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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e201090, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hydrogels are used for wound treatment, as they may contain one or more active components and protect the wound bed. Papain is one of the active substances that have been used with this purpose, alongside urea. In this paper, carboxypolymethylene hydrogels containing papain (2% and 10% concentrations) and urea (5% concentration) were produced. Physical-chemical stability was performed at 0, 7, 15 and 30 days at 2-8ºC, 25ºC and 40ºC, as well as the rheological aspects and proteolytic activity of papain by gel electrophoresis. Clinical efficacy of the formulations in patients with lower limb ulcers was also evaluated in a prospective, single-center, randomized, double-blind and comparative clinical trial. The results showed 7-day stability for the formulations under 25ºC, in addition to approximately 100% and 15% of protein activity for 10% and 2% papain hydrogel, respectively. The rheological profile was non-Newtonian for the 10% papain hydrogel tested. There were no significant differences regarding the mean time for healing of the lesions, although 10% papain presented a better approach to be used in all types of tissue present in the wound bed.


Subject(s)
Urea/adverse effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Papain/adverse effects , Hydrogels/analysis , Wounds and Injuries/classification , Electrophoresis/instrumentation
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170573, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives A single-blinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial evaluated the use of 37% carbamide peroxide (CP) on bleaching effectiveness and tooth sensitivity reported by patients undergoing in-office tooth bleaching, in comparison with the results of using 35% hydrogen peroxide. Material and Methods Forty patients were allocated to receive two sessions of in-office tooth bleaching using either 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) or 37% CP. Each patient's sensitivity level was evaluated during and up to 24 h after bleaching. The effectiveness of the bleaching procedures was evaluated with a spectrophotometer one week after each session and 30 days after the last session. The impact of tooth bleaching on the patients' perceptions regarding smile changes, in addition to the bleaching procedures and their results, were also recorded. Absolute and relative sensitivity risks were calculated. Data on sensitivity level were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney or T-test, and data from the color evaluation were subjected to 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results The use of CP reduced the risk and level of tooth sensitivity to values close to zero, whereas the difference between the bleaching agents disappeared after 24 h. An increased bleaching effect was observed for HP, mainly due to an improved reduction of redness and yellowness. Participants perceived improved tooth bleaching for HP and reduced sensitivity for CP, but no differences regarding the comfort of the techniques were noted. Conclusions In our study, 37% CP resulted in reduced tooth sensitivity but decreased the tooth bleaching effectiveness. However, both bleaching agents resulted in high levels of patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin Sensitivity/prevention & control , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Peroxides/adverse effects , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Visual Analog Scale , Carbamide Peroxide , Hydrogen Peroxide/adverse effects
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170284, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893698

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate dental sensitivity using visual analogue scale, a Computerized Visual Analogue Scale (CoVAS) and a neurosensory analyzer (TSA II) during at-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide, with and without potassium oxalate. Materials and Methods Power Bleaching 10% containing potassium oxalate was used on one maxillary hemi-arch of the 25 volunteers, and Opalescence 10% was used on the opposite hemi-arch. Bleaching agents were used daily for 3 weeks. Analysis was performed before treatment, 24 hours later, 7, 14, and 21 days after the start of the treatment, and 7 days after its conclusion. The spontaneous tooth sensitivity was evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the sensitivity caused by a continuous 0°C stimulus was analyzed using CoVAS. The cold sensation threshold was also analyzed using the TSA II. The temperatures obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results The data obtained with the other methods were also analyzed. 24 hours, 7 and 14 days before the beginning of the treatment, over 20% of the teeth presented spontaneous sensitivity, the normal condition was restored after the end of the treatment. Regarding the cold sensation temperatures, both products sensitized the teeth (p<0.05) and no differences were detected between the products in each period (p>0.05). In addition, when they were compared using CoVAS, Power Bleaching caused the highest levels of sensitivity in all study periods, with the exception of the 14th day of treatment. Conclusion We concluded that the bleaching treatment sensitized the teeth and the product with potassium oxalate was not able to modulate tooth sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Pain Measurement/methods , Dentin Sensitivity/diagnosis , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Orotic Acid/therapeutic use , Peroxides/chemistry , Time Factors , Urea/adverse effects , Urea/chemistry , Severity of Illness Index , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Pain Threshold , Visual Analog Scale , Carbamide Peroxide
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-7, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777227

ABSTRACT

Dental bleaching has become one of the most frequently requested esthetic treatments in dental offices. Despite the high clinical success observed with this procedure, some adverse effects have been reported, including a potential for developing premalignant lesions, root resorption and tooth sensitivity, especially when misused. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic response using a micronucleus (MN) assay, after the application of two concentrations of carbamide peroxide. Thirty-seven patients were divided into two groups and randomly received either a 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) (19) or a 16% carbamide peroxide (18) concentration for 21 days in individual dental trays. Gingival margin cells were collected immediately before the first use (baseline), and then 15 and 45 days after baseline. The cells were placed on a histological slide, stained by the Feulgen technique, and evaluated by an experienced blinded examiner. One thousand cells per slide were counted, and the MN rate was determined. The two groups were analyzed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test. A slight increase in MN was observed for both groups, in comparison with the baseline, at 15 days. However, no difference was observed between the two groups (10% and 16%), at either 15 or 45 days (p = 0.90). When bleaching is not prolonged or not performed very frequently, bleaching agents containing carbamide peroxide alone will not cause mutagenic stress on gingival epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Gingiva/drug effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Micronucleus Tests , Mouth Mucosa/drug effects , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(5): 1487-1494, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729763

