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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 955-965, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285270

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the reasons of quality deviation of a concentrate from a predefined standard. Five treatments were established: T1 - Control, standard concentrate formulation (SCF); T2 - PXMore5, SCF with more 5% vitamin-mineral premix (VMP); T3 - PXLess5, SCF with less 5% VMP. All three treatments used a 400kg batches in an INTECNIAL mixer; T4 - FeedMixer, SCF using a 4,000kg batch in an IMOTO mixer; T5 - PremixMixer, SCF using a 1,200kg batch in an MUYANG mixer. For each treatment, bags of 20 kg were stored in three storage places for four months. Water activity of concentrate was affected by temperature and air relative humidity in different storage places. Regarding the kind of mixer, the greatest variation in concentration of crude protein, mineral residue, copper, zinc, and selenium was observed in the PremixMixer. Adjustments are imperative in the handling and use procedures of this kind of mixer to meet the quality requirements required in the concentrate production. Analyzing the effect of the mineral-vitamin premix level, no difference could be defined with the evaluated parameters.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as razões do desvio de qualidade de um concentrado de um padrão predefinido. Foram estabelecidos cinco tratamentos: T1 - controle, concentrado com formulação padrão (CFP); T2 - PXMais5, CFP com 5% a mais de vitaminas e minerais da pré-mistura (PVM); T3 - PXMenos5, CFP com 5% a menos de PVM. Todos esses três tratamentos utilizaram lotes de 400kg em um misturador INTECNIAL; T4 - FeedMixer, CFP usando um lote de 4.000kg em um misturador IMOTO; T5 - PremixMixer, CFP usando um lote de 1.200kg em um misturador MUYANG. Para cada tratamento, sacos de 20kg foram armazenados em três ambientes distintos por quatro meses. A atividade de água do concentrado foi afetada pela temperatura e umidade relativa do ar em diferentes locais de armazenamento. Em relação ao tipo de misturador, a maior variação na concentração de proteína bruta, resíduo mineral, cobre, zinco e selênio foi devido ao PremixMixer. Ajustes são imperativos nos procedimentos de manuseio e uso desse tipo de misturador para atender aos requisitos de qualidade exigidos na produção de concentrado. Ao se analisar o efeito do nível da pré-mistura de vitaminas e minerais, nenhuma diferença pôde ser definida com os parâmetros avaliados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Selenium , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Vitamins , Zinc , Copper
2.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292744

ABSTRACT

Introduction : L'épidémie de Covid-19 a créé une psychose et une anxiété généralisées. Cela pourrait être lié, d'une part, à la mortalité élevée observée dans le monde, et d'autre part, à l'absence d'une thérapie spécifique. Face à cette situation, de nombreuses substances ont été utilisées sans avis médical. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les pratiques de l'automédication en situation de Covid-19 à Oran. Matériel et méthodes : Il s'agit d'une enquête transversale observationnelle réalisée par questionnaire électronique anonyme (googleforms) et distribué, par e-mail, à des pharmaciens adhérents à la section ordinale régionale des pharmaciens d'Oran. Les réponses ont été analysées par le logiciel Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Résultats : Au total, 69 réponses ont été obtenues. La proportion de pharmaciens ayant perçu une tendance à la hausse de l'automédication était de 58,0%. Environ le quart des pharmaciens (22,9%) avaient constaté une augmentation de l'automédication à l'hydroxychloroquine ; néanmoins, aucune toxicité secondaire à l'usage de ce médicament n'a été observée. En cette situation d'épidémie de Covid-19, 91.3% de l'échantillon d'étude avaient constaté une augmentation du recours aux vitamines et compléments alimentaires, avec une consommation fréquente de la vitamine C à 1gr/j ainsi que d'autres complexes vitaminiques à base de vitamine D, vitamine B9 et fer chez la femme enceinte ou allaitante. Conclusion : Notre étude a montré qu'en période de Covid - 19 la tendance à l'automédication a augmenté. L'automédication à l'hydroxychloroquine a été observée durant cette pandémie néanmoins l'usage d'autres substances telles que les vitamines et les compléments alimentaires était plus fréquent.


