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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250556, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360208

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are 30-120nm bio particles transferred from donor to recipient cells leading to modification in their regulatory mechanisms depending upon the coded message in the form of loaded biomolecule. Cancer cells derived exosomes the true representatives of the parent cells have been found to modify the tumor surrounding/distinct regions and participate in metastasis, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Tis study was aimed to study the effects of tumor mice derived exosomes on the normal mice spleen isolated T cells by using co-culture experiments and flow cytometer analysis. We mainly focused on some of the T cells population and cytokines including IFN-γ, FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and KI67 (proliferation marker). Overall results indicated random changes in different set of experiments, where the cancer derived exosomes reduced the IFN-γ expression in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, similarly the Treg cells were also found decreased in the presence of cancer exosomes. No significant changes were observed on the Ki67 marker expression. Such studies are helpful in understanding the role of cancer exosomes in immune cells suppression in tumor microenvironment. Cancer exosomes will need to be validated in vivo and in vitro on a molecular scale in detail for clinical applications.


Os exossomos são biopartículas de 30-120 nm transferidas de células doadoras para células receptoras, levando à modificação em seus mecanismos reguladores, dependendo da mensagem codificada na forma de biomolécula carregada. Verificou-se que exossomos derivados de células cancerosas ­ os verdadeiros representantes das células-mãe ­ modificam as regiões circundantes / distintas do tumor e participam da metástase, angiogênese e imunossupressão. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de exossomos derivados de camundongos com tumor nas células T isoladas de baço de camundongos normais, usando experimentos de cocultura e análise de citômetro de fluxo. Concentrou-se, principalmente, em algumas populações de células T e citocinas, incluindo IFN-γ, células T reguladoras FOXP3 + (Treg) e KI67 (marcador de proliferação). Os resultados gerais indicaram mudanças aleatórias em diferentes conjuntos de experimentos, em que os exossomos derivados de câncer reduziram a expressão de IFN-γ em células T CD4 e CD8, da mesma forma que as células Treg também foram encontradas diminuídas na presença de exossomos de câncer. Nenhuma mudança significativa foi observada na expressão do marcador Ki67. Esses dados são úteis para a compreensão do papel dos exossomos do câncer na supressão de células do sistema imunológico no microambiente tumoral. Exossomos de câncer precisarão ser validados in vivo e in vitro em escala molecular com detalhes para aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Exosomes , Tumor Microenvironment , Immune System , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249424, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypoxia is a prominent feature of head and neck cancer. However, the oxygen element characteristics of proteins and how they adapt to hypoxia microenvironments of head and neck cancer are still unknown. Human genome sequences and proteins expressed data of head and neck cancer were retrieved from pathology atlas of Human Protein Atlas project. Then compared the oxygen and carbon element contents between proteomes of head and neck cancer and normal oral mucosa-squamous epithelial cells, genome locations, pathways, and functional dissection associated with head and neck cancer were also studied. A total of 902 differentially expressed proteins were observed where the average oxygen content is higher than that of the lowly expressed proteins in head and neck cancer proteins. Further, the average oxygen content of the up regulated proteins was 2.54% higher than other. None of their coding genes were distributed on the Y chromosome. The up regulated proteins were enriched in endocytosis, apoptosis and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. The increased oxygen contents of the highly expressed and the up regulated proteins might be caused by frequent activity of cytoskeleton and adapted to the rapid growth and fast division of the head and neck cancer cells. The oxygen usage bias and key proteins may help us to understand the mechanisms behind head and neck cancer in targeted therapy, which lays a foundation for the application of stoichioproteomics in targeted therapy and provides promise for potential treatments for head and neck cancer.


Resumo A hipóxia é uma característica proeminente do câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, as características do elemento oxigênio das proteínas e como elas se adaptam aos microambientes de hipóxia do câncer de cabeça e pescoço ainda são desconhecidas. Sequências do genoma humano e dados expressos de proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço foram recuperados do atlas de patologia do projeto Human Protein Atlas. Em seguida, comparou o conteúdo do elemento de oxigênio e carbono entre proteomas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço, e células epiteliais escamosas da mucosa oral normal, localizações do genoma, vias e dissecção funcional associada ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço também foram estudadas. Um total de 902 proteínas expressas diferencialmente foi observado onde o conteúdo médio de oxigênio é maior do que as proteínas expressas de forma humilde em proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Além disso, o conteúdo médio de oxigênio das proteínas reguladas positivamente foi 2,54% maior do que das outras. Nenhum de seus genes codificadores foi distribuído no cromossomo Y. As proteínas reguladas positivamente foram enriquecidas em endocitose, apoptose e regulação do citoesqueleto de actina. O conteúdo aumentado de oxigênio das proteínas altamente expressas e reguladas pode ser causado pela atividade frequente do citoesqueleto e adaptado ao rápido crescimento e divisão das células cancerosas de cabeça e pescoço. O viés do uso de oxigênio e as proteínas-chave podem nos ajudar a entender os mecanismos por trás do câncer de cabeça e pescoço na terapia direcionada, o que estabelece uma base para a aplicação da estequioproteômica na terapia direcionada e oferece uma promessa para potenciais tratamentos para o câncer de cabeça e pescoço.


