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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250556, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360208

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are 30-120nm bio particles transferred from donor to recipient cells leading to modification in their regulatory mechanisms depending upon the coded message in the form of loaded biomolecule. Cancer cells derived exosomes the true representatives of the parent cells have been found to modify the tumor surrounding/distinct regions and participate in metastasis, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Tis study was aimed to study the effects of tumor mice derived exosomes on the normal mice spleen isolated T cells by using co-culture experiments and flow cytometer analysis. We mainly focused on some of the T cells population and cytokines including IFN-γ, FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and KI67 (proliferation marker). Overall results indicated random changes in different set of experiments, where the cancer derived exosomes reduced the IFN-γ expression in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, similarly the Treg cells were also found decreased in the presence of cancer exosomes. No significant changes were observed on the Ki67 marker expression. Such studies are helpful in understanding the role of cancer exosomes in immune cells suppression in tumor microenvironment. Cancer exosomes will need to be validated in vivo and in vitro on a molecular scale in detail for clinical applications.


Os exossomos são biopartículas de 30-120 nm transferidas de células doadoras para células receptoras, levando à modificação em seus mecanismos reguladores, dependendo da mensagem codificada na forma de biomolécula carregada. Verificou-se que exossomos derivados de células cancerosas ­ os verdadeiros representantes das células-mãe ­ modificam as regiões circundantes / distintas do tumor e participam da metástase, angiogênese e imunossupressão. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de exossomos derivados de camundongos com tumor nas células T isoladas de baço de camundongos normais, usando experimentos de cocultura e análise de citômetro de fluxo. Concentrou-se, principalmente, em algumas populações de células T e citocinas, incluindo IFN-γ, células T reguladoras FOXP3 + (Treg) e KI67 (marcador de proliferação). Os resultados gerais indicaram mudanças aleatórias em diferentes conjuntos de experimentos, em que os exossomos derivados de câncer reduziram a expressão de IFN-γ em células T CD4 e CD8, da mesma forma que as células Treg também foram encontradas diminuídas na presença de exossomos de câncer. Nenhuma mudança significativa foi observada na expressão do marcador Ki67. Esses dados são úteis para a compreensão do papel dos exossomos do câncer na supressão de células do sistema imunológico no microambiente tumoral. Exossomos de câncer precisarão ser validados in vivo e in vitro em escala molecular com detalhes para aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Exosomes , Tumor Microenvironment , Immune System , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2419-2425, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981318

ABSTRACT

This study combined the herbal pair Platycodonis Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma(PR-CR) possessing an inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation and metastasis with the active component of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) silibinin-loaded nanoparticles(NPs) with a regulatory effect on tumor microenvironment based on the joint effect on tumor cells and tumor microenvironment to inhi-bit cell metastasis. The effects of PR-CR on the cellular uptake of NPs and in vitro inhibition against breast cancer proliferation and metastasis were investigated to provide an experimental basis for improving nanoparticle absorption and enhancing therapeutic effects. Silibinin-loaded lipid-polymer nanoparticles(LPNs) were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The NPs were spherical or quasi-spherical in shape with obvious core-shell structure. The mean particle size was 107.4 nm, Zeta potential was-27.53 mV. The cellular uptake assay was performed by in vitro Caco-2/E12 coculture cell model and confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM), and the results indicated that PR-CR could promote the uptake of NPs. Further, in situ intestinal absorption assay by the CLSM vertical scanning approach showed that PR-CR could promote the absorption of NPs in the enterocytes of mice. The inhibitory effect of NPs on the proliferation and migration of 4T1 cells was analyzed using 4T1 breast cancer cells and co-cultured 4T1/WML2 cells, respectively. The results of the CCK8 assay showed that PR-CR-containing NPs could enhance the inhibition against the proliferation of 4T1 breast cancer cells. The wound healing assay indicated that PR-CR-containing NPs enhanced the inhibition against the migration of 4T1 breast cancer cells. This study enriches the research on oral absorption of TCM NPs and also provides a new idea for utilizing the advantages of TCM to inhibit breast cancer metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Female , Silymarin/therapeutic use , Caco-2 Cells , Polymers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 512-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981299

