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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 193-198, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En la diarrea asociada a Clostridioides dfficile (DACD) leve-moderada se recomienda tratar con vancomicina por sobre metronidazol, a pesar de su difícil acceso y poca evidencia en el medio ambulatorio. OBJETIVO: Comparar la tasa de cura clínica y recurrencia entre vancomicina y metronidazol en adultos chilenos con primer episodio leve-moderado de DACD de manejo ambulatorio. MÉTODOS: Cohorte retrospectiva entre enero 2015 y diciembre 2020 en centros de una red de salud universitaria de pacientes de ≥ 18 años con DACD tratados ambulatoriamente. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 161 pacientes, 59% mujeres, edad promedio de 53 años (entre 18 y 94 años). De ellos, 109 (67,7%) usaron metronidazol y 52 (32,3%) vancomicina. En el análisis multivariado ajustado por edad y comorbilidades se obtuvo un OR 3,00 (IC 95% 1,12-9,59) para cura clínica y 0,27 (IC 95% 0,06-0,88) para recurrencia a ocho semanas, ambos a favor de vancomicina, sin diferencias en recurrencia a 12 meses, necesidad de hospitalización o mortalidad. CONCLUSIÓN: La terapia con vancomicina comparada contra metronidazol en el tratamiento ambulatorio de la infección leve-moderada por C. dfficile se asocia a mayor cura clínica y menor tasa de recurrencia a corto plazo, sin diferencias en desenlaces a largo plazo.


BACKGROUND: Recommended treatment against mild cases of Clostridioides difficile associated diarrhea is vancomycin despite the difficulties of access compared to metronidazole. AIM: To compare the effectiveness of vancomycin and metronidazole in Chilean adults with first mild-moderate episode of Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI). METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with CDI between January 2015 and December 2020 treated in centers of a university health network. The patients were adults treated for C. difficile infection on an outpatient basis. Recurrent and severe cases were excluded. Outcomes included clinical cure and recurrence rate. RESULTS: Data from 161 patients was recovered. Fifty-nine percent were women and average age was 53 (18-94). One hundred and nine patients were treated with metronidazole (67.7%) and 52 (32.3%) used vancomycin. Multivariate analysis adjusted by age and comorbidities showed an Odds Ratio of 3.00 (IC 95% 1.12-9.59) for clinical cure and 0.27 (IC 95% 0.06-0.88) for 8-week recurrence rate, both in favor of vancomycin, without differences in 12-month recurrence rate, hospitalization rate nor mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin is associated with better short-term outcomes in the treatment of outpatient mild-moderate first episode C. difficile infection, without differences in long term recurrence or mortality when compared with metronidazole.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Outpatients , Recurrence , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Ambulatory Care , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 60-65, mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431954

ABSTRACT

El tumor de Pott es una entidad rara, definida como un absceso subperióstico asociado a osteomielitis del hueso frontal. Suele presentarse como complicación de sinusitis aguda o crónica del seno frontal, y se describe con mayor incidencia en población pediátrica, siendo una complicación grave por su alta morbimortalidad. Se presenta a un paciente pediátrico con tumor de Pott y absceso cerebral posterior a una sinusitis aguda de foco odontogénico, en la que los pilares de tratamiento son drenaje quirúrgico precoz y antibioticoterapia prolongada. Se describe la clínica, manejo médico-quirúrgico y seguimiento posterior, ya que, en ausencia de antecedentes, se debe buscar dirigida- mente enfermedad periodontal y realizar un estudio de inmunodeficiencia primaria.


Pott's tumor is a rare entity, defined as a subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. It usually presents as a complication of acute or chronic sinusitis of the frontal sinus and it is described with a higher incidence in the pediatric population, being a serious complication due to its high morbidity and mortality. We present a pediatric patient with Pott's tumor and brain abscess after acute sinusitis of odontogenic focus, in which the pillars of treatment are an early surgical drainage and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The clinic, medical-surgical management and subsequent follow-up are described, since in the absence of antecedents, periodontal disease should be sought directly and a study of primary immunodeficiency performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Frontal Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Pott Puffy Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Frontal Sinusitis/drug therapy , Pott Puffy Tumor/drug therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(1): 7-14, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441391

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El método recomendado para la medición de consumo de antimicrobianos (AMB) en pediatría es el cálculo del indicador Días de Terapia estandarizado por ocupación (DOT-std). Sin embargo, en hospitales que no cuentan con fichas electrónicas, obtener el numerador de los días de terapia (DOT) requiere revisión directa de las indicaciones del paciente, dificultando su aplicabilidad. OBJETIVOS: Validar el sistema de registros electrónicos de dispensación de medicamentos desde farmacia como fuente para el cálculo de DOT y DOT-std en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátrica (UCIP). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron las prescripciones de AMB desde la ficha clínica (método manual) y se compararon con los registros de dispensación de AMB a la UCIP (método informático) obtenidos del sistema de medicamentos de farmacia. Se evaluó la concordancia entre los DOT obtenidos mediante el Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase. RESULTADOS: Los AMB más utilizados fueron vancomicina, meropenem y piperacilina/tazobactam. En 9 de 12 AMB se encontró concordancia significativa entre ambos métodos. CONCLUSIONES: Tras un proceso de validación local, los registros del sistema informático de dispensación de medicamentos desde farmacia podrían utilizarse para el cálculo de DOT en pediatría en hospitales que no cuenten con una ficha electrónica que permita su cálculo directo.


