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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180408, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Waste produced by the construction sector is a problem that has grown over the last few years. Construction and demolition waste makes up about 50% by mass of the total solid waste produced in Brazil. One alternative by which to reduce this volume is recycling this material in the form of aggregates. However, it is necessary to analyze the environmental risk that the use of recycled aggregates can entail for adjacent soil and the water table. The purpose of this work was to evaluate pervious concrete samples that contained recycled aggregates and to subject them to leaching tests. The results were compared with the limits established by the Italian methodology. Aggregates with 10, 25, 50, and 100% ceramic were used, as well as a recycled concrete aggregate and a natural aggregate. With the exception of the 25% ceramic trial, all the treatments introduced chromium to the water in which they were immersed, with accumulated concentrations varying from 0.009 to 0.099 mg L-1. Cadmium was found in higher quantities, with cumulated concentrations between 0.104 and 0.417 mg L-1. Sulfate concentrations were higher after 24 h of immersion, with a maximum release of 71.7 mg L-1. The concrete made with 100% ceramic aggregate leached more chromium and sulfate than the other aggregates.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Solid Waste , Construction Industry , Percolation/methods , Ceramics/chemistry , Environmental Hazards , Brazil , Recycling , Italy
2.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-15, dez. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1146690

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho apresenta as concentrações de nitrato e suas correlações com as demais variáveis obtidas da análise de 21 parâmetros físico-químicos em 4.347 amostras de águas de abastecimento público de 88 municípios da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os parâmetros analisados foram temperatura, pH, cloro residual livre, cor aparente, turbidez, condutividade e concentrações de lítio, sódio, amônio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, fluoreto, clorito, bromato, cloreto, brometo, clorato, nitrato, fosfato e sulfato. Análises de componentes principais, incluindo-se as variáveis condutividade e concentrações de nitrato, cloreto, cálcio e magnésio na água, indicaram um grupo de 15 municípios com concentrações relevantes de nitrato. Foi realizada a análise univariada, e foi sugerido o estabelecimento de estratégias no gerenciamento inicial de contaminações de águas subterrâneas. No planejamento de ações entre os diversos atores envolvidos com a gestão da água subterrânea destinada ao consumo humano da região e no monitoramento de sua qualidade, devem ser considerados os níveis de nitrato, assim como os perfis físico-químicos das águas e a complexidade dos sistemas de abastecimento. Estas ações incluem procedimentos para investigar e mitigar contaminações, para garantir a potabilidade da água consumida pela população. (AU)


This paper presents the nitrate concentrations and their correlations with other variables obtained by analyzing 21 physical-chemical parameters in 4,347 samples from public water supply of 88 municipalities in the northeast region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyzed parameters were temperature, pH, free residual chlorine, apparent color, turbidity, conductivity, and concentrations of lithium, sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, chlorite, bromate, chloride, bromide, chlorate, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. The principal component analysis, involving the conductivity and the concentrations of nitrate, chloride, calcium, and magnesium, showed a group of 15 municipalities with relevant concentrations of nitrate. As for the univariate analysis it is suggested to apply strategies in the initial management of groundwater contaminations. It has been suggested to plan the actions among the various actors involved in the management of groundwater, which is intended for human consumption in the region, and for its quality monitoring. It has to consider not only the nitrate levels but also the water physical-chemical profiles and the complexity of the supply systems. These actions include the contaminants investigation and mitigation for ensuring the potability of the water consumed by the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Water Supply , Water Quality , Brazil , Water/analysis , Health Surveillance of Products , Concentration (Chemistry) , Nitrates
3.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 28(1): 48-58, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013975

