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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1351-1354, Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136158

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Vertebral Artery Dissection (VAD) is a rare condition that can be caused by a wide amplitude of neck movement, which injures the vessel wall and can cause ischemia in the cerebellum. We present a 37-year-old man with herniated lumbar disc and allergic rhinosinusitis, which caused sneezing spells. After one of these bouts with a ricochet of the head, he presented C3 misalignment with local pain. Twenty-one days later, affected by a new crisis, he presented left temporal headache, nystagmus, and vertigo. After 3 days, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) identified 2 regions of cerebellar ischemia and filling failure of the right vertebral artery. After 2 days, Computed Angiotomography (CT Angiography) was performed and showed right VAD with a local thrombus, without aneurysmal signs. Transcranial Doppler did not indicate an increase in blood flow from this artery. The suggested treatment involved administration of anticoagulant Apixabana 5mg, 12/12h, for 3 months, until the condition was reevaluated with new Angio CT and MRI. It was recommended that the patient was released from work for 1 month and forbidden from doing intense physical exercises for 3 months; however, due to setbacks, these deadlines were extended until a new appointment, 4 months after the first visit. The new tests showed no changes, indicating that the condition was stable. This case aims to indicate the possible investigations of the diagnosis and therapeutic options of the rare association between VAD with cerebellar infarction in a well-documented case.


RESUMO A Dissecção da Artéria Vertebral (DAV) é quadro raro que pode ser causado por movimentação de grande amplitude do pescoço, que lesiona a parede desse vaso, podendo provocar isquemia no cerebelo. Apresentamos um homem de 37 anos, com hérnia de disco e rinossinusite alérgica que lhe causava crises de espirros em salva (CE). Após uma dessas crises com ricocheteamento da cabeça, apresentou desalinhamento de C3 com dor local. Vinte e um dias depois, acometido por nova crise, apresentou cefaleia temporal esquerda, nistagmo e vertigem. Decorridos 3 dias, o paciente foi submetido a Ressoânncia Magnética (RM), que identificou 2 regiões de isquemia cerebelar e enchimento comprometido da artéria vertebral direita. Após 2 dias, foram feitos Angiotomografia Computadorizada (Angio TC), que constatou DAV direita com trombo local, sem sinais aneurismáticos, e Doppler Transcraniano, que não indicou aumento do fluxo sanguíneo dessa artéria. O tratamento sugerido envolvia administração de anticoagulante Apixabana 5mg, 12/12h, por 3 meses, até que o quadro fosse reavaliado com novas Angio TC e RM. Foi recomendado que o paciente ficasse afastado do trabalho por 1 mês e de exercícios físicos intensos por 3 meses, porém devido a contratempos, esses prazos foram prorrogados até nova consulta, 4 meses após a primeira. Os novos exames não apresentaram alterações, indicando que o quadro estava estável. Esse caso tem como objetivo indicar as possíveis investigações do diagnóstico e opções terapêuticas da rara associação entre DAV com infarto cerebelar em caso bem documentado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cerebellar Diseases , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Sneezing , Vertebral Artery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Infarction
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 140-146, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056412

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish safety ranges for the third vertebral artery segment (V3) for craneocervical procedures. Injury to V3 represents a potentially catastrophic complication. Its tortuous path and complex relationship with neighboring structures, increasing the risk. Ten male adult cadavers (20 vertebral arteries) with arterial infiltration of red latex were studied. The length, angles and anatomical measurements were obtained between the selected surgical landmarks and the portions of V3 segment. The horizontal portion has a length of 32.7 ± 3.6 mm with an angulation of 115.1 ± 8.3 degrees. The mean distances of the horizontal portion were: from the midline to the V3 groove of C1 posterior arch (24.7 ± 6.3 mm); from C1 pars interarticularis to the V3 distal loop of V3 (8.9 ± 1.4 mm). The vertical portion has a length 32.5 ± 5.6 mm with an angulation of the proximal loop of 113.6 ± 5.8 degrees. The mean distances between the C2 spinous process to the medial surface of the distal loop (43.8 ± 4.2 mm); from the C1-C2 joint to the V3 vertical portion (9.5 ± 1.5 mm); from C2 pars interarticularis to V3 in the C2 transverse foramen (6.5 ± 3.4 mm); from C2 pars interarticularis to V3 in the C1 transverse foramen (17.5 ± 4.5 mm). We reported four potential sites where V3 can be injured during four different surgical procedures: exposure of the posterior arch of C1, and pars interarticularis of C1 in the horizontal portion and exposure of the C1C2 joint, and placement of C1-C2 transarticular screws one in the vertical portion. We provide measurements of redundancy and safety ranges to reduce the risk of injury to the V3 segment during craniocervical surgical procedures.