ABSTRACT

Multiple myeloma(MM)is a systemic malignancy of plasma cells.Nowadays,the basic research on MM is flourishing with the continuous optimization and innovation of mouse models of MM.Heterologous mouse models of MM established with human-derived cells and immunodeficient mice have been applied in assessing drug efficacy,exploring drug resistance mechanisms,and observing tumor-bone marrow microenvironment interactions.In the last decades,the homologous mouse models of MM established with murine-derived cells or gene-editing technologies have been widely used in the research on the pathogenesis and drug development.Additionally,the stable modeling of targeted organ injury will be a key problem to be tackled in this field.This review summarizes the characteristics and application progress of mouse models of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 471-478, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981293

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is one of the digestive system tumors with a high degree of malignancy,and most of the patients are diagnosed in advanced stages.Because of limited available therapies,the mortality of this disease remains high.Tumor-associated macrophages(TAM),the main immune cells in the tumor microenvironment,are involved in the regulation of the occurrence and development of pancreatic cancer.Specifically,TAM are involved in the proliferation,invasion,immune escape,and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells,demonstrating potential in the targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.In this paper,we summarize the TAM-based therapies including consuming TAM,reprogramming TAM,dynamic imaging of TAM with nanoprobes,and regulating the phagocytic ability of TAM for pancreatic cancer,aiming to provide a theoretical basis for developing new therapies for pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor-Associated Macrophages , Macrophages , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 290-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981266

ABSTRACT

Although the development of novel drugs has significantly improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) over the past decades,the lack of effective therapeutic options for relapsed and refractory MM results in poor prognosis.The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has achieved considerable progress in relapsed and refractory MM.Nevertheless,this therapy still has limitations such as cytokine release syndrome,neurotoxicity,and off-target effects.Natural killer (NK) cells,as a critical component of the innate immune system,play an essential role in tumor immunosurveillance.Therefore,CAR-modified NK (CAR-NK) cells are put forward as a therapeutic option for MM.The available studies have suggested that multiple targets can be used as specific therapeutic targets for CAR-NK cell therapy and confirmed their antitumor effects in MM cell lines and animal models.This review summarizes the anti-tumor mechanisms,biological characteristics,and dysfunction of NK cells in the MM tumor microenvironment,as well as the basic and clinical research progress of CAR-NK cells in treating MM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1403-1424, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981146

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors are diseases that seriously threaten human health and social development. Traditional tumor therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy cannot fully meet the needs of clinical treatment, and emerging immunotherapy has become a research hotspot in the field of tumor treatment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved as a tumor immunotherapy method for the treatment of various tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer, etc. However, during the clinical use of ICIs, only a small number of patients experienced durable responses, which also led to drug resistance and adverse reactions. Therefore, the identification and development of predictive biomarkers is crucial to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs. The predictive biomarkers of tumor ICIs mainly include tumor biomarkers, tumor microenvironment biomarkers, circulation-related biomarkers, host environmental biomarkers and combinatorial biomarkers. They are of great significance for screening, individualized treatment and prognosis evaluation of tumor patients. This article reviews the advances of predictive markers for tumor ICIs therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms , Biomarkers , Immunotherapy/methods , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 413-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981017

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer has an insidious onset and lacks effective treatment methods, which is one of the tumors with the worst prognosis, so it is urgent to explore new treatment directions. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the important hallmarks of tumors. Pancreatic cancer cells in the harsh tumor microenvironment have comprehensively increased cholesterol metabolism in order to maintain strong metabolic needs, and cancer associated fibroblasts also provide cancer cells with a large amount of lipids. Cholesterol metabolism reprogramming involves the changes in the synthesis, uptake, esterification and metabolites of cholesterol, which are closely related to the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and immunosuppression of pancreatic cancer. Inhibition of cholesterol metabolism has obvious anti-tumor effect. In this paper, the important effects and complexity of cholesterol metabolism in pancreatic cancer were comprehensively reviewed from perspectives of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, energy interaction between tumor-related cells, key targets of cholesterol metabolism and its targeted drugs. Cholesterol metabolism has a strict regulation and feedback mechanism, and the effect of single-target drugs in clinical application is not clear. Therefore, multi-target therapy of cholesterol metabolism is a new direction for pancreatic cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 423-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986809

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) is common and has been considered as the terminal stage. The theory of "seed and soil" and "oligometastasis" are the acknowledged hypotheses of pathogenesis of pmCRC. In recent years, the molecular mechanism related to pmCRC has been deeply researched. We realize that the formation of peritoneal metastasis, from detachment of cells from primary tumor to mesothelial adhesion and invasion, depends on the interplay of multiple molecules. Various components of tumor microenvironment also work as regulators in this process. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been widely used in clinical practice as an established treatment for pmCRC. Besides systemic chemotherapy, targeted and immunotherapeutic drugs are also increasingly used to improve prognosis. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms and treatment strategies related to pmCRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Peritoneal Neoplasms/secondary , Hyperthermia, Induced , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures , Survival Rate , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 347-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985678

