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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 394 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417070

ABSTRACT

A presença de compostos do grupo BTEX, no ar atmosférico de grandes centros urbanos como a cidade de São Paulo é proveniente principalmente de emissões veiculares e demais fontes como as industriais. A exposição a estes compostos, principalmente quando inalados, podem causar sérios efeitos adversos a saúde humana, especialmente o composto benzeno que possui propriedades cancerígenas. Desta forma, a presente pesquisa teve objetivo realizar uma caracterização da qualidade do ar atmosférico na cidade de São Paulo utilizando amostradores passivos para quantificação de compostos do grupo BTEX. Foram selecionadas 5 áreas na cidade conforme dados de tráfego destas regiões e de acordo com o perfil de uso e ocupação do solo. Adicionalmente, foi selecionada uma área como background, com interferência mínima de emissões veiculares ou industriais. Ao todo foram realizadas 3 campanhas de amostragem no entre os anos de 2020 e 2021. O período de coleta de cada campanha foi de 21 dias e na sequência as amostras foram enviadas para análise química em laboratório através do método USEPA-TO17, de 1999 com a utilização de dessorvedor térmico acoplado à um cromatógrafo de gás e um espectrômetro de massas. Foram quantificadas concentrações de BTEX em todas as áreas selecionadas, com destaque para as concentrações de benzeno cuja variação foi de 1,2µg/m3 a 13,5µg/m3, e média de 4,6µg/m3, considerando as 3 campanhas e todas as áreas. Dentro as áreas avaliadas, os pontos localizados no bairro de Santo Amaro apresentaram as maiores concentrações de BTEX, seguido dos pontos no Jaguaré, Mooca, Pinheiros e Paraíso. A campanha realizada no inverno de 2021 apresentou as maiores concentrações tendo influência das condições meteorológicas características desta estação como também influência do aumento do número de veículos circulando na cidade decorrente da diminuição do distanciamento social necessário por conta da pandemia da COVID-19. Os tratamentos estatísticos utilizados nesta pesquisa, especialmente as ferramentas PCA e PMF, concluíram que a principal contribuição para a presença dos BTEX no ar atmosférico são as emissões veiculares, principalmente para os veículos movidos a gasolina.


The presence of compounds from the BTEX group in the atmospheric air of large urban centers such as the city of São Paulo comes mainly from vehicular emissions and other sources such as industrial ones. Exposure to these compounds, especially when inhaled, can cause serious adverse effects on human health, especially the compound benzene, which has carcinogenic properties. Thus, the present research aimed to carry out a characterization of the atmospheric air quality in the city of São Paulo using passive samplers to quantify compounds of the BTEX group. Five areas were selected in the city according to traffic data from these regions and according to the profile of land use and occupation. Additionally, an area was selected as a background, with minimal interference from vehicular or industrial emissions. In all, 3 sampling campaigns were carried out between the years 2020 and 2021. The collection period of each campaign was 21 days and then the samples were sent for chemical analysis in the laboratory using the USEPA-TO17 method, from 1999 with the use of a thermal desorber coupled to a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer. BTEX concentrations were quantified in all selected areas, especially benzene concentrations which ranged from 1.2µg/m3 to 13.5µg/m3, and an average of 4.6µg/m3, considering the 3 campaigns and all areas. Within the evaluated areas, the points located in the Santo Amaro neighborhood had the highest concentrations of BTEX, followed by the points in Jaguaré, Mooca, Pinheiros and Paraíso. The campaign carried out in the winter of 2021 showed the highest concentrations influenced by the meteorological conditions characteristic of this season as well as the influence of the increase in the number of vehicles circulating in the city due to the decrease in the social distance necessary due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The statistical treatments used in this research, especially the PCA and PMF tools, concluded that the main contribution to the presence of BTEX in the atmospheric air are vehicular emissions, especially for gasoline-powered vehicles.


Subject(s)
Toluene , Xylenes , Benzene , Vehicle Emissions , Air Monitoring , Air Pollution
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371392

ABSTRACT

Introdução. O material particulado (MP) emitido pela queima de combustíveis fósseis de origem veicular é a principal fonte de exposição ambiental à elementos potencialmente tóxicos (EPTs) presentes no ar atmosférico dos centros urbanos, entre eles arsênio, níquel e chumbo. Objetivos. Este estudo avaliou os riscos à saúde humana de efeitos não carcinogênicos e efeitos carcinogênicos associados a exposição inalatória de arsênio, níquel e chumbo no MP10 de origem veicular, coletado em uma das estações de monitoramento da qualidade do ar, na cidade de São Paulo, ao longo dos anos 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012. Métodos. Os dados de concentração dos EPTs foram obtidos pela Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB) e estão disponíveis no website da agência. As amostras semanais foram coletadas em todas as estações do ano, durante 2002, 2006, 2009 e 2012 na estação de monitoramento Cerqueira César, localizada próximo a uma via de intenso tráfego veicular. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o Software R (versão 4.0.5) e RStudio (versão 1.2). O software ProUCL foi usado para estimar os valores UCL95%. A avaliação de risco à saúde humana foi realizada de acordo com os métodos da United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Resultados. As concentrações de arsênio e chumbo no ar apresentaram médias mais elevadas durante o inverno do que nas outras estações (p <0,05). O chumbo apresentou o maior risco de efeitos não carcinogênicos (HQ> 1,0). Arsênio e níquel apresentaram o maior risco de efeitos carcinogênicos, inclusive acima de 1E-06. O risco para ambos os efeitos foi maior no inverno. Conclusão. Esses achados destacam a importância da poluição do ar como fator de risco para a saúde da população, principalmente em centros urbanos com intenso tráfego veicular. Ações para reduzir a exposição à poluição do ar ambiente devem ser priorizadas nas agendas de políticas ambientais e de saúde.


