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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. map, tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468827

ABSTRACT

The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Analysis , River Basins/analysis , Fishes/classification , Fishes/growth & development , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Urbanization , Land Use , Water/analysis , Water/chemistry
2.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 46(4): 267-284, 20221231.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425826

ABSTRACT

Os sistemas de informação do Ministério da Saúde são importantes ferramentas de planejamento das ações de saúde no território brasileiro. O Sistema de Informação de Vigilância da Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano (Sisagua) oferece para toda a população dados sobre a situação do abastecimento de água para consumo humano, juntamente com eventuais problemas de qualidade que possam existir. É imprescindível para os gestores da área da saúde entender os maiores problemas de cada prestador de serviço de abastecimento a fim de oferecer água de boa qualidade para todas as pessoas, pois, uma vez que se trata de um bem público, todos têm direito à água de qualidade independentemente de sua condição social. Este trabalho averiguou os dados sobre a qualidade da água do estado da Bahia no período de janeiro de 2014 a março de 2022, com o objetivo de observar qual parâmetro de qualidade é responsável pela contaminações do recurso hídrico a ser consumido pelas pessoas, tornando-o fora de padrão conforme a Portaria nº 888/2021 do Ministério da Saúde. Através de gráficos de pizza gerados pelo Excel, foram averiguados os parâmetros que mais levaram a inconformidades. Foram observados, em porcentagem, os municípios que frequentemente ultrapassaram o padrão de potabilidade dentro da região. Dentro da região metropolitana de Salvador, o parâmetro cloro residual livre se destacou, seguido de cor e coliformes totais. A oferta de água doce limpa para a população é um dos pilares da saúde pública, sendo importante a constante evolução dos sistemas de abastecimento.


The information systems of the Ministry of Health are important tools for planning health actions in the Brazilian territory. The Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Information System (SISAGUA) provides the entire population with data on the situation of water supply for human consumption, alongside any water quality problems that may exist. It is essential for health managers to understand the biggest problems of each supply service provider to provide good quality water to all people, since, water being a public good, everyone has the right to quality water regardless of their social status. This work investigated the water quality data of the state of Bahia from January 2014 to March 2022, aiming to observe which quality parameter is most responsible for contaminating the water resource to be consumed by people, turning it non-standard according to Ordinance No. 888/2021 of the Ministry of Health. With pie charts generated by Excel, the parameters that most led to nonconformities were investigated. Municipalities that frequently exceed the standard of potability within the region were also observed in percentage. Within the metropolitan region of Salvador, the parameter free residual chlorine stood out, followed by color, and total coliforms. The supply of clean fresh water to the population is one of the pillars of public health, and the constant evolution of supply systems is important.


Los sistemas de información del Ministerio de Salud son herramientas importantes para planificar acciones de salud en Brasil. El Sistema de Información para la Vigilancia de la Calidad del Agua para Consumo Humano (Sisagua) proporciona a toda la población datos sobre el estado del suministro de agua para consumo humano y posibles problemas de calidad que puedan existir. Es fundamental que los responsables de las áreas de salud conozcan los problemas de cada red de suministro para poder ofrecer agua de buena calidad a todas las personas, ya que debido a este es un bien público, las personas tienen derecho al agua limpia de calidad, independientemente de su condición social. Este trabajo analizó los datos de calidad del agua en el estado de Bahía, en el período de enero de 2014 a marzo de 2022, con el objetivo de observar qué parámetro de calidad indica la contaminación del recurso hídrico a ser consumido por las personas, haciéndolo fuera del estándar desde la Ordenanza n.° 888/2021 del Ministerio de Salud. A partir de gráficos circulares en Excel, se analizaron los parámetros que más generaron las no conformidades. Se observó el porcentaje de los municipios que frecuentemente excedieron el estándar de potabilidad en la región. En la región metropolitana de Salvador destacó el parámetro cloro residual libre, seguido del color y coliformes totales. El suministro de agua dulce limpia a la población es uno de los elementos clave para la salud pública, y es importante la evolución de los sistemas de suministro.