Introduction : the epidemic of Covid-19 has created generalized psychosis and anxiety. This could be linked, on the one hand to the high mortality observed in the word, and the other hand to the absence of specific therapy. Faced with this situation, many substances have been used without medical advice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the practice of self-medication in COVID-19 situation in Oran. Materials and methods : this is an observational cross sectional survey carried out by an anonymous electronic questionnaire and distributed, by email, to pharmacist belonging to the regional ordinal section of pharmacist in Oran. The answers were analysed by the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results : A total of 69 responses were obtained. The proportion of pharmacists who noticed an increasing trend in self-medication was 58,0%. About a quarter of pharmacist had observed an increase in selfmedication with hydroxychloroquin, at least no toxicity secondary to the use of this drug was observed. In this COVID19 epidemic situation, 91.3% of the study sample noted an increase in the use of vitamins and food supplements with frequent consumption of vitamin C at 1g/day as well as other vitamin comlexes based on vitamin D, vitamin B9 and iron for pregnant or breastfeeding women. Conclusion : Our study showed that during COVID-19 the tendency to self-medication increased. Self-medication with hydroxychloroquin was observed during this pandemic, although the use of other substances such as vitamins and food supplements was more frequent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Medication , Dietary Supplements , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Vitamins , Algeria
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878703

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipid profiles and neonatal prognosis in gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)patients.Methods The electronic databases including PubMed,Web of Science,Embase,CNKI,and Wanfang Data were searched from inception to February 1,2020.All randomized controlled trials that compared vitamin D supplementation with placebo or without supplementation for GDM women were included.Paper selection,data extraction,meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted independently by two authors.Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.The data were analyzed in RevMan 5.3 software and Stata 12.0.Results Totally 17 randomized controlled trials involving 1432 patients(704 in the intervention group and 728 in the control group)were included in the meta-analysis.The results showed that vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol [MD=-6.11,95% CI=(-7.17,-5.04)],low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=-10.80,95% CI=(-14.72,-6.89)],and triglyceride [MD=-8.11,95% CI=(-10.09,-6.13)],while significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level [MD=45.45,95% CI=(41.98,48.92)] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD=2.77,95% CI=(1.59,3.96)].In addition,vitamin D supplementation significantly reduced the incidence rate of hyperbilirubinemia [RR=0.49,95% CI=(0.35,0.68)],premature birth [RR=0.44,95% CI=(0.27,0.72)],and neonatal hospitalization [RR=0.44,95% CI=(0.29,0.67)].Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation may regulate the serum lipid profiles in patients with GDM and reduce the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes.More high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm the findings in our study.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D , Vitamins
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1748-1770, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878665

ABSTRACT

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential for the maintenance of life activities. Generally, vitamins need to be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source as the body cannot synthesize vitamins, or the amounts of the synthesized vitamins are insufficient. At present, vitamins are widely used in medicine, food additives, feed additives, cosmetics and other fields, and the global demand for vitamins is constantly growing. Vitamins can be produced from chemical or microbial synthesis. Chemical synthesis usually requires harsh reaction conditions, produces serious wastes, and creates great potential safety hazard. In contrast, microbial synthesis of vitamins is greener, safer, and requires much less energy input. This review summarizes the advances in metabolic engineering for vitamins production in the past 30 years, with a focus on production of water-soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12 and vitamin C precursors) and lipid-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, precursors of vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin K). Moreover, the bottlenecks for fermentative production of vitamins are discussed, and future perspectives for developing next generation vitamins producing strains using synthetic biotechnology are prospected.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Vitamin A , Vitamin K , Vitamins/analysis
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285643

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, a complicated condition after nerve tissue lesion. Vitamin D appears to improve symptoms of pain and exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the effects of oral administration of vitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D, on nociception, the sciatic functional index (SFI), and spinal cord pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, a model of neuropathic pain. Vitamin D3 (500 IU/kg per day) attenuated the CCI-induced decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency (indicators of antinociception) and SFI. The vitamin prevented increased lipid hydroperoxide levels in injured sciatic nerve without change to total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Vitamin D3 prevented increased lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide anion generation (SAG), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the spinal cord, which were found in rats without treatment at 7 and 28 days post-CCI. A significant negative correlation was found between mechanical threshold and SAG and between mechanical threshold and H2O2 at day 7. Vitamin D3 also prevented decreased spinal cord total thiols content. There was an increase in TAC in the spinal cord of vitamin-treated CCI rats, compared to CCI rats without treatment only at 28 days. No significant changes were found in body weight and blood parameters of hepatic and renal function. These findings demonstrated, for first time, that vitamin D modulated pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers in the spinal cord. Since antinociception occurred in parallel with oxidative changes in the spinal cord, the oxidative changes may have contributed to vitamin D-induced antinociception.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Wistar , Nociception , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1444-1448, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136162