Background. Particulate matter (PM) emitted from the burning of fuels by vehicles is the main source of environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) present in atmospheric air in urban centers, between them arsenic, nickel and lead. Objective. This study evaluated the risk to human health from non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects associated with airborne arsenic, nickel and lead in PM10 exposure of the vehicular source collected at one of the air quality monitoring stations in the city of Sao Paulo over the years 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2012. Methods. The concentration data of the PTEs were obtained by the Sao Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB) and are available on the agency's website. The statistical analysis was performed using the Software R (version 4.0.5) and RStudio (version 1.2). ProUCL software was used to estimate UCL95% values. The risk assessment for human health was carried out according to the methods of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Results. Airborne arsenic and lead concentrations showed higher means during the winter than in other seasons (p<0.05). Lead had the greatest risk of non-carcinogenic effects (HQ>1.0). Arsenic and nickel had the highest risk of carcinogenic effects, including above 1E-06. The risk for both effects was greatest in winter. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of air pollution as a risk factor for population health, especially in urban centers with high vehicular traffic. Actions to reduce air pollution exposure should be prioritized in environmental and health policies agendas.


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions , Toxic Substances , Inhalation Exposure , Health Risk , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter , Arsenic , Lead , Nickel
3.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 142-148, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988155

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#Air pollution is an emerging global concern, especially in the Western Pacific and South-East Asia regions; smoke-belching and emissions from vehicles on the road are associated with air pollution. In the Philippines, the Clean Air Act of 1999 was passed to address the growing concern for poor air quality to cover mobile sources such as vehicles. @*Objective@#This study aimed to come up with a descriptive analysis of emissions of vehicles as this has an impact on air pollution and road-environmental safety. @*Methodology@#This study analyzed a secondary database of vehicle emissions violation cases from the Land Transportation Organization (LTO) office in Region 11, the Philippines. The study was retrospective in nature and involved a review of traffic violation cases. The data were encoded and analyzed using the SPSS ver. 23 software program. @*Results@#Two hundred eighty-two vehicle emission standard violations were recorded by the Land Transportation Office (LTO) from 2018 to 2019. Most cases were from 2018 (72.7%), with January (30.9%) recorded the highest number of unsafe vehicle emission standard violation cases. Of the apprehended drivers, the majority (88.3%) were of the driving professional license category. All the drivers (100.0%) were caught due to the violation of smoke-belching (V16). In comparison, a small proportion was also seen as cases of driving without a valid driver’s license or conductor’s permit (1.8%) and failure to carry driver’s license/OR/CR (0.8%). All the violators were caught on daytime working and rush hours, between 6:00 am and 5:00 pm. More than half of the apprehended drivers’ vehicles (55.3%) were classified as for hire, while the remaining (41.8%) were classified as private vehicles. The majority (99.3%) of the vehicles did not pass the first emissions standards. Meanwhile, the most common vehicles caught for unsafe emissions were UV vehicles (n = 239). The vehicles caught for dangerous emissions were more than ten years old, with one-third (35.9%) of the vehicles were between 10 to 19 years old. The mean years of use or age of the vehicle were 15.724 ± 8.553 years. Opacity results for the first emission testing were 6.691 ± 2.404, while the Average Light Absorption (ALA) coefficient for the second emissions testing was 1.102 ± 0.577. @*Conclusion@#This study provided an overview of unsafe vehicle emissions within an urban city and suggested a need for more robust monitoring of vehicle emissions within safe limits. Vehicles that do not meet safety standards should not be allowed on the road, and disposal of old inefficient running vehicles may be beneficial in reducing dangerous air pollution.


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions , Air Pollution
4.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 39-45, 30 Diciembre 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368273

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Existe relación entre la exposición de contaminantes en el aire y problemas respiratorios que van desde síntomas leves en vías respiratorias altas hasta enfermedades que pueden comprometer la vida de los pacientes como: neumonía, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y cáncer pulmonar. OBJETIVO. Registrar los síntomas respiratorios presentados por agentes civiles de tránsito expuestos a smog. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 3 458 y muestra de 454 participantes entre agentes civiles de tránsito, fiscalizadores de tránsito y personal administrativo de la Agencia Metropolitana de Tránsito en el año 2021, seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio simple estratificado para los dos grupos de participantes; se aplicó un sondeo digital basado en las encuestas: European Community Respiratory Health Survey y condiciones de trabajo. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó la herramienta EPI INFO, donde se realizó pruebas estadísticas bivariadas de Chi2 y análisis multivariado como regresiones logísticas crudas y ajustadas. RESULTADOS. Se observó que la población de trabajadores operativos en vía tuvo alrededor de dos veces más riesgo de desarrollar sibilancias en comparación a la población administrativa OR=2,1 (IC 95% 1,01­4,39); el personal operativo tuvo más del doble de riesgo de desarrollar bronquitis crónica versus la población administrativa OR=2,5 (IC 95% 1,14­5,73). Los resultados fueron ajustados mediante regresión logística con variables de condiciones de trabajo y salud (p=<0,05). CONCLUSIÓN. Se registró una relación significativa entre la contaminación ambiental por smog y enfermedades respiratorias a largo plazo.