Subject(s)
Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Oxygen , Carbon , Proteome/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRB5954, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364790

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Despite advances in understanding of carcinogenesis and of treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, this neoplasm still has a lethality of at least 30%. The search for biomarkers that can predict the response to treatment in the early stages of the disease is still necessary. In recent years, a new form of cellular communication between tumor and non-neoplastic cells has been discovered: the exchange of information through extracellular vesicles. These are small vesicles released by membrane-coated cells that carry proteins, lipids, messenger RNAs, microRNA and DNA, which can be internalized and promote biological changes in target cells. Exosomes are qualified as a type of extracellular vesicle and, in tumors, carry immunoinhibitory signals that promote the escape of immune control. Recent studies have showed their involvement in communication with the cells of the tumor microenvironment and with chemoresistance in several tumors. To date, there is no information about immunoregulatory microRNAs transported by exosomes and their correlation with clinical evolution during chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Knowledge about immunomodulatory microRNAs obtained by leukemic cells and transported by exosomes can direct us towards the design of new diagnostic and treatment tools in this type of leukemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Biomarkers , Cell Communication , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of m7G-lncRNAs in predicting the prognosis and microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#We screened m7G-lncRNAs from TCGA to construct an m7G-lncRNAs risk model using multivariate Cox analysis, which was validated using ROC and C-index curves. Calibration and nomogram were used to predict the prognosis of CRC patients. Point-bar charts and K-M survival curves were used to assess the correlation of risk scores with the patients' clinical staging and prognosis. CIBERSORT and ESTIMATE were used to explore the association between the tumor microenvironment and immune cell infiltration in patients in high and low risk groups and the correlation of risk scores with microsatellite instability, stem cell index and immune checkpoint expression. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed, and the key targets regulated by m7G-lncRNAs were identified and validated in paired samples of CRC and adjacent tissues by immunoblotting.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 1722 m7G-lncRNAs from TCGA database, from which 12 lncRNAs were screened to construct the risk model. The AUCs of the risk model for predicting survival outcomes at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.727, 0.747 and 0.794, respectively. The AUC of the nomogram for predicting prognosis was 0.794, and the predicted results were consistent with actual survival outcomes of the patients. The patients in the high-risk group showed more advanced tumor stages and a greater likelihood of high microsatellite instability than those in the low-risk group (P < 0.05). The tumor stemness index was negatively correlated with the risk score (r=-0.19; P=7.3e-05). Patients in the high-risk group had higher stromal cell scores (P=0.0028) and higher total scores (P=0.007) with lowered expressions of activated mast cells (r=-0.11; P=0.045) and resting CD4+ T cells (r=-0.14; P=0.01) and increased expressions of most immune checkpoints (P < 0.05). ATXN2 (P= 0.006) and G3BP1 (P=0.007) were identified as the key targets regulated by m7G-lncRNAs, and their expressions were both higher in CRC than in adjacent tissues.@*CONCLUSION@#The risk model based on 12 m7G-lncRNAs has important prognostic value for CRC and can reflect the microenvironment and the efficacy of immunotherapy in the patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , Prognosis , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928979

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Although there are many options for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, such as surgical resection, interventional therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and liver transplantation, the poor therapeutic effect seriously reduces the quality of life for patients and also increases the social and economic burden. Metformin is originally used as the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, but it has been found to play a certain effect in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumor. The potential roles of metformin against hepatocellular carcinoma, such as regulation of the microenvironment, proliferation signal pathway, metabolism, invasion and metastasis, apoptosis, autophagy, and epigenetics of hepatoma cells. It provides a new choice for the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/prevention & control , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/prevention & control , Metformin/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928978