ABSTRACT

The effect of using conventional urea (CU) or slow release urea (SRU) was evaluated by replacing soybean meal (SBM) in concentrated supplements in levels of 2, 4 or 6% (dry matter basis) on productive performance of crossbred Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows (499±61kg body weight and 167 days of lactation) grazing on elephant grass (11.5% CP and 60% NDF) under rotational grazing during the rainy season. A supplement control (no urea) was used containing SBM as a protein source. A total of 21 cows were distributed an incomplete randomized block design with three periods of 21 days each (14 days of adaptation and seven days of collection). The animals entered the paddocks with a pasture height of 110-120cm and left when the grass reached the height of 40-50cm. The concentrated isonitrogenous supplements (24% crude protein, dry matter basis) were provided in the amount of 3.2kg/cow/day (fed basis). There was no effect (P>0.05) on source of crude protein (SBM vs source NPN), source NPN, level of NPN, interaction between source NPN and level of NPN on milk production (10.0kg/day), fat milk production corrected to 3.5% (10.7kg/day), levels of fat (4.01%), protein (3.66%), lactose (4.16%), total solids (12.86%) and non-fat solids (8.60%) in milk. The replacement of CU by SRU does not promote improvement in the productive performance of crossbred dairy cows grazing on elephant grass during the rainy season. Urea (CU or SRU) can be included in up to 6% of the DM concentrated supplements, replacing SBM, without affecting the productive performance of crossbred cows (Holstein x Zebu) in pasture during the rainy season...


Avaliou-se o efeito da utilização de ureia convencional (UC) ou de ureia de liberação lenta (ULL) em suplementos concentrados, nos níveis de 2, 4 ou 6% (base da matéria seca), em substituição ao farelo de soja, sobre o desempenho produtivo de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu (499±61kg de peso corporal e 167 dias de lactação) mantidas em pastos de capim-elefante (11,5% de proteína bruta e 60% de FDNcp), sob lotação intermitente, no período das chuvas. Um suplemento controle (sem ureia) foi utilizado contendo farelo de soja como fonte proteica. Foram utilizadas 21 vacas, distribuídas em delineamento em blocos incompletos balanceados, com três períodos de 21 dias cada (14 dias de adaptação e sete dias de coleta). Os animais entraram nos piquetes com altura do pasto de 110-120cm e saíram quando atingiram altura de 40-50cm. Os suplementos concentrados isonitrogenados (24% de proteína bruta, base da matéria seca) foram fornecidos na quantidade de 3,2kg/vaca/dia (base da matéria natural). Não houve efeito (P>0,05) de fonte de proteína bruta (farelo de soja vs. fonte de NNP), de interação entre fonte de NNP (UC vs. ULL) e nível de NNP (2, 4 e 6% na MS do suplemento), de fonte de NNP e de nível de NNP e sobre a produção de leite (10,0kg/dia), produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (10,7kg/dia), teores de gordura (4,01%), proteína (3,66%), lactose (4,16%), extrato seco total (12,86%) e extrato seco desengordurado (8,60%) no leite. A substituição da ureia convencional pela ULL não promove melhoria no desempenho produtivo de vacas leiteiras mestiças em pastagem de capim-elefante, no período das chuvas. A ureia (convencional ou de liberação lenta) pode ser incluída em até 6% na MS de suplementos concentrados, em substituição ao farelo de soja, sem afetar o desempenho produtivo de vacas mestiças (Holandês x Zebu) em pastagem, no período das chuvas...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Milk/adverse effects , Nitrogen , Pennisetum , Urea/adverse effects , Livestock Industry , Dietary Supplements/analysis
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(5): 517-521, Sep-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697629

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel and a 10% CP gel on mineralized enamel content and morphology. Enamel blocks from bovine incisors were subjected to a 14-day treatment (8 h/day) with 10% or 16% CP gels. Knoop microhardness was evaluated before bleaching and at 1, 7 or 14 days after this treatment (50 g/15 s). Mineral content (energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy), surface roughness and topography (atomic force microscopy) were evaluated at the 14-day period. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Significant microhardness reduction was observed at the 7 th and 14 th days for 10% CP gel, and for all bleaching times for 16% CP gel (p<0.05). At the 14-day period, a significant decrease in Ca and P content, increase on surface roughness (p<0.05) as well as on picks and valleys distance were observed when both bleaching gels were used. These enamel alterations were more intense for 16% CP gel. It was concluded that both CP-based gels promoted loss of mineral structure from enamel, resulting in a rough and porous surface. However, 16% CP gel caused the most intense adverse effects on enamel.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito de um gel com 16% de peróxido de carbamida (PC) sobre a estrutura mineral e morfologia do esmalte dental com os efeitos de um gel com 10% de PC. Blocos de esmalte provenientes de incisivos bovinos foram submetidos a 14 dias de tratamento (8 h/dia) com géis com 10 ou 16% de PC. A microdureza Knoop foi avaliada antes do clareamento e 1, 7 e 14 dias pós-tratamento (50 g/15 s). O conteúdo mineral (EDX), rugosidade de superfície e topografia (MFA) foram avaliados no período de 14 dias (ANOVA a dois critérios e teste de Tukey; α=0,05). Redução significante na microdureza foi observada nos períodos de 7 e 14 dias para o gel com 10% de PC, e em todos os períodos para o gel com 16% de PC (p<0,05). No período de 14 dias, uma diminuição significante no conteúdo de Ca e P, aumento na rugosidade de superfície (p<0,05), bem como na distância entre picos e vales foram observados para ambos os agentes clareadores usados. Estas alterações foram mais intensas para o gel com 16% de PC. Pôde-se concluir que ambos os géis à base de PC promoveram perda de estrutura mineral do esmalte, resultando em superfície mais rugosa e porosa. Porém, o gel com 16% de PC causou efeitos adversos mais intensos no esmalte dental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Gels , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(6): 1415-1422, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-576041