INTRODUCTION. There is a relationship between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory problems ranging from mild upper respiratory symptoms to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer is evident. OBJECTIVE. To record the respiratory symptoms presented by civilian traffic officers exposed to smog. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 3 458 and sample of 454 participants among civilian traffic agents, traffic inspectors and administrative personnel of the Metropolitan Traffic Agency in the year 2021, selected by simple stratified random sampling for the two groups of participants; a digital survey was applied based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and working conditions. For data analysis, the EPI INFO tool was used, where bivariate Chi2 statistical tests and multivariate analysis such as crude and adjusted logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS. It was observed that the population of operational track workers had about twice the risk of developing wheezing compared to the administrative population OR=2,1 (95% CI 1,01-4,39); operational personnel had more than twice the risk of developing chronic bronchitis versus the administrative population OR=2,5 (95% CI 1,14­5,73). Results were adjusted by logist regression with working conditions and health variables (p=<0,05). CONCLUSION. There was a significant relationship between smog pollution and long-term respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Vehicle Emissions/toxicity , Police , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollution , Traffic-Related Pollution , Bronchitis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Air , Air Pollutants , Air Contamination Effects , Asthma, Occupational , Occupational Diseases
5.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 167 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349224

ABSTRACT

Os veículos automotores movidos a diesel, classificados como fontes móveis, são importantes emissores de poluentes atmosféricos. As principais emissões associadas aos veículos diesel são o Material Particulado (MP), óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx) e dióxido de enxofre (SO2). Ao longo dos anos, normas legais foram estabelecidas e medidas foram implementadas para diminuição de congestionamentos na cidade que se refletem na diminuição de emissões veiculares. Entre elas estão as medidas restritivas à circulação de veículos nos centros urbanos. Dentre as medidas adotadas na cidade de São Paulo, este trabalho considerou, como estudo de caso, o volume de tráfego de caminhões na Av. dos Bandeirantes de 2005 a 2010 e o período de maior restrição ao tráfego de caminhões de 2010 a 2015, de acordo com a Portaria da Secretaria Municipal de Transportes - SMT nº 84 de 24 de agosto de 2010 e sua influência na qualidade do ar. Na análise dos dados foi utilizada estatística descritiva e análise de correlação e de regressão entre o fluxo de veículos e os dados de qualidade do ar, tendo sido gerados gráficos de dispersão e determinada a correlação, coeficiente de correlação r e valor p, para nível de confiança 95%, entre poluentes e volume de tráfego, de acordo com os sentidos da via e períodos do dia, manhã e tarde. Observou-se diminuição da concentração no ar dos poluentes analisados, MP10, NOx e SO2, de acordo com os dados obtidos no período anterior e posterior à Portaria 84. Os resultados apresentaram correlação positiva estatisticamente significante, com menor concentração de poluentes relacionada com menor número de caminhões trafegando na via. Isto mostra que maiores volumes de caminhões circulando em determinadas vias da cidade aumenta significativamente as concentrações de MP10, NOx e SO2 no ar. Em relação ao MP2,5 não foram obtidas correlações com significância estatística, provavelmente devido ao menor período de coleta dos dados, apresentando número de observações menor em relação aos outros poluentes. Com este estudo conclui-se que algumas medidas de restrição à circulação de veículos, além de reduzir congestionamentos, são relevantes para diminuição da concentração de poluentes no ar em áreas próximas a importantes vias de tráfego da cidade. Portanto, a implementação de outras áreas de restrição à circulação de caminhões no município de São Paulo, em vias próximas a áreas residenciais, e que apresentam grande fluxo de caminhões, serão benéficas para melhoria da qualidade do ar na cidade.


Diesel-powered motor vehicles, classified as mobile sources, are important emitters of atmospheric pollutants. The main emissions associated with diesel vehicles are Particulate Matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Over the years, legal norms have been established and measures have been implemented to reduce congestion in the city that are reflected in the reduction of vehicular emissions. Among them are measures restricting vehicle circulation in urban centres. Among the measures adopted in the city of São Paulo, this study considered, as a case study, the volume of truck traffic on Av. dos Bandeirantes from 2005 to 2010 and the period of greater restriction on truck traffic from 2010 to 2015, according to the Ordinance of the Municipal Transportation Secretary - SMT No. 84 of August 24, 2010 and its influence on air quality. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics and correlation and regression analysis were used between the vehicle flow and air quality data, and scatter plots were generated and the correlation, correlation coefficient r and p value were determined, for confidence level 95%, between pollutants and traffic volume, according to the directions of flow of the road and periods of the day, morning and afternoon. It was observed a decrease in the concentration in the air of the analyzed pollutants, MP10, NOx and SO2, according to the data obtained in the period before and after the Ordinance 84. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation, with a lower concentration of pollutants related to a lower number of trucks traveling on the road. This shows that higher volumes of trucks circulating in certain streets of the city significantly increases the concentrations of MP10, NOx and SO2 in the air. In relation to MP2.5 no correlations with statistical significance were obtained, probably due to the shorter period of data collection, presenting a smaller number of observations compared to the other pollutants. With this study we conclude that some measures to restrict the circulation of vehicles, in addition to reducing congestion, are relevant to the reduction of the concentration of pollutants in the air in areas near important traffic routes of the city. Therefore, the implementation of other areas of restriction on the circulation of trucks in the city of São Paulo, on roads near residential areas, and which present a large flow of trucks, will be beneficial for the improvement of air quality in the city.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Vehicle Emissions , Gasoline , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution
6.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 272-281, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to use an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system to simulate the inhalation exposure of motorcycle exhaust particulates (MEPs) and then investigate the benchmark dose (BMD) of MEPs by evaluating cell relative viability (CRV) in lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells.@*Methods@#The MEPs dose was characterized by measuring the number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC), and mass concentration (MC). BEAS-2B cells were exposed to MEPs at different concentrations @*Results@#Our results reveal that BMD of NC and SAC were estimated by the best-fitting Hill model, while MC was estimated by Polynomial model. The BMDL for CRV following ALI exposure to MEPs were as follows: 364.2#/cm @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that MEPs exposure


Subject(s)
Humans , Benchmarking/statistics & numerical data , Bronchi/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Motorcycles , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
7.
REVISA (Online) ; 9(3): 362-368, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122554