Subject(s)
Water Microbiology , Water Supply , Water Quality , Water/analysis , Sanitation
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 15-16, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396738

ABSTRACT

Conventional science regards the study of UHD (highly homeopathically potentized) solutions as pseudo-science. However, an increasing number of rigorous scientific investigations demonstrate differences in physicochemical and physical characteristics of such solutions. Strictly chemically regarded, they correspond to highly distilled water. Our research team developed a system of physicochemical and UV spectrographic measurements, whereby the differences may be consistently confirmed with high statistical significance.Methods:For measurement of the physicochemical parameters,we usedpH,electrical conductivity,and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)sensors.For UV/VIS spectroscopymeasurements,we useda Macherey-Nagelspectrophotometer.For UHD research, we used two batches of substances: Russian (R) and Brazilian (B). In R, distilled water (W) was used for dilutions and potencies as follows: potentized water (W cH9), potentized dilution of antibodies to interferon-gamma (Abs IFNγ cH9), the same original substance in the form of a mixture of potencies (Abs IFNγ cH12, cH30, cH50, shortly Abs IFNγ mix). Furthermore, we prepared higher potencies of the substances (supplementary potentiation) in a specially prepared solution and measured their characteristics. In B, the solution was used for further dilutions and potencies as follows: potentized water (W cH1) and Glyphosate potencies (Gly cH6 => cH8, cH30 => cH 32, and cH200 => cH 202).For direct or post-hoc analysis, we used Wilcoxon signed-rank test, two-tailed.Results:UV-VIS spectroscopy (R): measurements of received liquids potentized for further cH1 show statistically significant differences between all substances, except between water W and W cH9 at 260 nm. Significant differences (p-values) were as follows: Abs IFNγ mixvs. W= 0.007; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9=0.008; Abs IFNγ cH9vs. W=0.044; Abs IFNγ cH9vs.W cH9= 0.026; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9= 0.007; W vs.W cH9= 0.506.Physicochemical measurements:R: measurementsdemonstrated statistical difference only in pH (Abs IFNγ mix towards all others). Significant differences (p-values) were as follows: Abs IFNγ mixvs. W=0.022; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9=0.005; Abs IFNγ mixvs.Abs IFNγ cH9=0.025. After supplementarypotentiation, we obtained a more conspicuous picture with many statistical differences in conductivity and ORP, ranging from p= 0.001 to 0.046.A difference between water and potentized water has also been demonstrated.B: the measurements demonstrated statistical differences mainly in pH between Gly cH8 and the rest and between Gly cH202 and W cH1.Significant differences (p-values) were as follows:Gly cH8vs. Gly cH32 =0.027; Gly cH8vs. Gly cH202 = 0.011; Gly cH8vs. W cH1= 0.014; Gly cH202vs. W cH1= 0.034.Conclusion:UV/VIS at wavelength 260 nm Abs IFNγ mix discloses a pattern similar to exclusion zone (EZ)water at 270 nm.By additional potentiation and with physicochemical measurements, we obtained higher statistical differences than in the original dilutions.In contrast, UV/VIS spectroscopy showed more conspicuous results without additional potentiation. However, the very act of succussion becomes very distinct


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Potency , Chemical Phenomena , Photoelectron Spectroscopy
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19235, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374555

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dialysis has been widely used in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney diseases and is considered a global public health issue. This treatment, which has changed the prognosis and quality of life in patients with chronic renal failure, can lead to complications that are often fatal. For this reason, there is a need for validation of alternative tests that favor the monitoring of treated water for dialysis in real-time to promote and prevent injuries to patients submitted to this procedure.