BACKGROUND: The recommended indicator for measuring antimicrobial (AMB) consumption in pediatric patients is the Days of Therapy indicator (DOT), which is then standardized by hospital occupancy rates (DOT-std). However, in hospitals that do not have electronic health records, obtaining the DOT requires a direct review of each pharmacological indication, which is not feasible in the long term. AIMS: To validate electronic records from the pharmacy dispensation system as a source for calculating DOT and estimating DOT-std in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). METHODS: AMB prescriptions at the PICU of a university hospital were directly reviewed (manual method) and compared with AMB dispensation records (computer method) obtained from the hospital pharmacy system. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was used to evaluate the agreement between the DOT obtained by both methods. RESULTS: The most used AMB were vancomycin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. A significant agreement between the DOT obtained by using manual and computer methods was found in 9 of 12 evaluated AMB. CONCLUSIONS: After a local validation process, the electronic records of the pharmacy drug dispensation system could be considered a valid source for calculating DOT in PICUs in hospitals where electronic health records with prescription data are not yet available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Medication Systems, Hospital , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Automation , Time Factors , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Administration Schedule , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Prospective Studies , Medical Records Systems, Computerized , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/administration & dosage , Meropenem/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 11(1): 1-7, Jan. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524589

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os fatores clínicos e medicamentosos relacionados com a redução da Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) em pacientes críticos em uso de vancomicina. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal em que pacientes em uso de vancomicina, maiores de 18 anos, hospitalizados em terapia intensiva, foram selecionados no período de agosto a dezembro de 2019. Foram excluídos os pacientes que tiveram permanência inferior a 48h na unidade, aqueles com doença renal crônica e/ou que tiveram antimicrobiano suspenso nas primeiras 48h. Os dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram coletados do prontuário nas mesmas datas das coletas de amostras sanguíneas. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas no vale a partir do terceiro dia de tratamento. Os níveis de vancomicina foram medidos usando VANC VITROS ®. Os dados foram analisados através do software R. Resultados: 54 pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 68,5% do sexo masculino, 98,1% em ventilação mecânica, com foco respiratório (51,2%) e isolado Acinetobacter baumanni (38,0%). As concentrações de vancomicina variaram entre 5,0 e 50,0µg/mL, média 21,6 (DP: 10,6) µg/mL; 50% dos pacientes apresentaram concentração acima de 20µg/mL e 66,7% piora da TFG após o tratamento. A concentração de vancomicina foi a única variável diretamente relacionada com o desenvolvimento da alteração na função renal (p=0.0037). Não foi possível estabelecer a influência da comedicação na redução da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG). Conclusão: as doses usuais de vancomicina ajustadas por meio da função renal não atingiram os níveis séricos terapêuticos recomendados de vancomicina, sendo relacionados à nefrotoxicidade.


Objective: we aimed to evaluate clinical and drug factors related to the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) reduction in critically ill patients using vancomycin. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study where critically ill patients using vancomycin, aged over 18 years, were selected from August to December 2019. Patients were excluded when hospitalized for less than 48 hours in the unit, those with chronic kidney disease, and/or who had their antimicrobial suspended in the first 48 hours. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the medical record on the same days as the blood sample collection. All blood samples were collected at the trough during the third day of vancomycin treatment. Vancomycin levels were measured using VANC VITROS ®. Data analysis was analyzed by R software. Results: 54 patients were included, 68.5% male, 98.1% mechanical ventilation, respiratory focus (51.2%), and isolation of Acinetobacter baumanni (38.0%). Vancomycin concentrations ranged between 5.0 and 50.0µg/mL, mean of 21.6 (SD: 10.6) µg/mL; 50% of patients with concentrations above 20µg/mL and 66.7% worsened GFR after vancomycin treatment. Vancomycin concentration was the only variable directly related to the development of renal malfunction (p=0.0037). It was not possible to establish the influence of co-medication in the reduction of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Conclusion: the usual doses of vancomycin adjusted by renal function did not reach the recommended therapeutic serum levels of vancomycin, being related to nephrotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Vancomycin , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1024-1030, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013217