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el estado y la influencia de la variabilidad climática en la calidad del agua de un sistema de abastecimiento para consumo humano en San José, Costa Rica, captado en cuatro microcuencas del cantón Vásquez de Coronado, en el periodo 2017-2018, para brindar recomendaciones al operador y promover la protección de la población abastecida Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los parámetros de calidad básicos de agua para consumo humano (Escherichia coli, coliformes fecales, turbidez, conductividad, pH, color, temperatura y cloro residual). Los análisis se realizaron siguiendo el Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Se delimitaron las zonas de captación utilizando sistemas de información geográfica. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial para describir la calidad del agua y su variabilidad espacial y estacional. Resultados: La concentración de coliformes fecales en el agua superficial fue > 103 NMP/100 mL y la turbidez >5 UTN en el 76% de las muestras. En la red de distribución se encontraron concentraciones de cloro residual y turbidez (>5 UTN) por encima de los límites recomendados para agua de consumo humano. Se encontró diferencias significativas en todos los parámetros básicos de calidad de agua entre las distintas zonas de captación (p<0,05 en todos los casos), así como entre épocas climáticas por zona de captación. Conclusión: Estos resultados indican que se está utilizando agua de calidad inadecuada para uso y consumo humano, por lo cual se recomienda un monitoreo intensivo y sectorizado de las fuentes para localizar puntos de contaminación.


Abstract Objective: Analyze the water quality and the influence of the climatic variability in supply system for the human consume in San José, Costa Rica, in four catchment areas in Vasquez of Coronado in the period 2017-2018 to give recommendations to the operator and promote the protection of the supplied population. Methods: Descriptive study of the basic parameters of the drinking water (Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, turbidity, conductivity, pH, color, temperature, and residual chlorine). The analyses were done following Standard Methods for the examination of Water and Wastewater. The catchment areas were delimited using geographic information systems (GIS). Descriptive and inferential statistic was used to describe the water quality, spatial and seasonal variability. Results: The concentration of fecal coliforms in the catchment areas was >10 3 NMP/100 mL and the turbidity >5 UTN in 76% of the samples. In the distribution system were found concentrations of the residual chlorine and turbidity (>5 UTN) above according to recommended limits for drinking water in the country. The results showed significant differences in all of the basic parameters of the water quality between catchment areas (p<0, 05 in all cases) and between climatic periods for catchment areas. Conclusion: These results indicate that water of inadequate quality is being used for human use and consumption, for which reason intensive and sectorized source monitoring is recommended to locate contamination points.


Subject(s)
Water Supply/statistics & numerical data , Water Quality/standards , Water/analysis , Water Monitoring , Geographic Information Systems/instrumentation , Costa Rica
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180523, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055386

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The Paranhana River, located in Southern Brazil, is one of the major tributaries of the Sinos River basin and receives mainly industrial and domestic effluents. In the present study, water physicochemical and microbiological analyses, condition factor, micronucleus test, gill histopathology and metal bioaccumulation in the muscle of the native fish Bryconamericus iheringii collected at two sites (S1 and S2) of the Paranhana River under different degrees of anthropogenic pressures were assessed in four sampling campaigns. Data from water quality parameters, condition factor, mucous cells proliferation in fish gills and bioaccumulation of chromium and manganese in muscle evidenced higher impacts at S2, whereas a higher genotoxic potential was observed at S1. Gill histopathological alterations were found in fish captured at both sampling sites. Temporal variations in all biomarkers analyzed and bioaccumulation of manganese and nickel were observed at S1, whereas only variations in condition factor, gill alterations and bioaccumulation of manganese and aluminum were found at S2. Our study evidences that S1 is under minor anthropogenic impacts and that the high urbanization at S2 reflects in a poor water quality. Nonetheless, the human consumption of fish from the Paranhana River should be avoided given the high concentrations of cadmium, chromium and lead.