El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer rangos de seguridad en el tercer segmento de arteria vertebral (V3) para cirugías de la región craneocervicales. La lesión de V3 representa una complicación potencialmente catastrófica. Su tortuoso trayecto y compleja relación con las estructuras aledañas, aumenta el riesgo. Se estudiaron diez cadáveres adultos masculinos (20 arterias vertebrales) con infiltración arterial de látex rojo. La longitud, ángulos y medidas anatómicas se obtuvieron respecto a los puntos de referencia quirúrgicos y las porciones del segmento V3. La porción horizontal tiene una longitud de 32,7 ± 3,6 mm con una angulación de 115,1 ± 8,3 grados. Las distancias medias de la porción horizontal fueron: desde la línea media hasta el surco V3 del arco posterior C1 (24,7 ± 6,3 mm); desde C1 pars interarticularis hasta el bucle distal V3 de V3 (8,9 ± 1,4 mm). La parte vertical tiene una longitud de 32,5 ± 5,6 mm con una angulación del bucle proximal de 113,6 ± 5,8 grados. Las distancias medias entre el proceso espinoso C2 y la superficie medial del bucle distal (43,8 ± 4,2 mm); desde la unión C1-C2 hasta la porción vertical V3 (9,5 ± 1,5 mm); de C2 pars interarticularis a V3 en el foramen transversal C2 (6,5 ± 3,4 mm); de C2 pars interarticularis a V3 en el foramen transversal C1 (17,5 ± 4,5 mm). Informamos cuatro sitios potenciales donde la V3 puede lesionarse durante cuatro procedimientos quirúrgicos diferentes: exposición del arco posterior de C1 y pars interarticularis de C1 en la porción horizontal y exposición de la articulación C1-C2, y colocación de C1-C2 Tornillos transarticulares uno en la porción vertical. Proporcionamos mediciones de los rangos de redundancia y seguridad para reducir el riesgo de lesiones en el segmento V3 durante procedimientos quirúrgicos craneocervicales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Vertebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Cervical Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 605-608, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057931

ABSTRACT

Resumo The posterior inferior cerebellar artery usually arises from the intracranial segment (V4) of the vertebral artery. Despite its mean diameter of 2 mm, it usually irrigates important areas of the brain. When occluded, whether due to trauma or surgery, it may cause infarction in the brain stem and cerebellum. The present report describes a case of incidental finding of a posterior inferior cerebellar artery arising from the cervical segment (V3) of the vertebral artery, demonstrated by angiography. The findings were recorded and compared to those of earlier publications. Brief explanations regarding anatomy, vascular anomalies and embryology were provided. A literature review showed that anomalous branches of the cervical segment of the vertebral artery are infrequent andmust be known. A better understanding of anatomy and its variations enables an accurate topographic diagnosis, as well as the planning of the optimal surgical approach and therapy. Knowledge of this anatomical variation is essential because, if it is mistaken for a muscle branch and coagulated, this can cause ischemia and disabling sequelae.