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and possible mechanisms of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors. Methods: The clinical and imaging data, histology and immunophenotypic characteristics of three cases of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors diagnosed at the Ruijin Hospital, Medical College of the Shanghai Jiaotong University, from 2016 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The mean age of the three patients was 32 years. Case 1 had an elevated preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level (810.18 μg/L) and underwent "radical pancreaticoduodenectomy and retroperitoneal lesion resection" for a retroperitoneal mass. Postoperative pathology showed embryonal carcinoma, which needed to exclude gonadal metastasis. Color Doppler ultrasound showed a solid mass of the right testis, with hypoechoic lesion and scattered calcification in some areas. Case 2 was a "right supraclavicular lymph node biopsy specimen." Chest X-ray showed multiple metastases in both lungs. The biopsy showed metastatic embryonic carcinoma and bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasound revealed abnormal calcifications in the right testicle. Case 3 showed a cystic mass of the right testis with calcification and solid areas. All 3 patients underwent radical right orchiectomy. Grossly, borders of the testicular scar areas were well defined. Cross sectioning of the tumors showed a gray-brown cut surface and single focus or multiple foci of the tumor. The tumor maximum diameter was 0.6-1.5 cm. Microscopically, lymphocytes, plasma cells infiltration, tubular hyalinization, clustered vascular hyperplasia and hemosiderin laden macrophages were found in the scar. Atrophic and sclerotic seminiferous tubules, proliferation of clustered Leydig cells and small or coarse granular calcifications in seminiferous tubules were present around the scar. Seminoma and germ cell neoplasia in situ were seen in case 1, germ cell neoplasia in situ was seen in case 2 and germ cells with atypical hyperplasia were seen in case 3. Immunohistochemistry showed that embryonic carcinoma expressed SALL4, CKpan(AE1/AE3) and CD30, seminoma and germ cell tumor in situ expressed OCT3/4, SALL4 and CD117, and spermatogenic cells with atypical hyperplasia expressed CD99 and SALL4. The Ki-67 positive index was about 20%, while OCT3/4 and CD117 were both negative. Conclusions: Burned-out testicular germ cell tumors are rare. The possibility of gonad testicular metastasis should be considered first for extragonadal germ cell tumor. If fibrous scar is found in testis, it must be determined whether it is a burned-out testicular germ cell tumor. The burned-out mechanisms may be related to the microenvironment of tumor immune-mediated and local ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Seminoma/secondary , Cicatrix/pathology , Hyperplasia , Retrospective Studies , China , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Calcinosis , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 102-106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971238

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) significantly reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis and prolong survival in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but drug resistance is often inevitable. Immunotherapy has been proven effective in multiple solid tumors, but the efficacy in GIST is unclear. The efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune checkpoints are important components of TME, which not only participate in the regulation of tumor immune response but are also the key target of immunotherapy. A comprehensive analysis of them can clarify the mechanism of tumor immune escape. This review found that there are abundant tumor-infiltrating immune cells in GIST, which play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and escape. Although early clinical studies have shown that patients with GIST have a good tolerance to immunotherapy, the curative effect is not satisfactory. Therefore, how to select the responders of immunotherapy and coordinate the relationship between immunotherapy and TKIs is the key issue to be explored. At the same time, the gradual deepening of basic research and large sample prospective clinical trials will certainly provide more strategies for the application of immunotherapy in GIST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Immunotherapy/methods , Tumor Microenvironment , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 66-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971181

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has significantly improved clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, along with the popularization of immunotherapy, immune resistance has become an unavoidable problem. Immunotherapy can induce extensive cellular and molecular alterations in the tumor microenvironment. Considering the mechanisms of immune resistance are not yet fully understood and the efficacy of standard chemotherapy regimens is limited, more effective coping strategies based on resistance mechanisms are urgently needed. In this review, we intend to summarize the known mechanisms of immune resistance and feasible strategies, so as to provide a foundation for clinicians to develop more individualized and precise regimens and finally improve patients' prognosis.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prognosis , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 59-65, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971180