Subject(s)
Brazil/ethnology , Water/analysis , Renal Dialysis/classification , Patients/classification , Quality of Life , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/pathology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-9, 2022. ilus, map, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468514

ABSTRACT

The release of water from the reservoir hypolimnion, lower concentration of oxygen and the anthropogenic regulation of the river flow, could affect the reproduction of fish, especially migratory species. However, little is known about the effects of these changes in water on non-migratory species. In this sense, the reproduction of Acestrohynchus lacustris was evaluated in two sections of São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Section 1, located immediately downstream from Três Marias Dam (18°09'31.65"S and 45°13'36.00"W) and section 2, located at the confluence of the São Francisco and the Abaeté Rivers (18°02'47.78"S and 45°1057.95"W). For this, we obtained the physico-chemical parameters of water of each study section. Additionally, biometric data and biological indices ofall specimens were measured. Fecundity and follicles diameters were measured in females. Temperature, dissolvedoxygen and flow showed lower values in section 1. Fish captured in this section, had lower values of GSI in bothsexes, and females presented decreased values of fecundity and follicles diameter. This species showed reproductiveactivity in the two sections analyzed, however, in section 1 where the temperature and dissolved oxygen presentedsignificant lower values, the reproductive capacity of A. lacustris, was negatively affected.


A liberação de água do hipolímnio do reservatório, baixa concentração de oxigênio e a regulação antropogênica do fluxo do rio podem afetar a reprodução de peixes, principalmente espécies migradoras. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos dessas mudanças nas condições da água em espécies não migradoras. A reprodução de Acestrohynchus lacustris foi avaliada em duas seções do rio São Francisco. Seção 1, localizada imediatamente a jusante da barragem de Três Marias e seção 2, localizada na confluência dos rios São Francisco e Abaeté. Para isso, foram obtidos os parâmetros físico-químicos da água de cada seção do estudo. Além disso, dados biométricos e índices biológicos de todos os peixes capturados foram obtidos. Adicionalmente, nas fêmeas foram medidos os diâmetros dos folículos vitelogênicos e a fecundidade. Temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e fluxo apresentaram valores mais baixos na seção 1. Os peixes capturados nesta seção apresentaram menores valores de IGS em ambos os sexos, e as fêmeas apresentaram menores valores de fecundidade e diâmetro dos folículos. Essa espécie apresentou atividade reprodutiva nas duas seções analisadas, porém, na seção 1, onde os parâmetros da água apresentam piores condições para o processo reprodutivo de peixes, a capacidade reprodutiva de A. lacustris foi afetada negativamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes/growth & development , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Fertility , Fresh Water/chemistry , Water/analysis , Dams
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. map, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468572

ABSTRACT

Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.


Guindastes são a grande e atraente criatura da natureza com um pescoço longo, pernas e vida útil. Adultos de ambos os sexos são os mesmos com padrões de cores semelhantes. Guindastes Demoiselle passam a maior parte da vida em gramíneas secas. Também se encontram ao redor do córrego, rios, lagos rasos, pântanos naturais e depressões. Para avaliar o estado atual do uso do hábitat e as principais ameaças, um estudo foi realizado no distrito de Tehsil Domel, em Bannu. Foram utilizados o método transect e testes de qualidade da água (temperatura, pH, contaminação da bactéria E. coli). Para determinar as principais ameaças foi utilizado o método de questionário. Todos os dados foram analisados por meio da versão SPSS 21. Com base na distribuição, foram selecionados quatro locais de estudo e quatro amostras de água de cada local de estudo. A maioria dos locais estava moderada a altamente degradada, exceto no ponto de encontro dos rios Kashoo e Kurram, que teve baixa degradação com pastagem de gado e atividades humanas. Os testes de qualidade da água mostraram variação de pH de 7-9, temperatura 6,5-8,5 e contaminação de E. coli em todas as amostras. A pesquisa do questionário revelou que a caça, a degradação do hábitat e a poluição são as principais ameaças. Efetiva conservação e gestão a longo prazo na área de estudo são necessárias para se concentrar na proteção de um hábitat livre de distúrbios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Ecosystem , Escherichia coli , Environment , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Water Pollution , Water/analysis
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1871-1880, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928183