Resumo A artéria cerebelar inferoposterior geralmente nasce do segmento intracraniano (V4) da artéria vertebral. Apesar de ter diâmetro médio de 2 mm, usualmente irriga áreas eloquentes do encéfalo. Quando ocluída, seja por trauma ou cirurgia, pode causar infarto no tronco encefálico e no cerebelo. Apresentamos um caso de artéria cerebelar inferoposterior com origem anômala no segmento cervical (V3) da artéria vertebral, demonstrado por angiografia. Os resultados foram registrados e comparados com os de publicações anteriores. Foram fornecidas breves explicações sobre a anatomia, anomalias vasculares e embriologia. A revisão da literatura mostrou que os ramos anômalos do segmento cervical da artéria vertebral são infrequentes e devem ser conhecidos. Uma melhor compreensão da anatomia e suas variações permite fazer um diagnóstico topográfico preciso, bem como planejar a abordagem e a terapia cirúrgicas ideais. O conhecimento dessa variação anatômica é essencial, pois, se confundida com um ramo muscular e coagulada, pode causar isquemia com sequelas incapacitantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vertebral Artery , Lateral Medullary Syndrome , Brain Stem , Cerebral Angiography , Angiography , Anatomic Variation , Intraoperative Complications
7.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(1): 6-13, jan.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969855

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares são a maior causa de morbimortalidade no mundo. A prevenção primária, por meio do diagnóstico precoce, é necessária para possibilitar o tratamento adequado e controlar a evolução da doença, reduzindo a mortalidade e os gastos em saúde pública. Correlacionar aterosclerose em artéria carótida (avaliada pelo Eco Doppler) e disfunção ventricular esquerda (avaliada pelo ecocardiograma), além de correlacionar tais achados com o risco cardiovascular dos pacientes estudados. Método: Foram analisados 286 prontuários de pacientes que realizaram os exames Eco Doppler carotídeo e ecocardiograma transtorácico. Os dados analisados foram: presença de placa aterosclerótica e grau de estenose, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e presença de alterações contráteis difusas ou segmentares do ventrículo esquerdo. Resultados: Dos 238 laudos de Eco Doppler carotídeo, 18 tinham estenose maior que 70% em artéria carótida e 14 destes apresentavam alteração contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo (p = 0,045). Dos pacientes que tinham risco cardiovascular muito alto, 61 apresentavam estenose em artéria carótida (p < 0,001); 51 pacientes com risco cardiovascular muito alto apresentavam alteração contrátil (p < 0,001). Dos 266 laudos de ecocardiograma, 37 registravam fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida. Desses, 25 tinham risco cardiovascular muito alto (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Houve relação positiva entre estenose de artéria carótida, redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e alteração contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo (difusa ou segmentar) com risco cardiovascular muito alto. Também foi possível correlacionar a estenose carotídea com alteração contrátil, apesar deste estudo não demonstrar correlação entre estenose carotídea e redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Primary prevention, through early diagnosis, is necessary to enable proper treatment and control disease progression, reducing mortality and public health expenditures. Objective: Correlate carotid artery atherosclerosis (evaluated by Doppler echocardiography) and left ventricular dysfunction (evaluated by echocardiography) and to correlate the findings with the patients' cardiovascular risk. Method: A total of 286 medical records of patients who underwent carotid Doppler echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed. The data analyzed were: presence of atherosclerotic plaque and degree of stenosis, left ventricular ejection fraction and presence of diffuse or segmental left ventricular contractile disorders. Results: Of the 238 reports of carotid Doppler echocardiography, 18 had stenosis greater than 70% in the carotid artery and 14 of those had left ventricular contractile disorders (p = 0.045). Of the patients with very high cardiovascular risk, 61 had carotid artery stenosis (p < 0.001); 51 patients with very high cardiovascular risk had contractile disorders (p < 0.001). Of the 266 echocardiography reports, 37 had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Of these, 25 had very high cardiovascular risk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between carotid artery stenosis, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular (diffuse or segmental) contractile disorder with very high cardiovascular risk. It was also possible to correlate carotid stenosis with contractile disorder, although this study did not demonstrate any correlation between carotid stenosis and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Echocardiography/methods , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Primary Prevention/methods , Stroke Volume , Vertebral Artery , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759989