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, common pathogens in children with vulvovaginitis. Methods: This was a retrospective cases study. A total of 3 268 children with vulvovaginitis were enrolled, who visited the Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 2009 to December 2019. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the age of <7, 7-<10 and 10-18 years. Patients were also divided in to 4 groups according to the season of first visit. The pathogen distribution characteristics of infective vulvovaginitis were compared between the groups. Their clinical data were collected and then analyzed by χ2 test. Results: The were 3 268 girls aged (6.2±2.5) years. There were 1 728 cases (52.9%) aged <7 years, 875 cases (26.8%) aged 7-<10 years, and 665 cases (20.3%) aged 10-18 years. Of these cases, 2 253 cases (68.9%) were bacterial vulvovaginitis, 715 cases (21.9%) were fungal vulvovaginitis and 300 cases (9.2%) were vulvovaginitis infected with other pathogens. Bacterial culture of vaginal secretions was performed in 2 287 cases, and 2 287 strains (70.0%) of pathogens were detected, of which the top 5 pathogens were Streptococcus pyogenes (745 strains, 32.6%), Haemophilus influenzae (717 strains, 31.4%), Escherichia coli (292 strains, 12.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (222 strains, 9.7%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (67 strains, 2.9%). Regarding different age groups, H.influenzae was the most common in children under 7 years of age (40.3%, 509/1 263), S.pyogenes (41.9%, 356/849) was predominantly in children aged 7 to 10 years, and E.coli was predominant in children aged 10 to 18 years (26.3%, 46/175). Susceptibility results showed that S.pyogenes was susceptible to penicillin G (610/610, 100.0%), ceftriaxone (525/525, 100.0%), and vancomycin (610/610, 100.0%); the resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin were 91.9% (501/545)and 90.7% (495/546), respectively. For H.influenzae, 32.5% (161/496) produced β-elactamase, and all strains were sensitive to meropenem (489/489, 100.0%) and levofloxacin (388/388, 100.0%), while 40.5% (202/499) were resistant to ampicillin. Among E.coli, all strains were sensitive to imipenem(100%, 175/175). The resistance rates of E.coli to levofloxacin and ceftriaxone were 29.1% (43/148) and 35.1% (59/168), respectively. A total of 48 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated with a proportion of 28.3% (45/159) in 3 268 patients. The results of drug susceptibility test showed that all MRSA strains were sensitive to linezolid 100.0% (40/40), vancomycin (45/45, 100.0%), and tigecycline (36/36, 100.0%); the resistance rates of MRSA to penicillin G, erythromycin and clindamycin were 100% (45/45), 95.6% (43/45) and 88.9% (40/45), respectively. All methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains were sensitive to oxacillin (114/114, 100.0%), linezolid (94/94, 100.0%), vancomycin (114/114, 100.0%), and tigecycline (84/84, 100.0%); it's resistance rates to penicillin G, erythromycin and clindamycin were 78.1% (89/114), 59.7% (68/114) and 46.5% (53/114), respectively. The drug resistance rate of MSSA to penicillin G, erythromycin and clindamycin were lower than those of MRSA (χ²=11.71,19.74,23.95, respectively, all P<0.001). Conclusions: The age of consultation for pediatric infectious vulvovaginitis is mainly around 6 years. The most common pathogens are S.pyogenes, H.influenzae and Escherichia coli. Third generation cephalosporins can be used as the first choice of empirical anti-infection drugs. However, the results of drug susceptibility should be considered for targeted treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Erythromycin/therapeutic use , Methicillin , Penicillin G/therapeutic use , Escherichia coli , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
6.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 120-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of one-stage revision combined with intra-articular infusion of vancomycin in the treatment of chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Enterococcal. Methods: From May 2013 to June 2020,the clinical data of 9 patients (2 males and 7 females) with chronic Enterococcal PJI treated with one-stage revision using intra-articular infusion of vancomycin at Department of Orthopaedics,First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were retrospectively analyzed,including 8 hips and 1 knee.A total of 9 patients with age of (63.9±11.7)years (range:43 to 76 years) were included, and the body mass index was (23.6±4.3)kg/m2 (range:18 to 30 kg/m2).There were 6 cases with antibiotic history and 5 cases with sinus tract.The joint fluid,infected tissue around the prosthesis and ultrasonic shock fluid of the prosthesis were collected during operation for microbial culture identification and drug sensitivity test.After thorough debridement of the infected site and removal of the infected prosthesis,a new prosthesis was implanted,then the drainage tube in the operation area was placed.After surgery,vancomycin(1.0 g,q12 h) was combined with intra-articular vancomycin(0.5 g,qd) in monomicrobial PJI,and vancomycin(1.0 g,q12 h) was combined with intra-articular vancomycin (0.5 g,qd) and imipenem/meropenem (0.5 g,qd),and the interval between the two drugs was 12 hours in polymicrobial PJI.Hip and knee functions were evaluated by Harris Hip Score or Knee Society Score(KSS),respectively.The comparison of hip function scores before and after operation was performed by paired t-test. Results: All patients were followed up for (60±39)months(range:24 to 110 months).Two cases were infected with Enterococcus faecium and 7 cases were infected with Enterococcus faecalis.There were 7 cases of monomicrobial infection and 2 cases of polymicrobial infection.Erythromycin(5/9),tetracycline(4/9),ciprofloxacin and β-lactam antibiotics(3/9) were the top three antibiotics in Enterococci resistance rate.The sensitive antibiotics for Enterococcal were vancomycin,linezolid and tigecycline.The average duration of intravenous antibiotics was (14±1)days (range:13 to 17 days),and the average duration of antibiotics in articular cavity was (15±2)days(range:11 to 20 days).Mean duration of oral antibiotic use after discharge was (2±1)months(range:1 to 3 months).One case of polymicrobial PJI treatment failed,with a failure rate of 1/9.At last follow-up,the Harris score of patients with hip PJI increased from (43±6)points to (84±6)points(t=-11.899, P<0.01). KSS score of knee function was improved from 33 point pre-operatively to 85 point post-operatively;overall function score was improved from 35 point pre-operatively to 80 point post-operatively.During the treatment,no formation of sinus tract of the hip joint caused by a catheter,skin necrosis at the knee puncture site or leakage of joint fluid;no complications such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism occurred. Conclusions: One-stage revision combined with intra-articular infusion of vancomycin can achieve acceptable infection control rate and joint function in patients with chronic Enterococcus PJI.However,the treatment of polymicrobial PJI still needs to be further verified.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Enterococcus , Prostheses and Implants , Inflammation
7.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 707-715, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Gram-positive cocci is the main pathogen responsible for early infection after liver transplantation (LT), posing a huge threat to the prognosis of liver transplant recipients. This study aims to analyze the distribution and drug resistance of Gram-positive cocci, the risk factors for infections and efficacy of antibiotics within 2 months after LT, and to guide the prevention and treatment of these infections.@*METHODS@#In this study, data of pathogenic bacteria distribution, drug resistance and therapeutic efficacy were collected from 39 Gram-positive cocci infections among 256 patients who received liver transplantation from donation after citizens' death in the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2019 to July 2022, and risk factors for Gram-positive cocci infection were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Enterococcus faecium was the dominant pathogenic bacteria (33/51, 64.7%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (11/51, 21.6%). The most common sites of infection were abdominal cavity/biliary tract (13/256, 5.1%) and urinary tract (10/256, 3.9%). Fifty (98%) of the 51 Gram-positive cocci infections occurred within 1 month after LT. The most sensitive drugs to Gram-positive cocci were teicoplanin, tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin. Vancomycin was not used in all patients, considering its nephrotoxicity. Vancomycin was not administered to all patients in view of its nephrotoxicity.There was no significant difference between the efficacy of daptomycin and teicoplanin in the prevention of cocci infection (P>0.05). Univariate analysis indicated that preoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score >25 (P=0.005), intraoperative red blood cell infusion ≥12 U (P=0.013) and exposure to more than 2 intravenous antibiotics post-LT (P=0.003) were related to Gram-positive cocci infections. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative MELD score >25 (OR=2.378, 95% CI 1.124 to 5.032, P=0.024) and intraoperative red blood cell transfusion ≥ 12 U (OR=2.757, 95% CI 1.227 to 6.195, P=0.014) were independent risk factors for Gram-positive cocci infections after LT. Postoperative Gram-positive cocci infections were reduced in LT recipients exposing to more than two intravenous antibiotics post-LT (OR=0.269, 95% CI 0.121 to 0.598, P=0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Gram-positive cocci infections occurring early after liver transplantation were dominated by Enterococcus faecalis infections at the abdominal/biliary tract and urinary tract. Teicoplanin, tigecycline and linezolid were anti-cocci sensitive drugs. Daptomycin and teicoplanin were equally effective in preventing cocci infections due to Gram-positive cocci. Patients with high preoperative MELD score and massive intraoperative red blood cell transfusion were more likely to suffer Gram-positive cocci infection after surgery. Postoperative Gram-positive cocci infections were reduced in recipients exposing to more than two intravenous antibiotics post-LT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Daptomycin/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Cocci , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , End Stage Liver Disease/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 631-636, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of antibacterial agents in children with sepsis treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 20 children with sepsis (confirmed or suspected) who were treated with ECMO and antimicrobial in the Department of Critical Medicine of Hunan Children's Hospital from March 2021 to December 2022 were enrolled as the ECMO group. Through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), the PK-PD parameters of antibacterial agents were analyzed. Twenty five children with sepsis in the same department who were treated with vancomycin but no ECMO at the same time were enrolled as the control group. The individual PK parameters of vancomycin were calculated by Bayesian feedback method. The PK parameters in the two groups were compared, and the correlation between trough concentration and area under the curve (AUC) was analyzed. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for inter group comparison. Results: Twenty patients in the ECMO group, included 6 males and 14 females, with an onset age of 47 (9, 76) months. In the ECMO group, 12 children (60%) were treated with vancomycin, and the trough concentration was less than 10 mg/L in 7 cases, 10-20 mg/L in 3 cases, and >20 mg/L in 2 cases; AUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (MIC=1 mg/L)<400 was in 1 case, 400-600 in 3 cases, and >600 in 8 cases. Among the 11 children (55%) who were treated with β-lactam antibiotics, there were 10 cases with drug concentration at 50% dosing interval (CT50)>4 MIC and 9 cases with trough concentration>MIC, both CT50 and trough concentration of cefoperazone reached the target. Among the 25 cases of control group, 16 were males and 9 females, with an onset age of 12 (8, 32) months. There was a positive correlation between vancomycin trough concentration and AUC (r2=0.36, P<0.001). The half-life of vancomycin and the 24-hour AUC (AUC0-24 h) in the ECMO group were higher than those in the control group (5.3 (3.6, 6.8) vs. 1.9 (1.5, 2.9) h, and 685 (505, 1 227) vs. 261 (210, 355) mg·h/L, Z=2.99, 3.50, respectively; both P<0.05), and the elimination rate constant and clearance rate was lower than those in the control group (0.1 (0.1, 0.2) vs. 0.4 (0.2, 0.5), 0.7 (0.5, 1.3) vs. 2.0 (1.1, 2.8) L/h, Z=2.99, 2.11, respectively; both P<0.05). Conclusion: The PK-PD parameters in septic children treated by ECMO varied with a longer half-life, higher AUC0-24 h, lower elimination rate constant and clearance rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 274-279, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy in hospitalized patients with malignant hematopathy, so as to provide scientific evidences for rational selection of antibiotics and infection prevention and control.@*METHODS@#From July 2020 to June 2022, 167 patients with malignant hematopathy were treated with chemical drugs in the Department of Hematology, Hainan Hospital, and secretions from oral mucosal infected wounds were collected. VITEK2 COMPECT automatic microbial identification system (BioMerieux, France) and bacterial susceptibility card (BioMerieux) were used for bacterial identification and drug susceptibility tests.@*RESULTS@#A total of 352 strains of pathogens were isolated from 167 patients, among which 220 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 118 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 14 strains of fungi, accounted for 62.50%, 33.52% and 3.98%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria was mainly Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, while Gram-negative bacteria was mainly Klebsiella and Proteus. The resistance of main Gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was low, and the resistance to penicillin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin and levofloxacin was high. The main Gram-negative bacteria had low resistance to gentamicin, imipenem and penicillin, but high resistance to levofloxacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ampicillin and vancomycin. The clinical data of oral mucositis patients with oral ulcer (severe) and without oral ulcer (mild) were compared, and it was found that there were statistically significant differences in poor oral hygiene, diabetes, sleep duration less than 8 hours per night between two groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria is the main pathogen of oral mucositis in patients with malignant hematopathy after chemotherapy. It is sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics and aminoglycosides antibiotics. Poor oral hygiene, diabetes and sleep duration less than 8 hours per night are risk factors for oral mucositis with oral ulcer (severe).