ABSTRACT

In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance(LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) were employed to analyze the water distribution, status, and migration in the moistening process of Arecae Semen. Peleg model was adopted to study the water absorption kinetics of Arecae Semen moistened at different water temperatures(10, 30, and 50 ℃). The Arecae Semen samples soaked at different water temperatures all contained four water states: binding water T_(21), non-flowing water T_(22), free water T_(23), and unbound water T_(24). Non-flowing water had the largest increase in peak area during the moistening process, followed by free water. The peak areas of non-flowing water, free water, and total water were correlated with the water content(P<0.01). Therefore, LF-NMR can quickly and non-destructively predict the water content of Arecae Semen during moistening. The peak area of non-flowing water and the content of free water were correlated with the content of arecoline in the soaking solution(P<0.01), which indicated that the faster flow of non-flowing water and more free water corresponded to more arecoline dissolved. The MRI images showed that the water migration pathway varied at different soaking temperatures, and the moistening degree obtained by this means was consistent with that obtained based on traditional experience. The rate constant K_1 fitted by Peleg model decreased with the increase in water temperature, while the capacity constant K_2 showed an opposite trend. The Arrhenius equation fitting of K_1 with temperature showed that the activation energy of Arecae Semen in the moistening process was 32.98 kJ·mol~(-1). LF-NMR/MRI can be used to analyze the water status and content and determine the end moisturing point of Arecae Semen. Peleg model can accurately describe the water absorption properties of Arecae Semen in the moistening process. The findings of this study can guide the moistening optimization and mechanism research of other seed Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Areca , Arecoline/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Kinetics , Seeds/chemistry , Water/analysis
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180408, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Waste produced by the construction sector is a problem that has grown over the last few years. Construction and demolition waste makes up about 50% by mass of the total solid waste produced in Brazil. One alternative by which to reduce this volume is recycling this material in the form of aggregates. However, it is necessary to analyze the environmental risk that the use of recycled aggregates can entail for adjacent soil and the water table. The purpose of this work was to evaluate pervious concrete samples that contained recycled aggregates and to subject them to leaching tests. The results were compared with the limits established by the Italian methodology. Aggregates with 10, 25, 50, and 100% ceramic were used, as well as a recycled concrete aggregate and a natural aggregate. With the exception of the 25% ceramic trial, all the treatments introduced chromium to the water in which they were immersed, with accumulated concentrations varying from 0.009 to 0.099 mg L-1. Cadmium was found in higher quantities, with cumulated concentrations between 0.104 and 0.417 mg L-1. Sulfate concentrations were higher after 24 h of immersion, with a maximum release of 71.7 mg L-1. The concrete made with 100% ceramic aggregate leached more chromium and sulfate than the other aggregates.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Solid Waste , Construction Industry , Percolation/methods , Ceramics/chemistry , Environmental Hazards , Brazil , Recycling , Italy
9.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-15, dez. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1146690

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho apresenta as concentrações de nitrato e suas correlações com as demais variáveis obtidas da análise de 21 parâmetros físico-químicos em 4.347 amostras de águas de abastecimento público de 88 municípios da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os parâmetros analisados foram temperatura, pH, cloro residual livre, cor aparente, turbidez, condutividade e concentrações de lítio, sódio, amônio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, fluoreto, clorito, bromato, cloreto, brometo, clorato, nitrato, fosfato e sulfato. Análises de componentes principais, incluindo-se as variáveis condutividade e concentrações de nitrato, cloreto, cálcio e magnésio na água, indicaram um grupo de 15 municípios com concentrações relevantes de nitrato. Foi realizada a análise univariada, e foi sugerido o estabelecimento de estratégias no gerenciamento inicial de contaminações de águas subterrâneas. No planejamento de ações entre os diversos atores envolvidos com a gestão da água subterrânea destinada ao consumo humano da região e no monitoramento de sua qualidade, devem ser considerados os níveis de nitrato, assim como os perfis físico-químicos das águas e a complexidade dos sistemas de abastecimento. Estas ações incluem procedimentos para investigar e mitigar contaminações, para garantir a potabilidade da água consumida pela população. (AU)