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as campanhas midiáticas acerca das tecnologias de prevenção dos acidentes por motocicletas no C.eará, Brasil. Método: Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, onde foi realizada uma pesquisa documental através do site institucional, sobre tecnologias educativas desenvolvidas pelo DETRAN-CE para a prevenção de acidentes de moto no Ceará. Resultados: As campanhas educativas na mídia cearense são divulgadas pelo Departamento Estadual de Trânsito do Estado do Ceará - DETRAN-CE, órgão que regulamenta o trânsito no estado. O DETRAN-CE divulga as preventivas através de mensagens e orientações sobre condutas corretas no trânsito, no sentido de mudar o comportamento do homem na via pública e reverter o quadro de violência, reduzindo o número de acidentes, mortes e feridos. O público alvo são os condutores, passageiros, ciclistas, motociclistas e pedestres, que são ao mesmo tempo agentes e vítimas da violência, já que estudos apontam o homem como responsável por 90% dos acidentes no trânsito no país. Conclusão: Em virtude do número crescente de acidentes de trânsito no Ceará, verificou-se à inexistência de uma tecnologia atualizada e eficaz, para a prevenção de acidentes com motociclistas, o que pressupõe a ineficácia do desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta atualizada aplicada para a segurança no trânsito.


Objective: to assess media campaigns about motorcycle accident prevention technologies in Ceará, Brazil. Method: This is an exploratory study, where a documentary research was carried out through the institutional website, on educational technologies developed by DETRAN-CE for the prevention of motorcycle accidents in Ceará, through the institutional website. Results: According to the body that regulates traffic in the state, since August 2004 the State Traffic Department - DETRAN-CE, is linked to the Secretariat of Infrastructure, which develops educational campaigns in the Ceará media. The traffic agency reports that the messages are for guidance on correct behavior in traffic, in order to change the behavior of men on public roads and reverse the situation of violence, reducing the number of accidents, deaths and injuries. The target audience is drivers, passengers, cyclists, motorcyclists and pedestrians, who are both agents and victims of violence, since studies have pointed out that men are responsible for 90% of traffic accidents in the country, according to data provided by the institutional website of DETRAN-CE. Conclusion: There was a lack of up-to-date and effective technology for the prevention of accidents involving motorcyclists in the state of Ceará, which presupposes the ineffectiveness of developing an updated tool applied to traffic safety.


Objetivo: Analizar campañas mediáticas sobre tecnologías de prevención de accidentes de motocicletas en Ceará, Brasil. Método: Este es un estudio exploratorio, donde se realizó una investigación documental a través del sitio web institucional, sobre tecnologías educativas desarrolladas por DETRAN-CE para la prevención de accidentes de motocicleta en Ceará, a través del sitio web institucional. Resultados: Según el organismo que regula el tráfico en el estado, desde agosto de 2004, el Departamento de Tráfico del Estado - DETRAN-CE, está vinculado a la Secretaría de Infraestructura, que desarrolla campañas educativas en los medios de comunicación de Ceará. La agencia de tráfico informa que los mensajes son orientativos sobre el comportamiento correcto en el tráfico, con el fin de cambiar el comportamiento de los hombres en las vías públicas y revertir la situación de violencia, reduciendo el número de accidentes, muertes y lesiones. El público objetivo son los conductores, pasajeros, ciclistas, motociclistas y peatones, que son agentes y víctimas de la violencia, ya que los estudios han señalado que los hombres son responsables del 90% de los accidentes de tráfico en el país, según datos proporcionados por el web institucional de DETRAN-CE. Conclusión: faltaba una tecnología actualizada y efectiva para la prevención de accidentes con motociclistas en el estado de Ceará, lo que presupone la ineficacia de desarrollar una herramienta actualizada aplicada a la seguridad vial.


