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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(1): 206-224, jan.-marc. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419254

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti é o principal vetor dos agentes etiológicos de dengue, zika e chikungunya, doenças para as quais não existem vacinas totalmente eficazes. Alternativas de controle visando mitigar essas arboviroses são primordiais. Entre essas, o controle mecânico aborda práticas de eliminação e/ou limpeza de criadouros do vetor. Neste relato, apresentamos e avaliamos criticamente ações realizadas pelo grupo, ocorridas entre 2016 e 2019, nas quais divulgamos informação científica clara através do diálogo com a população. Os métodos utilizados foram: 1) palestras em escolas (público infantojuvenil) utilizando slides, fotos e vídeos; 2) oficinas (público misto), estande com material in vivo do ciclo de vida do Aedes, jogos e desenhos. Analisamos dez palestras em escolas do ensino fundamental e médio e vinte oficinas realizadas em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Concluímos que tais ações e suas análises críticas devem ser realizadas continuamente para que sejam bem-sucedidas


Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, zika, and chikungunya etiological agents, diseases for which no effective vaccines are available. Control alternatives aimed at mitigating these arboviruses are essential. Among such, mechanical control addresses practices of elimination and/or cleaning of vector breeding sites. Here, we presented and critically evaluated actions carried out by ourselves. These actions took place between 2016 and 2019, where we disseminated clear scientific information through dialogue with the population. The following methods were employed: 1) lectures in schools (children and youth audiences) using slides, photos, and videos; 2) workshops (mixed audience), stand with in vivo material from the Aedeslife cycle, games, and drawings. Ten lectures in elementary and high schools and twenty workshops held in different regions of Brazil were analyzed. It was concluded that such actions and their critical analyzes must be carried out continuously to be successful


Aedes aegypti es el principal vector de los agentes etiológicos del dengue, zika y chikungunya, enfermedades para las que no existen vacunas totalmente eficaces. Las alternativas de control para mitigar estas arbovirosis son fundamentales. El control mecánico, representa una de estas alternativas, aborda prácticas de eliminación y/o limpieza de criaderos del vector. En este informe presentamos y evaluamos de manera crítica las acciones realizadas por el grupo entre los años 2016 y 2019. Presentamos información científica clara a través del diálogo con la población mediante los siguientes métodos: 1) conferencias en escuelas (público infantil) utilizando diapositivas, fotos y videos; 2) Talleres (público mixto), stand con material in vivo del ciclo de vida del Aedes, juegos y dibujos. Analizamos diez conferencias en escuelas (primarias y secundarias) y veinte talleres realizados en diferentes regiones de Brasil. Concluimos que tales acciones y el análisis crítico de las mismas deben llevarse a cabo de manera continua para que resulten exitosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Mosquito Control , Health Education/methods , Aedes/growth & development , Educational and Promotional Materials , Teaching Materials , Brazil , Health Fairs , Dengue/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods
2.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 32(3): e320312, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406226

ABSTRACT

Resumo O controle ambiental do vetor no interior e ao redor dos domicílios, enquanto estratégia fundamental para a prevenção de arboviroses como dengue, zika e chikungunya, demanda um envolvimento ininterrupto da população. A pandemia de Covid-19 e, consequentemente, o isolamento social necessário ao seu controle, têm reduzido a vigilância profissional nos domicílios, tornando a atuação da população ainda mais necessária. Estudos que buscam compreender o envolvimento das comunidades na execução das ações preventivas têm sido quase exclusivamente locais. O artigo relata uma pesquisa-intervenção baseada em oficinas sobre práticas preventivas realizadas antes do isolamento social, em 16 municípios das 5 regiões brasileiras, as quais envolveram um total de 379 participantes. Os resultados apresentam as ações preventivas preconizadas por campanhas que são as mais comumente compreendidas e executadas pela população; as situações que dificultam a execução; as práticas preventivas de iniciativa própria dos cidadãos; e as práticas baseadas em saberes populares. Ficou evidente que as informações fornecidas às comunidades não podem estar restritas às campanhas de massa, e que se faz necessário investir em ações educativas mais efetivas e adequadas à variedade de contextos nacionais, com vistas a construções coletivas e intersetoriais de estratégias de enfrentamento às arboviroses.


Abstract The environmental control of the vector inside and around households, as a fundamental strategy for the prevention of arboviruses such as dengue, zika and chikungunya, demands an uninterrupted involvement of the population. The pandemic context of Covid-19, and consequently the social isolation has reduced professional surveillance in the households, making the performance of the population even more necessary. Studies that seek to understand the involvement of communities in the implementation of preventive actions have been almost exclusively local. This article reports an intervention research based on workshops on preventive practices carried out before social isolation, in 16 municipalities in the five Brazilian regions and involved 379 participants. Our results show the preventive actions recommended by campaigns that are the most commonly understood and performed by the population; situations that hinder execution; preventive practices of citizens' own initiative; and practices based on popular knowledge. It became evident that information to communities cannot be restricted to mass campaigns, and that it is necessary to invest in educational actions adequate to the variety of national contexts, seeking collective and intersectoral constructions of strategies to confront arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perception , Community Participation , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Brazil
3.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 708-716, dic. 2021. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397829