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Biomarkers , Bioaccumulation , Brazil , Micronucleus Tests/instrumentation
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17695, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039080

ABSTRACT

The influence of common tea preparation procedures (temperature, infusion time, consumption time interval and tea bag/loose-leaf) and the type of water used, on the total phenolic content (TPC), the radical scavenging activity and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were assessed. Higher TPC and antioxidant activity were obtained when using lower mineralized waters. Tea bags also evidenced higher antioxidant activity than loose-leaf samples. Under the same conditions (90 ºC and five minutes of infusion time) green tea contains almost twice the quantity of polyphenols and the free radical scavenging ability of black tea. In the α-glucosidase assay all infusions were active (97-100 %). Furthermore, HPLC allowed to identify some of the polyphenols present in both teas and to monitor their composition change with time. After twenty-four hours, the antioxidant activity was maintained without significant changes, but a small decrease in enzyme inhibition was observed, although this activity was still very high


Subject(s)
Tea/classification , alpha-Glucosidases/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Water/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Polyphenols
6.
Medisan ; 22(4)abr. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894713

ABSTRACT

Se efectuó un estudio para estimar el riesgo ambiental sostenible relativo ante concentraciones totales de arsénico y boro en aguas superficiales de las cuencas hidrográficas Sama y Locumba, en Tacna, Perú, a través de muestreos de tipo no probabilístico por conveniencia en puntos referenciales, durante los meses de agosto y noviembre del 2016, así como abril y junio del 2017. Se obtuvo que los valores de arsénico en los respectivos meses fueron 0,0731; 0,29835; 0,287 y 0,711 mg.L-1, lo que superó el límite máximo permisible (0,01 mg.L-1); este incumplimiento fue similar en cuanto al boro, pues se hallaron concentraciones de 8,681 y 4,148 mg.L-1, pero el valor máximo establecido es de 2,4 mg.L-1. Las concentraciones determinadas por meses revelaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (pd≤0,05). Se concluyó que las aguas superficiales como recurso natural fueron no sostenibles y representaban un riesgo ambiental y para la salud humana


A study was carried out to estimate the relative sustainable environmental risk with total concentrations of arsenic and boron in superficial waters of the watersheds Sama and Locumba, in Tacna, Peru, through samplings of non probabilistic type by convenience in reference sites, during the months of August and November of 2016, as well as April and June, 2017. It was obtained that the arsenic values in the respective months were 0,0731; 0,29835; 0,287 and 0,711 mg.L-1, which overcame the permissible maximum limit (0,01 mg.L-1); this unfulfillment was similar as for the boron, because concentrations of 8,681 and 4,148 mg.L-1 were found, but the established maximum value is 2,4 mg.L-1. Concentrations determined per months revealed statistically significant differences (pd≤0,05). It was concluded that the superficial waters as natural resource were not sustainable and they represented an environmental risk and for the human health


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Pollution , Surface Waters , Water/analysis , Environmental Hazards , Peru , Arsenic , Boron , Hydrographic Basins
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 45-53, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium), and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa). Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g) and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa), as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water/metabolism , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biomass , Cucurbita/growth & development , Cucurbita/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Desert Climate , Salinity , Droughts , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mexico
8.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; (77): 1-11, 2018. mapas, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1052719

ABSTRACT

Níveis elevados de cromo associados às águas naturais não são comuns, mas concentrações elevadas desse elemento, de ocorrência natural, têm sido relatadas nas águas subterrâneas de vários sistemas aquíferos, incluindo o Aquífero Bauru, SP, Brasil. Este fato está associado à ocorrência de rochas máficas/ultramáficas e às condições alcalinas e oxidantes. Neste estudo foi desenvolvido e aplicado um método para monitorar a concentração de cromo total em amostras de água da cidade de São José do Rio Preto. Esta cidade está localizada no estado de São Paulo, na região onde concentrações superiores ao limite estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (0,05 mg/L) foram detectadas em águas subterrâneas de poços de abastecimento. O cromo total foi determinado usando-se Espectrometria de Massas com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICPMS) em 104 amostras de água coletadas, entre 2013 e 2017, em diferentes pontos de distribuição (zona rural, residencial, distrito industrial, comercial, reservatório de distribuição e estação de tratamento de água), considerando-se 52 locais. Em 99 % das amostras as concentrações de Cr estavam acima do limite de quantificação calculado para o método (0,001 mg/L). E 15% apresentaram concentrações acima do limite de regulação na água potável (Portaria 2914/2011), sendo, portanto, consideradas impróprias para o consumo humano. (AU)