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions , Accidents, Traffic , External Causes , Epidemiological Monitoring , Accident Prevention
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 84, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1127258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of two interventions (implementation and suspension of mandatory vehicle inspection) on morbidity and mortality due to conditions related to air pollution, from 2008 to 2017. METHODS Interrupted time series (ARIMA models), using data available in public repositories. RESULTS A total of 229,337 children of up to 5 years old were hospitalized due to respiratory diseases, and 1,053 died (average monthly mortality ratio for this population: 1.12/100,000). Exact 137,876 individuals over 40 years old were hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction, and 19,492 died (3.7/100,000). A total of 11,010 individuals over 40 years old were hospitalized with malignant neoplasms of the respiratory system; 2,898 died (0.5/100,000). A total of 20,807 individuals over 60 years old were hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; 2,627 died (1.5/100,000). As for strokes, 69,180 individuals were hospitalized, and 10,866 died (2.1/100,000). We found no significant regression coefficient for the implementation or suspension of the program regarding hospitalizations and deaths. 38,207 children of up to 14 years old were hospitalized with asthma, and 25 of them died (0.007/100,000). The coefficients show a monthly increase of 0.05 deaths/100,000 people (p = 0.01) in the post-inspection period. We found no correlation between the measured concentrations of the pollutants PM2.5 and CO - in a monitoring station, in the central region of the municipality - and the implementation or suspension of the inspection. CONCLUSIONS No evidence confirms that the program had a measurable beneficial impact on morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and circulatory diseases.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o impacto de duas intervenções (introdução e suspensão da inspeção veicular obrigatória) sobre a morbidade e mortalidade por condições associadas à poluição do ar no período de 2008 a 2017. MÉTODOS Séries temporais interrompidas (método Arima), com dados disponíveis em repositórios públicos. RESULTADOS Houve 229.337 internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças até 5 anos de idade, com 1.053 óbitos (coeficiente médio de mortalidade mensal para a população da idade: 1,12/100.000). Para infarto agudo do miocárdio em maiores de 40 anos, houve 137.876 internações, com 19.492 óbitos (3,7/100.000). Para as neoplasias malignas do aparelho respiratório em maiores de 40 anos, foram 11.010 internações, com 2.898 óbitos (0,5/100.000). Para doenças pulmonares obstrutivas crônicas em maiores de 60 anos, foram 20.807 internações, com 2.627 óbitos (1,5/100.000). Para os acidentes vasculares cerebrais, foram 69.180 internações e 10.866 óbitos (2,1/100.000). Não houve nenhum coeficiente de regressão significativo para a introdução ou suspensão do programa em relação às internações e óbitos. Para asma em crianças até 14 anos, houve 38.207 internações e 25 óbitos (0,007/100.000), e os coeficientes mostram aumento de 0,05 óbitos/100.000 pessoas por mês (p = 0,01) no período pós-introdução da inspeção. Em modelo para os poluentes MP2,5 e CO, em estação de monitoramento da região central do município, não houve correlação entre as concentrações medidas e a introdução ou a suspensão da inspeção. CONCLUSÕES Não há evidências de que o programa tenha tido qualquer efeito benéfico mensurável sobre a morbidade e a mortalidade por doenças respiratórias e do aparelho circulatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Vehicle Emissions , Public Health , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Traffic-Related Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Middle Aged
9.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 141-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This caseecontrol study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio 1/4 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Case-Control Studies , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dust , Finland , Formaldehyde , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Iceland , Logistic Models , Norway , Occupational Exposure , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Radiation, Ionizing , Rectal Neoplasms , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Sweden , Vehicle Emissions , Wood
10.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 47-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing concern over occupational exposure to particulate matter (PM) such as grain dust and diesel exhaust, information about the exposure level and health implications among workers in small-scale milling enterprises in developing countries like Nigeria has not been adequately documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of exposure to grain dust and diesel exhaust and effect on lung function among grain millers in food markets in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. METHODS: The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional design with a comparative approach. Sixteen grain milling shops each were randomly selected from two major food markets in Ibadan metropolis for indoor PM₁₀ and PM(2.5) monitoring. Seventy-two respondents each were proportionately selected from grain millers and shop owners for forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow rate tests. RESULTS: The PM(2.5) concentrations for both market locations ranged between 1,269.3 and 651.7 μg/m³, while PM₁₀ concentrations were between 1,048.2 and 818.1 μg/m³. The recorded concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization guideline limit of 50 μg/m³ and 25 μg/m³ for PM(2.5) and PM₁₀, respectively. As compared with control group (2.1 L), significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second value (1.61 L) was observed among the exposed group (p < 0.05). Likewise, significantly lower peak expiratory flow rate value (186.7 L/min) was recorded among the exposed group than the control group (269.51 L/min) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exposure to grain dust and diesel exhaust accentuated respiratory disorders with declines in lung functions amongst grain millers. Improved milling practices and engaging cleaner milling facilities should be adopted to minimize exposure and related hazards.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Dust , Forced Expiratory Volume , Lung , Nigeria , Occupational Exposure , Particulate Matter , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vehicle Emissions , World Health Organization
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 101 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-905433

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A poluição do ar relacionada ao tráfego veicular é um grave problema nos centros urbanos, expondo parcela considerável da população ao risco de efeitos adversos à saúde. Estudos epidemiológicos e toxicológicos têm encontrado evidências que associam a exposição aos poluentes do tráfego veicular e a incidência de câncer. Objetivo: Realizar uma análise espacial dos casos de cânceres do trato respiratório e hematológico e de sua relação com a densidade de tráfego veicular no município de São Paulo. Métodos: Foram utilizados os dados de três bases distintas: dados de incidência de câncer do Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional do Município de São Paulo (RCBP) de 2002 a 2011; dados de internações hospitalares por câncer do sistema público e particular de 2004 a 2006; dados de mortalidade por neoplasias do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade de 2002 a 2013, da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Para a avaliação da exposição foi utilizada a densidade de tráfego veicular e, como indicador de status socioeconômico, o Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDHM). Foram utilizadas como unidade espacial as áreas de ponderação do Censo 2010 e uma grade de 500m x 500m. Mediante um modelo ecológico de Besag-York-Mollié foi avaliada a variabilidade espacial do risco de incidência, internação hospitalar e mortalidade por câncer do aparelho respiratório e hematológico, sendo os resultados expressos em termos de risco relativo (RR). Utilizou-se também um modelo de regressão Binomial Negativo e Poisson para quantificar a associação do desfecho estudado às categorias crescentes de exposição à densidade de tráfego obtendo-se estimativas da razão da taxa de incidência (IRR). Resultados: A variabilidade espacial do risco foi influenciada pelas covariáveis padronizadas: densidade de tráfego veicular e IDHM. Para cada aumento de um desvio padrão da densidade de tráfego obteve-se um RR= 1,07 (IC 95%: 1,02-1,13), RR= 1,09 (CI 95%: 1,02-1,15) e RR= 1,04 (CI 95%: 0,99-1,09), para incidência, internação hospitalar e mortalidade por câncer do aparelho respiratório para indivíduos > 20 anos de idade, respectivamente. Para a incidência de câncer hematológico em jovens obteve-se um RR= 1,09 (IC 95%: 1,00-1,18) para este mesmo aumento da densidade de tráfego. A avaliação da exposição por categorias crescentes de densidade de tráfego evidenciou um claro e significante gradiente de exposição-resposta para incidência e mortalidade por câncer respiratório em regiões com baixo IDHM, independente do sexo analisado. Na categoria mais alta de densidade de tráfego, homens de regiões com baixo IDHM apresentaram IRR= 3,29 (IC 95%: 2.34-4,64) comparado a IRR= 1,18 (IC 95%: 1,03-1,36) referente aos homens de regiões com alto IDHM. Conclusões: Os resultados mostraram uma associação positiva significante entre residir em áreas com alta densidade de tráfego e incidência, internação hospitalar e mortalidade por câncer respiratório em > 20 anos e incidência de câncer hematológico em indivíduos jovens. As pessoas de baixo status socioeconômico, embora não residam em áreas de maior exposição aos poluentes do tráfego, sofreram mais os efeitos da poluição do ar, provavelmente devido a fatores de vulnerabilidade