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy has shown remarkable success in treating hematological malignancies. However, CAR-T therapy for solid tumors is still limited due to the unique solid-tumor microenvironment and heterogeneous target antigen expression, which leads to an urgent need of combining other therapies. At present, nano delivery system has become one of the most promising directions for the development of anti-tumor drugs. Based on the background of CAR-T and tumor treatment, we focus on the research progress of nanomedicine combined with CAR-T therapy, and systematically review the strategies and examples in recent years in the aspects of in vivo delivery of mRNA, regulation of tumor microenvironment, combination with photothermal therapy. And we also look forward to the future direction of this filed.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use
13.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 46-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971178

ABSTRACT

Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing member/chemokine-like factor superfamily member (CMTM/CKLFSF) including CKLF and CMTM1-CMTM8 are a new family of proteins linking chemokines and transmembrane superfamilies. CMTM not only have broad chemotactic activities, but also associate with hematopoietic system, immune system, and tumor development and metastasis closely. CMTM proteins are involved in key biological processes of cancer development, which include activation and recycling of growth factor receptors, cell proliferation and metastasis, and regulation of the tumor immune microenvironment. This is a new focus of research on the relationship between CMTM and tumors, because CMTM4/CMTM6 can be considered as a regulator for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). This paper reviews the role of CMTM family members on cancer, especially in tumor growth, metastasis and immune escape, summarize the latest findings on the relationship between CMTM and non-small cell lung cancer, and explores the potential clinical value of CMTM as a novel drug target or biomarker.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms , MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Chemokines/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 297-300, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971140

ABSTRACT

The multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematologic malignancy, is malignant proliferative disease of plasma cells. Although the application of many targeted drugs has significantly prolonged the survival time of MM patients, it is still an incurable disease. In recent years, the immunosuppression caused by interaction between tumor microenvironment(TME) and tumor cells has attracted people's attention gradually. As a kind of immunosuppressive cells in TME, regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the progress of MM. Treg is related to the proliferation and metastasis of tumors, and can lead to the progress of MM by promoting the angiogenesis and generating immunosuppressive TME. In this review, we briefly summarized the latest research progress on the impact of Treg on the pathogenesis of MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Plasma Cells/pathology , Immunosuppression Therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 154-161, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of adipocytes in the bone marrow microenvironment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) on the pathogenesis of MM.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow adipocytes (BMA) in bone marrow smears of health donors (HD) and newly diagnosed MM (ND-MM) patients were evaluated with oil red O staining. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from HD and ND-MM patients were isolated, and in vitro co-culture assay was used to explore the effects of MM cells on the adipogenic differentiation of MSC and the role of BMA in the survival and drug resistance of MM cells. The expression of adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation-related genes PPAR-γ, DLK1, DGAT1, FABP4, FASN and ALP both in MSC and MSC-derived adipocytes was determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The Western blot was employed to detect the expression levels of IL-6, IL-10, SDF-1α, TNF-α and IGF-1 in the supernatant with or without PPAR-γ inhibitor.@*RESULTS@#The results of oil red O staining of bone marrow smears showed that BMA increased significantly in patients of ND-MM compared with the normal control group, and the BMA content was related to the disease status. The content of BMA decreased in the patients with effective chemotherapy. MM cells up-regulated the expression of MSC adipogenic differentiation-related genes PPAR-γ, DLK1, DGAT1, FABP4 and FASN, but the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related gene ALP was significantly down-regulated. This means that the direct consequence of the interaction between MM cells and MSC in the bone marrow microenvironment is to promote the differentiation of MSC into adipocytes at the expense of osteoblasts, and the cytokines detected in supernatant changed. PPAR-γ inhibitor G3335 could partially reverse the release of cytokines by BMA. Those results confirmed that BMA regulated the release of cytokines via PPAR-γ signal, and PPAR-γ inhibitor G3335 could distort PPAR-γ mediated BMA maturation and cytokines release. The increased BMA and related cytokines effectively promoted the proliferation, migration and drug resistance of MM cells.@*CONCLUSION@#The BMA and its associated cytokines are the promoting factors in the survival, proliferation and migration of MM cells. BMA can protect MM cells from drug-induced apoptosis and plays an important role in MM treatment failure and disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Adipogenesis , Cytokines/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , PPAR gamma/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 71-75, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the regulatory effect of chidamide on CD8+ T cells in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of CXCL9 and CXCL3 mRNA in Jurkat cells, lymphocytes treated with chidamide and lymphocytes co-cultured with chidamide-treated Jurkat cells were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. The proportion of CD8+ T cells in lymphocytes treated with chidamide and lymphocytes co-cultured with chidamide-treated Jurkat cells was determined by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#Chidamide upregulated CXCL9 mRNA expression in Jurkat cell line in a dose-dependent manner (r=0.950). The mRNA expression of CXCL9 in chidamide 5 μmol/L group was 164 times higher than that in control group. Chidamide upregulated CXCL9 mRNA expression in lymphocytes, but the up-regulated level was significantly lower than that in Jurkat cell line treated with the same concentration of chidamide. Co-culture with chidamide treated Jurkat cells upregulated the proportion of CD8+ T cells in lymphocytes.@*CONCLUSION@#In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chidamide may increase the concentration of CXCL9 in the tumor microenvironment by up-regulating the expression of CXCL9 in tumor cells, leading to an increase in the number of CD8+ T cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Jurkat Cells , RNA, Messenger , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971022

