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Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 699-704, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514323


SUMMARY: One of the most important minimally invasive treatments today in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ- OA) is the intra-articular exogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) injection, which has yielded good results in pain relief and improves mandibular function with few side effects. However, the effectiveness of HA continues to be controversial, partly due to the heterogeneity in the injection protocols in their molecular weight, viscosity and frequency of infiltration, among other properties. The aim of this review is to identify the differences in the histological and clinical effects of the different types of HA and the frequency of infiltration on TMJ-OA treatment. Materials and methods: A bibliographic search was performed in the PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The search was limited up to September 2022. Search terms included "osteoarthritis", "hyaluronic acid, "molecular weight", "concentration", "viscosity", "dose" and "temporomandibular", using AND/OR as Boolean terms. Results: Exogenous HA in its different molecular weights offers an improvement in histological and clinical characteristics. Apparently, low and medium molecular weight HA presents better results. No clinical studies related to the degree of HA viscosity were found. Respect to the frequency of infiltration, single injection, weekly injections for 3 weeks, weekly injections for 5 weeks and other protocols are used. However, their comparison is complex. There seems to be differences in the effects of the different HA preparations for the treatment of TMJ-OA, mainly in their molecular weight. However, the evidence remains scant.

Uno de los tratamientos mínimamente invasivos más importantes en la actualidad en la artrosis de la articulación temporomandibular (OATM) es la inyección intraarticular de ácido hialurónico (AH) exógeno, que ha dado buenos resultados en el alivio del dolor y mejora la función mandibular con pocos efectos secundarios. Sin embargo, la efectividad del AH continúa siendo controversial, en parte debido a la heterogeneidad en los protocolos de inyección en cuanto a su peso molecular, viscosidad y frecuencia de infiltración, entre otras propiedades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar las diferencias en los efectos histológicos y clínicos de los diferentes tipos de HA y la frecuencia de infiltración en el tratamiento de TMJ-OA. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science y Scopus. La búsqueda se limitó hasta septiembre de 2022. Los términos de búsqueda incluyeron "osteoartritis", "ácido hialurónico", "peso molecular", "concentración", "viscosidad", "dosis" y "temporomandibular", utilizando AND/OR como términos booleanos. El HA exógeno en sus diferentes pesos moleculares ofrece una mejora en las características histológicas y clínicas. Aparentemente, el AH de bajo y medio peso molecular presenta mejores resultados. No se encontraron estudios clínicos relacionados con el grado de viscosidad del HA. Respecto a la frecuencia de infiltración, se utilizan inyecciones únicas, inyecciones semanales durante 3 semanas, inyecciones semanales durante 5 semanas y otros protocolos. Sin embargo, su comparación es compleja. Parece haber diferencias en los efectos de las diferentes preparaciones de HA para el tratamiento de la OA-TMJ, principalmente en su peso molecular. Sin embargo, la evidencia sigue siendo escasa.

Humans , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/drug therapy , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Viscosity/drug effects , Injections , Molecular Weight
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 38-42, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970816


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical efficacy of targeted sealing with high viscosity bone cement and secondary injection of low viscosity bone cement in the treatment of OVCFs patients with the fracture lines involved vertebral body margin.@*METHODS@#The elderly patients who underwent vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures from January 2019 to September 2021 were selected as the screening objects. Through relevant standards and further CT examination, 56 patients with fracture lines involving the anterior wall or upper and lower endplates of the vertebral body were selected for the study. There were 21 males and 35 females, aged from 67 to 89 years old with an average of (76.58±9.68) years. All 56 patients underwent secondary injection of bone cement during operation. Only a small amount of high viscosity cement was targeted to seal the edge of the vertebral body for the first time, and low viscosity cement was injected to the vertebral bodies during second bolus with well-distributed. The operation time, bone cement volume and bone cement leakage were recorded, and the pain relief was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS).@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for more than 3 months and the surgeries were successfully complete. The operation time was (50.41±10.30) min and the bone cement volume was (3.64±1.29) ml. The preoperative VAS was (7.21±2.41) points, which decreased significantly to (2.81±0.97) points 3 days after operation(P<0.05). Among the 56 patients, 2 cases(3.57%) had bone cement leakage, 1 case leaked to the paravertebral vein, and 1 case slightly bulged to the paravertebral through the crack when plugging the vertebral crack. Both patients had no obvious clinical symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#In vertebroplasty surgery, targeted sealing of high viscosity bone cement and secondary injection of low viscosity bone cement can reduce intraoperative bone cement leakage and improve the safety of operation.

Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Cements/therapeutic use , Fractures, Compression/etiology , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Viscosity , Osteoporotic Fractures/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Vertebroplasty/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1238-1248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970595


Huoluo Xiaoling Dan is a classical prescription commonly used for blood circulation and pain relief in clinic with obvious effects. To make it directly treat lesion and improve the effect, this research optimized the preparation process of Huoluo Xiaoling gel paste and further evaluated its in vitro transdermal absorption performance, so as to provide a scientific basis for its development and utilization. Using primary viscosity, holding viscosity, and sensory score as evaluation indexes, the matrix amount of gel paste was determined by the single factor test and Box-Behnken response surface method. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) method was established to determine the content of eight active ingredients, including Danshensu, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, ligustilide, tanshinone Ⅱ_A, 11-keto-β-boswellic(KBA), and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid(AKBA). A mo-dified Franz diffusion cell method was used to evaluate and compare the absorption properties of the gel paste without volatile oil and with volatile oil microemulsion. The results showed that the optimal prescription for Huoluo Xiaoling gel paste matrix was NP700(1.35 g), glycerol(7.00 g), micropowder silica gel(1.25 g), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(0.20 g), tartaric acid(0.06 g), and glyceryl aluminum(0.04 g). The mass fractions of eight active ingredients in the paste were successively 0.48, 0.014, 0.95, 0.39, 0.57, 0.055, 0.35, and 0.97 mg·g~(-1). The results of the in vitro transdermal absorption test showed that the addition of the volatile oil or the volatile oil microemulsion promoted the transdermal absorption of the active ingredients, and the law of drug penetration conformed to the zero equation or the Higuchi equation. The gel paste prepared by the optimal prescription has good appearance and adhesion, with no residue, and has the characteristics of skeletal slow-release preparation, which is easy to reduce the number of administration, la-ying a foundation for the development of new external dosage forms of Huoluo Xiaoling Dan.

Administration, Cutaneous , Skin Absorption , Chromatography, Liquid , Oils, Volatile , Viscosity
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 824-831, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385651


SUMMARY: Biomechanical factors are important factors in inducing intervertebral disc degeneration, in this paper, the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties of degenerated intervertebral discs were analyzed experimentally. Firstly, the loading and unloading curves of intervertebral discs before and after degeneration at different strain rates were compared to analyze the changes of their apparent viscoelastic mechanical properties; The internal stress/strain distribution of the disc before and after degeneration was then tested by combining digital image technology and fiber grating technology. The results show that the intervertebral disc is strain-rate- dependent whether before or after degeneration; The modulus of elasticity and peak stress of the degenerated disc are significantly reduced, with the modulus of elasticity dropping to 50 % of the normal value and the peak stress decreasing by about 55 %; Degeneration will not change the distribution of the overall internal displacement of the intervertebral disc, but has a greater impact on the superficial and middle AF; The stress in the center of the nucleus pulposus decreases, and the stress in the outer AF increases after degeneration. Degeneration has a great impact on the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties of intervertebral disc, which has reference value for the mechanism, treatment and prevention of clinical degenerative diseases.

RESUMEN: Los factores biomecánicos son importantes en la inducción de la degeneración del disco intervertebral. En este estudio se analizaron experimentalmente las propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas no lineales de los discos intervertebrales degenerados. En primer lugar se compararon las curvas de carga y descarga de los discos intervertebrales, antes y después de la degeneración, a diferentes velocidades de deformación para analizar los cambios aparentes de sus propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas. La distribución interna de tensión/deformación del disco antes y después de la degeneración se probó luego combinando tecnología de imagen digital y tecnología de rejilla de fibra. Los resultados mostraron que el disco intervertebral depende de la velocidad de deformación antes o después de la degeneración; El módulo de elasticidad y la tensión máxima del disco degenerado se reducen significativamente, cayendo el módulo de elasticidad al 50 % del valor normal y la tensión máxima disminuyendo en aproximadamente un 55 %; La degeneración no cambiará la distribución del desplazamiento interno general del disco intervertebral, pero tiene un mayor impacto en la FA superficial y media; El estrés en el centro del núcleo pulposo disminuye y el estrés en el FA externo aumenta después de la degeneración. La degeneración tiene un gran impacto en las propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas no lineales del disco intervertebral, que tiene valor de referencia para el mecanismo, tratamiento y prevención de enfermedades clínicas degenerativas.