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of articles which have evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and cardioprotection in adult. METHODS: A literature search was performed in the Pubmed and Scielo databases. The results were extracted from primary and secondary sources and will be presented in the form of a bibliographic review. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles were identified from the electronic search that reported on physiological mechanisms relating the vitamin D axis and the cardiovascular system through receptors. Of the ten studies that evaluated the therapeutic effect of vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases, none reported significant results. CONCLUSION: The articles assessed in this review did not demonstrate a cardioprotective effect of vitamin D, despite the epidemiological correlation of vitamin D deficiency with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1431-1436, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136143

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate seasonal variation of 25(OH)vitamin D [25(OH)D3] levels, and factors associated with it, in healthy adult men, who exercised outdoors for 50 min., at least twice a week, from 10AM to 4PM, in a Brazilian semitropical region. METHODS: Blood samples were collected at the end of each season for 25(OH)D3, measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Ultraviolet irradiation was estimated by radiometer, calculating the daily photobiological response to vitamin D synthesis in human skin (D-VitD). The prevalence of 25(OH)D3 <20ng/mL changed with the seasons (p=0.000): 8.7% (n=6/69), 1.5% (n=1/66), 0 (n=0/64), and 21.7% (n=13/60), respectively, at the end of winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The prevalence, adjusted for multiple comparisons, was higher in winter than summer (p=0.026), and in autumn than spring (p=0.001) and summer (p=0.000). There were no associations of 25(OH) D3 levels with BMI (p=0.207), body fat (p=0.064), and phototype (p=0.485), in univariate analysis. It was associated with D-VitD in the 30 days before blood sampling (p=0.000), after adjustment to body fat. The prevalence of 25(OH)D3 <30ng/mL varied seasonally (p=0.000): 69.6% (n=48/69), 68.2% (n=45/66), 43.8% (n=28/64), and 88.4% (n=53/60), respectively, in winter, spring, summer, and autumn. CONCLUSIONS: In a Brazilian subtropical region, a seasonal variation in 25(OH)D3 was observed in healthy adult males, although they spent at least 50 min outdoors twice a week, wearing shorts and T-shirts. 25(OH)D3 <20ng/mL was 21.7% in autumn; D-vitD 30 days prior to blood sampling was the only factor independently associated with 25(OH)D3 levels.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a sazonalidade da 25(OH)vitamina D3 [25(OH)D3] e fatores associados em homens adultos saudáveis, que se exercitavam ao ar livre pelo menos 50 min duas vezes por semana, das 10 às 16h, em uma região subtropical. MÉTODOS: Sangue foi colhido no fim das estações para medir 25(OH)D3, por cromatografia líquida em tandem com espectroscopia de massas. A radiação ultravioleta foi estimada por radiômetro, calculando diariamente a resposta fotobiológica para sintetizar vitamina D na pele humana (D-VitD). RESULTADOS: A prevalência de 25(OH)D3 <20ng/mL foi sazonal (p=0.000): 8.7% (n=6/69), 1.5% (n=1/66), 0% (n= 0/64), e 21.7% (n=13/60), respectivamente, no final do inverno, primavera, verão e outono. A prevalência, ajustada para comparações múltiplas, foi maior no inverno do que no verão (p=0.026) e no outono do que na primavera (p=0.001) e verão (p=0.000). A 25(OH)D3 não se associou com o índice de massa corporal (p=0.207), gordura corporal (p=0.064) ou fototipo (p=0.485), na análise univariada. Associou-se à D-VitD nos 30 dias antes da coleta de sangue (p=0.000), ajustada para gordura corporal. Houve sazonalidade na prevalência de 25(OH)D3 <30ng/mL (p=0.000): 69.6% (n=48/69), 68.2% (n=45/66), 43.8% (n=28/64), e 88.4% (n=53/60), respectivamente, no inverno, primavera, verão e outono. CONCLUSÕES: Em uma região subtropical, houve sazonalidade na 25(OH)D3 em homens adultos, saudáveis, embora se exercitassem ao ar livre pelo menos 50 minutos duas vezes por semana, usando shorts e camiseta. 25(OH)D3 <20ng/mL foi 21.7% no outono e a D-vitD 30 dias antes da coleta do sangue foi o único fator associado de modo independente à 25(OH)D3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Seasons , Vitamins , Brazil/epidemiology , Calcifediol , Dietary Supplements
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 684-690, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El primer año de vida es un periodo de riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D (VD). La administración de 400 UI diarias de VD no tiene una adherencia del 100%, en cambio dosis únicas de 100.000 UI de VD oral son seguras en recién nacidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto de la suplementación oral de VD en dosis única de 100.000 UI al mes de edad vs dosis diarias de 400 UI sobre las concentraciones séricas de VD, a los 6 meses de vida. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, sin enmascaramiento. Se incluyeron 84 lactantes sanos de 1 mes de vida, asignados al azar al grupo de estudio (GE) que recibió una dosis única de VD de 100.000 UI oral o al grupo control (GC), que recibió dosis diarias de VD de 400 UI oral del 1er al 6to mes de vida. A los 6 meses de edad se determinó la concentración sérica de VD. RESULTADOS: 65 lactantes terminaron el estudio, 36 en GE y 29 en GC. No se encontró deficiencia de VD. La insuficiencia de VD fue de 5,5% y 6,8% en el GE y GC, respectivamente. La concentración sérica de VD a los 6 meses de vida, fue de 38,8 ± 5,2 ng/ml y 39,7 ± 6,3 ng/ml para GE y GC, respectivamente (NS). CONCLUSIONES: La suplementación con 100.000 UI de VD única al mes de edad logra concentraciones séricas de VD a los 6 meses de vida, similares a dosis diarias de 400 UI de VD, del 1er al 6to mes.