Elevated chromium levels in the natural waters are not common, but the high concentrations of naturally occurring Cr have been reported in the groundwater of several aquifer systems.This finding is linked with the occurrence of mafic/ultramafic rocks and associated with the alkaline and oxidizing conditions. This study aimed at monitoring the total chromium concentration in drinking water samples from São José do Rio Preto city. Cr concentrations higher than the limit established by the Brazilian Legislation (0.05 mg/L) were detected in the groundwater from the deep supply wells. Total chromium was determined by using an Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) in 104 samples collected from the public drinking water distribution networks in 52 sites, from 2013 to 2017. Cr concentrations above the method limit of quantification (0.001 mg/L) were found in 99% of the analyzed samples. Approximately 15% of the collected samples presented Cr in concentrations above the established legislation limit for drinking water (Ordinance 2914/2011), that should be considered as improper for consumption.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water/analysis , Spectrography , Chromium
9.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 38: [9], 01/01/2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100225

ABSTRACT

The mineral exploration in the Amazon, has determined impacts for the environment and for the populations exposed to different agents of the production process. The extraction and the beneficiation developed in the state of Amapa left environmental damages and issues that influence the population´s health, such as contamination by metals. Researches have shown that some forms of metals are toxic; causing neurological and genetic complications. The present work considers the toxicological evaluation a fundamental prerequisite in the identification of potential damages to the health. Accordingly, the study´s objective is the investigating of the toxic effects through laboratory analysis in a population group of the Elesbao district in Santana-AP municipality exposed to residues of minerals and metals. In this way, the amount of metals in Elesbao´s water region was evaluated by spectrophotometer, hematological and biochemical tests were accomplished for laboratory evaluation. The paired t-test was applied for statistical evaluation with a significance of 5% (p <0.05). It was concluded that iron and manganese are present in high concentrations in the region water. Hematological and biochemical exams presented statistically relevant alterations. Significant differences in the morphology of the cells were detected by microscopic analysis. This study demonstrates the importance of the investigation of sources of metal exposure and preventing the elimination and minimization of the risks of adverse effects to excessive exposure to multiple metals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Population , Water/analysis , Biological Monitoring/methods , Mining , Brazil , Environmental Pollution
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2155-2165, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886808

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Obesity/drug therapy , Phenols/analysis , Water/analysis , Trypsin/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Psidium/chemistry , alpha-Amylases/pharmacology , alpha-Glucosidases/pharmacology , Lipase/pharmacology
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2317-2325, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The parasites are indicative of several biological aspects of their hosts, including their diet, migration, recruitment and phylogeny, but they can also be direct indicators of the environmental quality. Hoplosternum littorale is a fish that has a high commercial value in some South American countries. The fishes were collected from January to July 2012, in two locations of the Peixe River in the municipality of Anhembi, State of São Paulo, Brazil, which had different environmental and limnological characteristics (river mouth and Lagoa Cabeça de Boi). An amount of 30 fish specimens were captured in each location for the analysis of their parasitic fauna. Nine species of metazoan parasites were collected. Both Brillouin`s diversity index and Margalef`s richness index were greater in the Lagoa Cabeça de Boi. The ratio of heteroxenous and monoxenous parasite species richness (SH/SM) was higher in the Lagoa Cabeça de Boi. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the water showed that the mouth of the Peixe River can be considered an area that suffers more from anthropogenic actions than the Lagoa da Cabeça de Boi. Proteocephalus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Scleroductus sp. and Capillaria (Neocapillaria) pterophylli are being registered for the first time in this host.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites/isolation & purification , Catfishes/parasitology , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Parasites/classification , Brazil , Water/analysis , Environmental Biomarkers , Rivers , Host-Parasite Interactions
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2141-2154, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886785