ABSTRACT

Vertebral artery injuries associated with C1 lateral mass screw insertion rarely occur during C1-2 fusion. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is uncommonly located at the C1 lateral mass insertion position. A 71-year-old woman with atlanto-axial subluxation and cord compression underwent C1-2 fusion. Sixth nerve palsy and diplopia were detected postoperatively, and decreased consciousness occurred on postoperative day 4. Brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed PICA infarction. In the preoperative CT angiography, the PICA originated between the C1 and C2 level. In the postoperative CT scan, the PICA was not visible. The patient was treated conservatively for two weeks and recovered. PICA originating between the C1 and C2 level comprises 1.1–1.3% of cases. Therefore, vertebral artery anomalies should be evaluated prior to C1-2 fusion to prevent vessel injuries.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Aged , Angiography , Arteries , Brain , Brain Infarction , Consciousness , Diplopia , Female , Humans , Infarction , Pica , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vertebral Artery
10.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 535-543, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762976

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective computed tomography (CT) based study. PURPOSE: To analyze the congenital anomalies of the cervical spine, their morphological variations and their clinical significance. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Studies published to date have focused mainly on upper cervical anomalies; no study has comprehensively reported on anomalies of both the occipitocervical and subaxial cervical spine. METHODS: Nine hundred and thirty cervical spine CT scans performed in Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, India between January 2014 and November 2017 were screened by two independent observers to document anomalies of both the upper and lower cervical spine. CT scans conducted for infection, tumor, and/or deformity were excluded. Different morphological variations, embryological basis, and clinical significance of the anomalies were discussed. RESULTS: Of the 930 CT scans screened, 308 (33.1%) had congenital anomaly. Of these, 184 (59.7%) were males and 124 (40.2.7%) were females, with a mean age of 44.2 years (range, 14–78 years). A total of 377 anomalies were identified, with 69 cases (7.4%) having more than one anomaly. Two hundred and fifty (26.8%) anomalies of the upper cervical region (occiput to C2–C3 disk space) were identified, with the most common upper cervical anomalies being high-riding vertebral artery (108 cases, 11.6%) and ponticulus posticus (PP) (75 cases, 8%). One hundred and twenty seven (13.6%) anomalies of the lower cervical spine (C3–C7) were noted, of which double foramen transversarium was the most common anomaly observed in 46 cases (4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: We found that 33.1% of CT scans had at least one congenital anomaly. Some anomalies, such as abnormal facet complex and arch anomalies, have to be differentiated from fractures in a trauma patient. Other anomalies, like PP, have to be looked for during preoperative planning to avoid complications during surgery. Therefore, knowledge of these anomalies is important as different anomalies have different clinical courses and management.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities , Female , Humans , India , Male , Retrospective Studies , Spine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vertebral Artery
11.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 290-295, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762923

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective radiological study. PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of ponticulus posticus (PP) and high-riding vertebral artery (HRVA) occurring simultaneously on the same side (PP+HRVA) and in cases of PP+HRVA, to assess C2 radio-anatomical measurements for C2 pars length, pedicle width, and laminar thickness. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: PP and HRVA predispose individuals to vertebral artery injuries during atlantoaxial fixation. In cases of PP+HRVA, the construct options thus become limited. METHODS: Consecutive computed tomography scans (n=210) were reviewed for PP and HRVA (defined as an internal height of <2 mm and an isthmus height of <5 mm). In scans with PP+HRVA, we measured the ipsilateral pedicle width, pars length, and laminar thickness and compared them with controls (those without PP or HRVA). RESULTS: PP was present in 14.76% and HRVA in 20% of scans. Of the 420 sides in 210 scans, PP+HRVA was present on 13 sides (seven right and six left). In scans with PP+HRVA, the C2 pars length was shorter compared with controls (13.69 mm in PP+HRVA vs. 20.65 mm in controls, p<0.001). The mean C2 pedicle width was 2.53 mm in scans with PP+HRVA vs. 5.83 mm in controls (p<0.001). The mean laminar thickness was 4.92 and 5.48 mm in scans with PP+HRVA and controls, respectively (p=0.209). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PP+HRVA was approximately 3% in the present study. Our data suggest that, in such situations, C2 pedicle width and pars length create important safety limitations for a proposed screw, whereas the translaminar thickness appears safe for a proposed screw.