Introduction: Traffic-related air pollution is a serious problem in urban centers, exposing a considerable part of the population to the risk of adverse health effects. Epidemiological and toxicological studies have found evidence associating exposure to traffic pollutants and the incidence of cancer. Objective: To perform a spatial analysis of cases of respiratory and hematological cancers and its relation with traffic density in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Data from three different databases were used: cancer incidence data from the Population- Based Cancer Registry of the Municipality of São Paulo (RCBP) from 2002 to 2011; data from hospital admissions for cancer of the public and private system from 2004 to 2006; mortality data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) from 2002 to 2013, from the Municipal Health Department. The traffic density was used for exposure assessment, and the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) as an indicator of socioeconomic status. As a spatial unit, the weighting areas of the 2010 Census and a grid of 500 m x 500 m were used. The spatial variability of risk for incidence, hospital admission and mortality from respiratory and hematological cancers was assessed using an ecological model from Besag-York-Mollie. The results were expressed in terms of relative risk (RR). A Negative Binomial and Poisson regression model was used to quantify the association of the endpoint studied with the increasing categories of exposure to traffic density, obtaining estimates of the incidence rate ratio (IRR). Results: The spatial variability of the risk was influenced by the standardized covariates: traffic density and MHDI. For each increase of a standard deviation of the traffic density was obtained an RR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13), RR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1, 15) and RR = 1.04 (CI 95%: 0.99-1.09), for incidence, hospital admission and mortality from respiratory cancer, respectively, among individuals over 20 years of age. The RR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.00-1.18) for this same increase in traffic density was obtained for the incidence of hematological cancer in youngsters. The exposure assessment by increasing categories of traffic density evidenced a clear and significant exposure-response gradient for incidence and mortality from respiratory cancer in regions with low MHDI, regardless of the sex analyzed. In the highest category of traffic density, men from regions with low MHDI regions presented IRR = 3.29 (95% CI: 2.34-4.64) compared to IRR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1, 36) for men from regions with high MHDI. Conclusions: The results showed a significant positive association between residing in areas with high traffic density and incidence, hospital admission and mortality from respiratory cancers in individuals over 20 years, and the incidence of hematological cancer in young individuals. People with low socioeconomic status, although not residing in areas of greater exposure to traffic pollutants, have been more affected by air pollution, probably due to vulnerability factors


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles , Respiratory Tract Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vehicle Emissions , Bayes Theorem , Spatial Analysis
12.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (24): 153-156, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773071

ABSTRACT

Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants(TRAP)has been implicated in airway allergic diseases.Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of TRAP on allergic rhinitis(AR)and the biology underlying this impact.These studies have found that oxidative stress induced by TRAP could affect the axis of epithelial cell-dendritic cell-T cell towards a T-helper 2 immune response,which is the major mechanism between TRAP and AR.Further,epigenetics and microRNA might be involved in this process.Our review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants , Toxicity , Air Pollution , Oxidative Stress , Rhinitis, Allergic , Vehicle Emissions , Toxicity
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 118 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882833

ABSTRACT

Ocorrem anualmente aproximadamente 600.000 mortes de crianças com até cinco anos, no mundo. Pneumonia é a principal causa e mais de 50 por cento destas mortes são atribuídas à poluição do ar. Ela ainda é responsável pelo aumento do risco de infecções respiratórias, asma, condições neonatais adversas e anomalias congênitas. A poluição do ar também afeta o desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças e induz o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas na idade adulta. Entre 70 e 80 por cento da poluição do ar em nações em desenvolvimento são de origem veicular. Objetivando definir critérios baseados em medições com sensoriamento remoto para identificação de veículos automotores leves do ciclo Otto com elevadas emissões de monóxido de carbono, hidrocarbonetos ou óxido nítrico, foram utilizados os dados secundários gerados pela Remote Sensing do Brasil Ltda dos quais foram selecionados 179.142 veículos em uso da frota circulante da cidade de São Paulo com medições completas dos índices de emissão dos poluentes monóxido de carbono (CO), hidrocarbonetos (HC) e óxido nítrico (NO) e ainda velocidade e aceleração do veículo quando da medição e inclinação da pista no local escolhido para as medições. Foram ajustados modelos estatísticos da classe Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) visando testar a influência do Tipo de Combustível, da Potência Específica do Veículo (VSP) e das Fases do Programa de Controle da Poluição do Ar por Veículos Automotores (Proconve) sobre as emissões de CO, HC e NO, medidos usando o Remote Sensing Device (RSD). As emissões foram então conceitualmente subdivididas em dois grupos: veículos com emissões normais e com emissões anormais, isso para os diversos poluentes em veículos das Fases L3, L4 e L5 que são as fases de interesse para o gerenciamento da qualidade do ar. Variáveis latentes foram definidas para indicarem as distribuições dos veículos em relação a esses grupos e Fases. O algoritmo Expectation-Maximization (EM) foi empregado para identificação dos parâmetros das distribuições. Para determinação dos valores associados aos veículos com elevadas emissões de determinado poluente e fase do Proconve, foi empregado o percentil 98 por cento da distribuição ajustada para os veículos dos grupos com emissões normais. Assim sendo, o Erro de Tipo I foi fixado em 2 por cento sendo que esse percentual foi estabelecido considerando o Erro de Tipo II, de apontar o veículo como tendo emissão normal quando na realidade trata-se de um high emitter. Através desta abordagem foram determinados os valores indicativos de veículos com elevadas emissões segundo o poluente e a Fase do Proconve. Os resultados apontaram decréscimo nas emissões de CO e de HC segundo as Fases do Proconve. Para o NO, o comportamento das emissões não acompanhou as reduções impostas pelas Fases do Proconve. Foi constatado que os veículos de 2005 a 2009, movidos exclusivamente a gasool, foram os que apresentaram as maiores emissões de NO. Diversos possíveis fatores causadores deste comportamento diferenciado do NO foram discutidos neste trabalho. Os dados de qualidade do ar detectaram aumento significativo nas concentrações ambientais de Óxidos de Nitrogênio (NOx) em 2007, quando foi monitorado este parâmetro no período de inverno, o que pode indicar a influência dos high emitters, mas necessita de estudos mais aprofundados para confirmação da causa deste comportamento