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se os efeitos da ureia protegida na produção e composição do leite, utilizando-se 34 vacas da raça Holandesa, com 128±60 dias em leite e produção de 41,6±6,7kg/dia no início do experimento, distribuídas em blocos por produção de leite, ordem de lactação e dias em lactação. As variáveis produção de leite, porcentagens e produções de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais do leite, contagem de células somáticas e nitrogênio ureico no leite foram mensuradas aos 30 e 60 dias do experimento. Os dados foram analisados por procedimento de modelos mistos com o modelo contendo como covariável as observações obtidas antes da adoção das dietas experimentais e os efeitos fixos de período, de tratamento e a interação de período versus tratamento. Os tratamentos (T) foram compostos por dietas isoenergéticas e isonitrogenadas com 1,66 EL L e 18,35 por cento de PB, definidas como: T1= 11,4 por cento farelo de soja e T2= 0,4 por cento ureia encapsulada + 9,0 por cento farelo de soja. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) nas produções diárias de leite e de sólidos, de nitrogênio ureico no leite e da contagem de células somáticas. A dieta com ureia protegida reduziu (P<0,05) as porcentagens de gordura e de sólidos totais do leite. A substituição parcial do farelo de soja por ureia protegida não reduziu o desempenho produtivo das vacas em lactação.


The effects of protected urea on milk yield and composition were evaluated. Thirty-four lactating Holstein cows, with 128±60 days in milk and yield of 41.6±6.7 kg/day at the beginning of the trial, were blocked by milk production, lactation number, and days in milk. Milk yield; yields and contents of fat, protein, lactose, total solids; somatic cell count; and milk urea nitrogen were measured on days 30 and 60 of the comparison period. Variables measured before the application of treatments were used as covariate in the statistical model. Data were analyzed with the mixed procedure of SAS with a model containing the continuous effect of the covariate and the fixed effects of period, treatment, and the interaction of period and treatment. Treatments (T) were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with 1.66 EL L and 18.35 percent of CP, described as: T1= 11.4 percent soybean meal and T2= 0.4 percent encapsulated urea + 9.0 percent soybean meal. There was no treatment effect (P>0.05) on the daily production of milk and solids, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. The slow release urea diet reduced (P<0.05) milk fat and total solids contents. The partial replacement of soybean meal by protected urea did not decrease the performance of lactating cows.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Food Production , Milk , Glycine max/adverse effects , Nitrogen/adverse effects , Urea/adverse effects
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(9): 3f749-753, set. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487576

ABSTRACT

No estudo das infecções e dos mecanismos inflamatórios do trato respiratório posterior, a diluição desconhecida de amostras de lavados traqueobrônquicos leva a um grave problema na interpretação das concentrações de várias substâncias. Foi investigada a amplitude da diluição em uma situação clínica verdadeira, com o objetivo de determinar a validez do uso da dosagem da ureia em lavados traqueobrônquicos para correção da diluição. As amostras do estudo consistiram em lavados traqueobrônquicos obtidos de sete potros com infecção por Rhodococcus equi. Foi realizada a contagem celular total e diferencial e comprado com o quadro clínico e a recuperação bacteriana de todas as amostras. Os fatores de diluição dos lavados variaram entre 14,3 e 130 (média 59,7). O uso da ureia como marcador de diluição melhorou a exatidão na determinação da concentração total de células nos lavados. Estes resultados sugerem que a prática de mensurar substâncias em lavado traqueobrônquico sem correção da diluição possa induzir a falsas conclusões.


In the study of infection and inflammatory mechanisms of the lower respiratory tract, the unknown dilution of tracheobronchial wash samples is a serious problem for interpretation of the measured concentrations of various substances. The range of dilution in a true clinical situation was investigated with the goal to determine the validity of using urea dosage in tracheobronchial wash to correct the dilution. The study samples consisted of tracheobronchial wash specimens from 7 foals with Rhodococcus equi infection. Total and differential cell counts were made and compared with clinical status and bacterial recuperation of all samples. The dilution factors of the nasal lavage specimens varied between 14.3 and 130 (median 59.7). The use of urea as a dilution mark improves the accuracy of quantifying total cell concentration in washes. These findings suggest that the most common current practice of meansuring substances in tracheobronchial wash, without correction for the dilution, may induce to false conclusions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Urea , Urea/adverse effects
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(9): 749-753, set. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-562958

ABSTRACT

No estudo das infecções e dos mecanismos inflamatórios do trato respiratório posterior, a diluição desconhecida de amostras de lavados traqueobrônquicos leva a um grave problema na interpretação das concentrações de várias substâncias. Foi investigada a amplitude da diluição em uma situação clínica verdadeira, com o objetivo de determinar a validez do uso da dosagem da ureia em lavados traqueobrônquicos para correção da diluição. As amostras do estudo consistiram em lavados traqueobrônquicos obtidos de sete potros com infecção por Rhodococcus equi. Foi realizada a contagem celular total e diferencial e comprado com o quadro clínico e a recuperação bacteriana de todas as amostras. Os fatores de diluição dos lavados variaram entre 14,3 e 130 (média 59,7). O uso da ureia como marcador de diluição melhorou a exatidão na determinação da concentração total de células nos lavados. Estes resultados sugerem que a prática de mensurar substâncias em lavado traqueobrônquico sem correção da diluição possa induzir a falsas conclusões.