Subject(s)
Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Cervical Atlas , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Vertebral Artery
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764179

ABSTRACT

Although many imaging modalities can play some roles in the diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection (VAD), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard method, with the highest detection rate and ability to assist in planning for endovascular treatment. However, this tool is often avoided in children because its invasive nature and it exposes them to radiation. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) have been suggested to be a reliable and non-invasive alternative, but it has never been discussed in children in whom vertebral artery dissection is a rare condition. In this report, we evaluate a case of a 2-year-old child who initially presented with cerebellar symptoms, and was early diagnosed with vertebral artery dissection using HR-MRI and was successfully treated.


Subject(s)
Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Vertebral Artery Dissection , Vertebral Artery
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766744

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) presenting with acute infarctions in cervical spinal cord and cerebellum in a 78-year-old man. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain demonstrated diffusion-restricted lesions in the right cerebellum and sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging of spinal cord showed a hyperintense lesion of the cervical spinal cord at C2-C4 level. Right VAD was identified by transfemoral cerebral angiography and computed tomography angiography which showed segmental occlusion in the right vertebral artery.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Brain , Cerebellum , Cerebral Angiography , Cervical Cord , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Ischemia , Vertebral Artery Dissection , Vertebral Artery
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785930

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 38-year-old male who complained of repeated dizziness and syncope. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) was diagnosed via videonystagmoraphy (VNG), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and three-position digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In the neutral position, CTA and DSA revealed left vertebral artery (VA) stenosis at the C2 transverse foramen and right VA hypoplasia. When the head was turned to the right, the blood flow stopped at the C2 level. The bony structure around the VA at the C2 transverse foramen was decompressed via an anterior surgical approach, and the symptoms resolved. This case present the precise stenotic point evaluation by three-position DSA is crucial for the planning of surgical treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Constriction, Pathologic , Decompression , Dizziness , Head , Humans , Male , Syncope , Vertebral Artery
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 890-894, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785499

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric, observational study.PURPOSE: Atlantoaxial instability (AAI) is characterized by excessive movement at the C1–C2 junction between the atlas and axis. An anterior surgical approach to expose the upper cervical spine for internal fixation and bone grafting has been developed to fix AAI. Currently, no anatomic information exists on the anterior transarticular atlantoaxial screw or screw and plate fixation between C1 and C2 in the Indian population. The objective of this study is to assess the anatomic landmarks of C1–C2 vertebrae: entry point, trajectory, screw length, and safety of the procedure.OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Methods outlined by Magerl and Harms are the optimal approaches among the dorsal techniques. Contraindications for these techniques include aberrant location of vertebral arteries, fractures of C1–C2 posterior structures. In these cases, anterior transarticular fixation is an alternative. Several available screw insertion trajectories have been reported. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated that adequate rigidity of this fixation is comparable with posterior fusion techniques.METHODS: Direct measurements using Vernier calipers and a goniometer were recorded from 30 embalmed human cadavers. The primary parameters measured were the minimum and maximum lateral and posterior angulations of the screw in the sagittal and coronal planes, respectively, and optimum screw length, if it was placed accurately.RESULTS: The posterior and lateral angles of screw placement in the coronal and sagittal planes ranged from 16° to 30° (mean±standard deviation [SD], 23.93°±3.93°) and 8° to 17° (mean±SD, 13.3°±2.26°), respectively. The optimum screw length was 25–38 mm (mean±SD, 28.76±3.69 mm).CONCLUSIONS: If the screw was inserted without lateral angulation, the spinal canal or cord could be violated. If a longer screw was inserted with greater posterior angulation, the vertebral artery at the posterior or posterolateral aspect of the C1 superior facet could be violated. Thus, 26° and 30° of lateral and posterior angulations, respectively, are the maximum angles permissible to avoid injury of the vertebral artery and violations of the spinal canal or atlanto-occipital joint.