Approximately 600,000 deaths occur worldwide annually for children up to five years of age. Pneumonia is the leading cause and more than 50 per cent of these deaths are attributed to air pollution. It is still responsible for increased risk of respiratory infections, asthma, adverse neonatal conditions and congenital anomalies. Air pollution also affects the cognitive development of children and induces future development of chronic diseases in adulthood. In order to define criteria based on remote sensing measurements to identify Otto cycle light duty vehicles (LDV) with high emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or nitric oxide it was used secondary data produced by Remote Sensing do Brasil Ltda, from which 179,142 inuse vehicles were selected, that belongs to the city of São Paulos current fleet. All those vehicles had complete measurements of emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO), and also speed and acceleration of the vehicle during measurements, and slope of the track at the place chosen for the measurements. Statistical models of the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) class were adjusted to test the influence of fuel type, Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) and of the Brazilian Vehicle Emission Control Program [Proconve] phases on CO, HC and NO emissions, measured using Remote Sensing Device (RSD). The emissions were then conceptually subdivided into two groups: vehicles with normal and abnormal emission, for the various pollutants in vehicles of L3, L4 and L5 phases of Proconve, which were of interest for the air quality management. Latent variables were defined to indicate the distribution of vehicles in relation to those groups and phases. The algorithm Expectation Maximization (EM) was employed to identify all parameters of the distributions. We use the 98 per cent percentiles of the statistical distribution set, for vehicles of groups with normal emissions to determine the limit values for vehicles with high emissions of pollutants and Proconve Phase. Therefore, the Type I Error was set at 2 per cent and this percentage was established considering the Type II Error to point the vehicle as having normal emission when in fact it is a high emitter. Through this approach, the indicative values of vehicles with high emissions according to the pollutant and the Proconve Phase were determined. Results of emissions measured with the RSD technique indicated a decrease in CO and HC emissions according to the Proconve Phase. For the NO, the emissions behavior did not follow the reductions imposed by the Proconve Phases. It was found that newer vehicles year model from 2005 to 2009 exclusively gasohol-powered vehicles, were the ones that presented the highest NO emissions. Several possible causative factors of this differential behavior of NO were discussed in this study. A significant increase in the environmental concentrations of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) was detected in 2007, when this parameter was monitored in the winter period. This may indicate the influence of the high emitter vehicles, but it requires a more in-depth cause-effect study for confirmation of this behavio


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/prevention & control , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Carbon Monoxide , Hydrocarbons , Nitric Oxide
14.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 29-35, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite our knowledge of the causes of cancer, millions of workers are involuntarily exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens in the workplace. To address this issue from a policy perspective, we developed a policy framework based on a prospective health policy analysis. Use of the framework was demonstrated for developing policies to prevent cancers associated with diesel engine exhaust (DEE), asbestos, and shift work, three occupational carcinogens with global reach and large cancer impact. METHODS: An environmental scan of existing prospective health policy analyses was conducted to select and describe our framework parameters. These parameters were augmented by considerations unique to occupational cancer. Policy-related resources, predominantly from Canada, were used to demonstrate how the framework can be applied to cancers associated with DEE, asbestos, and shift work. RESULTS: The parameters of the framework were: problem statement, context, jurisdictional evidence, primary prevention policy options, and key policy players and their attributes. Applying the framework to the three selected carcinogens illustrated multiple avenues for primary prevention, including establishing an occupational exposure limit for DEE, banning asbestos, and improving shift schedules. The framework emphasized the need for leadership by employers and government. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first proposal for a comprehensive policy framework dedicated to the primary prevention of occupational cancer. The framework can be adapted and applied by key policy players in Canada and other countries as a guide of what parameters to consider when developing policies to protect workers’ health.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Asbestos , Canada , Carcinogens , Health Policy , Leadership , Occupational Exposure , Occupations , Primary Prevention , Prospective Studies , Vehicle Emissions
15.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 185-186, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214137

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Inflammation , Vehicle Emissions
16.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 865-874, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation. METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells and ex vivo lung tissues explants obtained from elastase-induced emphysema animal models were stimulated with cigarette smoking extract (CSE), DEPs, and lipopolysaccharide, and levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), caspase-1 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain (NLRP3)-inflammasome were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: NAC and caspase-1 inhibitor suppressed CSE- and DEP-induced secretion of IL-1β in RAW 264.7 cells. The expression levels of the NLRP3-inflammasome and caspase-1 were upregulated in RAW 264.7 cells by stimulation with CSE and DEPs and were inhibited by NAC. CSE and DEPs increased the secretion of IL-1β in lung tissues from both the normal and elastase-induced emphysema groups. The secretion of IL-1β by CSE and DEPs was increased in the elastin-induced emphysema group more than that in the normal group (CSE: 309 ± 19 pg/mL vs. 151 ± 13 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.05; DEP: 350 ± 24 pg/mL vs. 281 ± 15 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.05). NAC inhibited CSE- and DEP-induced IL-1β secretion in both the normal and elastase-induced emphysema groups. NLRP3-inflammasome expression as determined by immunohistochemistry was increased by CSE and DEPs in both the normal and elastin-induced emphysema groups, and was suppressed by NAC. CONCLUSIONS: The NLRP3-inf lammasome is activated by DEPs in ex vivo tissue explants from elastase-induced emphysema animal model, and this activation is inhibited by NAC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Blotting, Western , Emphysema , Immunohistochemistry , Lung , Models, Animal , Pancreatic Elastase , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Reactive Oxygen Species , Smoking , Vehicle Emissions
17.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 777-781, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311348