In the study of infection and inflammatory mechanisms of the lower respiratory tract, the unknown dilution of tracheobronchial wash samples is a serious problem for interpretation of the measured concentrations of various substances. The range of dilution in a true clinical situation was investigated with the goal to determine the validity of using urea dosage in tracheobronchial wash to correct the dilution. The study samples consisted of tracheobronchial wash specimens from 7 foals with Rhodococcus equi infection. Total and differential cell counts were made and compared with clinical status and bacterial recuperation of all samples. The dilution factors of the nasal lavage specimens varied between 14.3 and 130 (median 59.7). The use of urea as a dilution mark improves the accuracy of quantifying total cell concentration in washes. These findings suggest that the most common current practice of meansuring substances in tracheobronchial wash, without correction for the dilution, may induce to false conclusions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Urea/adverse effects , Urea
11.
Braz. dent. j ; 20(1): 48-53, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-513913

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effect of 10 percent carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching on Knoop surface microhardness (KHN) and morphology of sound enamel and enamel with early artificial caries lesions (CL) after pH-cycling model (pHcm). Human dental enamel blocks were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10): 1 - sound enamel bleached (S) with CP (Rembrandt/Den-Mat); 2 - S and submitted to pHcm; 3 - CL bleached with CP; 4 - CL stored in artificial saliva and submitted to pHcm; 5 - CL treated with placebo gel and submitted to pHcm; 6 - CL bleached with CP and submitted to pHcm. Enamel blocks with known initial KHN values were demineralized (groups 3 to 6) and submitted to 12 day pHcm (groups 2, 4, 5 and 6). After demineralization and treatments, KHN was determined and the specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5 percent significance level. The results showed that among CL groups (3 to 6) only the group 3 presented remineralization after treatments. S groups (1 and 2) showed higher KHN and presented less formation of porosities on enamel surface than CL groups after treatments. In conclusion, bleaching procedures on enamel with CL did not exacerbate the demineralization, but should be indicated with caution.


Este estudo analisou o efeito do peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento (PC) na microdureza Knoop de superfície (KHN) e morfologia do esmalte hígido e com lesões iniciais de cárie artificial (EC), após modelo de ciclagem de pH (cpH). Blocos de esmalte dental humano foram divididos aleatoriamente em 6 grupos (n=10): 1- esmalte hígido clareado (EHC) com PC (Rembrandt/Den-Mat); 2- EHC e submetido a cpH; 3- EC clareado com PC; 4- EC armazenado em saliva artificial e submetido a cpH; 5- EC tratado com gel placebo e submetido a cpH; 6- EC clareado com PC e submetido a cpH. Blocos de esmalte com a KHN conhecida eram desmineralizados (grupos 3 a 6) e submetidos a cpH (grupos 2, 4, 5 e 6). KHN foi determinada após a desmineralização e os tratamentos. Os espécimes foram examinados através de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). Os dados foram analisados através de ANOVA e teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Os resultados indicaram que entre os grupos com EC (3 a 6) somente o grupo 3 apresentou remineralização após os tratamentos. Os grupos EHC (1 e 2) mostraram maior KHN e menor formação porosidades quando comparados aos grupos EC após os tratamentos. Os procedimentos clareadores no esmalte com lesão de cárie não exacerbaram a desmineralização, entretanto precisam ser indicados com cautela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries/pathology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Oxidants/adverse effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Dental Enamel/pathology , Dental Enamel/ultrastructure , Drug Combinations , Hardness/drug effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Porosity , Saliva, Artificial , Tooth Remineralization , Urea/adverse effects
12.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 46(4): 273-279, 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-536845

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja por níveis crescentes de uréia na dieta de vacas leiteiras e os seus efeitos sobre a composição e o rendimento de fabricação de queijo Minas Frescal. Para a fabricação dos queijos, foram utilizados 15 kg de leite, provenientes de nove vacas Holandesas em lactação, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 3x3. Foram utilizadas três dietas: A) controle, formulada para suprir 100% das exigências de proteína bruta, proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR) e proteína não degradável no rúmen(PNDR), utilizando farelo de soja como principal fonte protéica; B)com a inclusão de 0,75% de uréia, em substituição parcial ao farelo de soja, e C) com inclusão de 1,5% de uréia, em substituição parcial ao farelo de soja. Todas as dietas foram iso energéticas (1,53 Mcal/kg de energia líquida de lactação) e isonitrogenadas (16% de PB) e utilizaram cana-de-açúcar como volumoso. Quando analisados por regressão polinomial simples, os resultados da composição e da fração nitrogenada do leite pasteurizado não foram influenciados pelo nívelde uréia na dieta, o mesmo ocorrendo com a composição (pH,umidade, gordura, matéria mineral, cloreto de sódio, proteína bruta, nitrogênio solúvel em pH 4,6 e em TCA 12%) e o rendimento de fabricação dos queijos. Com base nos resultados deste estudo, conclui-se que o uso de até 1,5% de uréia na alimentação de vacas em lactação não alterou a composição do leite pasteurizado, bem como a composição e o rendimento de fabricação de queijo Minas Frescal.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for increasing levels of dietary urea on the composition and yield of Minas cheese. For each cheese making process, 15 kg of milk were collected from nine lactating Holstein cows that were arranged in 3 Latin squares. Three diets with sugar cane as roughage were fed for cows and consisted of: A) control diet formulated to provide 100% of the requirements of crude protein (CP), rumen undegradable protein (RUP) and rumen degradable protein (RDP), using soybean meal; B) urea inclusion at 0.75% of dry matter in substitution for soybean meal crude protein equivalent; C) urea inclusion at 1.5% of dry matter in substitution for soybean meal crude protein equivalent. Energy and protein levels of rations comply with NRC (2001), and were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. When the data were analyzed by simple polynomial regression, no effect of treatments were observed on pasteurized milk composition and milk nitrogen fractions, as well as for cheese composition (pH, moisture,fat, ash, sodium cloride, crude protein, soluble nitrogen in pH 4,6 and in TCA 12%) and cheese yield. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the addition of urea up to 1.5% in dry matter basis in substitution for soybean meal in the diet of Holstein cows did not alter cheese composition and yield.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Milk/chemistry , Cheese/analysis , Animal Feed/adverse effects , Rumen/physiology , Urea/adverse effects
13.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 46(1): 54-61, 2009. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-536956