INTRODUCTION: Infants are a group at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. The administration of 400 IU of VD per day during the first year of life does not achieve 100% adherence. A single dose of 100,000 IU of oral VD is safe in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oral administration of VD between a single dose of 100,000 IU at one month of age vs daily doses of 400 IU on serum concentrations of VD, at 6 months of age. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Randomized clinical trial, without masking. 84 healthy infants were included at 1 month of age, randomized to the study group (SG) receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU or to the control group (CG), who received daily oral doses of VD of 400 IU from the 1st to the 6th month of life. At 6 months of life, the serum concentration of VD was determined. RESULTS: 65 infants completed the study, 36 in SG and 29 in CG. No VD deficiency was found. VD insufficient was 5.5% and 6.8% in the SG and CG, respectively. The serum concentration of VD at six months of age was 38.8 ± 5.2 ng/ml and 39.7 ± 6.3 ng/ml for the SG and CG, respectively (NS). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of 100,000 IU of VD at one month age achieves serum concentrations of VD at 6 months of life similar to the administration of daily doses of 400 IU of VD from the 1st to the 6th month.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Biomarkers/blood , Nutritional Status , Administration, Oral , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
9.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7978, 31-07-2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This living systematic review aims to provide a timely, rigorous, and continuously updated summary of the available evidence on the role of vitamin C in treating patients with COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: We conducted searches in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), grey literature, and in a centralized repository in L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence). In response to the COVID-19 emergency, L·OVE was adapted to expand the range of evidence it comprises and has been customized to group all COVID-19 evidence in one place. All the searches covered the period until April 29, 2020 (one day before submission). STUDY SELECTION AND METHODS: We adapted an already published standard protocol for multiple parallel systematic reviews. We searched for randomized trials evaluating the effect, in patients with COVID-19, of vitamin C versus placebo or no treatment. Anticipating the lack of randomized trials directly addressing this question, we also searched for trials evaluating MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, and non-randomized studies in COVID-19. Two reviewers independently screened each study for eligibility. A living, web-based version of this review will be openly available during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we will resubmit it to the journal whenever there are substantial updates. RESULTS: We screened 95 records, but no study was considered eligible. We identified 20 ongoing studies, including 13 randomized trials evaluating vitamin C in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any studies that met our inclusion criteria, and hence there is no evidence to support or refute the use of vitamin C in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. A substantial number of ongoing studies should provide valuable evidence to inform researchers and decision-makers soon.