ABSTRACT

Las arboviroris, son enfermedades transmitidas por artrópodos (insectos vectores), presentan una clínica habitual de fiebre, síntomas articulares, hemorrágicos y neurológicos. Los de mayor importancia en salud pública son el zika, dengue y chikungunya, y se transmiten a las personas principalmente por la picadura de un mosquito de la especie Aedes. Para resolver la falta de información en la población joven para el control y prevención de estas enfermedades vectoriales se plantea utilizar nuevas estrategias pedagógicas y tecnologías lúdicas, como los videojuegos, para una innovación educativa que promueva el aprendizaje. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva de cohorte transversal, en escolares de 5 y 6 grado, en tres colegios primarios, de la capital de la República del Perú. La muestra estuvo integrada por un total de 288 escolares y fue dividida en cuatro (4) grupos de 6 niños cada uno para la aplicación de la innovación educativa, asignados como: (ETE), (CIE 1), (CIE 2) y (CIE 3). La evaluación del conocimiento, hábitos y aceptación de los métodos se ejecutó pre y post-intervención, midiéndose mediante encuestas. Por consiguiente luego de los resultados en promedio post-intervención se concluyó que la captación de conocimientos y generación de hábitos fueron mayores para los grupos que utilizaron los videojuegos como innovación educativa lúdica, siendo el videojuego interactivo "Pica el Aedes", el que obtuvo el mayor porcentaje de aprendizaje. Sin embargo el videojuego interactivo "Pueblo Pitanga, enemigos silenciosos" fue el que obtuvo la mayor aceptación por parte de los escolares(AU)


The arboviroris, are diseases transmitted by arthropods (vector insects), they present a habitual clinic of fever, joint, hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms. The most important ones in public health are Zika, dengue and chikungunya, and they are transmitted to people mainly through the bite of an Aedes species mosquito. To resolve the lack of information in the young population for the control and prevention of these vector diseases, it is proposed to use new pedagogical strategies and recreational technologies, such as video games, for an educational innovation that promotes learning. A descriptive cross-sectional cohort investigation was conducted in 5th and 6th grade schoolchildren in three primary schools in the capital of the Republic of Peru. The sample consisted of a total of 288 schoolchildren and was divided into four (4) groups of 6 children each for the application of educational innovation, assigned as: (ETE), (CIE 1), (CIE 2) and (CIE 3). The evaluation of the knowledge, habits and acceptance of the methods was carried out before and after the intervention, being measured by means of surveys. Consequently, after the average post-intervention results, it was concluded that the uptake of knowledge and generation of habits were higher for the groups that used video games as a recreational educational innovation, being the interactive video game "Pica el Aedes", the one that obtained the higher percentage of learning. However, the interactive video game "Pueblo Pitanga, enemigos silenciosos" was the one that obtained the greatest acceptance from schoolchildren(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Video Games , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Learning , Peru , Schools , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Strategies , Knowledge
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(2): 409-416, fev. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153774

ABSTRACT

Resumo Com a finalidade de compreender a estratégia de comunicação adotada pelo Ministério da Saúde para a prevenção de doenças causadas pelo aedes e analisar a percepção da comunidade quanto aos vídeos sobre dengue, chikungunya e Zika veiculados entre 2014 e 2017, apresenta-se análise qualitativa realizada a partir de uma entrevista em profundidade com informante-chave do Núcleo de Comunicação do Ministério da Saúde e de rodas de conversa com a comunidade de quatro regiões brasileiras. A estratégia adotada pelo Ministério apoia-se na Teoria Hipodérmica por questões financeiras e logísticas, mas campanhas analisadas não alcançaram a maioria dos participantes das rodas. Estes julgam que as informações mais importantes em campanhas de prevenção são os cuidados e não as possíveis sequelas, diferente do que foi argumentado pelo(a) informante-chave. A comunidade considera a regionalização e a abordagem de características socioambientais, culturais e econômicas importantes, mas o MS não considera a regionalização de campanhas efetiva. Conclui-se que os vídeos não suprem as necessidades da população e devem ser utilizados de forma integrada a outras ações de informação, educação e comunicação em saúde para a eficácia do controle das doenças.


Abstract In order to understand the communication strategy adopted by the Ministry of Health to prevent diseases caused by Aedes and to analyze the perception of the community regarding the videos on dengue, chikungunya and Zika aired between 2014 and 2017, a qualitative analysis was performed based on an in-depth interview with a key informant from the Ministry of Health Communication Center and conversation circles with the community in four Brazilian regions. The strategy adopted by the Ministry relies on the Hypodermic Needle Theory due to financial and logistical issues, but the analyzed campaigns did not reach the majority of participants in the circles. The latter consider that the most important information in prevention campaigns is related to care and not possible sequelae, different from what was affirmed by the key informant. The community considers the regionalization and the approach of socio-environmental, cultural and economic characteristics to be important, but the Ministry of Health does not consider the regionalization of campaigns to be effective. It is concluded that the videos do not meet the needs of the population and should be used in an integrated manner with other types of information, education and communication actions in health for effective disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes , Dengue/prevention & control , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Perception , Brazil , Public Health
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 233-240, jan. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153758