ABSTRACT

Doze carneiros machos adultos mestiços Santa Inês de mesma idade e porte semelhante foram empregados em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, por um período experimental de 60 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos para três tratamentos: A. 100% das exigências em proteína degradável no rúmen (controle); B. 100% das exigências em proteína degradável no rúmen + 3% de uréia + enxofre(99% S) e C. 100% das exigências em proteína degradável no rúmen +3% de uréia + enxofre quelatado (21,5% S). Semanalmente foram colhidas amostras de sêmen obtidas com emprego de vagina artificial e de sangue para determinação da concentração de nitrogênio uréico plasmático, assim como realizadas pesagens dos animais e aferições de circunferência escrotal. No sêmen foram analisados: volume e turbilhonamento; vigor, motilidade e concentração espermática; totalde espermatozóides e total de espermatozóides viáveis no ejaculado; integridade de membrana e de acrossoma; morfologia espermática e concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma seminal. Os animais suplementados com uréia apresentaram níveis de N-uréico no plasma sanguíneo e seminal significativamente maiores que os encontrados nos do tratamentos controle (p<0,05). Houve diferença significativa entre as fontes de enxofre utilizadas (p<0,05) quanto às características do sêmen estudadas, o tratamento C apresentando valores maiores para turbilhonamento (4,57), motilidade espermática (85,69%), vigor espermático (4,66) e total de espermatozóides por ejaculado (9,02 x109), além de uma porcentagem inferior de defeitos menores (5,37%)quando comparado ao tratamento B


Twelve adult Santa Inês crossbred rams with similar weight and age employed in a randomized design for 60 days period to evaluate three treatments: A. 100% of degradable protein requirement (control); B.100% of degradable protein requirement + 3% urea + inorganic sulphur (99%S) and C. 100% of degradable protein requirement+3% urea + organic sulphur (21,5% S). Every week seminal collections were made through artificial vagina; blood collections were made toanalyze plasma N-ureic levels and measured live weight and scrotal circumference. In semen samples were studied volume, microscopic waves, vigor, motility, concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, total feasible sperm per ejaculate, membrane sperm integrity, acrosomal integrity, percent of abnormal spermatozoa and N-ureic level in seminal plasma. Treatments experimental animals receiving presented blood and seminal plasma N-ureic levels higher than the ones of control treatment (p < 0,05). There was significant difference between organicand inorganic sources of sulphur in the following semen characteristics (p < 0,05): treatment C presented microscopic waves (4,57), motility(85,69%), vigor (4,66) and total sperm per ejaculate (9,02 x 109) higher than treatment B; and the percentage of secondary sperm abnormality (5,37%) was lower than treatment B


Subject(s)
Animals , Rumen/physiology , Sheep , Semen/chemistry , Urea/adverse effects
14.
Braz. oral res ; 23(supl.1): 64-70, 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528431

ABSTRACT

Tooth discoloration is commonly found in the dental clinic and tooth bleaching has been considered the preferred esthetic alternative, being more conservative, safe and with predictable results. Supervised home-use of 10 percent Carbamide Peroxide (CP) bleaching with custom-trays is the most common bleaching procedure dispensed by dentists to their patients. The good results obtained with this technique stimulated the flourishing of new products and techniques. Over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products appeared as a low-cost alternative to bleach discolored teeth without dentist supervision. Different OTC products are available in supermarkets, drug stores or on the Internet, including rinses, paint-on brushes, toothpastes, chewing guns, dental floss, and whitening strips. There is lack of clinical evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these products, being most of the studies supported by the manufacturers'. Basically, toothpastes, chewing gums, and dental floss are removal agents of superficial stains. Rinses and paint-on brushes with low levels of hydrogen peroxide have some whitening effect, but without clinical relevance. Strips present similar esthetic results and side-effects, compared to bleaching with 10 percent CP using trays; however, the studies have financial support from the manufacturers and were based on short term evaluations. Legislation varies widely in different countries regarding OTC dental bleaching. Concerns have appeared due to the potential abusive use of these self-medication agents, especially in young patients, with potential harmful results. Dentists should be acquainted with this kind of products to be able to inform their patients. In conclusion, there is a need for independent clinical trials to provide sufficient evidence regarding the use of OTC bleaching products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Devices, Home Care/standards , Nonprescription Drugs/administration & dosage , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/standards , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Chewing Gum , Clinical Trials as Topic , Dental Devices, Home Care/economics , Dentifrices/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nonprescription Drugs/adverse effects , Nonprescription Drugs/economics , Oxidants/adverse effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Self Medication , Treatment Outcome , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
15.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 18(4): 408-414, jul.-ago. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-548614