ABSTRACT

B lymphocyte is an important component of the human immune system and it has a role in the process of the body's specific immunity. In recent years, the research on B cells and tumor immune escape has rapidly progressed. Studies have shown that different types of B cells play different roles in tumor microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms. B cells in the tertiary lymphatic structure promote anti-tumor immunity, while regulatory B cells promote tumor immune escape. Antibody drugs targeting B cells are a promising direction for tumor immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Tumor Escape , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine Fuzheng Kang'ai Formula (, FZKA) on tumor microenvironment (TME).@*METHODS@#CIBERSORTx was used for analysis of TME. Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology and Analysis Platform was applied to identify compounds-targets network and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was employed to identify the differential expression genes (DEGs) between tumor and paracancerous tissues in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from TCGA-LUAD. Additionally, DEGs with prognosis in LUAD was calculated by univariable and multivariate Cox regression. The core targets of FZKA were analyzed in lung adenocarcinoma TME. Protein-protein interaction database was employed to predict down-stream of target. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed for biological experiment in A549, H1299 and PC9 cell lines.@*RESULTS@#The active and resting mast cells were significantly associated with prognosis of LUAD (P<0.05). Of the targets, CCNA2 as an important target of FZKA (hazard ratio=1.41, 95% confidential interval: 1.01-2.01, P<0.05) was a prognostic target and significantly associated with mast cells. CCNA2 was positively correlated with mast cell activation and negatively correlated with mast cell resting state. BCL1L2, ACTL6A and ITGAV were down-stream of CCNA2, which were validated by qRT-PCR in A549 cell.@*CONCLUSION@#FZKA could directly bind to CCNA2 and inhibit tumor growth by regulating CCNA2 downstream genes and TME of NSCLC closely related to CCNA2.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone , DNA-Binding Proteins , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 351-357, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928817

ABSTRACT

In China, malignant tumor is the main cause of death in both urban and rural areas. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have multidirectional differentiation potential, self-renewal ability and good immunomodulatory properties. Exosomes, as important paracrine substances of MSCs, mediate information exchange and transmission between cells in tumor microenvironment and influence the occurrence and development of tumors. Recently, conflicting findings have been reported on the effects of MSCs and their exosomes on tumors. On the one hand, MSCs and their exosomes are tumorigenic and can target specific sites to inhibit tumor growth; On the other hand, there is also evidence that MSCs could affect tumor growth and migration as part of the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, we will review the relationship between MSCs and exosomes and tumorgenesis and development, as well as how MSCs and exosomes play different roles in tumorgenesis and development, in order to provide beneficial help for tumor diagnosis, prognosis and precise treatment.
.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Exosomes , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 311-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#m6A RNA methylation modification plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of lung cancer and regulates tumor immunity. Current studies mostly focus on the differential expression of some specific m6A effectors and infiltrating immune cell. m6A methylation modification is the result of mutual adjustment and balance between effectors, and changes in the expression of one or two effectors are far from enough to reflect the panorama of m6A methylation. The role of m6A in the immune microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different m6A modification patterns in immune microenvironment of LUAD.@*METHODS@#LUAD data was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), University of California Santa Cruz Xena (UCSC Xena) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Gene mutation, differential expression and survival analysis were performed for 24 m6A effectors. The m6A modification pattern was constructed by unsupervised clustering method, and the m6A clusters survival analysis, gene set variation analysis, immune score and immune cell infiltration analysis were performed. The association between LRPPRC protein expression levels and infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages in the tumor microenvironment was validated by immunohistochemistry in LUAD tissue microarray with 68 cases.@*RESULTS@#The mutations of m6A effector were found in 150 of 567 LUAD cases with a frequency of 26.46%. 6 readers and 3 writers were significantly up regulated in LUAD tissues compared with normal tissues. IGF2BP1 and HNRNPC are the independent risk factors for prognosis of LUAD. Abundant cross-talks among writers, erasers and readers were demonstrated. Three m6A modification patterns with different immune cell infiltration characteristics and clinical prognosis were established. Among m6A effectors, LRPPRC was found to be inversely associated with the infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages, and was validated in 68 LUAD tissues.@*CONCLUSIONS@#m6A modification patterns play non-negligible roles in regulating the immune microenvironment. LRPPRC has potential to be a new biomarker for checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/pathology , Adenosine/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Methylation , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 266-271, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928808