Stress, Mechanical , Viscosity , Nonlinear Dynamics , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Biomechanical Phenomena , Elastic Modulus , Models, Biological
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-8, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393172


Background: Lactic fermentations are a catabolic process in which biochemical transformations of different organic products occur. Sugars are mainly converted into organic acids, increasing viscosity, acid taste, aroma, and flavor. Lactic acid bacteria provide probiotic characteristics if they reach counts of 106 CFU*g-1 (Colony Forming Units) in the final product, which can generate wellness for consumers. Objective: This research aimed to compare the lactic fermentation process in three substrates using two commercial cultures. Methods: Whole milk (control), aqueous extract of oats flakes, and an aqueous extract of a mixture of oats flakes with mashua pulp were used. The whole milk was heated, and the aqueous extracts were prepared. All samples were divided into two parts, keeping the temperature at 42°C, and then inoculated with Yomix y Choozit. Each the fermentation lasted 6 hours at 42°C. Fermentation samples were taken each hour, and pH, titratable acidity. and Brix degrees were determined. Results: Total lactic acid bacteria were counted at the end of each fermentation. The final product was evaluated with sensory analysis. As expected, there was an increase in titratable acidity, and a decreased pH and Brix degrees. It was observed that the dairy product showed the most significant changes. Fermentations performed with Yomix presented a higher count of lactic bacteria. Conclusion: It is possible to carry out lactic fermentation using substrates that do not contain milk, requiring higher initial soluble solids and a longer incubation time

Antecedentes: Las fermentaciones lácticas son un proceso catabólico en el que ocurren transformaciones bioquímicas de diferentes productos orgánicos. En ellas, los azúcares son convertidos principalmente en ácidos orgánicos, generando adicionalmente el aumento de viscosidad, sabor ácido, aromas y sabores en los productos finales. Adicionalmente, aportan características probióticas, ya que son realizadas por bacterias lácticas, que, si alcanzan recuentos de 106 UFC*g-1 (Unidades formadoras de colonias) en el producto final, generan bienestar para los consumidores. Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el proceso de fermentación láctica en tres sustratos utilizando dos cultivos comerciales. Métodos: Se utilizó leche entera (control), extracto acuoso de hojuelas de avena y un extracto acuoso de mezcla de hojuelas de avena con pulpa de cubios. Se llevó a cabo el calentamiento de la leche entera, y la preparación de los sustratos de avena y cubios. Dichas muestras se dividieron en dos partes, manteniendo la temperatura a 42°C. Cada una de las muestras fue inoculada con Yomix y Choozit. Cada fermentación duró 6 horas manteniendo una temperatura de 42°C. Durante cada hora se tomaron muestras, a las cuales se evaluó el pH, acidez titulable y grados brix. En los productos finales se realizó el recuento de bacterias lácticas y se realizó una evaluación sensorial. Resultados: A lo largo de la fermentación se presentó el aumento de la acidez titulable, y disminución del pH y los grados Brix. Se observó que el producto a base de leche mostró los cambios más significativos. En el caso de los productos obtenidos usando Yomix, presentaron mayor recuento de bacterias lácticas al ser comparados con aquellos en los que se usó el cultivo 1. Conclusión: Es posible realizar la fermentación láctica usando sustratos que no contengan leche, los cuales requieren mayores sólidos solubles iníciales y un mayor tiempo de incubación

Avena , Milk , Fermentation , Food Technology/methods , Taste , Viscosity
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(4): 1-13, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1400962


Objetivo: Este ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e boca dividida avaliou o desempenho clínico de um novo compósito termoviscoso com pré-aquecimento (PHT) em comparação com uma resina composta sem aquecimento (NHT) em restaurações de lesões cervicais não cariosas (LCNCs) durante um período de 6 meses. Material e Métodos: 120 restaurações foram realizadas em LCNCs com dois materiais restauradores (n = 60). Após a profilaxia, os dentes foram isolados com isolamento de fio retrator/rolos de algodão e um adesivo universal foi aplicado na estratégia de condicionamento seletivo do esmalte. Para o grupo PHT o aquecimento foi realizado a 68°C usando um aquecidor de bancada por 3 min. Por outro lado, para o grupo NHT, nenhum aquecimento foi aplicado. Ambos os materiais restauradores foram colocados no dispensador de cápsulas e inseridos nas LCNCs. Após 6 meses, o desempenho clínico das restaurações foi avaliado de acordo com os critérios FDI. A análise estatística foi realizada com teste Qui-quadrado para todos parâmetros da FDI (α = 0,05). Resultados: Apenas três restaurações no grupo NHT foram perdidas/fraturadas após seis meses de acompanhamento. As taxas de retenção (intervalo confiança 95%) por seis meses foram de 97,5% (88,6% - 99,0%) para o grupo NHT e 100% (93,9% - 100%) para o grupo PHT (p > 0,05). Vinte e duas restaurações (8 para NHT e 14 para PHT) apresentaram pequenos defeitos de adaptação marginal aos seis meses de acompanhamento (p > 0,05). Vinte e seis restaurações apresentaram alguma retenção de biofilme aos seis meses de acompanhamento (11 para NHT e 15 para PHT; p > 0,05). Em relação a todos os outros parâmetros de FDI avaliados, todas as restaurações foram consideradas clinicamente aceitáveis. Conclusão: O desempenho clínico do novo compósito termoviscoso de pré-aquecimento mostrou-se promissor após 6 meses de avaliação clínica quando aplicado em LCNCs.(AU)