This paper presents the nitrate concentrations and their correlations with other variables obtained by analyzing 21 physical-chemical parameters in 4,347 samples from public water supply of 88 municipalities in the northeast region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyzed parameters were temperature, pH, free residual chlorine, apparent color, turbidity, conductivity, and concentrations of lithium, sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chlorite, bromate, chloride, bromide, chlorate, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. The principal component analysis, involving the conductivity and the concentrations of nitrate, chloride, calcium, and magnesium, showed a group of 15 municipalities with relevant concentrations of nitrate. As for the univariate analysis it is suggested to apply strategies in the initial management of groundwater contaminations. It has been suggested to plan the actions among the various actors involved in the management of groundwater, which is intended for human consumption in the region, and for its quality monitoring. It has to consider not only the nitrate levels but also the water physical-chemical profiles and the complexity of the supply systems. These actions include the contaminants investigation and mitigation for ensuring the potability of the water consumed by the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Water Supply , Water Quality , Brazil , Water/analysis , Health Surveillance of Products , Nitrates
10.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 28(1): 48-58, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013975

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el estado y la influencia de la variabilidad climática en la calidad del agua de un sistema de abastecimiento para consumo humano en San José, Costa Rica, captado en cuatro microcuencas del cantón Vásquez de Coronado, en el periodo 2017-2018, para brindar recomendaciones al operador y promover la protección de la población abastecida Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los parámetros de calidad básicos de agua para consumo humano (Escherichia coli, coliformes fecales, turbidez, conductividad, pH, color, temperatura y cloro residual). Los análisis se realizaron siguiendo el Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Se delimitaron las zonas de captación utilizando sistemas de información geográfica. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial para describir la calidad del agua y su variabilidad espacial y estacional. Resultados: La concentración de coliformes fecales en el agua superficial fue > 103 NMP/100 mL y la turbidez >5 UTN en el 76% de las muestras. En la red de distribución se encontraron concentraciones de cloro residual y turbidez (>5 UTN) por encima de los límites recomendados para agua de consumo humano. Se encontró diferencias significativas en todos los parámetros básicos de calidad de agua entre las distintas zonas de captación (p<0,05 en todos los casos), así como entre épocas climáticas por zona de captación. Conclusión: Estos resultados indican que se está utilizando agua de calidad inadecuada para uso y consumo humano, por lo cual se recomienda un monitoreo intensivo y sectorizado de las fuentes para localizar puntos de contaminación.


Abstract Objective: Analyze the water quality and the influence of the climatic variability in supply system for the human consume in San José, Costa Rica, in four catchment areas in Vasquez of Coronado in the period 2017-2018 to give recommendations to the operator and promote the protection of the supplied population. Methods: Descriptive study of the basic parameters of the drinking water (Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, turbidity, conductivity, pH, color, temperature, and residual chlorine). The analyses were done following Standard Methods for the examination of Water and Wastewater. The catchment areas were delimited using geographic information systems (GIS). Descriptive and inferential statistic was used to describe the water quality, spatial and seasonal variability. Results: The concentration of fecal coliforms in the catchment areas was >10 3 NMP/100 mL and the turbidity >5 UTN in 76% of the samples. In the distribution system were found concentrations of the residual chlorine and turbidity (>5 UTN) above according to recommended limits for drinking water in the country. The results showed significant differences in all of the basic parameters of the water quality between catchment areas (p<0, 05 in all cases) and between climatic periods for catchment areas. Conclusion: These results indicate that water of inadequate quality is being used for human use and consumption, for which reason intensive and sectorized source monitoring is recommended to locate contamination points.