OBJETIVO: Esta revisión sistemática viva tiene como objetivo proporcionar un resumen oportuno, riguroso y continuamente actualizado de la evidencia disponible sobre el papel de la vitamina C en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. FUENTES DE DATOS: Realizamos búsquedas en PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), literatura gris y en un repositorio centralizado en L·OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence). En respuesta a la emergencia de COVID-19, L·OVE se adaptó para ampliar el rango de evidencia que cubre y se personalizó para agrupar toda la evidencia de COVID-19 en un solo lugar. Todas las búsquedas abarcaron el período hasta el 29 de abril de 2020 (un día antes de su envío). SELECCIÓN DE ESTUDIOS Y MÉTODOS: Adaptamos un protocolo común publicado para múltiples revisiones sistemáticas paralelas. Se buscaron ensayos aleatorios que evaluaran el efecto de la vitamina C versus placebo o ningún tratamiento en pacientes con COVID-19. Anticipando la falta de ensayos aleatorios que aborden directamente esta cuestión, también buscamos ensayos que evaluaran MERS-CoV y SARS-CoV, y estudios no aleatorios en COVID-19. Dos revisores seleccionaron de forma independiente cada estudio para determinar su elegibilidad. Una versión viva y basada en la web de esta revisión estará abiertamente disponible durante la pandemia de COVID-19, y se volverá a enviar a publicación cuando haya actualizaciones sustanciales. RESULTADOS: Se examinaron 95 registros, pero ningún estudio se consideró elegible. Se identificaron 20 estudios en curso, incluidos 13 ensayos aleatorios que evalúan la vitamina C en COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró ningún estudio que cumpliera con los criterios de inclusión, por lo que no hay evidencia para apoyar o refutar el uso de vitamina C en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. Un número sustancial de estudios en curso debería proporcionar evidencia valiosa para informar a los investigadores y los tomadores de decisiones en un futuro próximo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics
11.
Lima; IETSI; 21 mayo 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1096824

