofano antes ou após a fermentação, sendo avaliados com relação ao perfil de pós-acidificação, quantidade de triptofano nos produtos, número de células viáveis por plaqueamento e citometria de fluxo ao longo do armazenamento a 25° e 4°C. Complementarmente, a influência da presença do triptofano no crescimento e produção de compostos antimicrobianos pelas culturas láticas, também foi avaliada. A adição de triptofano após a fermentação dos iogurtes, que foram armazenados sob refrigeração (4°C), além de não afetar a pós-acidificação dos produtos, apresentou benefícios quanto a viabilidade L. acidophilus, redução do dano e aumento do número de células vivas, promovendo teor maior do aminoácido nos iogurtes. A presença do triptofano nos meios de cultivo, também influenciou de forma positiva o crescimento de S. thermophilus e L. acidophilus, melhorando o desenvolvimento das bactérias durante a fermentação e influindo em uma maior atividade antilistérica por parte do S. thermophilus. Diante da influência positiva da aplicação do leite de búfala na elaboração das bebidas lácteas, assim como, a adição do triptofano em iogurtes probióticos, a suplementação do aminoácido em bebidas lácteas bubalinas frutadas permitiria a obtenção de um produto funcional, onde seus benefícios estariam relacionados tanto ao consumo do probiótico presente no produto quanto a complementação de triptofano na dieta do consumidor


The aim of this study was to develop a formulation of probiotic buffalo dairy beverage added with strawberry pulp, comparing the effects of using buffalo and cow's milk in the preparation of products and verifying the possibility of tryptophan supplementation in probiotic dairy products. As a first stage of the work, probiotic dairy beverages were made from buffalo and bovine milk, fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles TA040, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB340 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, and formulated with 0, 25 and 50% whey in their formulation. The beverages were evaluated for the fermentation kinetics of the used lactic cultures, the levels of protein, fat and total no fat solids, post-acidification, fermenting cultures viability and their ability to survive gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Buffalo milk use in dairy beverages production promoted benefits regarding the lactic cultures present in the products, exerting a protective effect and influencing the viability preservation of bacteria during the cold storage and simulation of gastrointestinal stress in vitro. Dairy beverages made with 25% whey addition showed results similar to those obtained by the control products, without whey addition, being selected for the second part of the study. In this part, the dairy beverages formulations with 25% whey, were added with a preparation were added with a strawberry pulp preparation and dairy beverages without added fruit, used as a control. Fruity bubaline dairy beverages had lower fat content and better rheological characteristics, with higher viscosity and consistency than control products, without affecting post-acidification, fatty acid profile, as well as viability and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal condition of fermented cultures. The possibility of supplementing probiotic dairy products with tryptophan was evaluated in partnership with the University of Milan. For this, probiotic yogurts received the addition of tryptophan before or after fermentation, being evaluated in relation to the post-acidification profile, tryptophan amount in the products, viable cell number per plating and flow cytometry during storage at 25°C and 4°C. In addition, the influence of the tryptophan presence on the growth and production of antimicrobial compounds by lactic cultures was also evaluated. The addition of tryptophan after the yogurt fermentation, which were stored under refrigeration (4°C), in addition to not affecting the post-acidification of the products, showed benefits to the viability of L. acidophilus, reduced the damage and increased the number of cells promoting higher amino acid content in yogurts. Tryptophan presence in the culture media also positively influenced the growth of S. thermophiles and L. acidophilus, improving the development of bacteria during fermentation and influencing better antilisteric activity in the part of S. thermophiles. In view of the buffalo milk positive influence observed after the application in dairy beverage preparation, as well as the addition of tryptophan in probiotic yoghurts, amino acid supplementation in fruity buffalo dairy beverages would allow to obtain a functional product, where its benefits would be related both to the consumption of the probiotic present in the product as to the supplementation of tryptophan in the consumer's diet