Objective: This double-blind, split-mouth randomized clinical trial evaluate the clinical performance of a new preheating (PHT) thermoviscous composite compared to a non-heating (NHT) composite resin in restorations of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) over a period of 6-month. Material and Methods: 120 restorations were performed on NCCLs with two restorative materials (n = 60). After prophylaxis, the teeth were isolated with retraction cord isolation/cotton rolls and one universal adhesive was applied in the selective enamel etching strategy. For the PHT group heating was carried out at 68°C using a heater bench for 3 min. On the other side, for the NHT group, no heating was applied. Both restorative materials were placed in the caps dispenser and inserted in the NCCLs. The restorations were evaluated after 6-month of clinical performance according to the FDI criteria. Statistical analysis was performed with Chi-square test for all FDI parameters (α = 0.05). Results: Three restorations only in the NHT group were lost/fractured after six months follow-up. The retention rates (confidential interval 95%) for six months were 97.5% (88.6% - 99.0%) for the NHT group and 100% (93.9% - 100%) for the PHT group (p > 0.05). Twenty-two restorations (8 for NHT and 14 for PHT) presented small marginal adaptation defects at the six-months follow-up (p > 0.05). Twenty-six restorations were found to have biofilm retention in the six-month recall (11 for NHT and 15 for PHT; p > 0.05). Regarding all others FDI parameters evaluated, all restorations were considered clinically acceptable. Conclusion: The clinical performance of the new preheating thermoviscous was found to be promise after 6-month of clinical evaluation when applied in NCCLs (AU)

Temperature , Viscosity , Clinical Trial , Composite Resins
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 1-10, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153324


Abstract Starch samples from eight legumes cultivars instar of one variety of Vigna unguiculata L. (Cowpea), one variety of Vigna subterrenea V. (Bambara groundnut) and six varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common bean), grown in Cameroon were isolated, and their physicochemical and pasting properties were evaluated. The objectives of the study were to investigate the starch properties and processing characteristics of different bean varieties, and to establish the basic foundation of improving the functionality of beans and their starch grown in the region. The result revealed significant differences amongst the properties of the starches. The swelling power of the legume starch isolates put them in the category of highly restricted-swelling starch. This characteristic is desirable for the manufacture of value-added products such as noodles and composite blends with cereals. The pasting properties were determined using a rapid visco analyzer, and various legumes bean starches exhibited different pasting profiles. The high breakdown viscosity (BV) was founded for Cowpea and Bambara groundnut and confirmed their low. ability to resist heat and shear stress when compared to Common bean varieties studies. The factors which influence the pasting characteristics resulting to decrease in peak viscosity (PV), trough viscosity (TV) and final viscosity (FV) of starch are attributed to the interaction of starch with the protein, fat, etc. which depended to their variety.

Resumo Foram isoladas amostras de amido de oito cultivares de leguminosas ínstar de uma variedade de Vigna unguiculata L. (feijão caupi), uma variedade de Vigna subterrenea V. (amendoim Bambara) e seis variedades de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (feijão comum), cultivadas nos Camarões, e suas propriedades físico-químicas e de pasta foram avaliadas. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar as propriedades do amido e as características de processamento de diferentes variedades de feijão e estabelecer as bases básicas para melhorar a funcionalidade do feijão e do amido cultivado na região. O resultado revelou diferenças significativas entre as propriedades dos amidos. O poder de inchamento dos isolados de amido de leguminosas os coloca na categoria de amido com inchamento altamente restrito. Esta característica é desejável para o fabrico de produtos de valor acrescentado, tais como macarrão e misturas compósitas com cereais. As propriedades de pasta foram determinadas usando um analisador rápido de visco, e vários amidos de feijão leguminosos exibiram diferentes perfis de pasta. A alta BV foi fundada para o amendoim Cowpea e Bambara e confirmou sua baixa. capacidade de resistir ao calor e tensão de cisalhamento quando comparado com estudos de variedades de feijão. Os fatores que influenciam as características colantes resultantes da diminuição do pico de viscosidade (PV), da viscosidade mínima (TV) e da viscosidade final (FV) do amido são atribuídos à interação do amido com a proteína, gordura, etc., que dependem da sua variedade.