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cefuroxime , Levofloxacin , Oral Ulcer/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ampicillin , Penicillins , Cefotaxime , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gentamicins , Stomatitis/drug therapy
10.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 397-405, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to evaluate the clinical benefits of a vancomycin dosage strategy based on a serum trough concentration model in elderly patients.@*METHODS@#This prospective single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial categorized 66 elderly patients with severe pneumonia into study and control groups. The control group received vancomycin using a regimen decided by the attending physician. Meanwhile, the study group received individualized vancomycin therapy with a dosing strategy based on a serum trough concentration model. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with serum trough concentrations reaching the target values. The secondary endpoints were clinical response, vancomycin treatment duration, and vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) occurrence.@*RESULTS@#All patients were at least 60 years old (median age = 81 years). The proportion of patients with target trough concentration achievement (≥ 15 mg/L) with the initial vancomycin regimen was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group (75.8% vs. 42.4%, P = 0.006). Forty-five patients (68.2%) achieved clinical success, the median duration of vancomycin therapy was 10.0 days, and VA-AKI occurred in eight patients (12.1%). However, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the two groups. The model for predicting vancomycin trough concentrations was upgraded to: serum trough concentration (mg/L) = 17.194 - 0.104 × creatinine clearance rate (mL/min) + 0.313 × vancomycin daily dose [(mg/(kg∙d)].@*CONCLUSION@#A vancomycin dosage strategy based on a serum trough concentration model can improve the proportion of patients achieving target trough concentrations in elderly patients with severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Middle Aged , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los neumatoceles y las bulas pulmonares son lesiones que se observan en los niños casi siempre asociadas a neumonías infecciosas, aunque sus causas pueden ser diversas. La importancia clínica de estos procesos radica en el peligro de crecimiento progresivo, que puede comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. Objetivo: Describir las experiencias derivadas del proceso de diagnóstico por imágenes y del tratamiento invasivo de casos atendidos. Presentación de los casos: Desde finales de 2021 y durante un período de un año, se atendieron, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario de Cienfuegos, cinco niños con neumonías extensas, que desarrollaron bulas de gran tamaño varios días después del tratamiento antimicrobiano adecuado. Estas necesitaron drenaje y aspiración percutáneos debido a su magnitud y a la presencia de síntomas cardiovasculares. Conclusiones: Las bulas que aparecieron como complicación de la neumonía en el niño pueden presentarse con una frecuencia no despreciable, y hay que mantenerse atentos a su evolución, porque, a diferencia de los neumatoceles, pueden crecer progresivamente y comprometer las funciones respiratoria y cardiovascular. El drenaje percutáneo y aspiración continua por cinco días resultó un método seguro y eficaz para tratar estos procesos(AU)