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las vitaminas son micronutrientes indispensables para el ser humano, ya que participan en diversas funcionas normales. Asimismo, su déficit puede causar serios problemas de salud. Con el abrupto advenimiento del COVID-19 y su rápido desarrollo hasta convertirse en pandemia, se han venido ofertando el uso sin prescripción médica de suplementos vitamínicos (compuestos únicos [como vitamina C] o en multivitamínicos) para prevenir o tratar el COVID-19, a pesar de que, a la fecha, no está aprobado su uso para la prevención o tratamiento del COVID-19 ni de ninguna outra infección del tracto respiratorio. Uno de los principales argumentos para la venta de estos suplementos se basa en que las vitaminas tienen un rol "fortalecedor" del sistema imnume por lo que tendrían efectos en la prevención o tratamiento de diversos problemas de salud, tales como las infecciones del tracto respiratorio. Sin embargo, la existencia de evidencia científica de un rol inmunomodulador de las vitaminas no implica necesariamente que estas deban ser eficaces o efectivas para prevenir o tratar el COVID19 o si quiera alguna otra infección del tracto respiratorio. Con la finalidad de brindar a las personas una información confiable acerca del uso de suplementos vitamínicos, la Seguridad Social, EsSalud, ha formado un Comité de Emergencias que tiene como evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la efectividad de los suplementos vitamínicos en la prevención o tratamiento de COVID-19. En tal sentido, el objetivo principal de esta revisión rápida es generar evidencia a partir de la literatura científica publicada que evalúe la efectividad de los suplementos vitamínicos en COVID-19. Previendo que la literatura directamente relacionada con COVID-19 sería escasa, ampliamos la pregunta de investigación para explorar la existencia de evidencia analógica, evaluando así también la eficacia/efectividad de los suplementos vitamínicos en la prevención o tratamiento de otras infecciones del tracto respiratorio (tales como , resfriado común, influenza, incluyendo neumonía). Así, esta revisón también nos permitió evaluar qué tan razonables son los argumentos utilizados para recomendar el uso de estos suplementos vitamínicos en infecciones del tracto respiratorio en general. MÉTODOS: Relacionados con el tema a tratar: uso de suplementos vitamínicos para la prevención o el tratamiento de COVID-19, infecciones por otros coronavirus o infecciones del tracto respiratorio (excluyendo tuberculosis). Para COVID-19 o infecciones por otros coronavirus: Umbrella reviews, revisiones sistemáticas, ECAs, estudios observacionales (cohortes, casocontrol o transversal). § Para infecciones del tracto respiratorio (excluyendo tuberculosis): Umbrella reviews, revisiones sistemáticas de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados. RESULTADOS: De acuerdo con nuestra estrategia de búsqueda identificamos 650 estudios. Adicionalmente, hallamos 1 registros a través de otras fuentes. Un revisor (PSB) evaluó la elegibilidad de los estudios según títulos y resúmenes aplicando los objetivos de la presente revisión y la pregunta de investigación (PICO). Las referencias que cumplieron con los criterios de búsqueda fueron exportadas al software de manejo de referencias Zoter. Luego de la lectura por títulos y resúmenes se excluyeron 639 artículos por no abordar los criterios de nuestra pregunta PICO: población, tipo intervención, comparador, desenlace o tipo de estudio; quedando 12 artículos para lectura a texto completo. Luego de la lectura a texto completo llevada a cabo por PSB se incluyeron todos los artículos para la realización de este reporte de evidencia. De estos 12 artículos, nueve fueron revisiones sistemáticas y tres fueron revisiones umbrella que respondieran a la pregunta PICO. Todas las RS incluyeron ECA y todas las revisiones umbrela sincluyeron solamente revisiones de ECA . Ninguna RS o revisión umbrela evalúo la eficacia/efectividad de algún suplemento vitamínico para prevenir o tratar COVID-19 nin ninguna otra infección por coronavirus. Tres RS y dos revisiones umbrela evaluaron el efecto de la vitamina C para prevenir o tratar infecciones del tracto respiratoria, tales como resfrío común, influenza o neumonía; mientras que cinco RS y una revisión umbrela evaluaron el efecto de la vitamina D y solo una el efecto de la vitamina A. No encontramos ninguna RS ni revisión umbrela que evaluara la eficacia/efectivida de las vitaminas E, K, B6, B12, U, ácido fólico, complejo B, riboflvina o algún otor compuesto multivitamínico. CONCLUSIONES: Hasta la fecha de esta revisión, no existen estudios primarios que evalúen directamente la eficacia/efectividad de algún suplemento vitamínico (mono o multivitamínico) para la prevención o tratamiento de COVID-19. La abudante literatura existente acerca de los suplementos de vitamina C indica que su consumo de manera continua no previene el resfrío común y que su impacto sobre la duración de los síntomas es nulo o insignificante en niños y adultos. Es muy poco probable que estas conclusiones cambien si aparecen más estudios similares bien diseñados, por lo que tampoco se justifica su uso para prevenir o tratar infecciones del tracto respiratorio, tal y como viene siendo promocionado. La evidencia acerca de la vitamina D es limitada y no concluyente, existiendo evidencia contradictoria que sugiere la existencia de un pequeño efecto de esta en la prevención de infecciones del tracto respiratorio en algunso estudios, mientras que otros estudios fallan en corroborar estos hallazgos. La evidencia acerca de la vitamina A es muy limitada, existiendo incluso evidencia de un ligero incremento del riesgo de contraer infección respiratoria en quienes consumen vitamina A versus placebo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost-Benefit Analysis
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(4): 224-229, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098085

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The effects of vitamin D on the central and peripheral nervous system continue to be investigated today. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate pain and electrophysiologic response in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) who have undergone replacement therapy due to vitamin D deficiency. Methods: Fifty female patients diagnosed with mild and moderate CTS and accompanied by vitamin D deficiency were included in this study. Nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed before and after vitamin D replacement, and the patient's pain was evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: When NCS were compared before and after treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in the median distal sensory onset latency (DSOL) and sensory conduction velocity (CV) and motor distal latencies (DML) values (p=0.001; p<0.001; p=0.001, respectively). At the same time, there was a decrease in the VAS values in patients (p<0.001). When the two groups were compared there was an improvement in DSOL and sensory CV in both groups, but in DML only in moderate CTS group. Conclusion: In this study, it was shown that mild and moderate CTS patients had an improvement in pain and electrophysiological parameters after vitamin D replacement. Replacing vitamin D in early stages of CTS may be beneficial.