Amylose , Fabaceae , Starch , Viscosity , Cameroon
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3772-3779, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888098


To explore the correlation between concentrate viscosity and molding quality of personalized traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) condensed water pill, this study established a concentrate viscosity characterization method with rotational rheometry. Seven model prescriptions were respectively concentrated to different degrees and the viscosity of each concentrate was determined. The pre-sence of 'viscosity jump' in the middle stage of 'flag hanging' of all the model prescriptions implied that there might be an ideal viscosity range in the preparation of condensed water pill. The further study of 22 model prescriptions demonstrated that the optimum viscosity range of concentrate was 5-15 Pa·s(25 ℃) for approximately 82% of the prescriptions. About 18% of the prescriptions had a wide range, which might be caused by the high proportions of mineral and crustacean drugs in the crushing part and sugar and fibrous drugs in the decocting part. This study clarified the optimum viscosity range for concentrates of personalized TCM condensed water pills and achieved a preparation technology without any excipient, laying a foundation for the on-line control of the preparation.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Excipients , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Viscosity , Water
Revista Areté ; 21(1): 33-41, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354622


La iniciativa internacional para la estandarización de la dieta de disfagia (IDDSI) clasifica la viscosidad de los líquidos por niveles y determina metodologías específicas para evaluar cada consistencia. Con todo, la iniciativa no determina las medidas específicas de espesante requeridas para obtener cada nivel de viscosidad y sugiere hacer adaptaciones de acuerdo con las condiciones particulares de aplicación. Este estudio desarrolló una propuesta para la preparación de viscosidades mediante pruebas experimentales en las que se controló rigurosamente la cantidad de espesante y agua haciendo uso de instrumentos de mezclado de fácil acceso en entornos clínicos (vasos plásticos, jarra de agua, baja lenguas para integrar los elementos y cronómetro para considerar el tiempo de fraguado). Posterior a ello, cada nivel de viscosidad obtenido fue evaluado con el test de flujo propuesto por las IDDSI. Como resultado, este estudio especifica las cantidades necesarias de agua y espesante para conseguir viscosidad en bebidas de 0-4. Los hallazgos presentados, tienen en cuenta factores influyentes como la ubicación geográfica, temperatura y altitud. Se espera que esta propuesta incida en las dinámicas de evaluación de la deglución en el área clínica colombiana de forma que esta sea más precisa y eficaz. Finalmente, es pertinente realizar futuras investigaciones que determinen medidas específicas de espesante para lograr cambios en la viscosidad de líquidos diferentes al agua e igualmente necesario, replicar esta propuesta con otros espesantes de más fácil acceso para los usuarios y que tengan en cuenta otros aspectos como la palatabilidad

The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) classifies the viscosity of liquids by levels and determines specific methods to evaluate each consistency. However, the initiative does not determine the specific measures of thickener required to obtain each level of viscosity and suggests making adaptations according to the particular conditions of application. This study developed a proposal for the preparation of viscosities through experimental tests in which the amount of thickener and water was rigorously controlled using mixing instruments that were easily accessible in clinical settings (plastic cups, pitcher of water, tongue depressors to integrate the elements and timer to consider setting time). After that, each level of viscosity obtained was evaluated with the flow test proposed by the IDDSI. As a result, this study specifies the required amounts of water and thickener to achieve drinks viscosities 0-4. The findings presented take into account influencing factors such as geographic location, temperature and altitude. It is expected that this proposal will affect the dynamics of swallowing assessment in the Colombian clinical area so that it is more precise and effective. Finally, it is pertinent to carry out future investigations that determine specific measures of thickener to achieve changes in the viscosity of liquids other than water and it is equally necessary to replicate this proposal with other thickeners that are easier for users to access and that take into account other aspects such as palatability.

Tongue , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Reference Standards , Viscosity , Volition , Beverages , Water , Disaster Preparedness , Diet , Thickeners
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143393


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the amount of residual monomers released after polymerization by the compomers in different colors and viscosities over time. Material and Methods: The compomer samples of different colors and viscosities (flowable compomers; blue-pink and packable compomers; A2-blue-pink-gold) were prepared in molds with an inner diameter of 5 mm and a height of 2 mm. In polymerization of samples, a LED unit was used. The amount of monomers released from the samples kept in 75% ethanol/water solution was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) instrument in the 10th minute, in the 1st hour, and in the 1st, 7th, and 14th days. For statistical analyses, the paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test were used. Results: The amount of residual monomers released from all materials increased over time. At the end of the 14th day, the most released monomer from all compomer samples was BisGMA. The total amounts of released monomers from the packable compomers were Gold>A2>blue>pink. The amount of residual monomers released from flowable compomers was higher in blue than in pink. Conclusion: The color and the viscosity are the factors affecting the residual monomer release in compomers.