Introduction: Pneumoatoceles and pulmonary bullae are lesions that are observed in children almost always associated with infectious pneumonia, although their causes may be diverse. The clinical importance of these processes lies in the danger of progressive growth, which can compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Objective: To describe the experiences derived from the imaging process and the invasive treatment of treated cases. Presentation of the cases: Since the end of 2021 and for a period of one year, five children with extensive pneumonia were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit of the University Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos, who developed large bullae several days after appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The bullae required percutaneous drainage and aspiration due to their magnitude and the presence of cardiovascular symptoms. Conclusions: The bulla that appeared as a complication of pneumonia in the child can occur with a not negligible frequency, and it is necessary to be attentive to their evolution, because, unlike pneumoatoceles, can grow progressively and compromise respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Percutaneous drainage and continuous aspiration for five days was a safe and effective method to treat these processes(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pleural Effusion/drug therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Asthenia/etiology , Tachycardia/complications , Residence Characteristics , Blister/etiology , Back Pain , Cough , Thoracentesis/methods , COVID-19 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Drainage/instrumentation , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Anemia
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420053

ABSTRACT

Tanto la osteomielitis como la osteoartritis séptica en el período neonatal son patologías infrecuentes. La afectación ósea de la columna cervical es aún más rara, siendo excepcional en neonatos. Son patologías graves, con elevada morbimortalidad, donde el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz agresivo son de suma importancia para el pronóstico vital y funcional. Presentamos el caso de un neonato que presentó una sepsis a S. Aureus multirresistente, asociada a una osteomielitis de la primera vértebra cervical y a una osteoartritis séptica de la cadera izquierda. Fue tratado precozmente de forma quirúrgica y con antibioticoterapia, presentando una buena evolución.


Both osteomyelitis and septic osteoarthritis in the neonatal period are infrequent pathologies. Bone involvement of the cervical spine is even rarer, being exceptional in neonates. These are serious pathologies, with high morbimortality, where early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are of utmost importance for the vital and functional prognosis. We present the case of a neonate who presented with sepsis due to multidrug-resistant S. Aureus, associated with osteomyelitis of the first cervical vertebra and septic osteoarthritis of the left hip. He was treated early surgically and with antibiotic therapy, presenting a good evolution


Tanto a osteomielite como a osteoartrose séptica no período neonatal são patologias raras. O envolvimento ósseo da coluna cervical é ainda mais raro, sendo excepcional nos recém-nascidos. Estas são patologias graves, com elevada morbimortalidade, onde o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento agressivo são da maior importância para o prognóstico vital e funcional. Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido que apresentou sepse devido a S. Aureus multirresistente, associado a osteomielite da primeira vértebra cervical e osteoartrose séptica da anca esquerda. Foi tratado precocemente cirurgicamente e com terapia antibiótica, com uma boa evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Cervical Atlas/pathology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Hip/pathology , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Delayed Diagnosis , Neonatal Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(6): 746-748, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431712

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico de la infección por Clostridioides dfficile (ICD) ha aumentado en el embarazo y periparto. Cambios fisiológicos e inmunológicos normales durante el embarazo pueden incrementar el riesgo de ICD. Mujeres embarazadas con ICD tienen una mayor frecuencia de fracaso al tratamiento y una significativa morbilidad y mortalidad. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) se ha convertido en el tratamiento estándar de la ICD recurrente y refractaria. Sin embargo, existen escasos datos sobre sus resultados en mujeres embarazadas. Presentamos el caso de una mujer embarazada que se sometió con éxito a un TMF para el tratamiento de una ICD recurrente.