ABSTRACT

Although immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment and achieved remarkable success across many different cancer types, only a subset of patients shows meaningful clinical responses. In particular, advanced prostate cancer exhibits overwhelming de novo resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. This is primarily due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer. Therefore, it is paramount to understand how prostate cancer cell-intrinsic mechanisms promote immune evasion and foster an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here, we review recent findings that reveal the roles of the genetic alterations, androgen receptor signaling, cancer cell plasticity, and oncogenic pathways in shaping the immunosuppressive microenvironment and thereby driving immunotherapy resistance. Based on preclinical and clinical observations, a variety of therapeutic strategies are being developed that may illuminate new paths to enhance immunotherapy efficacy in prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 260-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970189

ABSTRACT

Gallbladder cancer(GBC)is one common type of bile tract cancers with poor prognosis. This review summarizes the recent development of studies about somatic mutation, molecular subtype, microenvironment heterogeneity, organoid, orthotopic model, patient-derived xenograft and clinical translation on GBC in aspects of genomic,transcriptome,single cell omics and clinical translation. We expect this review will provide new ideas on dissecting molecular mechanisms underlying the development and emerging chemoresistance of GBC following therapy and promote GBC precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gallbladder Neoplasms/genetics , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 184-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Breast cancer patients who are positive for hormone receptor typically exhibit a favorable prognosis. It is controversial whether chemotherapy is necessary for them after surgery. Our study aimed to establish a multigene model to predict the relapse of hormone receptor-positive early-stage Chinese breast cancer after surgery and direct individualized application of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients after surgery.@*METHODS@#In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between relapse and nonrelapse breast cancer groups based on RNA sequencing. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to identify potential relapse-relevant pathways. CIBERSORT and Microenvironment Cell Populations-counter algorithms were used to analyze immune infiltration. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, log-rank tests, and multiple Cox regression were performed to identify prognostic signatures. A predictive model was developed and validated based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC).@*RESULTS@#A total of 234 out of 487 patients were enrolled in this study, and 1588 DEGs were identified between the relapse and nonrelapse groups. GSEA results showed that immune-related pathways were enriched in the nonrelapse group, whereas cell cycle- and metabolism-relevant pathways were enriched in the relapse group. A predictive model was developed using three genes ( CKMT1B , SMR3B , and OR11M1P ) generated from the LASSO regression. The model stratified breast cancer patients into high- and low-risk subgroups with significantly different prognostic statuses, and our model was independent of other clinical factors. Time-dependent ROC showed high predictive performance of the model.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A multigene model was established from RNA-sequencing data to direct risk classification and predict relapse of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in Chinese patients. Utilization of the model could provide individualized evaluation of chemotherapy after surgery for breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , East Asian People , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Breast , Algorithms , Chronic Disease , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 253-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970071

ABSTRACT

Integrins are a family of transmembrane receptors that connect the extracellular matrix and actin skeleton, which mediate cell adhesion, migration, signal transduction, and gene transcription. As a bi-directional signaling molecule, integrins can modulate many aspects of tumorigenesis, including tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, integrins have a great potential as antitumor therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the recent reports of integrins in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), focusing on the abnormal expression, activation, and signaling of integrins in cancer cells as well as their roles in other cells in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the regulation and functions of integrins in hepatitis B virus-related HCC. Finally, we update the clinical and preclinical studies of integrin-related drugs in the treatment of HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Adhesion , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Tumor Microenvironment
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