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that tumor immune microenvironment is closely related to tumor progression, metastasis, recurrence and response to treatment. Some immunotherapies also offer hope for cancer patients. However, the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy is uncertain and has some side effects. In order to enhance its efficacy, tumor immunotherapy combined with tumor thermal ablation has been studied. Thermal ablation has the advantages of minimally invasive, rapid recovery, safety, fewer complications, conformation, reliable effect, repeatable, low cost, and has become the fourth tumor treatment measure after surgery, radiotherapy, and drug therapy. It can directly kill tumor cells and modulate the immune system through a variety of mechanisms, although the corresponding mechanisms are not well understood, but combined tumor immunotherapy has been proposed to treat several solid malignancies. In this review, the current status and progress of thermal ablation combined with immunotherapy for lung tumor were reviewed, and further studies on the efficacy and safety of thermal ablation combined with immunotherapy were expected.
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Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Hyperthermia, Induced , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 207-213, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928799

ABSTRACT

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells are the most essential components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). They communicate with each other in tumor microenvironment and play a critical role in tumorigenesis and development. CAFs are very heterogeneous and different subtypes of CAFs display different functions. At the same time, it can contribute to the regulation of the function of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and eventually result in the carcinogenesis, tumor progression, invasion, metastasis and other biological behaviors of tumors by producting various growth factors and cytokines etc. Based on the current research results at home and abroad, this paper reviews the recent research progress on the regulation of CAFs on infiltrating immune cells in tumor microenvironment.
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Subject(s)
Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/metabolism , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928777

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality in China. Therefore, the research on the treatment of lung cancer is also deepening. At present, there are mainly systemic chemotherapy, targeted therapy for positive driver genes, the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors, anti-tumor angiogenesis therapy and the combination of the different treatment methods mentioned above. The use of these regimens has significantly improved the prognosis of most lung cancer patients, but the prognosis of patients with advanced lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the study of tumor microenvironment (TME). TME consists of immune cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and other cellular components as well as related cytokines, which is the basis for the survival and development of tumor cells. As an important immune cell of TME, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) refer to macrophages infiltrating in tumor tissues, which can promote tumor cell proliferation, induce tumor immune tolerance, stimulate tumor angiogenesis, and increase the invasion and metastasis ability of tumor cells. Therefore, targeting TAMs has become a hot topic in lung cancer immunotherapy. In this review, the sources, phenotypes, mechanisms of TAMs in lung cancer, as well as future therapeutic targets of TAMs were reviewed to provide reference for optimal treatment of lung cancer.
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Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor-Associated Macrophages
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of acute myeloid leukemia cells in leukemia-microenvironment on proliferation and apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC).@*METHODS@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) murine models overexpressing MLL-AF9 were established. The number of BM-MSC of wild type (WT) and AML-derived mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. Morphology and growth differences between WT and AML-derived BM-MSC were analyzed by inverted fluorescence microscope. Proliferation and apoptosis of BM-MSC between these two groups were detected by Brdu and Annexin V/PI.@*RESULTS@#Compared with WT-derived BM-MSC, the number and proliferation rate of AML-derived BM-MSC significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.001), while apoptosis rate decreased (P<0.05). When cultured in vitro, BM-MSC grew faster under conditional medium.@*CONCLUSION@#AML cells can promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of BM-MSC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish an immune gene prognostic model of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and explore its correlation with immune cells in bone marrow microenvironment.@*METHODS@#Gene expression profile and clinical data of TCGA-AML were downloaded from TCGA database. Immune genes were screened by LASSO analysis to construct prognosis prediction model, and prediction accuracy of the model was quantified by receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve. Survival analysis was performed by Log-rank test. Enriched pathways in the different immune risk subtypes were evaluated from train cohort. The relationship between immune prediction model and bone marrow immune microenvironment was verified by flow cytometry in the real world.@*RESULTS@#Patients with low-risk score of immune gene model had better prognosis than those with high-risk score. Multivariate analysis showed that the immune gene risk model was an independent prognostic factor. The risk ratio for AML patients in the training concentration was HR=24.594 (95%CI: 6.180-97.878), and the AUC for 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival rate was 0.811, 0.815, and 0.837, respectively. In addition, enrichment analysis of differential gene sets indicated activation of immune-related pathways such as cytokines and chemokines as well as autoimmune disease-related pathways. At the same time, real world data showed that patients with high immune risk had lower numbers of CD8+T cells and B lymphocytes compared with low immune risk patients.@*CONCLUSION@#We constructed a stable prognostic model for AML, which can not only predict the prognosis of AML, but also reveal the dysregulation of immune microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Transcriptome , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928713