Subject(s)
Beverages/adverse effects , Milk/adverse effects , Tryptophan/classification , Yogurt , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Buffaloes , Cell Count/instrumentation , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Probiotics/classification , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolism , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/metabolism , Growth and Development , Flow Cytometry/methods , Whey/adverse effects , Fruit , Amino Acids/antagonists & inhibitors , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolism
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2968-2975, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) is a solution commonly used for organ transplantation. However, there is no certified fixed regimen for on-pump heart surgery in neonates. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes related to different HTK dosages and to analyze the safety of high-dosage perfusion.@*METHODS@#A total of 146 neonates who underwent on-pump heart surgery with single-shot HTK perfusion were divided into two groups according to HTK dosages: a standard-dose (SD) group (n = 63, 40 mL/kg 60 mL/kg). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control confounding bias.@*RESULTS@#The SD group had a higher weight (3.7 ± 0.4 vs. 3.4 ± 0.4 kg, P  0.05). The incidences of post-operative complications were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in ventilation time, intensive care unit stay, and post-operative hospital stay (P > 0.05). Follow-up echocardiography outcomes at 1 month, 3 to 6 months, and 1 year showed that left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic dimension were comparable between the two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In neonatal on-pump cardiac surgery patients, single-shot HD (>60 mL/kg) HTK perfusion had a comparable heart protection effect and short-term post-operative prognosis as standard dosage perfusion of 40 to 60 mL/kg. Thus, this study provides supporting evidence of the safety of HD HTK perfusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Glucose/therapeutic use , Histidine , Mannitol , Organ Preservation Solutions , Potassium Chloride/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Tryptophan , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 17-22, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture-moxibustion on negative emotions and plasma tryptophan (Trip)-kynurenine (Kyn) metabolism in the patients with Crohn's disease (CD) at the mild and moderate active stage.@*METHODS@#A total of 66 CD patients were randomized into an observation group (33 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a control group (33 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the observation group, acupuncture was applied in combination with moxibustion. In the control group, the sham-acupuncture was used in combination with sham-moxibustion. In both of the observation group and the control group, acupuncture was applied to Zhongwan (CV 12), Shangjuxu (ST 37), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Gongsun (SP 4), Hegu (LI 4), Quchi (LI 11), Taixi (KI 3) and Taichong (LR 3), and moxibustion was applied to Tianshu (ST 25) and Zusanli (ST 36). The treatment was given once every two days, 3 times a week, totally for 12 weeks. Separately, before and after treatment, the score of the hospital anxiety-depression scale (HADS) and the score of intestinal core symptoms (degree of abdominal pain and frequency of diarrhea) were observed in the patients of the two groups. The concentration of plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and the ratios of Kyn/Trp, QuinA/Kyn, KynA/Kyn and KynA/QuinA were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with before treatment, the scores of HADS-A and HADS-D in the observation group and the score of HADS-A in the control group were all reduced after treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture and moxibustion relieve the negative emotions of anxiety and depression in CD patients at mild and moderate active stage, which is probably related to the regulation of plasma Trp-Kyn metabolic pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Crohn Disease/therapy , Emotions , Moxibustion , Plasma , Treatment Outcome , Tryptophan
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3633-3642, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888016

ABSTRACT

This article is to explore the antidepressant mechanism of Shugan Lipi recipe in regulating tryptophan metabolism,and to find out their common pharmacodynamic substances. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology was used to establish fingerprints of Shugan Lipi recipe,and 124 components were identified. The depressed mouse model was replicated by triple-one multiple stress method. Chaihu Shugan Powder,Sini Powder and Xiaoyao Powder were administered in groups to observe the changes in body weight and behavior of the mice. The results showed that compared with the model group,the body weight,sucrose preference percentage and autonomous activity behavior of each administration group were improved. Among them,the effect of Chaihu Shugan Powder was better than that of Sini Powder and Xiaoyao Powder. LC-MS/MS method was used to determine the contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine( 5-HT),kynurenine( KYN) and tryptophan( TPP) in blood,liver,brain,colon and other tissues,as well as TDO enzyme activity in liver. Western blot and RT-PCR were used to detect the protein and gene expression of TDO enzyme,respectively. It was found that the three prescriptions increased the ratio of 5-HT/KYN in different degrees,decreased the ratio of KYN/TRP in liver,colon and brain,and decreased the expression level and activity of TDO enzyme in liver. The order of their ability to regulate tryptophan metabolism was Chaihu Shugan Powder>Sini Powder>Xiaoyao Powder. In addition,the correlation between the chromatographic peaks in the fingerprints of Shugan Lipi recipes and the pharmacodynamic indexes of tryptophan metabolism was analyzed by the grey relation analysis. The grey relation analysis found that the chemical components with the highest correlation with tryptophan metabolism were mainly from Paeoniae Radix Alba,Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium,Aurantii Fructus Immaturus and Aurantii Fructus. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the migration components in the plasma of mice after administration of Shugan Lipi recipe,and to verify the common pharmacodynamic substances of Shugan Lipi recipe. The migration of these detected components in plasma was studied,and a total of 18 prototype components and 36 metabolites were identified. Therefore,it was believed that Chaihu Shugan Powder,Sini Powder and Xiaoyao Powder could play an antidepressant role by reducing the expression of TDO enzyme in the liver and regulating the metabolism of tryptophan.The components contained in Paeoniae Radix Alba,Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium,Aurantii Fructus Immaturus and Aurantii Fructus were the common pharmacodynamic substances of Shugan Lipi recipe,which played an important role in regulating tryptophan metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antidepressive Agents , Chromatography, Liquid , Paeonia , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tryptophan
13.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 139-143, jun 17, 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358983