Resumo Objetivo: Os efeitos da vitamina D no sistema nervoso central e periférico continuam sendo investigados atualmente. Neste estudo, objetivamos avaliar a dor e a resposta eletrofisiológica em pacientes com síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC) submetidos a terapia de reposição devido à deficiência de vitamina D. Métodos: Cinquenta pacientes do sexo feminino diagnosticadas com STC leve e moderada e acompanhadas de deficiência de vitamina D foram incluídas neste estudo. O estudo da condução nervosa (ECN) foi realizado antes e após a reposição da vitamina D, e a dor do paciente foi avaliada com a Escala Visual Analógica (EVA). Resultados: Quando a ECN foi comparada antes e após o tratamento, houve uma melhora estatisticamente significativa na latência mediana do início sensorial distal (DSOL) e nos valores de velocidade de condução sensorial (VC) e latência distal motora (LDM) (p=0,001; p<0,001; p=0,001, respectivamente). Ao mesmo tempo, houve uma diminuição dos valores da EVA nos pacientes (p<0,001). Quando os dois grupos foram comparados, houve uma melhora no DSOL e no VC sensorial em ambos, mas no LDM apenas no grupo STC moderado. Conclusão: Neste estudo, foi demonstrado que pacientes com STC leve e moderada apresentaram melhora da dor e parâmetros eletrofisiológicos após a reposição de vitamina D. A substituição da vitamina D nos estágios iniciais da STC pode ser benéfica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Vitamin D Deficiency , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Pain , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Median Nerve , Neural Conduction
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(1): 60-74, marz. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129613

ABSTRACT

La alimentación influye en la mejora de la sintomatología de cualquier enfermedad, incluida la esclerosis múltiple (EM),la cual, se caracteriza por un proceso inflamatorio crónico, autoinmune del sistema nervioso central generando situaciones como inflamación, alteraciones; digestivas y mentales, discapacidad, y fatiga. El propósito de la presente revisión fue identificar la evidencia científica sobre los aspectos nutricionales que mejoran la progresión de EM. La metodología consistió en la búsqueda de literatura, en bases de datos electrónicas, referente a nutrición y esclerosis múltiple, principalmente entre los años 2015-2020. Entre los resultados de los aspectos nutricionales que mostraron eficacia en mejorar la progresión de EM, se encuentran el zinc, vitamina D, fibra, probióticos, aceite de pescado y de oliva, cacao, cúrcuma, y salmón. Existen evidencias del papel inmunomodulador del Zn y de la vitamina D en la inhibición de la producción de citocinas proinflamatorias. Niveles bajos de ambos componentes se asocian con mayor riesgo de padecer EM. Otros componentes de interés nutricional son la fibra y probióticos; producen ácidos grasos de cadena corta, con propiedades antiinflamatorias. La primera se conoce por su papel en la motilidad gastrointestinal y los segundos por su acción celular y molecular en procesos inflamatorios, y modulación del microbioma, por mencionar algunos. Los aspectos nutricionales antes mencionados pueden contribuir a modular la inflamación y mejorar la fatiga. Finalmente, este documento genera un panorama importante para continuar con la investigación referente a la influencia de la alimentación en pacientes con EM(AU)