Subject(s)
Water Supply/statistics & numerical data , Water Quality/standards , Water/analysis , Water Monitoring , Geographic Information Systems/instrumentation , Costa Rica
11.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1425-1429, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482175

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da atividade de água (Aw) nas farinhas de cascas e albedo de maracujá (FCAM) e farinha de arroz (FA) processadas por extrusão, gerando uma farinha mista pré-cozida de casca e albedo e arroz (FMCAMA). A determinação da (Aw) foi realizada utilizando aparelho digital Aqualab®, modelo CX-2, à temperatura de 25ºC. Os resultados da (Aw) foram mais baixos para as amostras de farinha de cascas e albedo de maracujá e arroz nas amostras FMCAMA1 (0,276±0,015), FMCAMA2 (0,227±0,005) e FMCAMA3 (0,259±0,034) do que para as amostras de FMI industrializada: FMI1 (0,618±0,005), FMI2 (0,553±0,003) e FMI3 (0,540±0,004).


Subject(s)
Whole Utilization of Foods , Oryza , Passiflora , Water/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Garbage
12.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1430-1434, abr.-maio 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482176

ABSTRACT

A produção de geleia vem se tornando uma alternativa para a conservação de matérias-primas. Desta forma, objetivou-se elaborar geleia mista de entrecasca de melancia e polpa de maracujá e avaliar o teor de acidez e atividade de água. Para a elaboração da geleia mista foi utilizada a proporção de 60 partes da mistura do suco para 40 partes de açúcar. Foram realizadas análises de acidez e atividade de água da geleia mista após 1, 15, 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias de estocagem a 25 ºC. Os valores obtidos foram analisados pelo teste de Tukey. Os valores de pH e atividade de água da geleia mista foram influenciados pelo tempo de estocagem. Conclui-se que é viável a utilização da entrecasca de melancia para a elaboração de geleia mista, o que valoriza a utilização desse subproduto que muitas vezes seria descartado.


Subject(s)
Acidity/analysis , Whole Utilization of Foods , Citrullus , Fruit Jam , Passiflora , Water/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Date of Validity of Products
13.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1454-1458, abr.-maio 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482181

ABSTRACT

A pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar os resultados dos métodos clássicos de umidade e resíduo mineral (cinzas) com os resultados encontrados pela termogravimetria (TG) e derivada da termogravimetria (DTG) na amostra de farinha de jenipapo desidratada em estufa (FJDE). Utilizaram-se os testes de umidade e cinzas pelo método convencional e pela termogravimetria (TG) e derivada de termogravemetria (DTG). Os resultados obtidos foram 7,86 ± 0,3 % para umidade convencional e 7,774 % para umidade na TG, cinzas convencional 3,38 ± 0,025% e cinzas por TG com 4,4 %. Conclui-se que as análises termogravimétricas apresentaram resultados próximos aos modelos convencionais para a umidade e cinzas, sendo que é realizada em um menor espaço de tempo, sem haver manipulação da amostra pelo analista no meio do processo evitando distorções nos resultados.


Subject(s)
Food Preservation , Minerals/analysis , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Rubiaceae/chemistry , Water/analysis , Thermogravimetry
14.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2424-2428, abr.-maio 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482233

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar a qualidade da água através das variáveis microbiológicas, sob a influência sazonal, nos períodos seco e chuvoso, de três pesque-pagues de São Luís de Montes Belos, Goiás. Em ambos os períodos, seco e chuvoso, os parâmetros microbiológicos, mantiveram-se os mesmos: < 1000 NMP/mL de Coliformes termotolerantes e Escherichia coli. A análise dos resultados evidenciou 10% dos valores em desacordo aos padrões recomendados pela organização mundial da saúde (OMS). Indicando um processo de degradação da qualidade da água. Recomenda-se o controle da qualidade da água através do manejo adequado e o tratamento do efluente dos pesqueiros visando evitar a degradação ambiental das bacias relacionadas.