ABSTRACT

Occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning related to diesel motor fumes in an air-raid shelter (ARS) was first identified in Jinan City, China, in June 2015. A total of 17 cases were identified, including 14 possible cases of firemen and 3 confirmed cases of water channel clean-up workers. The overall attack rate (AR) of firemen was 42% (14/33). The firemen had a significantly higher AR with a longer exposure and more protracted time of rescue in the ARS (P < 0.05). All the cases stated that they did not realize the potentially high level of exposure to CO in the ARS. CO poisoning posed a risk to both patients and service providers. Occupational safety and health education should be promoted and enforced in all workplaces where CO sources exist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents, Occupational , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , China , Environmental Monitoring , Occupational Exposure , Vehicle Emissions , Workplace
18.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 5, 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845858

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions , Air Pollutants , Pregnancy Outcome , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. luna azul ; (42): 362-387, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-791191

ABSTRACT

In the efficient management of the supply chain the optimal management of transport of consumables and finished products appears. The costs associated with transport have direct impact on the final value consumers must pay, which in addition to requiring competitive products also demand that they are generated in environmentally friendly organizations. Aware of this reality, this document is intended to be a starting point for Master's and Doctoral degree students who want to work in a line of research recently proposed: green routing. The state of the art of the vehicle routing problem is presented in this paper, listing its variants, models and methodologies for solution. Furthermore, the proposed interaction between variants of classical routing problems and environmental effects of its operations, known in the literature as Green-VRP is presented. The goal is to generate a discussion in which mathematical models and solution strategies that can be applied within organizations that consider within their objectives an efficient and sustainable operation are posed.


En el gerenciamiento eficiente de la cadena de suministro aparece la gestión óptima del transporte de insumos y productos terminados. Los costos asociados al transporte tienen impacto directo sobre el valor final que deben pagar los consumidores, que además de requerir productos competitivos también exigen que los mismos sean generados en organizaciones amigables con el medioambiente. Consientes de esa realidad este documento pretende ser un punto de partida para estudiantes de maestría y doctorado que quieran trabajar en una línea de investigación propuesta recientemente: el ruteo verde. En este trabajo se muestra un estado del arte del problema de ruteo de vehículos, enumerando sus variantes, modelos y metodologías de solución. Además, se presenta la interacción que se ha propuesto entre variantes clásicas de los problemas de ruteo y los efectos ambientales de su operación, denominados en la literatura como Green-VRP. El objetivo es generar una discusión donde se planteen modelos matemáticos y estrategias de solución que puedan ser aplicadas en organizaciones que consideren dentro de sus objetivos una operación eficiente y sustentable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vehicle Emissions , Statistics as Topic , Motor Vehicles , Environment
20.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(2): 179-187, mar.-abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783660

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Este estudio piloto tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la contaminación del aire a la que están expuestos los peatones en inmediaciones de tres vías con alto tráfico vehicular en la ciudad de Bogotá (carrera novena, carrera séptima y carrera once). Método Como indicador de la calidad del aire se utilizó el carbono elemental (BC), dado que es un compuesto reconocido como trazador de las emisiones provenientes de fuentes móviles. Las concentraciones de BC fueron registradas de forma continua y en tiempo real con un Micro Aethalometro portátil Modelo AE51 que era portado por las personas que realizaban los recorridos de 1.6 kilómetros en cada vía, al tiempo que diligenciaban un formato de actividades en el que consignaban los eventos relevantes percibidos durante el recorrido. Resultados Se encontró una relación directa (observada) entre los picos de concentración de BC a los que están expuestos los peatones y los eventos documentados en cada trayecto. Si bien en los tres corredores viales estudiados se registraron concentraciones de BC que indican un aire de inadecuada calidad, se encontraron distintas distribuciones de las concentraciones para cada vía estudiada. Los autores atribuyen este resultado a la diferencia en el volumen de tráfico pesado (buses y busetas principalmente), siendo la Carrera Once la vía con mayor flujo de vehículos de este tipo y más altas concentraciones de BC. Conclusión La evidencia recolectada refuerza la importancia de involucrar la variable calidad del aire al momento de diseñar infraestructura orientada a modos de transporte no motorizado.(AU)


Objective This pilot study aimed to characterize pedestrians' exposure to air pollution alongside three routes with high traffic in Bogota, Colombia (ninth avenue, eleventh avenue and seventh avenue). Method Black carbon (BC) was used as an air quality indicator since it is recognized as a tracer compound for emissions from mobile sources. The concentrations of BC were recorded continuously with a portable Micro Aethalometer Model AE51. The instrument was carried by the people doing the 1.5 kilometer-long routes, while they filled in an activity form that recorded the events occurring during the walk. Results A direct (observed) relationship between BC concentration peaks and documented events at each route was found. Although BC concentrations at all three studied corridors indicate an inadequate air quality, different concentration distributions were found for each route. The authors attribute this result to the difference in the volume of heavy traffic (mainly buses and minibuses). Eleventh Avenue was the route with the greatest flow of such vehicles and higher concentrations of BC. Conclusion The collected evidence reinforces the importance of involving air quality as a critical variable when designing non-motorized transport oriented infrastructure.(AU)


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions , Air Pollution/analysis , Particulate Matter , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Pilot Projects , Colombia
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