Diet influences the improvement of the symptoms of any disease, including multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by a chronic, autoimmune inflammatory process of the central nervous system generating situations such as inflammation, mental and digestive alterations, disability and fatigue. The aim of this review was to identify the scientific evidence on the nutritional aspects that improve the progression of MS. The methodology consisted of searching literature, in electronic databases, referring to nutrition and multiple sclerosis, mainly between the years 2015-2020. The results of the nutritional aspects that showed effectiveness in improving the progression of MS, are zinc, vitamin D, fiber, probiotics, fish oil and olive oil, cocoa, turmeric and salmon. There is evidence of the immunomodulatory role of Zn and vitamin D in inhibiting the production of proinflammatory citokines. Low levels of both components are associated with an increased risk of MS. Other components of nutritional interest are fiber and probiotics; they produce short chain fatty acids, with anti-inflammatory properties. The first is known for its role in gastrointestinal motility and the second one for its cellular and molecular actions in inflammatory processes and the microbiome modulation, to name a few. The nutrition aspects mentioned above, can contribute to modulate inflammation and improve fatigue. Finally, this paper creates an important perspective to continue the investigation concerning the influence of diet in MS patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Zinc/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Diet , Diet, Healthy , Minerals/therapeutic use
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of sunlight exposure is the primary reason for the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Although recommended sunlight exposure guidelines exist, there is no evidence regarding whether current guidelines are optimal for increasing vitamin D levels among individuals with vitamin D deficiency.METHODS: Sixty Korean adults aged 20–49 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels of < 20 ng/mL were randomly assigned to three groups: sunlight exposure (n = 20), vitamin D supplementation groups (n = 20), and daily living (n = 20) for 1 month. The sunlight exposure group had sunlight exposure on 20% to 30% of their body surface areas for 30–60 minutes per day, 3 times a week during the summer season. Vitamin D supplementation was prescribed with 800 IU/day of vitamin D. The serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up examinations.RESULTS: The largest change in serum 25(OH)D was observed among the vitamin D supplementation group (+3.5 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The sunlight exposure group showed a slight increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but the absolute increase was less than one-third that of the vitamin D supplementation group (+0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.043). Only two participants in the sunlight exposure reached serum concentrations of 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL at follow-up. The daily living group showed no difference in vitamin D levels (−0.7 ng/mL, P = 0.516).CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure was not sufficient to overcome vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the current study subjects. Effectiveness of current sunlight exposure guidelines among various populations should be reassessed in larger clinical studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0002671


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Surface Area , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Information Services , Seasons , Solar System , Sunlight , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune cells express the vitamin (vit) D receptor, and vit D is a potent immune-modulator. A negative correlation between serum vit D levels and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity has been reported. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if the sufficient serum vit D level is helpful to control disease activity in RA patients treated with interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab.METHODS: RA patients taking tocilizumab were enrolled, and data were collected retrospectively. Disease activity scores (DAS) 28, serum vit D levels, modified Sharp scores of hand X-ray at the time of tocilizumab initiation, and follow-up data were analysed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated into T-helper (Th) 17 or osteoclasts in the presence of various concentrations of tocilizumab and/or 1,25(OH)₂D. Th17 proportions were analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Supernatant cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: Among 98 RA patients taking tocilizumab, 34 (34.7%) had sufficient serum 25(OH)D levels (≥ 30 ng/mL) when tocilizumab was initiated. At 24 weeks, vit D sufficient patients had greater DAS28 reduction (64.6% ± 15.5% vs. 52.7% ± 20.7%, P = 0.004), and lower disease activity (91.2% vs. 70.3%, P = 0.018) or remission (82.4% vs. 57.8%, P = 0.014). These differences in DAS28 reduction and the proportion of patients with remission persisted at 48 weeks. However, there was no significant difference in hand and wrist erosion progression. In vitro, tocilizumab and 1,25(OH)₂D treatment synergistically suppressed IL-17 production and osteoclastogenesis.CONCLUSION: RA patients treated with IL-6 antibody show a better response when they have sufficient serum vit D. Tocilizumab and 1,25(OH)₂D synergistically suppress IL-17 production and osteoclast differentiation in RA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cholecalciferol , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Osteoclasts , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Wrist
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).METHODS: We enrolled 348 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from August 2012 to October 2016. We measured serum 25(OH)D levels at mid-pregnancy and carried out a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL.RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 76.7% (n=267). Women with vitamin D deficiency had a higher prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance than did those without vitamin D deficiency (48.7% vs. 32.1%, P=0.011). Serum 25(OH)D level was negatively correlated with hemoglobin A1c at antepartum and postpartum period (antepartum: r=−0.186, P=0.001; postpartum: r=−0.129, P=0.047). Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level only postpartum (r=0.138, P=0.035). The risk of postpartum glucose intolerance was 2.00 times (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.55) higher in women with vitamin D deficiency than in those without vitamin D deficiency (P=0.018).CONCLUSION: In women with GDM, vitamin D deficiency at mid-pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of postpartum glucose intolerance.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Female , Glucose Intolerance , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
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