ABSTRACT

Para validar la incorporación de urea fosfato (UP) como fuente de fósforo (P) en el agua bebida al nivel UP4, 320 pollos, fueron sometidos a 4 tratamientos en iniciación: T1: DICAL, T2: UP, T3: UP4 y T4: BASAL. En engorde 8 tratamientos: T1: DICAL, T2: UP, T2a: BASAL + UP agua, T2b: BASAL, T3: UP4, T3a: BASAL + UP agua, T3b: BASAL y T4: BASAL. Las dietas contenían 22 y 20% PC, 3.100 y 3.200 Kcal EME/kg, 0,7 y 0,67% de P total, 1 y 0,9% de Ca para fases 1 y 2. Se determinó peso vivo, consumo de alimento acumulado, agua y conversión alimenticia. A la 4ta y 6ta sexta semana, densidad, cenizas y P en hueso. El peso vivo a la cuarta semana fue mayor (P < 0,05) para T1 (1,093), T2 (1,024) y T3 (957) en comparación a T4 (888). A la 6ta semana fue ligeramente mayor para T1 (2,085), T2 (2,068), con respecto a T2a, T2b, T3, T3a y T4 con valores de 1,874; 1,783; 1,934; 1,887 y 1,801, siendo menor (P < 0,05) T3b (1,761). El consumo de alimento mayor en T2 (3,799) y T1 (3,733) con respecto a T2a (3,590,1), T2b (3,610) y T3 (3,538), T3a (3,552), T3b (3,520); siendo menor (P < 0,05) T4 (3,376). La conversión alimenticia no fue diferente desde el punto de vista estadístico (P > 0,05). El consumo de agua ligeramente superior (P < 0,05) para T2 (8,488) y T1 (8,442) con respecto a las dos combinaciones de UP: T2a (7,696), T2b (7,948) y UP4: T3 (7,642) y sus combinaciones T3a (7,546), T3b (7,955); y menor (P < 0,05) para T4 (6,733). Las variables de mineralización del tejido óseo, no fueron diferentes (P > 0,05) entre tratamientos, con tendencia a ser menor donde no se cubrió el requerimiento de P durante ambas fases de crecimiento. Los resultados indican el alto potencial de la UP como fuente de P en aves de esta edad.


To validate urea phosphate (UP) as phosphorus source for birds, 320 chickens, were distributed in four treatments according to an completely randomized design. In growing: T1: DICAL. T2: UP, T3: UP4 y T4: BASAL. In Fattening: T1: DICAL, T2: UP, T2a: BASAL + UP water, T2b: BASAL, T3: UP4, T3a: BASAL + UP water, T3b: BASAL and T4: BASAL. Diets containing 22 and 20% PC, 3,100 and 3,200 Kcal EME/kg, 0.7 and 0.67% total P and 1 to 0.90% Ca, for starting and growing, respectively. Body weight, feed and water intake were measured weekly and feed conversion. At four and six weeks were estimate density, P and ash in bone. Body weight at week 4 resulted elevated (P <0.05) in T1 (1.093), T2 (1.024), T3 (957) treatments compared with T4 (888). At week 6, body weight was lightly higher in T1 and T2 compared with T2a,T2b,T3,T3 and T4 with values of 1.874; 1.783; 1.934; 1.887; 1.881; being the lowest (P < 0.05) T3b (1.761). Feed intake was high for T2 (3.799), T1 (3.733) compared with T2a (3.590), T2b (3.610) and T3 (3.538), T3a (3552), T3b (3.520), being lowest (P < 0.05) T4 (3.376). Feed conversion was similar (P > 0.05). Water intake was lightly higher for T2 (8.488), T1 (8.442) comparing with T2a (7.696), T2b (7.948) and T3 (7.642), T3a (7.546), T3b (7.955) and the lowest (P < 0.05) T4 (6.733). Ash bone content and P were similar (P > 0.05), however this indicates a tendency to diminution of mineralization in treatments without to cover the requirement of P in both growing periods. The results indicate high potential of UP for birds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed/adverse effects , Birds , Calcification, Physiologic , Phosphorus, Dietary/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects , Animal Nutrition Sciences
16.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 18(4): 398-402, jul.-ago. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-548616

ABSTRACT

Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la complementación con heno-melaza-urea sobre la ganancia de peso, duración de lactancia y producción láctea en 31 cabras criollas, se realizó un ensayo en San José de los Ranchos, municipio Torres del estado Lara, Venezuela. Las cabras, con un peso vivo promedio de 28,87 ± 2 Kg., fueron sometidas a través de un diseño completamente aleatorizado a los siguientes tratamientos, To: Testigo (pastoreo y ramoneo de especies nativas exclusivamente); T1: To + heno (55,55%)-melaza (44,45%) y T2: To + heno (53,19%)-melaza (42,55%)-urea (4,26%), siendo complementados ambos grupos cuando los animales eran encorralados durante la noche. Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (P<0,05), entre tratamientos, sobre la ganancia diaria de peso con medias de 91,61; 55,86 y 25,40 g para T2, T1 y To, respectivamente. La producción de leche y duración de la lactancia, no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (P>0,05), con medias de 16,30; 17,51 y 18,70 Kg./ semana y 9,00; 8,43 y 9,00 semanas para To, T1 y T2, respectivamente. Se puede concluir que la complementación con heno-melaza-urea constituye una fuente nutricional potencial para recuperar la condición corporal de cabras criollas lactantes, manejadas en condiciones extensivas similares a las descritas en este ensayo.