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sambucus/chemistry , Adoxaceae/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Water/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
13.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 50(4): 669-677, dic. 2016. graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837641

ABSTRACT

El marcado deterioro de los cuerpos de agua superficiales hace prioritaria su evaluación para su adecuada gestión, incluyendo acciones de control y mitigación del nivel de contaminación y el riesgo sanitario asociado. Si bien cada curso de agua posee características y problemáticas naturales y ambientales específicas, los arroyos situados sobre el conurbano bonaerense comparten algunas características comunes que se presentan en este estudio. A tal efecto, se plantea determinar y evaluar los factores antrópicos que afectan directa o indirectamente la calidad del agua del arroyo Las Piedras en el partido de Quilmes, mediante la caracterización físico-química y microbiológica de sus aguas, además de la aplicación de índices de calidad (ICA) y de contaminación (ICOMO). Mediante el uso de estas herramientas se manifestó un potencial y grave problema de degradación del arroyo y su entorno, debido principalmente a la carencia de servicios de saneamiento, al vertido de aguas residuales sin tratamiento previo o inadecuado que generan especialmente contaminación fecal de sus aguas, y a basurales y quemazones en sus márgenes, creando así sitios puntuales de contaminación y diseminación de plagas, potenciales focos infecciosos.


The strong deterioration of surface water makes its assessment priority for proper management, including actions to control and mitigate the level of contamination and associated health risks. While each watercourse has natural characteristics and specific environmental issues, streams located on the Buenos Aires metropolitan area share some common characteristics presented in this study. To this end it is proposed to determine and evaluate the human factors that directly or indirectly affect the water quality of the river Las Piedras in Quilmes, by physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water in addition to the application of quality indices (ICA) and pollution (ICOMO). By using these tools a potential and serious problem degradation of the stream and its surroundings appeared, mainly due to lack of sanitation, the discharge of wastewater without prior or inadequate treatment especially generating fecal contamination of the water, and garbage dumps and burnings at its margins, creating specific sites of contamination and spread of pests, potential infectious foci.


A acentuada deterioração dos corpos de água superficiais torna prioritária sua avaliação para uma gestão adequada, incluindo ações para controlar e mitigar o nível de contaminação e o risco sanitário associado. Embora cada curso de água tenha características e problemáticas naturais e ambientais específicas, arroios localizados na área metropolitana da província de Buenos Aires compartilham algumas características comuns apresentadas neste trabalho. Para tal, propõe-se determinar e avaliar os fatores antrópicos que afetam direta ou indiretamente a qualidade da água do arroio Las Piedras, em Quilmes, através da caracterização físico-química e microbiológica das suas águas, além da aplicação de índices de qualidade (ICA) e de contaminação (ICOMO). Com a utilização destas ferramentas, um potencial e grave problema de degradação do arroio e de seu ambiente surgiu, principalmente causado pela falta de serviços de saneamento, pela descarga de águas residuais sem tratamento prévio ou inadequado, gerando especialmente contaminação fecal de suas águas, e pelos depósitos de lixo e queimadas em suas margens, criando assim lugares específicos de contaminação e disseminação de pragas, potenciais focos infecciosos.


Subject(s)
Argentina , Waste Water/toxicity , Water Pollution , Water/analysis , Evaluation Study , Sewage , Wastewater Disposal/adverse effects , Water Pollution/statistics & numerical data
14.
Motriz rev. educ. fís. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 174-182, July-Sept. 2016. tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789106