ABSTRACT

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a kind of the most common hematopoietic malignancy, its recurrence and drug resistance are closely related to the bone marrow microenvironment. Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) is an important part of the bone marrow microenvironment and their interaction with leukemia cells cannot be ignored. BMSC participates in and regulate signaling pathways related to proliferation or apoptosis of ALL cells by secretes cytokines or extracellular matrix proteins, thus affecting the survival of ALL cells. In this review, the research advance of several signaling pathways of the interaction between BMSC and ALL cells was summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Stromal Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928711

ABSTRACT

In recent years, studies have found that mitochondrial transfer between leukemic cells and different types of cells in their bone marrow microenvironment, especially mesenchymal stem cells, plays a key role in the occurrence, development and drug resistance of hematological malignant tumors. This paper mainly introduces the role and latest research progress of mitochondrial transfer in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and multiple myeloma, and briefly describes the mechanism of drug resistance caused by mitochondrial transfer in leukemic cells during chemotherapy. The aim is to provide a new idea and theoretical basis for using intercellular mitochondrial transfer as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Hematologic Neoplasms/metabolism , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mitochondria , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of JAG1 on the malignant phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and its role in angiogenesis in breast cancer microenvironment.@*METHODS@#The expressions of Notch molecules were detected in human TNBC 231 and 231B cells using RT-qPCR. Five female nude mice were inoculated with 231 cells and another 5 with 231B cells into the mammary fat pads, and 4-6 weeks later, the tumors were collected for immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence tests. 231 cells and 231B cells were treated with recombinant JAG (rJAG) protein and DAPT, respectively, and changes in their malignant phenotypes were assessed using CCK-8 assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, wound healing assay, Transwell chamber assay and endothelial cell adhesion assay. Western blotting was used to detect the changes in the expressions of proteins related with the malignant phenotypes of 231 and 231B cells. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) derived from untreated 231 and 231 B cells, rJAG1-treated 231 cells and DAPT-treated 231B cells on proliferation and tube formation ability of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated using CCK-8 assay and tube-forming assay.@*RESULTS@#The expression of JAG1 was higher in 231B cells than in 231 cells (P < 0.05). Tumor 231B showed higher expression of VEGFA and CD31. Compared with 231-Blank group, the migration, invasion and adhesion of 231 cells in 231-rJAG1 were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05). Protein levels of Twist1 and Snail increased (P < 0.01), anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 increased (P < 0.05), while DAPT inhibited the related phenomena and indicators of 231B. The 231-rJAG1-CM increased the cell number and tubule number of HUVEC (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JAG1 may affect the malignant phenotype of TNBC and promote angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Culture Media, Conditioned , Female , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Jagged-1 Protein/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Sincalide/metabolism , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 728-736, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940933