Subject(s)
Anatomic Landmarks , Atlanto-Occipital Joint , Bone Transplantation , Cadaver , Humans , Observational Study , Spinal Canal , Spine , Vertebral Artery
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1439-1446, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975720

ABSTRACT

The seven cervical vertebrae found in the human body are classified into typical and atypical vertebrae. Their transverse processes contain foramen transversarium (FT) and traditionally there is one foramen present on each side, of similar size. However, variations of this foramen regarding its shape, size, number, laterality, location and osteometric characteristics have been documented in the literature. This morphological and morphometric study was conducted on 126 cervical vertebrae (82 typical and 44 atypical) obtained from the osteological bank at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal to produce a database which may serve as a useful guideline to medical personnel. There were variations observed regarding shape, number of FT, laterality and position, which have not previously been reported. The most types of variations were evident in the typical cervical vertebrae, then secondly, the seventh cervical vertebrae. The axis vertebrae did not display any accessory FT or variations.


Las siete vértebras cervicales que se encuentran en el cuerpo humano se clasifican como vértebras típicas y atípicas. Sus procesos transversos presentan un foramen transverso (FT) y normalmente este foramen es de tamaño similar en cada lado. Sin embargo, se han reportado en la literatura variaciones de este foramen, con respecto a su forma, tamaño, número, lateralidad, ubicación y características osteométricas. Este estudio morfológico y morfométrico se realizó en 126 vértebras cervicales (82 típicas y 44 atípicas) obtenidas del banco de Osteología de la Universidad de Kwa-Zulu Natal, para producir una base de datos que pueda servir como una guía útil para el personal médico. Se observaron variaciones con respecto a la forma, el número de FT, la lateralidad y la posición, que no se habían reportado anteriormente. La mayoría de los tipos de variaciones eran evidentes en las vértebras cervicales típicas y en segundo lugar en las séptimas vértebras cervicales. Los axis no mostraron ningún FT accesorio o variaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Vertebral Artery/anatomy & histology
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1356-1360, nov. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985711

ABSTRACT

Giant cell arteritis is the most common vasculitis in patients aged over 50 years. We report an 89-year-old woman with significant weight loss and persistent frontal-occipital headaches lasting two months. The neurological examination at admission identified a decrease in visual acuity of the left eye, paralysis of the third cranial nerve of the right eye and alterations of body motility without objective signs of damage of the motor or sensitive pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging showed changes of the temporal artery wall and in both vertebral arteries, as well as bilateral cerebellar and occipital ischemic lesions. The Doppler ultrasound of the temporal arteries was compatible with Giant cell arteritis. Treatment with steroids was started. While receiving oral prednisone, the patient suffered new infarcts of the posterior territory, documented with a CAT scan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Giant Cell Arteritis/diagnostic imaging , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Giant Cell Arteritis/etiology , Giant Cell Arteritis/pathology , Basilar Artery/pathology , Vertebral Artery/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/etiology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/pathology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Oculomotor Nerve/pathology
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 17(4): 322-327, out.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969136

ABSTRACT

Complicações relacionadas ao acesso venoso cervicotorácico, como os pseudoaneurismas (PAs), podem ser devastadoras. Neste artigo, apresentamos dois casos semelhantes em que o avanço tecnológico impactou no diagnóstico, tratamento e resultados. Ambos pacientes apresentaram volumoso PA após a tentativa de punção venosa profunda. O primeiro caso, em 1993, diagnosticado por duplex scan , revelou grande PA oriundo da artéria subclávia direita. A artéria foi abordada por esternotomia mediana com extensão supraclavicular. O PA originava-se do tronco tireocervical, tratado com simples ligadura. No segundo caso, em 2017, angiotomografia revelou um PA originário da artéria vertebral, que foi tratado com técnica endovascular, mantendo a perviedade do vaso. Ambos evoluíram satisfatoriamente, apesar de abordagens bastante diferentes. A lesão vascular cervicotorácica representa um desafio propedêutico e terapêutico, com alto risco de ruptura. Os avanços tecnológicos diminuem os riscos de lesões vasculares com acesso cirúrgico difícil e devem estar entre as opções do cirurgião vascular