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To analyze the effects of water intake on heart rate variability (HRV) during and after exercise. Methods: Thirty-one young males performed three different procedures: I) a maximal exercise test to determine the load for the protocols; II) the control protocol (CP); III) the experimental protocol (EP). The protocols comprised 10 minutes at rest, 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (60% of VO2 peak), and 60 minutes of recovery. No rehydration beverage consumption was allowed during the CP. During the EP, the participants were given water every 15 minutes, being that the amount of water to be ingested by each volunteer was divided over the time of exercise and recovery. For the analysis of HRV data, time and frequency domain indices were investigated in the following moments (M): M1 (5 minutes final of rest), M2 (25-30 minutes of exercise), M3 (55-60 minutes of exercise), M4 (85-90 minutes of exercise), M5 (5-10 minutes of recovery), M6 (15-20 minutes of recovery), M7 (25-30 minutes of recovery), M8 (40-45 minutes of recovery), and M9 (55-60 minutes of recovery). Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups that were examined during the exercise. HRV values for the CP and EP at the end of the exercise period were as follows SDNN (5.95±1.89 vs 6.89±2.11); RMSSD (3.29±0.78 vs 3.39±0.95); HF [nu] (24.06±14.26 vs 19.10±11.94); LF [nu] (75.93±14.26 vs 80.89±11.94); HF [ms2] (0.90±1.16 vs 0.94±0.89); LF [ms2] (4.65±5.94 vs 5.35±5.09); and LF/HF ratio (4.64±3.15 vs 6.95±5.57). HRV values for the CP and the EP at the end of the recovery period were as follows: SDNN (39.63±19.63 vs 49.95±17.79); RMSSD (21.63±15.55 vs 36.43±22.73); HF [ms2] (285.51±392.27 vs 699.29±699.66); LF [nu] (74.55±13.25 vs 61.19±19.27); and HF [nu] (25.44±13.25 vs 38.8±19.27). Conclusion: The hydration with water was not enough to significantly influence the linear HRV indices during exercise; however, it promoted faster recovery of these variables after exercise


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Autonomic Nervous System , Water/analysis , Exercise/physiology , Rehydration Solutions , Heart Rate/physiology
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(3): 159-164, Sept. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-838441

ABSTRACT

Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is considered the main public health problem of poor less-developed and developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1.5-2.0 billion persons are anemic. It has been said that close to 1 million deaths are linked to iron deficiency anemia. The groups most vulnerable to this form of anemia are said to be small children and women of reproductive age. Our goal is to show that iron fortification in the water, will control anemia. The method used was a literature review. Methods have been identified to control anemia, but the fortification of water is a more efficient, low cost, reaches the entire population, prevents and treats deficiency anemia. We concluded that the iron fortification of drinking water at home is a simple, effective, and low-priced approach for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia prevalent in poor and developing countries(AU)


A anemia por deficiência nutricional de ferro é considerada o principal problema de saúde pública dos países menos-desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. A Organização Mundial de Saúde estimou que 1,5-2,0 milhões de pessoas são anêmicas. Aproximadamente 1 milhão de mortes estão ligadas a anemia por deficiência de ferro. Os grupos mais vulneráveis a anemia são crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Nosso objetivo é mostrar que fortificação de ferro na água, irá controlar anemia. O método utilizado foi revisão da literatura. Diversos métodos têm sido identificados para controle da anemia, mas a fortificação da água é uma forma mais eficiente e de baixo custo, atingindo toda a população, previnindo e tratando a anemia por deficiência. Concluímos que a fortificação de ferro na água potável em casa é uma abordagem simples, eficaz e de baixo custo para a prevenção da anemia ferropriva prevalente nos países pobres e em desenvolvimento(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Iron Deficiency/complications , Water/analysis , Anemia/etiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Risk Groups , Child , Sexual Development , Developing Countries
16.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-9, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cryptogamic vegetation dominates the ice-free areas along the Antarctic Peninsula. The two mosses Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum inhabit soils with contrasting water availability. Sanionia uncinata grows in soil with continuous water supply, while P. alpinum grows in sandy, non-flooded soils. Desiccation and rehydration experiments were carried out to test for differences in the rate of water loss and uptake, with non-structural carbohydrates analysed to test their role in these processes. RESULTS: Individual plants of S. uncinata lost water 60 % faster than P. alpinum; however, clumps of S. uncinata took longer to dry than those of P. alpinum (11 vs. 5 h, respectively). In contrast, rehydration took less than 10 min for both mosses. Total non-structural carbohydrate content was higher in P. alpinum than in S. uncinata, but sugar levels changed more in P. alpinum during desiccation and rehydration (60-50 %) when compared to S. uncinata. We report the presence of galactinol (a precursor of the raffinose family) for the first time in P. alpinum. Galactinol was present at higher amounts than all other non-structural sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Individual plants of S. uncinata were not able to retain water for long periods but by growing and forming carpets, this species can retain water the longest. In contrast individual P. alpinum plants required more time to lose water than S. uncinata, but as moss cushions they suffered desiccation faster than the later. On the other hand, both species rehydrated very quickly. We found that when both mosses lost 50 % of their water, carbohydrates content remained stable and the plants did not accumulate non-structural carbohydrates during the desiccation prosses as usually occurs in vascular plants. The raffinose family oligosaccarides decreased during desiccation, and increased during rehydration, suggesting they function as osmoprotectors.