The diagnosis of Clostridioides dfficile infection (CDI) in pregnant and peripartum women has increased. In this scenario, there are higher rates of treatment failure and a significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has become the gold standard for the treatment of recurrent and refractory CDI however, there are few data on its results in pregnant patients. This case showed that FMT could be a therapeutic strategy in pregnant women with recurrent CDI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Colonoscopy/methods , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Recurrence , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Clostridioides difficile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1218-1228, set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414493

ABSTRACT

Bacteria that are resistant to several antibiotics are a serious One Health problem, as new alternatives for treatment do not appear at the same speed. Thus, the aim of this work was to carry out a survey of studies involving the activity of the essential oil of O. vulgare and its isolated compound carvacrol on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To this end, a qualitative review of the literature was carried out in the PubMed database from 2015 to 2020. Both for the essential oil and for the isolated compound, the inhibitory action extends to strains often associated with difficult-to-treat infections such as oxacillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ß-lactamase-producing strains, carbapenemases, among others. The point that distinguishes the studies is the type of methodology used in the tests, with studies with carvacrol more directed towards mechanisms of molecular action and application in cells and animals, while those with oils are more preliminary. Although these substances have potential to control resistant bacteria, more research is needed to enable their use.


Bactérias resistentes a vários antibióticos são um grave problema para a Saúde Única, pois novas alternativas de tratamento não aparecem na mesma velocidade. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento de estudos envolvendo a atividade do óleo essencial de O. vulgare e seu composto isolado, carvacrol, sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão qualitativa da literatura na base de dados PubMed no período de 2015 a 2020. Tanto para o óleo essencial quanto para o composto isolado, a ação inibitória se estende a cepas frequentemente associadas a infecções de difícil tratamento como Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina e vancomicina, cepas produtoras de ß-lactamase, carbapenemases, entre outras. O ponto que diferencia os estudos é o tipo de metodologia utilizada nos testes, sendo os estudos com carvacrol mais direcionados para mecanismos de ação molecular e aplicação em células e animais, enquanto os com óleos são mais preliminares. Embora essas substâncias tenham potencial para controlar bactérias resistentes, mais pesquisas são necessárias para viabilizar seu uso.


Las bacterias resistentes a diversos antibióticos son un grave problema para la Sanidad Única, ya que las nuevas alternativas de tratamiento no aparecen a la misma velocidad. Así pues, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una encuesta sobre los estudios relativos a la actividad del aceite esencial de O. vulgare y su compuesto aislado, el carvacrol, sobre las bacterias resistentes a los antibióticos. Para ello, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica cualitativa en la base de datos PubMed en el periodo comprendido entre 2015 y 2020. Tanto para el aceite esencial como para el compuesto aislado, la acción inhibidora se extiende a cepas frecuentemente asociadas a infecciones de difícil tratamiento como el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la oxacilina y a la vancomicina, cepas productoras de ß-lactamasas, carbapenemasas, entre otras. El punto que diferencia los estudios es el tipo de metodología utilizada en las pruebas, siendo los estudios con carvacrol más dirigidos a mecanismos de acción molecular y aplicación en células y animales, mientras que los de aceites son más preliminares. Aunque estas sustancias tienen potencial para controlar las bacterias resistentes, es necesario seguir investigando para que su uso sea viable.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Origanum/drug effects , Oxacillin/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
15.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 14(Suplemento 2)20220800.
Article in English | ECOS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412751

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to compare the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric patients who used vancomycin (VAN) or linezolid (LNZ) to treat Gram-positive coccus (GPC) infections and to assess which treatment (VAN or LNZ) is the most cost-effective considering a pediatric hospital perspective. Methods: A retrospective cohort was performed to evaluate the occurrence of nephrotoxicity in pediatric patients without previous AKI, with GPC infections that used LNZ, or VAN monitored by serum VAN levels. Initially, descriptive analysis and Fisher and chisquare test were performed for this comparison. Then, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted through a decision tree model. The outcomes of interest were the rate of AKI related to the drug and the rate of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and cure. Results: In patients without previous acute kidney injury (AKI), 20% developed nephrotoxicity associated with VAN versus 9.6% in the LNZ group (p = 0.241). As there was no difference in nephrotoxicity between VAN andlinezolid (LNZ), vancomycin (VAN) monitored by serum VAN levels can optimize and rationalize the treatment. The nephrotoxicity risk criterion should not guide the prescription for LNZ. Furthermore, the average global cost of treatment with VAN was approximately R$ 43,000, while for LNZ, it was R$ 71,000. Conclusion: VAN was considered dominant (lower cost and greater effectiveness) over LNZ for treating patients with GPC infection.


Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou comparar a ocorrência de lesão renal aguda (LRA) em pacientes pediátricos que usaram vancomicina (VAN) ou linezolida (LNZ) para tratar infecções por cocos Gram-positivos (CGP) e avaliar qual tratamento (VAN ou LNZ) é o mais custo-efetivo considerando a perspectiva de um hospital pediátrico. Métodos: Foi realizada uma coorte retrospectiva para avaliar a ocorrência de nefrotoxicidade em pacientes pediátricos sem LRA prévia, com infecções por CGP que utilizaram LNZ ou VAN, combinada com vancocinemia. Para essa comparação, inicialmente foram realizados análise descritiva e testes de Fisher e qui-quadrado. Em seguida, foi realizada uma análise de custo-efetividade por meio de um modelo de árvore de decisão. Os desfechos de interesse foram a taxa de LRA relacionada ao medicamento e a taxa de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e cura. Resultados: Nos pacientes sem LRA prévia, 20% deles desenvolveram nefrotoxicidade associada à VAN versus 9,6% no grupo LNZ (p = 0,241). Como não houve diferença na nefrotoxicidade entre VAN e LNZ, a VAN combinada com a vancocinemia pode otimizar e racionalizar o tratamento, e a prescrição de LNZ não deve ser guiada pelo critério de risco de nefrotoxicidade. Além disso, o custo médio global do tratamento com VAN foi de aproximadamente R$ 43.000, enquanto para LNZ foi de R$ 71.000. Conclusão: Assim, a VAN foi considerada dominante (menor custo e maior eficácia) sobre a LNZ para o tratamento de pacientes com infecção por CGP.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Vancomycin , Cost-Effectiveness Analysis , Renal Insufficiency , Linezolid
16.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-11, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393021