Subject(s)
Water Bacteriological Characteristics/analysis , Water Microbiological Characteristics/analysis , Coliforms/analysis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Fisheries , Water Quality , Bacteriological Techniques , Water/analysis
15.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 41: e43447, 20190000. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460858

ABSTRACT

Thousands of people living in semi-arid regions face problems of drought and loss of water quality. In addition, high incidence of acute diarrheal diseases related to water consumption has been responsible for a high number of deaths and high economic costs for human health. Many of the diseases can be caused by the presence of enterobacteria in reservoirs that serve for multiple purposes. This study aimed to confirm the presence of potentially harmful bacteria, which was highlighted in other articles, and to reveal non-identified genera by culture-dependent methods and pyrosequencing. Twenty-three genera of the Enterobacteriaceae family were detected, with emphasis on Escherichia genus and confirmation of the presence of species such as Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter cloacae. The abundance of heterotrophic prokaryotes and the physical and chemical data show an expected average for this type of environment due to the numbers historically presented in previous articles. The unprecedented detection of the presence of some potentially pathogenic species can alert and raise awareness of the populations that use stored water in the semi-arid regions. Consequently, as a result of the peculiar characteristics of reservoirs under this climate influence, there is a cosmopolitanism of enterobacteria that may be related to the alarming numbers of infections from Waterborne Diseases.


Subject(s)
Enterobacteriaceae/chemistry , Water Pollution/analysis , Water Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Water/analysis
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17695, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039080

ABSTRACT

The influence of common tea preparation procedures (temperature, infusion time, consumption time interval and tea bag/loose-leaf) and the type of water used, on the total phenolic content (TPC), the radical scavenging activity and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were assessed. Higher TPC and antioxidant activity were obtained when using lower mineralized waters. Tea bags also evidenced higher antioxidant activity than loose-leaf samples. Under the same conditions (90 ºC and five minutes of infusion time) green tea contains almost twice the quantity of polyphenols and the free radical scavenging ability of black tea. In the α-glucosidase assay all infusions were active (97-100 %). Furthermore, HPLC allowed to identify some of the polyphenols present in both teas and to monitor their composition change with time. After twenty-four hours, the antioxidant activity was maintained without significant changes, but a small decrease in enzyme inhibition was observed, although this activity was still very high


Subject(s)
Tea/classification , alpha-Glucosidases/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Water/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Polyphenols
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180523, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055386

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Paranhana River, located in Southern Brazil, is one of the major tributaries of the Sinos River basin and receives mainly industrial and domestic effluents. In the present study, water physicochemical and microbiological analyses, condition factor, micronucleus test, gill histopathology and metal bioaccumulation in the muscle of the native fish Bryconamericus iheringii collected at two sites (S1 and S2) of the Paranhana River under different degrees of anthropogenic pressures were assessed in four sampling campaigns. Data from water quality parameters, condition factor, mucous cells proliferation in fish gills and bioaccumulation of chromium and manganese in muscle evidenced higher impacts at S2, whereas a higher genotoxic potential was observed at S1. Gill histopathological alterations were found in fish captured at both sampling sites. Temporal variations in all biomarkers analyzed and bioaccumulation of manganese and nickel were observed at S1, whereas only variations in condition factor, gill alterations and bioaccumulation of manganese and aluminum were found at S2. Our study evidences that S1 is under minor anthropogenic impacts and that the high urbanization at S2 reflects in a poor water quality. Nonetheless, the human consumption of fish from the Paranhana River should be avoided given the high concentrations of cadmium, chromium and lead.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Biomarkers , Bioaccumulation , Brazil , Micronucleus Tests/instrumentation
18.
Medisan ; 22(4)abr. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894713