Subject(s)
Bryopsida/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/physiology , Carbohydrates/analysis , Water/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Antarctic Regions , Dehydration , Disaccharides/analysis , Germ Cells, Plant , Time Factors , Water/analysis
17.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 13(1): 97-103, abr. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-869026

ABSTRACT

La situación de mediterraneidad en el semi-trópico del Paraguay lo hace especialmente susceptible a la problemática ligada con el agua. Es por esto, que comprender y entender las limitaciones que el país tiene al respecto debe ser uno de los primeros pasos que determinen el modelo de desarrollo que se quiere como nación. Del mismo modo, contar con un análisis regionalizado de las principales fuentes de impacto así como de los efectos de las mismas, debería facilitar la toma de decisiones correctivas.


The situation of landlocking of the semi-tropics of Paraguay makes it especiallysusceptible to problems linked to water. Therefore, understanding and comprehending thelimitations of the country related to water access should be one of the first steps todetermine the development model required as a nation. In the same way, having aregionalized analysis of the major impact sources and their effects should facilitatemaking corrective decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water/analysis , Wetlands , Groundwater , Fresh Water , Groundwater
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 1-8, 31/03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741604

ABSTRACT

Background: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recurrent in Patos Lagoon, in southern Brazil. Among cyanotoxins, [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR is the predominant variant whose natural cycle involves water and sediment compartments. This study aimed to identify and isolate from sediment a bacterial strain capable of growing on [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR. Sediment and water samples were collected at two distinct aquatic spots: close to the Oceanographic Museum (P1), in Rio Grande City, and on São Lourenço Beach (P2), in São Lourenço do Sul City, southern Brazil. Methods: [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR was isolated and purified from batch cultures of Microcystis aeruginosastrain RST9501. Samples of water and sediment from Rio Grande and São Lourenço do Sul were collected. Bacteria from the samples were allowed to grow in flasks containing solely [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR. This strain named DMSX was isolated on agar MSM with 8 g L−1 glucose and further purified on a cyanotoxin basis growth. Microcystin concentration was obtained by using the ELISA immunoassay for microcystins whereas bacterial count was performed by epifluorescence microscopy. The genus Pseudomonas was identified by DNA techniques. Results; Although several bacterial strains were isolated from the samples, only one, DMXS, was capable of growing on [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from DMXS strain classified the organism as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DMXS strain incubated with [D-Leu1] microcystin-LR lowered the amount of toxin from 1 μg.L−1 to < 0.05 μg.L−1. Besides, an increase in the bacterial count–from 71 × 105 bacteria.mL−1 to 117 × 105 bacteria.mL−1–was observed along the incubation. Conclusions: The use of bacteria isolated from sediment for technological applications to remove toxic compounds is viable. Studies have shown that sediment plays an important role as ...