In order to evaluate complementation effects of hay-molasses-urea on average daily gain, lactation length and lactation yield with 31 native goats, a trial was carried out in San Jose de los Ranchos, Torres Municipality, Lara State, Venezuela. Goats with average weight of 28.87 ± 2 kg, were submitted to a completely random design to To: Control (grazing and browsing only); T1: To + hay (55.55%), molasses (44.45%) and T2: To + hay (53.19%), molasses (42.55%), urea (4.26%), being complemented both groups when animals were gathered during night time. There was significant differences (P<0.05) on average daily gain with means of 91.61, 55.86 and 25.40 g for T2, T1 and To, respectively. Milk yield and lactation length were no statistically different (P>0.05), with means of 16.30, 17.51 and 18.70 kg/week and 9.0, 8.43 and 9.0 weeks for To, T1 and T2, respectively. So, it can be pointed out that hay-molasses-urea complementation, constitutes a potential nutritional source to recuperate body condition of lactating native goats raised under extensive conditions similar to those described in this trial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed/adverse effects , Goats/growth & development , Molasses/adverse effects , Urea/adverse effects , Weight Gain , Animal Nutrition Sciences
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(6): 1132-1138, dez. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-455059

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se ganho de peso, ingestão e conversão alimentar de matéria seca e rendimento de carcaça quente de 20 novilhas bubalinas, confinadas, com média de peso de 350kg e média de idade de 16 meses. Os animais permaneceram em baias coletivas durante 84 dias e foram alimentadas com silagem de cana-de-açúcar + 1 por cento de uréia e concentrado. Os tratamentos foram: VAZ - novilhas vazias, PRC - novilhas com implante de promotor de crescimento e CHU - novilhas com 100 esferas de chumbo introduzidas no útero. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso com seis repetições no tratamento VAZ e sete repetições em PRC e CHU. O peso final, ganho médio diário e conversão alimentar da matéria seca foram mais elevados para as búfalas do tratamento PRC, respectivamente, 445,0kg; 1,2kg e 9,7kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso vivo, em comparação com as do tratamento VAZ, respectivamente, 412,6kg; 0,9kg e 11,4kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso vivo e as do tratamento CHU, respectivamente, 407,9kg; 0,8kg e 12,2kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso vivo. Peso final, ganho médio diário e conversão alimentar da matéria seca das búfalas dos tratamentos VAZ e CHU não diferiram entre si. Para o rendimento de carcaça quente não foi observado efeito entre tratamentos.


A completely randomized design with three treatments and seven replicates was used to evaluate the daily weight gain, dry matter intake, feed:weight gain ratio and hot carcass yield of 20 buffalo heifers averaging 350kg and 16 months of age, kept in feed lot for 84 days. Animals were fed on sugar cane silage + 1 percent of urea and soybean, corn meal and salt minerals. The treatments were EMP - open heifers GPR - growth promoter implanted heifers and LEA - heifers with 100 lead spheres introduced in the uterus. The GRP animals showed higher body weight, daily weight gain and feed:weight gain ratio (444.0kg, 1.2kg and 9.7kg/kg) in comparison to EMP animals (412.6kg, 9kg and 11.4kg /kg) and LEA animals (407.9, 8kg and 12.2kg/kg), respectively. No significant mean differences between EMP and LEA animals for all the studied traits and no treatment effect on carcass yield were observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Buffaloes , Animal Feed/adverse effects , Silage/adverse effects , Urea/adverse effects , Weight Gain
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(6): 1162-1167, dez. 2006. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-455063

ABSTRACT

Vacas da raça Holandesa não-lactantes (n=7), que receberam 4kg/dia de concentrado durante 28 dias e pasto ad libitum, foram sincronizadas com protocolo Ovsynch. No dia 0 (segunda aplicação de GnRH), as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos: as do grupo 2kg receberam 2kg/dia, e as do grupo 8kg receberam 8kg/dia de concentrado, oferecido duas vezes/dia. Os animais foram sincronizados novamente na fase 2. Aqueles que receberam 2kg de concentrado na primeira fase passaram a receber 8kg na segunda fase e vice-versa. As estruturas ovarianas foram avaliadas diariamente por ultra-sonografia. Amostras de sangue para dosagem de progesterona (P4), por radioimunoensaio, foram colhidas diariamente, antes do fornecimento do concentrado e quatro horas depois, até o dia 16 do ciclo estral. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao diâmetro do folículo ovulatório no dia 0 e ao diâmetro do maior folículo no dia 16. O diâmetro do corpo lúteo foi maior (P<0,05) no dia 16 nos animais do grupo 8kg. Observou-se interação (P<0,05) da quantidade de concentrado fornecida versus dia da colheita das amostras quanto à concentração plasmática de P4. A concentração plasmática de P4, imediatamente antes do fornecimento do concentrado e quatro horas depois, foi menor no grupo 8kg, após o dia 9 do ciclo estral.


Non-lactating Holstein cows (n=7) fed 4kg/day of concentrate for 28 days and kept on pasture were synchronized by Ovsynch protocol. On day 0 (day of 2nd GnRH injection), the cows were distributed in two groups: Group2 = 2kg/day and Group8 = 8kg/day of concentrate, fed twice a day. One replicate was performed (phase 1 and 2). Animals were synchronized again at the beginning of phase-2 and those that fed 2kg of concentrate on phase-1, fed 8kg on phase-2 and vice-versa. The ovarian structures were daily evaluated by ultrasound. Blood samples for progesterone (P4)dosage by RIA were collected daily, just before feeding the concentrate and 4 hours afterwards, until day 16 of the estrous cycle. No difference was detected between the groups in ovulatory follicle diameter on day 0 and in diameter of the largest follicle on day 16. The CL diameter was higher (P<0.05) in Group 8 on day 16 of the estrous cycle. There was an interaction (P<0.05) between the amount of concentrate intake and the day of blood sampling regarding P4 plasma concentration. Cows from Group 8 showed lower P4 plasma concentration, just before feed intake and four hours afterwards, after day 9 of the estrous cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Estrous Cycle/physiology , Dietary Fiber/adverse effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage , Progesterone/administration & dosage , Proteins/adverse effects , Urea/adverse effects
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(5): 860-867, out. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441535