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a esquizofrenia é uma doença mental grave heterogênea, de extrema complexidade, manifestada por vários distúrbios de cognição, pensamento, memória, comportamento e afeto. Sua fisiopatologia, apesar dos avanços, continua de difícil compreensão. Objetivo: realizar uma revisão da literatura a respeito da relação entre a via das quinureninas e a fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia. Metodologia: foi conduzida a busca de artigos através das bases de dados Medline e Lilacs, utilizando os descritores schizophrenia/ esquizofrenia e as palavras-chave kynurenine pathways/via das quinureninas. Por meio desta busca, foram selecionados 38 artigos publicados entre os anos de 1990 e 2018. Resultados: estudos mais recentes vêm demonstrando que anormalidades no metabolismo do triptofano por meio da via das quinureninas poderiam estar relacionadas com os mecanismos neurofisiopatológicos da esquizofrenia. Os metabólitos gerados pela via das quinureninas possuem propriedades neuroativas. Dentre eles, destaca-se o ácido quinurênico, antagonista endógeno do receptor N-metil-D-aspartato. Seus níveis cerebrais estão aumentados em pacientes esquizofrênicos, provavelmente devido a uma condição pró-inflamatória, resultando dessa forma, em possíveis alterações neurológicas responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento da esquizofrenia. Conclusão: não somente uma melhor compreensão da fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia, como também o desenvolvimento de novos alvos terapêuticos, poderão ser obtidos a partir de um melhor entendimento da relação entre anormalidades na via das quinureninas e a gênese da esquizofrenia.


Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe heterogeneous mental illness of extreme complexity, manifested by various disorders of cognition, thought, memory, behavior and affection. Its pathophysiology, despite advances, remains difficult to understand. Objective: to review the literature on the relationship between the kynurenine pathway and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Methodology: a literature review was carried out using the descriptors kynurenine pathways/via das quinureninas and the keywords kynurenine pathways/via das quinureninas using Medline and Lilacs databases. Through this search, were selected 38 articles published between the years of 1990 and 2018. Results: recent studies have shown that abnormalities in tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway may be related to the neuropathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. The metabolites generated by the kynurenine pathway have neuroactive properties. Among them, kynurenic acid, an endogenous antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, stands out. Their brain levels are increased in schizophrenic patients, probably due to a pro-inflammatory condition, resulting in possible neurological changes responsible for the development of schizophrenia. Conclusion: not only a better knowledge of pathophysiology, but also the development of new therapeutic targets will be obtained with a better understanding of the relationship between abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway and the genesis of schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia , Tryptophan , Metabolism , Database
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190050, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056678

ABSTRACT

Between 40,000-70,000 people die yearly of rabies, an incurable disease. Besides post-bite vaccination, no treatment is available for it. Methods: First, virus dilution for antiviral effects in mice was determined. Then, animals were treated as follows: control (NaCl 250 µL/animal/day); bufotenine (0.63, 1.05 and 2.1 mg in 250 µL of NaCl/animal/day); rabies (10-6,82CVS dilution); and test (10-6,82 CVS dilution and bufotenine, in the above-mentioned doses). Animals were observed daily for 21 days or until the 3rd stage of rabies infection. Twitch-tension and liposome studies were applied to understand the possible interaction of bufotenine with receptors, particularly acetylcholine. Results: Bufotenine was able to increase the survival rate of intracerebrally virus-infected mice from 15 to 40%. Bufotenine did not seem to interfere with the acetylcholine response in the skeletal muscle, indicating that its mechanism of action is not blocking the virus entrance due to nAChR antagonism. By analyzing liposomes, we could observe that bufotenine did not passively penetrates cell membranes, indicating the necessity of complementary structures to cell penetration. Conclusions: Bufotenine is a promising candidate for drug development. After further chemical modification, it might be possible to dissociate minor side effects, increase efficiency, efficacy and pharmacokinetics, yielding a true anti-rabies drug.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabies , Tryptophan , Bufotenin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Alkaloids , Mice/virology
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 823-834, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010560