Chromatography/instrumentation , Compomers , Dental Materials , Polymerization , Turkey/epidemiology , Viscosity , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143394


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the ability of saliva in controlling the growth and the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) as well as the effect of histatin-5 anti-biofilm relate to pH and saliva viscosity. Material and Methods: The S. mutans biofilm assayed by crystal violet 1% and its growth measured by spectrophotometer. The saliva viscosity was analyzed by viscometer, and pH of saliva was measured by pH meter. Results: Based on the optical density values, growth of S. mutans in saliva ranged <300 CFU/mL (0.1 nm) at concentrations of 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% for 24 hours. Whereas at the 48 h and 72 h period of incubation shown an increase in growth of S. mutans ranged 300-600 CFU/mL (0.2-0.36 nm). The inhibitory biofilm formation of S. mutans in saliva was significantly higher at concentrations of 12.5% and 6.25% at 24 h incubation times on a moderate scale, whereas the histatin-5 was effective to inhibit S. mutans biofilm on the 50 and 25 ppm. The saliva possessed a higher inhibitory of biofilm S. mutans than histatin-5 and good level viscosity (0.91-0.92 cP). Conclusion: The saliva was able to control the growth of S. mutans, and histatin-5 can inhibit the biofilm formation S. mutans. Furthermore, the saliva was also able to respond to the pH change with good viscosity of saliva.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Saliva/microbiology , Biofilms , Viridans Streptococci , Histatins , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Streptococcus mutans , Viscosity , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200609, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154615


Abstract Objective To compare the effectiveness of ART restorations using High Viscosity Glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) with conventional restorations using resin composite in Class II cavities of permanent teeth, in a 2-year follow-up. Methodology Seventy-seven restorations were made with each restorative material, Equia Fil-GC Corporation (ART restorations) and Z350-3M (conventional restoration), in 54 participants in this parallel and randomized clinical trial. Restorations were evaluated at 6 months, 1 and 2 years using the ART and the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Chi-square test and Survival Analysis (p<0.05) were used for statistical analysis. Results The success rates for ART restorations were 98.7% (6 months) and 95.8% (1 year) for both criteria. At 2 years, success rate was 92% and 90.3% when scored by the modified USPHS and ART criteria (p=0.466), respectively. The success rates for conventional restorations were 100% (6 months), 98.7% (1 year) and 91.5% (2 years) for both assessment criteria. ART restorations presented a lower survival rate by the criterion of ART (83.7%) when compared to the modified USPHS criterion of (87.8%), after 2 years (p=0.051). The survival of conventional restorations was 90.7% for both evaluation criteria. Conclusion At the 2-years follow-up evaluation, no statistically significant difference was observed between the success rate of ART restorations with HVGIC compared to conventional restorations with resin composite in Class II cavities of permanent teeth.

Humans , Dental Caries , Glass Ionomer Cements , Viscosity , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Composite Resins , Dental Restoration, Permanent
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 33(2): 59-68, Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130735


ABSTRACT The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching protocols on the surface roughness (Ra), color change and surface micromorphology of a low-viscosity bulk-fill composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, 3M ESPE), a highviscosity bulk-fill composite (Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE) and a conventional nanoparticulate composite resin (control) (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE). Forty samples of each composite (disks 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were randomly divided into four groups (n=10), according to bleaching protocol: a) 10% carbamide peroxide gel (Opalescence, Ultradent Products) (2 h/ day, for 14 days); b) 40% hydrogen peroxide gel (Opalescence Boost, Ultradent Products) (three bleaching sessions, once a week, 45 min/session); c) whitening rinse (Listerine Whitening Extreme, Johnson & Johnson) (2 min/day, for 14 days); and d) distilled water (control). The samples were submitted to triplicate readings (Ra and color [CIELAB parameters]) before and after contact with bleaching protocols. Micromorphology was analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ra and color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb and ΔE) were analyzed by generalized linear models (α=0.05). The Ra of the high-viscosity bulk-fill was significantly higher than that of the other composites (p<0.05). Ra increased significantly (p<0.05) and surface became more irregular (SEM analysis) in all the composite resins, regardless of the bleaching protocol (p<0.05). The high-viscosity bulk-fill composite resin group had significantly lower ΔE (p<0.05) than the nanoparticulate composite resin group immersed in distilled water. It was concluded that the characteristics of each resin significantly influenced the Ra more than the bleaching protocol. The high-viscosity bulk-fill resin presented minor color change.