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role and mechanism of tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells in regulating the M2 polarization of macrophages within gastric cancer microenvironment. Methods: Gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent non-cancerous tissues were collected from patients underwent gastric cancer resection in the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang during 2018. In our study, THP-1-differentiated macrophages were co-cultured with gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs). Then, the M2 subtype-related gene, the markers expressed on cell surface and the cytokine profile were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry and Luminex liquid chip, respectively. The key cytokines mediating the inducing effect of GC-MSCs on macrophage polarization into the M2 subtype were detected and screened by Luminex liquid chip, which were further confirmed by the neutralizing antibody test. The expressions of macrophage proteins involved in M2 polarization-related signaling pathways under the different co-culture conditions of GC-MSCs were detected by western blot. Results: In Mac+ GC-MSC-culture medium (CM) group, the expression levels of Ym-1 and Fizz-1 (1.53±0.32 and 13.22±1.05, respectively), which are markers for M2 subtype, were both significantly higher than those of Mac group (1.00±0.05 and 1.21±0.38, respectively, P<0.05). The level of iNOS in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.60±0.41) was significantly lower than that of Mac group (1.06±0.38, P=0.023). In Mac+ GC-MSC-Transwell (TW) group, the expression levels of Ym-1 and Fizz-1 (1.47±0.09 and 13.16±2.77, respectively) were both significantly higher than those of Mac group (1.00±0.05 and 1.21±0.38, respectively, P<0.05). The level of iNOS in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.56±0.03) was significantly lower than that of Mac group (1.06±0.38, P=0.026). The ratios of CD163(+) /CD204(+) cells in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM and Mac+ GC-MSC-TW groups (3.80% and 4.40%, respectively) were both remarkably higher than that of Mac group (0.60%, P<0.05). The expression levels of IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1 and VEGF in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group were (592.60±87.52), (1 346.80±64.70), (11 256.00±29.03) and (1 463.90±66.67) pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of Mac group [(41.03±2.59), (17.35±1.79), (5 213.30±523.71) and (267.12±12.06) pg/ml, respectively, P<0.05]. The levels of TNF-α, IP-10, RANTES and MIP-1α were (95.57±9.34), (410.48±40.68), (6 967.30±1.29) and (1 538.70±283.04) pg/ml, which were significantly lower than those of Mac group [(138.01±24.31, (1 298.60±310.50), (14 631.00±4.21) and (6 633.20±1.47) pg/ml, respectively, P<0.05]. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in GC-MSCs [(11 185.02±2.82) and (12 718.03±370.17) pg/ml, respectively] were both strikingly higher than those of MSCs from adjacent non-cancerous gastric cancer tissues [(270.71±59.38) and (106.04±32.84) pg/ml, repectively, P<0.05]. The ratios of CD86(+) cells in Mac+ IL-6-blocked-GC-MSC-CM and Mac+ IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM groups (28.80% and 31.40%, respectively) were both higher than that of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (24.70%). Compared to Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (13.70%), the ratios of CD204(+) cells in Mac+ IL-6-blocked-GC-MSC-CM and Mac+ IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM groups (9.90% and 8.70%, separately) were reduced. The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, which are proteins of macrophage M2 polarization-related signaling pathway, in Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01 and 1.08±0.01, respectively) were significantly higher than those of Mac group (0.50±0.01 and 0.82±0.01, respectively, P<0.05). The expression levels of p-JAK2 in Mac+ IL-6-blocked-GC-MSC-CM group (0.47±0.02) were significantly lower those that of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01, P<0.05). The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in Mac+ IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM group (0.50±0.01 and 0.85±0.01, respectively) were both significantly lower than those of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01 and 1.08±0.01, P<0.05). The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in Mac+ IL-6/IL-8-blocked-GC-MSC-CM group (0.37±0.01 and 0.65±0.01, respectively) were both significantly lower than those of Mac+ GC-MSC-CM group (0.86±0.01 and 1.08±0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: GC-MSCs promote the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in macrophages via high secretions of IL-6 and IL-8, which subsequently induce the macrophage polarization into a pro-tumor M2 subtype within gastric cancer microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/pharmacology , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify specific Chinese medicines (CM) that may benefit patients with primary liver cancer (PLC), and to explore the mechanism of action of these medicines.@*METHODS@#In this retrospective, singlecenter study, prescription information from PLC patients was used in combination with Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Supports System to identify the specific core drugs. A system pharmacology approach was employed to explore the mechanism of action of these medicines.@*RESULTS@#Taking CM more than 6 months was significantly associated with improved survival outcomes. In total, 77 putative targets and 116 bioactive ingredients of the core drugs were identified and included in the analysis (P<0.05). A total of 1,036 gene ontology terms were found to be enriched in PLC. A total of 75 pathways identified from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were also enriched in this disease, including fluid shear stress, interleukin-17 signaling, signaling between advanced glycan end products and their receptors, cellular senescence, tumor necrosis factor signaling, p53 signaling, cell cycle signaling, steroid hormone biosynthesis, T-helper 17 cell differentiation, and metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome. Docking studies suggested that the ingredients in the core drugs exert therapeutic effects in PLC by modulating c-Jun and interleukin-6.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Receiving CM for 6 months or more improves survival for the patients with PLC. The core drugs that really benefit for PLC patients likely regulates the tumor microenvironment and tumor itself.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 460-467, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939732

ABSTRACT

Adenosine is a metabolite produced abundantly in the tumor microenvironment, dampening immune response in inflamed tissues via adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) which is widely expressed on immune cells, inhibiting anti-tumor immune response accordingly. Therefore, blocking adenosine signaling pathway is of potential to promote anti-tumor immunity. This review briefly introduces adenosine signaling pathway, describes its role in regulating tumor immunity and highlights A2AR blockade in cancer therapy. Prospective anti-tumor activity of adenosine/A2AR inhibition has been revealed by preclinical data, and a number of clinical trials of A2AR antagonists are under way. Primary results from clinical trials suggest that A2AR antagonists are well tolerated in cancer patients and are effective both as monotherapy and in combination with other therapies. In the future, finding predictive biomarkers are critical to identify patients most likely to benefit from adenosine pathway blockade, and further researches are needed to rationally combine A2AR antagonists with other anti-tumor therapies.
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Subject(s)
Adenosine/therapeutic use , Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
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