Complications such as pseudoaneurysms (PA) related to cervicothoracic venous access can be devastating. In this article, we present two similar cases in which technological advances impacted diagnosis, treatment, and results. Both patients developed massive PA after deep venous puncture attempts. The first case occurred in 1993 and was diagnosed by a duplex scan that revealed a large PA originating from the right subclavian artery. The artery was approached by median sternotomy with supraclavicular extension. The PA originated from the thyrocervical trunk and was treated with simple ligation. The second case was in 2017. Angiotomography revealed a PA originating in the vertebral artery, which was treated with endovascular techniques, maintaining vessel patency. Both patients progressed satisfactorily, despite quite different approaches. Cervicothoracic vascular lesions represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, where the risk of rupture is high. Technological advances have reduced the risks involved in management of vascular injuries with difficult surgical access


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Vertebral Artery , Aneurysm, False/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Subclavian Artery , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Angiography/methods , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/methods , Sternotomy/methods , Hematoma
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 544-550, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954152

ABSTRACT

Geometric features of vertebrobasilar system influence occurrence of posterior circulation atherosclerosis, aneurysms, stroke and neuroradiological procedures. These features show ethnic variation, but data from black Africans in Sub Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to describe geometric features of vertebrobasilar system in a black Kenyan population. It was a descriptive cadaveric study at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. One hundred and seventy three formalin-fixed adult brains of individuals (99 male; 74 female; Age range 20 - 79) who had died of non cerebrovascular causes were studied. Level and angle of confluence of vertebral artery; diameter, length and bifurcation angles of basilar artery were measured. Data were analysed by SPSS version 21 for windows. The student t - test was used to determine the sex differences at 95 % confidence interval. Data are presented in macrographs, tables and bar charts. Confluence of vertebral arteries occurred at the sulcus bulbopontinus in 79.8 %; rostral to it in 11.5 % and caudal to it in 8.7 % of cases. Mean angle of vertebral artery confluence was 46.7º and 68.9º in males and females respectively (p£0.042). Mean length of the basilar artery was 26.8 mm; 26.3 mm in males and 27.1 mm in females (p=0.465). Mean diameter was 3.52 mm; 3.32 mm in males and 3.72 mm in females (p=0.002). The mean angle of basilar artery bifurcation was 120.3º ± 15.2; 99.3º ± 32.9 in males and 140.3º ± 16.1 in females (p=0.024). It was wider than 90º in 82.9 % of males and 95.9 % females (p=0.032). In 85 (49.1 %) it was wider than 120º. The vertebrobasilar system in the Kenyan population has geometric features that constitute risk factors for atherosclerosis. These features display sex dimorphism which may explain differences in prevalence of atherosclerosis and aneurysms. Neurosurgeons and neurologists should be aware of these differences. Individuals with risk prone geometric features should be followed up for atherosclerosis.


Las características geométricas del sistema vertebrobasilar influyen en la aparición de aterosclerosis en la circulación posterior, aneurismas, apoplejía, detectados durante procedimientos neurorradiológicos. Estas características muestran variación étnica, pero los datos de los africanos negros en el África Subsahariana son escasos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las características geométricas del sistema vertebrobasilar en una población negra de Kenia. Fue un estudio descriptivo cadavérico en el Departamento de Anatomía Humana de la Universidad de Nairobi. Se estudiaron 173 cerebros adultos (99 varones, 74 mujeres, rango de edad 20-79), fijados en formalina, de individuos que habían fallecido por causas no cerebrovasculares. Se midieron el nivel y ángulo de confluencia de la arteria vertebral, diámetro, longitud y bifurcación de la arteria basilar. Los datos fueron analizados por SPSS versión 21 para Windows. La prueba t de Student se utilizó para determinar las diferencias de sexo con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Los datos se presentan en macrografías, tablas y gráficos de barras. La confluencia de las arterias vertebrales se produjo en el surco bulbopontino en el 79,8 %; rostral al surco en 11,5 % y caudal al surco en 8,7 % de los casos. El ángulo medio de la confluencia de la arteria vertebral fue 46,70 y 68,90 en hombres y mujeres, respectivamente (p£0,042). La longitud media de la arteria basilar fue de 26,8 mm; 26,3 mm en hombres y 27,1 mm en mujeres (p=0,465). El diámetro promedio fue de 3,52 mm; 3,32 mm en hombres y 3,72 mm en mujeres (p=0,002). El ángulo medio de la bifurcación de la arteria basilar fue de 120,30 ± 15,2; 99.30 ± 32,9 en hombres y 140,30 ± 16,1en mujeres (p=0,024). Era más amplio que 90º. En un 82,9 % de los hombres y 95,9 % de las mujeres (p=0,032) se observó un ángulo más amplio que 90°. En 85 (49,1 %) fue más amplio que 120°. El sistema vertebrobasilar en la población de Kenia tiene características geométricas que constituyen factores de riesgo para la aterosclerosis. Estas características muestran dimorfismo sexual que puede explicar las diferencias en la prevalencia de aterosclerosis y aneurismas. Los neurocirujanos y los neurólogos deben tener en cuenta estas diferencias. Las personas con características geométricas propensas al riesgo deben ser seguidas por aterosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Basilar Artery/anatomy & histology , Vertebral Artery/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , African Continental Ancestry Group , Kenya
20.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 32(2): 71-76, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223423