RESUMO Este estudo in vitro teve objetivo de avaliar o efeito de protocolos clareadores sobre a rugosidade de superfície (Ra), alteração de cor e micromorfologia de resina bulk-fill de baixa viscosidade (Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, 3M ESPE), alta viscosidade (Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE) e de uma resina composta nanoparticulada (controle) (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE). Quarenta amostras de cada resin composta (discos de 5 mm de diâmetro e 2 mm de espessura) foram aleatoriamente divididas em quatro grupos , de acordo com protocolo clareador (n=10): a) Gel de peróxido de carbamida (Opalescence, Ultradent Products) (2 horas/dia, por 14 dias); b) Gel de peróxido de hidrogênio (Opalescence Boost, Ultradent Products) (3 sessões de clareamento, uma por semana, 45 min/sessão); enxaguatório clareador (Listerine Whitening Extreme, Johnson & Johnson) (2 min/dia, por 14 dias); d) água destilada (controle). As amostras foram submetidas a leituras, em triplicata (Ra e cor (parâmetros CIELab) antes e depois do contato com os protocolos clareadores. A micromorfologia de superfície foi conduzida em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV). Ra e parâmetros de cor (ΔL, Δa, Δb e ΔE) foram analisados por modelos lineares generalizados (α=0.05). A Ra da resina bulk-fill de alta viscosidade foi significantemente superior do que para os outros compósitos (pp<0.05). A Ra aumentou significantemente (p<0.05) e a superfície ficou mais irregular (MEV) para todos os compósitos, independente do protocolo clareador (pp<0,05). A resina bulk-fill de alta viscosidade obteve menor ΔE (pp<0.05) do que a resina composta nanoparticulada, imersa em água destilada. Pode-se concluir que as características de cada resina composta influenciaram de forma mais significativa a Ra do que o protocolo clareador. A resina bulk fill de alta viscosidade apresentou menor alteração de cor.

Humans , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Discoloration/drug therapy , Viscosity/drug effects , Composite Resins/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Materials Testing , Color
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 98-103, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151857


Evaluate the effect of a synbiotic on salivary viscosity and buffer capacity. Materials and Methods: A follow-up one-week study was performed on 24 healthy volunteers in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, during July 2017. Volunteers must have had active tooth decay at the moment of study. All 24 patients were given a Lactiv® probiotic package, advising not to modify usual oral hygiene practices, and were followed up during 6 days. Primary output variable was salivary viscosity while the secondary was salivary buffer capacity. Salivary viscosity was assessed by using an Ostwald Pipette and buffer capacity with bromocresol purple. Results: A total of 8 male patients (33.3%) and 16 females (66.6%) patients were included, with an average age of 10.92 years. All the volunteers completed the study. Comparisons between pre- and post-treatment showed a decrease in salivary viscosity, while buffer capacity was showed to increase. Conclusion: The use of a synbiotic during a short period of time lowered the viscosity of saliva and increased salivary buffer capacity.

Evaluar el efecto de un sinbiótico sobre la viscosidad salival y la capacidad de tampón de la saliva. Materiales and Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de seguimiento de una semana en 24 voluntarios sanos en San Luis Potosí, México, durante julio de 2017. Los voluntarios cursaban caries dental activa en el momento del estudio. Los 24 pacientes recibieron un paquete de probióticos Lactiv®, fueron aconsejados a no modificar las prácticas habituales de higiene oral, y fueron seguidos durante 6 días. La variable primaria fue la viscosidad salival mientras que la secundaria fue la capacidad tampón. La viscosidad salival se evaluó usando una pipeta Ostwald y capacidad tampón con bromocresol púrpura. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 8 pacientes varones (33,3%) y 16 mujeres (66,6%), con una edad promedio de 10,92 años. Todos los voluntarios completaron el estudio. Las comparaciones entre el pretratamiento y el postratamiento mostraron una disminución de la viscosidad salival, mientras que se demostró que la capacidad del tampón aumentó. Conclusión: El uso de un sinbiótico durante un corto período de tiempo mostró un efecto sobre la disminución de la viscosidad y el aumento de la capacidad del tampón salival.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/drug effects , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Synbiotics , Viscosity , Treatment Outcome , Dental Caries , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Mexico
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17509, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132046


Amphotericin B is a broad spectrum antifungal agent used to treat fungal infections. Organogel is a semisolid preparation in which the apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional structure. The current study aimed at the formulation and comparative evaluation of sorbitan monostearate organogels and pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO). Different compositions of span 60 based organogels were prepared by varying the concentrations of the span 60 and PLO gels were prepared by varying the concentration of Pluronic F 127. The developed organogels were subjected to various characteristics such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, and drug release studies. The optimized formulations were evaluated against Candida albicans and carried out ex vivo release study. The optimized formulation was selected from span 60 based organogels, and pluronic lecithin organogels were S1 and P1, respectively. The optimized formulation (S1) showed effective inhibition against Candida albicans. The skin irritation test was carried out on albino mice for optimized formulations and results showed that no irritation to the skin. Based on the results, organogels prepared by sorbitan monostearate showed better antifungal activity, and also all the formulations were found to be stable and safe throughout the study period.