ABSTRACT

Ecdysis is a common phenomenon that happens throughout the life phase of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It is vital to better understand the correlation between cannibalism and biochemical compound that exists during the moulting process. The objective of the present study was to determine the amino acid profile released by M. rosenbergii during the ecdysis process that promotes cannibalism. To accomplish this, changes in amino acid levels (total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA)) of tissue muscle, exoskeleton, and sample water of culture medium from the moulting (E-stage) and non-moulting (C-stage) prawns were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison study revealed that among the TAA compounds, proline and sarcosine of tissues from moulting prawn were found at the highest levels. The level of FAA from water that contains moulting prawns (E-stage) was dominated by tryptophan and proline. Significant values obtained in the present study suggested that these amino acid compounds act as a chemical cue to promote cannibalism in M. rosenbergii during ecdysis. The knowledge of compositions and compounds that were released during the moulting process should be helpful for better understanding of the mechanism and chemical cues that play roles on triggering cannibalism, and also for future dietary manipulation to improve feeding efficiencies and feeding management, which indirectly impacts productivity and profitability.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acids/chemistry , Aquaculture , Cannibalism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Feeding Behavior , Fresh Water , Malaysia , Molting , Palaemonidae/physiology , Proline/chemistry , Tryptophan/chemistry
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(6): e202000603, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130651