ABSTRACT

Se efectuó un estudio para estimar el riesgo ambiental sostenible relativo ante concentraciones totales de arsénico y boro en aguas superficiales de las cuencas hidrográficas Sama y Locumba, en Tacna, Perú, a través de muestreos de tipo no probabilístico por conveniencia en puntos referenciales, durante los meses de agosto y noviembre del 2016, así como abril y junio del 2017. Se obtuvo que los valores de arsénico en los respectivos meses fueron 0,0731; 0,29835; 0,287 y 0,711 mg.L-1, lo que superó el límite máximo permisible (0,01 mg.L-1); este incumplimiento fue similar en cuanto al boro, pues se hallaron concentraciones de 8,681 y 4,148 mg.L-1, pero el valor máximo establecido es de 2,4 mg.L-1. Las concentraciones determinadas por meses revelaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (pd≤0,05). Se concluyó que las aguas superficiales como recurso natural fueron no sostenibles y representaban un riesgo ambiental y para la salud humana


A study was carried out to estimate the relative sustainable environmental risk with total concentrations of arsenic and boron in superficial waters of the watersheds Sama and Locumba, in Tacna, Peru, through samplings of non probabilistic type by convenience in reference sites, during the months of August and November of 2016, as well as April and June, 2017. It was obtained that the arsenic values in the respective months were 0,0731; 0,29835; 0,287 and 0,711 mg.L-1, which overcame the permissible maximum limit (0,01 mg.L-1); this unfulfillment was similar as for the boron, because concentrations of 8,681 and 4,148 mg.L-1 were found, but the established maximum value is 2,4 mg.L-1. Concentrations determined per months revealed statistically significant differences (pd≤0,05). It was concluded that the superficial waters as natural resource were not sustainable and they represented an environmental risk and for the human health


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Pollution , Surface Waters , Water/analysis , Environmental Hazards , Peru , Arsenic , Boron , Hydrographic Basins
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 45-53, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium), and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa). Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g) and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa), as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water/metabolism , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biomass , Cucurbita/growth & development , Cucurbita/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Desert Climate , Salinity , Droughts , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mexico
20.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; (77): 1-11, 2018. mapas, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1052719

ABSTRACT

Níveis elevados de cromo associados às águas naturais não são comuns, mas concentrações elevadas desse elemento, de ocorrência natural, têm sido relatadas nas águas subterrâneas de vários sistemas aquíferos, incluindo o Aquífero Bauru, SP, Brasil. Este fato está associado à ocorrência de rochas máficas/ultramáficas e às condições alcalinas e oxidantes. Neste estudo foi desenvolvido e aplicado um método para monitorar a concentração de cromo total em amostras de água da cidade de São José do Rio Preto. Esta cidade está localizada no estado de São Paulo, na região onde concentrações superiores ao limite estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (0,05 mg/L) foram detectadas em águas subterrâneas de poços de abastecimento. O cromo total foi determinado usando-se Espectrometria de Massas com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICPMS) em 104 amostras de água coletadas, entre 2013 e 2017, em diferentes pontos de distribuição (zona rural, residencial, distrito industrial, comercial, reservatório de distribuição e estação de tratamento de água), considerando-se 52 locais. Em 99 % das amostras as concentrações de Cr estavam acima do limite de quantificação calculado para o método (0,001 mg/L). E 15% apresentaram concentrações acima do limite de regulação na água potável (Portaria 2914/2011), sendo, portanto, consideradas impróprias para o consumo humano. (AU)


Elevated chromium levels in the natural waters are not common, but the high concentrations of naturally occurring Cr have been reported in the groundwater of several aquifer systems.This finding is linked with the occurrence of mafic/ultramafic rocks and associated with the alkaline and oxidizing conditions. This study aimed at monitoring the total chromium concentration in drinking water samples from São José do Rio Preto city. Cr concentrations higher than the limit established by the Brazilian Legislation (0.05 mg/L) were detected in the groundwater from the deep supply wells. Total chromium was determined by using an Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) in 104 samples collected from the public drinking water distribution networks in 52 sites, from 2013 to 2017. Cr concentrations above the method limit of quantification (0.001 mg/L) were found in 99% of the analyzed samples. Approximately 15% of the collected samples presented Cr in concentrations above the established legislation limit for drinking water (Ordinance 2914/2011), that should be considered as improper for consumption.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water/analysis , Spectrography , Chromium
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