Skin , Candida albicans/classification , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Viscosity , Drug Liberation , Mycoses/pathology
Niger. J. Dent. Res ; 5(2): 131-135, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1266997


Objective: To determine relative saliva viscosity (RSV) among carious and non-carious young adult Nigerians. Methods: Participants included in this study were young adults of both sexes aged 11-40 years recruited and categorized as non-carious individuals as those with Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) of 0 and carious individual as those with DMFT of ≥1. The collection of unstimulated saliva samples was done using disposable cups and aspirated into 10 mls syringe. RSV was determined by allowing saliva to flow through a 10 mls syringe and measuring the rate of flow from 2 mls to 0 mls. The timing was done by means of a stopwatch and recorded in seconds. The plunger of the disposable syringe is carefully removed to allow the saliva to flow through the adaptor without the needle. The start off for the flow is usually above 2 mls but timing start off timing is at 2 mls as a precautionary measure. This is a simple and accurate model for measuring the viscousity of liquid (Figure 1). Statistical tests used in this study were independent t-test and one-way ANOVA. Statistical significance was at P <0.05. Results: The participants in this study were between 17 and 40 years with a mean age of 27.81±6.56 years. The overall mean relative saliva viscosity among the participants was 1.93±0.26. The mean relative saliva viscosity was 2.39±0.65 among participants aged 31-40years old. Female participants had mean relative saliva viscosity of 2.09±0.40. Participants with dental caries had mean relative saliva viscosity of 2.41±0.44. Conclusion: Relative saliva viscosity measured with a 10 disposable syringe was found to be higher in participants with dental caries than those without. Strategies to prevent dental caries should include efforts to increase the viscosity of saliva. Salivary viscosity of 1.16-1.66 P oise (P) (which is the CGS unit of viscosity) signifies oral cavity without dental caries. The SI Unit of viscosity is pascal second (Pa s). Ten poise equal one pascal second making the centipoise (cP) and millipascal second (mPa s) identical. Further studies on salivary viscosity and severity of dental caries is recommended

Dental Caries , Nigeria , Salivary Glands , Viscosity , Young Adult
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 384-389, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942746


To satisfy the daily demand of skin condition maintenance, make non-invasive real-time detection, and get proper quantitative evaluation of skin viscoelasticity parameters at the same time, a portable non-invasive detection system to acquire real-time skin tissue viscoelasticity is developed. The system relies mainly on a single-degree-of-freedom forced vibration model, with spring-damp-mass, and on dynamic micro indentation method. The experiment is conducted on two kinds of springs, and on pigskin tissues as well, the system's suitability, accuracy and stability are confirmed. The skin viscoelasticity detection in vivo is also carried out on 20 subjects with different ages, the differences of skin viscoelasticity in various parts of the body are investigated, and the correlations between age and skin viscoelasticity are clarified.

Humans , Elasticity , Skin , Skin Physiological Phenomena , Time , Viscosity
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 848-854, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879212


A high throughput measurement method of human red blood cells (RBCs) deformability combined with optical tweezers technology and the microfluidic chip was proposed to accurately characterize the deformability of RBCs statistically. Firstly, the effective stretching deformation of RBCs was realized by the interaction of photo-trapping force and fluid viscous resistance. Secondly, the characteristic parameters before and after the deformation of the single cell were extracted through the image processing method to obtain the deformation index of area and circumference. Finally, statistical analysis was performed, and the average deformation index parameters (

Humans , Erythrocyte Deformability , Erythrocytes , Microfluidics , Optical Tweezers , Viscosity
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2260-2276, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878484


Dissolving pulp consists of high purity cellulose and is widely used to as raw materials for the production of regenerated cellulose fiber, cellulose ester and cellulose ether. The characteristic of dissolving pulp affects greatly the production and processing performance of subsequent products. The α-cellulose content, hemicellulose content, pulp viscosity, ash, transition metal ion content, fiber morphology, molecular weight distribution of cellulose and the reactivity are the important properties. Because of its green, mild and high efficiency, the application of enzymes in improving the properties of dissolving pulp has a promising application prospect and has been researched significantly. In this review, the main properties of dissolving pulp are presented first, followed by a recommendation of the enzymes to improve these properties. The application and current research of cellulase and xylanase in improving the properties of dissolving pulp are emphasized. The main problems and the future research areas in improving the properties of dissolving pulp by enzymes are revealed. Finally, the technology prospects in this field are proposed.

Cellulase , Molecular Weight , Viscosity , Wood