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cyanobacteria , Estuaries , Microcystins/toxicity , Sediments/analysis , Brazil
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 13(49): 189-196, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-754746

ABSTRACT

Homeopathic potencies 12cH and above cross the Avogadro number, and as such do not containany original drug molecules in their aqueous ethanol medium. It is thought H-bonded waterstructures preserved by ethanol carry the information of initial drug molecules. Potentized drugs show some differences with respect to their infrared (IR) absorption spectra. In a water-ethanol solution, free water molecules vary according to the concentration of ethanol. In the present study the concentration of ethanol has been kept constant at 0.03 molar fractions in 6 differenthomeopathic potencies. Aim: to see whether different homeopathic potencies having fixed ethanolcontent show variation in FTIR spectra and also free water molecules. Two potencies like 8cH and32cH of three homeopathic drugs Natrum mur, Cantharis and Nux vomica were used in thestudy, and their ethanol concentration was kept fixed at 0.03 molar fraction. The control wasconsidered to be aqueous ethanol at the same concentration. Spectrum of reference water wasalso taken. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra were obtained in the wavenumber region of 4000 – 2800 cm-1. The half-width at half-maximum was measured for eachspectrum. The intensity of each spectrum was normalized at 3410 cm-1 close to the peak. The difference spectrum (absorbance of drug solution – absorbance of reference water) for each drugand the control was obtained. FTIR spectra showed variation in absorbance intensity on both thehigh and low frequency side of the O-H stretching band in different drugs as well as the control. The C-H stretching band of 2977 cm-1 also showed variation in intensity in different drugs...


Subject(s)
High Potencies , Cantharis vesicatoria/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Natrium Muriaticum/analysis , Strychnos nux-vomica/analysis , Water/analysis , Molecular Structure
20.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 47(4): 681-692, dic. 2013. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708410

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el riesgo sanitario no carcinogenético a partir de ciertas sustancias (inorgánicas, fenólicas, metales pesados y pesticidas) presentes en aguas superficiales y subterráneas de la ciudad de Tres Arroyos. El análisis se realizó utilizando el modelo básico de análisis de riesgo sanitario probabilístico de USEPA considerando tres estratos de edades infantiles (5, 10 y 15 años). Se integraron escenarios de tipo residencial con recreativo, sobre la base de la exposición por la ingesta y por el contacto dérmico con el agua. En los tres estratos de edad, los resultados indican que los valores del riesgo integrado (riesgo residencial + riesgo recreativo) fueron significativos y decrecientes con relación a la edad, siendo el arsénico el principal contribuyente a través de la vía de ingesta consuntiva del escenario residencial.


The objective of this work was to analyze the non-carcinogenic health risk from certain substances (inorganic, phenolic, heavy metals and pesticides) in surface waters and groundwater in the town of Tres Arroyos. The analysis was performed using the basic model of health risk analysis considering probabilistic USEPA for children of three age groups (5, 10 and 15). Residential and recreational type scenarios were integrated, based on exposure through ingestion and dermal contact with water. In all three age strata, the results indicate that the values of the integrated risk (residential risk + recreational risk) were significant and decreasing with respect to age, being arsenic the largest contributor through the residential ingestion pathway.


O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar o risco sanitário não-carcinogênico a partir de determinadas substâncias (inorgânicas, fenólicas, metais pesados e pesticidas) presentes em águas superficiais e subterrâneas da cidade de Tres Arroyos. A análise foi feita utilizando o modelo básico de análise de risco sanitário probabilístico de USEPA, considerando crianças de três faixas etárias infantis (5, 10 e 15 anos). Foram integrados cenários do tipo residencial e recreativo, com base na exposição pela ingestão e pelo contato dérmico com a água. Nas três faixas etárias, os resultados indicam que os valores do risco integrado, (risco residencial + risco recreativo) foram significativos e decrescentes com relação à idade, sendo o arsênico o contribuinte principal através da via da ingestão consuntiva do cenário residencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Health Risk , Water Microbiology , Water/analysis , Argentina , Quality Management , Water , Water Intoxication , Water Quality Standards , Water/chemistry
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