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Realizar un análisis morfométrico del atlas por tomografía computada, determinando los valores promedio, medianos, y de variabilidad de dicha vértebra para la correcta colocación de tornillos trans-masas laterales. Introducción: Existe una significativa variabilidad interpersonal en los aspectos morfológicos del atlas, y dada su proximidad a estructuras neurovasculares (arteria vertebral, médula cervical, raíz de C2), hacen mandatario un exhaustivo planeamiento prequirúrgico para la elección de la técnica de artrodesis, tipo de tornillos a utilizar, y su trayectoria. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de diseño de tipo exploratorio, descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo, transversal. Se revisaron 99 tomografías computadas de la columna cervical. Se midieron parámetros morfométicos y angulaciones desde un "punto de entrada" en la masa lateral de C1, que fueron llamados A, B, C, D, E, F, G y H. Las mediciones de los parámetros a estudiar fueron realizadas con el programa RadiAnt DICOM Viewer (64-bit) y posteriormente volcadas a una ficha de registro de datos. Discusión: La distribución según género fue de 34 varones y 65 mujeres. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa no solo en lo referente al género (masculino vs femenino; parámetros A, B, C, D, F, G, H p-valor < 0,05) de los parámetros medidos, sino también según lateralidad (derecha vs izquierda; parámetros C, E, F, G p-valor < 0,05). La investigación propone además la generación de una base de datos con información morfométrica del atlas. Conclusión: Existe una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en las propiedades morfológicas del atlas, tanto en lo relativo al género (masculino vs femenino), como en la lateralidad (derecha vs izquierda). Es por ello que el presente estudio enfatiza en la importancia de la realización prequirúrgica de una tomografía computada de la columna cervical superior para garantizar una efectiva y segura instrumentación a éste nivel, según el largo, ancho y trayectoria de los tornillos a utilizar.


Objectives: To morphometrically analyze the atlas, using computed tomography, thereby defining mean, median and variability values of C1 for the correct placement of lateral mass screws. Introduction: Significant interpersonal variability exists among the various morphological characteristics of the atlas. Given the structure's close relationship to neurovascular structures like the vertebral arteries, cervical spinal cord, and cervical roots, exhaustive pre-surgical planning becomes mandatory. Such planning assists in the choice of arthrodesis technique, and the dimensions and trajectory of screws. Material and Methods: A retrospective, observational study was performed, for which the computed tomography (CT) scans of 99 cervical spines were reviewed. Morpho-metric parameters and angulations were measured from an "entry point" in the lateral mass at C1; these parameters were alphabetically labeled from A through H. The RadiAnt DICOM Viewer (64-bit) program was used to measure all parameters of interest, the values of which then were entered into a data collection file.Discussion: By gender, there were 34 men and 65 women. A statistically-significant difference was found between the two genders for all parameters except parameter E (all p-values < 0,05), and between the two sides (right vs. left) for parameters C, E, F, and G. Our results argue for the creation of a general database containing morphometric information on the atlas. Conclusion: Statistically-significant differences exist between men and women, and from right to left, among the morphometrical features of the atlas. This underscores the need for careful preoperative surgical planning, including the use of CT scanning to estimate optimum screw lengths and trajectories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Cord , Arthrodesis , Vertebral Artery , Tomography , Functional Laterality
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