ABSTRACT

The effects of urea levels on feed intake, digestibility and carcass traits of 27 confined cross bred steers weighing 303.25 ± 60.8kg, were evaluated. After weighing, castrating, vaccinating and a period of seven days, three steers were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment and the remaining 24 were allotted in a completely randomized design to four isonitogenous experimental diets (12 percent of crude protein) and increasing level of urea on the dry matter-basis (0.0; 0.65; 1.30 and 1.65 percent) to replace soybean meal, so that the final content of the experimental diets were approximately 22, 37, 50 and 63 percent of crude protein in the form of NPN. Corn and elephant grass silages were supplied at a 70:30 ratio and the total diet had a 65:35, forage: concentrate ratio on a DM-basis. The urea level did not affect nutrient intake, except for rumen degradable protein (RDP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) linearly increased in function of diet urea level. The nutrient digestibilities linearly increased except for ether extract and non fiber carbohydrate (NFC). A quadratic effect of diet urea level on daily weight gain and no effect of urea level on carcass traits were observed. Urea can totally replace soybean meal in diets for confined crossed dairy steers allowing gains of 1kg/day. Urea can enhance nutrient digestibility of diets.


Foram avaliados os efeitos dos níveis de uréia sobre o consumo, digestibilidade e características da carcaça de 27 novilhos (303,25 ± 60,80) confinados. Três animais foram abatidos no início do experimento e os 24 restantes foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em quatro tratamentos: 0; 0,65; 1,30 e 1,95 por cento de uréia na MS total da dieta, em substituição ao farelo de soja. A dieta final continha em torno de 22, 37, 50 e 63 por cento da PB na forma de compostos nitrogenados não-protéicos. Como volumoso foi utilizada uma mistura de 65 por cento de silagem de milho e silagem de capim-elefante na proporção 70:30, respectivamente. O consumo dos nutrientes não foi afetado pelos tratamentos, com exceção para o consumo de PDR e NDT que aumentaram linearmente. As digestibilidades dos nutrientes apresentaram comportamento linear crescente com exceção das digestibilidades do EE e CNF. Com relação ao desempenho dos animais, houve efeito quadrático dos tratamentos sobre o GMD. Não foi verificado nenhum efeito sobre as características de carcaça avaliadas. A uréia pode substituir completamente o farelo de soja na dieta de novilhos mestiços leiteiros em confinamento, permitindo ganhos de peso próximos a 1kg/dia. O uso de uréia na dieta pode melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Weight Gain/physiology , Rumen/physiology , Silage/adverse effects , Urea/adverse effects
20.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 43(4): 502-509, 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-461497

ABSTRACT

Doze ovinos com cânulas de rúmen foram empregados para comparar seis tratamentos, dispostos em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3: cana de açúcar nas formas fresca (CAF) ou ensilada (CAS) x teores de uréia iguais a 0,0%, 0,5% e 1,0%. Foram estimadas: taxas de degradabilidade efetiva (DGE) dos alimentos volumosos, concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV) e de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3) e valores de pH do conteúdo do rúmen, além de concentrações de N-uréico no sangue. As taxas de DGE da matéria seca (MS) mostraram-se semelhantes para CAF e CAS. A adição de teores crescentes de uréia às forragens resultou em diminuição linear da DGE da MS tanto da CAF como da CAS. No caso da CAS, a DGE da fibra em detergente neutro diminuiu linearmente com concentrações crescentes de uréia. Os valores de pH do conteúdo ruminal foram maiores para CAS em relação a CAF, mas não ocorreram diferenças devidas à adição de uréia. Os teores do conteúdo ruminal em total de AGV e os de ácido propiônico foram maiores para a CAF em relação a CAS; os de ácido acético, ao contrário, foram maiores para a CAS. Os teores de N-NH3 do conteúdo ruminal foram maiores para a CAS que para a CAF. Nos tratamentos com CAF e nos com CAS, as concentrações de N-NH3 no conteúdo ruminal e de N-uréico no sangue aumentaram linearmente com maiores adições de uréia. Concluiu-se que a adição de 0,5% e 1,0% uréia às forragens frescas ou ensiladas de cana-de-açúcar não mostrou resultados satisfatórios e que CAF apresentou indícios de melhor qualidade nutricional que CAS.


Twelve rumen canulated male sheep were used to evaluate ruminal effective degradability (EDG) and volatile fatty acids (VF A), ammonia nitrogen(N-NH3) and pH of rumen contents, and blood ureic nitrogen .They received six treatments in a factorial arrangement 2 x 3: sugar cane fresh (CAF) or as silage (CAS) x urea levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% for both forages. Values of EDG of CAF and CAS dry matter (DM) were not significantly different. Addition of crescent levels of urea to the forages resulted in a linear decrease of DM EDG for CAF and CAS. Considering CAS, EDG of neutral detergent fiber was linearly lower with crescent levels of urea. Ruminal contents pH values were higher for CAF than for CAS but no differences were find among levels of urea addition. Ruminal contents levels of total VFA and propionic acid were higher for CAF than for CAS; inversely, acetic acid levels were higher for CAS. N-NH3 levels of ruminal contents were higher for CAS than for CAF. For both fresh and silage treatments, N-NH3 concentrations in ruminal contents, as well N-ureic blood concentrations increased linearly with higher levels of urea addition. It was concluded that 0.5% and 1.0% urea added to fresh or ensiled forages had no satisfactory results and that CAF indicated better nutritional value than CAS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rumen/growth & development , Sheep , Saccharum/adverse effects , Silage/analysis , Silage/adverse effects , Urea/analysis , Urea/adverse effects
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