ABSTRACT

Background: Methicillin resistance and biofilm-producing Staphylococci are emerging as multidrug-resistant strains narrowing the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy. Although vancomycin is used as the drug of choice to treat such isolates, different studies worldwide have documented the emergence of strains that are intermediately susceptible or resistant to this antibiotic. Objective: The study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods: 375 staphylococci isolated from different clinical specimens over one year were included in the study. Biofilm formation was determined by the Tissue culture plate method (TCP), and ica genes were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility and methicillin resistance were done following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin in all isolates was determined by the agar dilution method. Results:Among 375 Staphylococci studied, 43% and 57% represented S. aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CNS), respectively. The rate of Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 81.4% and 66.8% respectively and determined by the disc diffusion method. The most potential antibiotics were tetracycline and chloramphenicol showing sensitivity to more than 90% isolates. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of oxacillin for staphylococci ranged from 0.125-32 µg/ml. Oxacillin agar diffusion method showed 51.6% and 79.9% isolates as MRSA and MRCNS, respectively, revealing a very high percentage of S. aureus and CNS isolates as methicillin-resistant. All isolates had susceptible vancomycin MICs that ranged from 0.125-2 µg/ml. Two S. aureus isolated from Central Venous Catheter (CVC) and catheter specimens were detected with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Similarly, three CNS isolated from blood, CVC, and wound/pus (w/p) were intermediately susceptible to vancomycin. Strong biofilm formation was observed in 22.1% of clinical isolates, and the ica gene was detected among 22.9% of isolates. Only one S. aureus detected as a biofilm producer by the TCP method was found to have intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Conclusions: The increment in vancomycin MIC among methicillin-resistant and biofilm-producing staphylococci is alarming. Strict control measures to prevent methicillin-resistant isolates spread and routine surveillance for vancomycin-resistant isolates must be incorporated in hospitals to prevent antimicrobial treatment failure


Antecedentes: Los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biopelículas están surgiendo como cepas multirresistentes que reducen la eficacia del tratamiento antimicrobiano. Aunque la vancomicina se utiliza como fármaco de elección para tratar dichos aislados, diferentes estudios realizados en todo el mundo han documentado la aparición de cepas intermedias susceptibles o resistentes a este antibiótico. Objetivo: El estudio tenía como objetivo determinar la concentración mínima inhibitoria de la vancomicina para los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas. Métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 375 estafilococos aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas durante un año. La formación de biopelículas se determinó mediante el método de la placa de cultivo de tejidos (TCP), y los genes ica se identificaron mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). La susceptibilidad a los antibióticos y la resistencia a la meticilina se realizaron siguiendo las directrices del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). La concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC) de vancomicina en todos los aislados se determinó por el método de dilución en agar. Resultados:Entre los 375 estafilococos estudiados, el 43% y el 57% representaban S. aureus y estafilococos coagulasa-negativos (ECN), respectivamente. La tasa de S. aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) y de estafilococos coagulasa negativos resistentes a la meticilina (ECNM) fue del 81,4% y el 66,8%, respectivamente, y se determinó por el método de difusión de discos. Los antibióticos más potenciales fueron la tetraciclina y el cloranfenicol, que mostraron una sensibilidad superior al 90% de los aislados. El valor de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de la oxacilina para los estafilococos osciló entre 0,125-32 µg/ml. El método de difusión en agar de la oxacilina mostró que el 51,6% y el 79,9% de los aislados eran SARM y MRCNS, respectivamente, lo que revela que un porcentaje muy elevado de los aislados de S. aureus y CNS son resistentes a la meticilina. Todos los aislados tenían MIC de vancomicina susceptibles que oscilaban entre 0,125-2 µg/ml. Se detectaron dos S. aureus aislados de muestras de catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) y catéteres con una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Del mismo modo, tres S. aureus aislados de sangre, CVC y herida/pus (w/p) fueron intermedianamente susceptibles a la vancomicina. Se observó una fuerte formación de biopelículas en el 22,1% de los aislados clínicos, y se detectó el gen ica en el 22,9% de los aislados. Sólo un S. aureus detectado como productor de biopelículas por el método TCP resultó tener una susceptibilidad intermedia a la vancomicina. Conclusiones: El incremento de la MIC de vancomicina entre los estafilococos resistentes a la meticilina y productores de biofilm es alarmante. Para evitar el fracaso del tratamiento antimicrobiano, deben incorporarse en los hospitales medidas de control estrictas para prevenir la propagación de los aislados resistentes a la meticilina y una vigilancia rutinaria de los aislados resistentes a la vancomicina


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Vancomycin Resistance
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 7-13, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388326

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El uso de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia bacteriana. OBJETIVO: Determinar el consumo de antimicrobianos en instituciones de salud de Santiago de Cali entre 2013 y 2020. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se empleó la Dosis Diaria Definida por 100 camas-día. Se definieron como criterios de inclusión las instituciones que tuvieran como mínimo 9 reportes anuales y que el reporte fuese superior a 95%. En este caso quedaron incluidas 10 instituciones. RESULTADOS: El consumo en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) fue mayor que en servicios diferentes a UCI. Se consumió más ceftriaxona e imipenem en servicios diferentes a UCI, mientras que meropenem, piperacilina/tazobactam y vancomicina lo fueron en UCI. En servicios diferentes a UCI, dos instituciones aumentaron el consumo para ceftriaxona, ciprofloxacina y piperacilina/tazobactam y una para vancomicina, mientras que en UCI en una institución el consumo aumentó para piperacilina/tazobactam. CONCLUSIÓN: El sistema brindó herramientas de vigilancia prospectiva que mostraron necesidades de intervención en instituciones.


BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotics is the main factor of microbial resistance. Aim: To determine the consumption of antibiotics in health care institutions in Santiago de Cali between 2013 and 2020. METHODS: The methodology of the Defined Daily Dose per 100 beddays was employed. Institutions that had at least 9 annual reports and that the report is greater than 95% were defined as inclusion criteria. In this case, 10 institutions were included. RESULTS: Consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU) was higher than in other units. Ceftriaxone and imipenem were more consumed in units other than ICU, whereas meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin were more consumed in the ICU. In units other than ICU, two institutions increased the consumption of ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam and one the consumption of vancomycin, whereas in the ICU, one institution increased the consumption of piperacillin/tazobactam. The endemic range identified that vancomycin located itself in the epidemic zone in one institution. CONCLUSION: The system provided tools for prospective surveillance that showed the need for intervention in institutions.


Subject(s)
Vancomycin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Colombia , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination , Intensive Care Units
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 317-323, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Vancomycin treatment failure against vancomycin-susceptible gram-positive cocci is not rare in the intensive care unit (ICU). One of the reasons for this is the substandard drug trough concentration. We aimed to examine the hypothesis that the target serum concentration could be reached earlier with a loading dose of vancomycin.@*METHODS@#This retrospective cohort study was conducted at our ICU between June 2018 and June 2020 and involved patients who were suspected of having, or confirmed to have, gram-positive cocci infection and treated with vancomycin. One group of the patients was administered a loading dose of vancomycin (loading group) and compared with the group that did not receive a loading dose (control group). The baseline characteristics, vancomycin serum concentrations, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-five patients were finally included, of which 29 received a loading dose of vancomycin. The serum concentration of vancomycin before the second dose was significantly higher for the loading group than for the control group (10.3 ± 6.1 mg/L vs. 5.7 ± 4.4 mg/L, P = 0.002). The results for both groups were similar before the fifth dose (12.4 ± 7.3 mg/L vs. 10.3 ± 6.3 mg/L in the loading and the control groups, respectively; P = 0.251). The 28-day mortality was lower for the loading group than for the control group (6.7% vs. 34.6% in the loading and control groups, respectively; P = 0.026). No significant differences were observed in serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations of the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#With the loading dose of vancomycin, the target serum concentration of vancomycin may be reached earlier without increasing the risk of acute kidney injury.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.chictr.org.cn; ChiCTR2000035369.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Creatinine , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Vancomycin
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21034, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite decades of research, wound healing remains a significant public health problem. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a topical sodium alginate gel containing vancomycin (Van) loaded MMT NPs for wound healing applications. Van was loaded in MMT at different conditions (pHs of 6, 7 and temperatures of 40, 50 °C) (Van/MMT NPs). The optimum formulation (with the smallest particle size and a high value of zeta potential; 270.8 ± 77.35 nm and -35.96 ± 2.73, respectively) showed a high drug-loading capacity (entrapment efficacy of 96%) and a sustained release pattern of Van (95%) over 480 min. The optimum Van/MMT NPs were embedded into the sodium alginate (SA) gel (Van/MMT NPs/SA gel). The Van/ MMT NPs/SA gel showed a sustained and slow release pattern of Van (95%) over 50 h. FTIR tests revealed the electrostatic interaction between MMT and Van. The broth macrodilution tube method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Van, Van/ MMT NPs, and Van/MMT NPs/SA gel against Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed the promising antibacterial activity of Van/MMT NPs/SA gel, thus, this gel can be a promising formulation for the management of infected wounds


Subject(s)
Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Infection/pathology , Bentonite/antagonists & inhibitors , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Vancomycin/agonists , Alginates/analysis , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification
20.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc279, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411874

ABSTRACT

A endocardite de valva nativa é uma doença incomum, complexa, e de alta morbimortalidade. Requer tratamento clínico prolongado, com várias complicações possíveis, e o seu tratamento cirúrgico é complexo e tecnicamente difícil. O ecocardiograma transtorácico e transesofágico são fundamentais na avaliação da doença, inclusive seus achados são parte dos critérios diagnósticos de endocardite. Adicionalmente, o ecocardiograma tridimensional (3D) contribui com detalhamento anatômico na avaliação das estruturas cardíacas acometidas pela doença. Mostramos um caso em que é ilustrado o papel da ecocardiografia no diagnóstico e avaliação de complicações da endocardite, comparando as imagens do ecocardiograma 3D pré-operatórias, com os achados durante o ato cirúrgico. (AU)


Native valve bacterial endocarditis is an uncommon, complex, and highly morbid disease that requires prolonged clinical treatment and challenging surgical interventions. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are paramount assessment tools whose findings are included in the diagnostic criteria. Three-dimensional echocardiography shows further realistic imaging details. Here we present a case demonstrating the role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of endocarditis and the identification of its complications to show how advanced imaging techniques may have a remarkable resemblance with in vivo surgical findings. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endocarditis/complications , Endocarditis/therapy , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve/pathology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Echocardiography/methods , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Incidental Findings , Cefepime/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use
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