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To compare Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate (FBP) to Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) in liver preservation at cold ischemia. Methods Male rats (Sprague-Dawley: 280-340g) divided into three groups (n=7): Control; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP); Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK). Animals underwent laparotomy-thoracotomy for perfusion of livers with saline. Livers were removed and deposited into solutions. Mitochondria were isolated to determine State 3 (S3), State 4 (S4), Respiratory Control Ratio (RCR) and Swelling (S). Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, LDH) were determined in solution. At tissue, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitrate (NOx) were determined. All parameters were analyzed at 0.6 and 24 hours of hypothermic preservation. Statistics analysis were made by Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results Regarding ALT, there was a difference between FBP-6h/HTK-6h, lower in HTK. Regarding AST, there was a significant difference between FBP-24h/HTK-24h, lower in FBP. Regarding NOx, there was a difference between 0h and 6h, as well as 0h and 24h for both solutions. Regarding S3, there was a significant difference in 24h compared to Control-0h for both solutions, and a significant difference between FBP-6h/FBP-24h. Regarding S4, there was a difference between Control-0h/HTK-24h and FBP-24h/HTK-24h, higher in HTK. There was a difference between Control-0h/FBP-24h for Swelling, higher in FBP. Conclusion Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate showed better performance at nitrate and aspartate aminotransferase compared to histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cold Ischemia , Organ Preservation , Tryptophan , Allopurinol , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Organ Preservation Solutions , Fructose , Glucose , Glutathione , Histidine , Liver , Mannitol
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 177-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a disabling disorder of unknown aetiology, lacking definite diagnostic method and cure. A reliable biological marker of schizophrenia is highly demanded, for which traceable immune mediators in blood could be promising candidates. We aimed to gather the best findings of neuroinflammatory markers for first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: We performed an extensive narrative review of online literature on inflammation-related markers found in human FEP patients only. RESULTS: Changes to cytokine levels have been increasingly reported in schizophrenia. The peripheral levels of IL-1 (or its receptor antagonist), soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α have been frequently reported as increased in FEP, in a suggestive continuum from high-risk stages for psychosis. Microglia and astrocytes establish the link between this immune signalling and the synthesis of noxious tryptophan catabolism products, that cause structural damage and directly hamper normal neurotransmission. Amongst these, only 3-hydroxykynurenine has been consistently described in the blood of FEP patients. CONCLUSION: Peripheral molecules stemming from brain inflammation might provide insightful biomarkers of schizophrenia, as early as FEP or even prodromal phases, although more time- and clinically-adjusted studies are essential for their validation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytes , Biomarkers , Encephalitis , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Metabolism , Methods , Microglia , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Psychotic Disorders , Receptors, Interleukin-2 , Schizophrenia , Synaptic Transmission , Tryptophan
18.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 551-562, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often report poor sleep quality. Whether poor sleep is associated with tryptophan (Trp) metabolites is unknown. We compared serum Trp metabolites in women with IBS and healthy controls (HCs) using targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based profiling. In IBS only, we explored whether Trp metabolites are associated with IBS symptoms and subjective and objective sleep indices, serum cortisol, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol/ACTH levels. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained every 80 minutes in 21 HCs and 38 IBS subjects following an anticipation-of-public-speaking stressor during a sleep laboratory protocol. Subjects completed symptom diaries for 28 days. Adjacent values of metabolites were averaged to represent 4 time-periods: awake, early sleep, mid-sleep, and mid-to-late sleep. Thirteen of 20 targeted Trp metabolites were identified. RESULTS: Ten of 13 Trp metabolites decreased across the night, while nicotinamide increased in both groups. A MANOVA omnibus test performed after principal component analysis showed a significant difference in these 13 principal component (P = 0.014) between groups. Compared to HCs, nicotinamide levels were higher and indole-3-lactic acid levels lower in the IBS group. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid levels were associated with several subjective/objective sleep measures; decreased stool consistency/frequency and abdominal pain were positively associated with melatonin and serotonin in the IBS group. The kynurenine and kynurenic acid were associated with ACTH (positively) and cortisol/ACTH (negatively). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime Trp metabolites may provide clues to poor sleep and stress with IBS. Further study of the mechanism of metabolite action is warranted.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Chromatography, Liquid , Hydrocortisone , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Kynurenic Acid , Kynurenine , Mass Spectrometry , Melatonin , Niacinamide , Plasma , Principal Component Analysis , Serotonin , Tryptophan
19.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 948-953, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Depression is a prevalent condition that is costly to individuals and society. In view of a role of tryptophan (TRP), selenium (Se), vitamin D (Vit D), magnesium (Mg) and serotonin in depression, the present study concerns to evaluate the circulating levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg and serotonin in depression as well as the correlation between TRP and other serum analytes is also established.METHODS: Healthy (n=48) and depressed (n=48) subjects were recruited and their blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h, serum was stored for the determination of levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin.RESULTS: show that levels of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin were decreased in the depressed patient when compared to normal subjects. There is a direct correlation between TRP and Vit D, and TRP and Se while the inverse correlation between TRP and Mg, and TRP and serotonin in depressed subjects. The association among TRP and other biomarkers is non-significant.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, depression is associated with deficiency of TRP, Se, Vit D, Mg, and serotonin displays the characteristics of biomarkers. The correlation between TRP and other biomarkers/trace elements is also important in depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Depression , Magnesium , Selenium , Serotonin , Trace Elements , Tryptophan , Vitamin D
20.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 284-290, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Th2 immune activation is predominant in allergic diseases, neopterinlevels and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-1 activity (kynurenine:tryptophan ratio), which reflect Th1 immune activity, increase with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation. We investigated neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels as biomarkersof the Th1 immune system activation and changes in IDO-1 activityin children with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the relationship between these biomarkers and the total IgE level, age, and disease severity. METHODS: We divided 205 children (80 girls and 125 boys, four months to 17 years old) into four groups: controls, patients with asthma, patients with allergic rhinitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected. Neopterin levels were determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Tryptophan and kynurenine levels were analyzed using HPLC. IDO-1 enzyme activity was calculated using tryptophan and kynurenine levels. IgE levels were measured. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Conover post-hoc method were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels were higher and IgE levels and IDO-1 enzyme activity were lower in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis than in controls (P < 0.05). Patients with atopic dermatitis showed higher neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels, higher IDO-1 activity, and lower IgE levels thancontrols (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Th1/Th2 balance is disrupted in children with allergic diseases, concomitant with increased Th1-mediated immune response activation and reduced IgEproduction, which is promoted by Th2-type cytokines.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Asthma , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Hypersensitivity , Immune System , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunoglobulin E , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Interferon-gamma , Kynurenine , Methods , Neopterin , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tryptophan
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