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou analisar o conhecimento e a atitude das gestantes de alto risco sobre a zika. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, quantitativo, com amostra de 201 gestantes de alto risco, que realizam pré-natal no Ambulatório Médico de Especialidades. Aplicou-se um instrumento auto administrado, aplicados após a consulta com o médico. Os critérios de inclusão utilizados foram a presença das gestantes no dia da entrevista e seu consentimento de participação. Os de exclusão as que não aceitaram participar e não estarem realizando o pré natal no período do estudo. Para análise de dados, utilizou-se qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, nos softwares Epi info 7.1 e Bioestat 5.0. Das gestantes, 76% acreditavam que, em seu bairro, é provável a infecção pelo vírus e utilizam medidas para controlar a proliferação do mosquito, como não deixar água parada (n = 154). Em relação ao conhecimento, houve associação entre a zika e a microcefalia (p ≤ 0,0001) e o apontamento da necessidade de mais informações (p = 0,0439). Para impedir o contágio, 76% não tomaram nenhuma atitude; houve, ainda, associação entre a necessidade de conhecimento sobre o assunto e as ações realizadas no combate ao vírus (p = 0,0049). Conclui-se que o conhecimento e a atitude das gestantes sobre a zika é falho.


Abstract Objective was to analyze the knowledge and attitude of high risk pregnant women about zika. This is a cross-sectional study, quantitative, with a sample of 201 high risk women who perform prenatal the Ambulatory Medical Specialties. A self-administered instrument, was applied after consultation with the doctor. Inclusion criteria were the presence of pregnant women on the day of the interview and their consent to participate. Exclusion criteria were those who did not agree to participate and were not performing prenatal care during the study period. For the data analysis we used chi square and fisher exact, in software Epi info 7.1 and Bioestat 5.0. Of the pregnant women, 76% believed that their neighborhood was likely to be infected by the virus and used measures to control mosquito proliferation, such as not leaving standing water (n = 154). In relation to knowledge, there was an association between Zika and microcephaly (p≤ 0.0001) and the need for more information (p = 0.0439). To prevent infection, 76% took no action, there was an association between the need for knowledge about the subject and the actions taken to combat the virus (p = 0.0049). We conclude that pregnant women's knowledge and attitude about zika is failed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnancy, High-Risk
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 404-415, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888734

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen associated with neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in fetuses and newborns. This mosquito-borne flavivirus causes important social and sanitary problems owing to its rapid dissemination. However, the development of antivirals against ZIKV is lagging. Although various strategies have been used to study anti-ZIKV agents, approved drugs or vaccines for the treatment (or prevention) of ZIKV infections are currently unavailable. Repurposing clinically approved drugs could be an effective approach to quickly respond to an emergency outbreak of ZIKV infections. The well-established safety profiles and optimal dosage of these clinically approved drugs could provide an economical, safe, and efficacious approach to address ZIKV infections. This review focuses on the recent research and development of agents against ZIKV infection by repurposing clinical drugs. Their characteristics, targets, and potential use in anti-ZIKV therapy are presented. This review provides an update and some successful strategies in the search for anti-ZIKV agents are given.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Drug Repositioning , Microcephaly , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101629, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The recognition of the causal association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities including microcephaly underlines the importance of preventing this disease in pregnant women (PW) and women of childbearing age (WCA). Although Brazil and other Latin American countries reported a significant reduction in the number of ZIKV infections in recent years, epidemic waves can recur in settings with previous outbreaks as conditions for transmission remain optimal and susceptible populations are continuously replenished. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 64 PW and 260 non-pregnant WCA attending routine medical appointments in two primary care units in São Paulo, Brazil, and assessed knowledge and attitudes about ZIKV infection and prevention. Results: Most women reported knowing that ZIKV is transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, and most knew that acute symptoms are similar to those seen in Dengue infection. Furthermore, most participants correctly described that ZIKV infection during pregnancy may cause detrimental outcomes for the newborn. However, most ignored that ZIKV infection can be asymptomatic, and only 15% knew about the risk of ZIKV sexual transmission. We found no statistically significant differences between PW and WCA regarding knowledge about ZIKV sexual transmission. Knowledge about ZIKV sexual transmission was significantly associated with education; among participants with ≤12 schooling years, only 9.0% (95%CI 3.4-18.5%) correctly answered that ZIKV can be sexually transmitted, compared to 12.9% (95%CI 8.2-18.8%) among participants with 12-14 schooling years, and to 24.4% (95%CI 15.9-34.9%) of participants with ≥15 schooling years (p = 0.015). Education remained independently associated with knowledge about sexual transmission of ZIKV in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, race and pregnancy status (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Our findings underscore the urgent need of educational and family planning programs that may help prevent detrimental outcomes of ZIKV infection in an endemic area of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aedes/virology
8.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020609, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154169

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo aborda as transmissões vetorial, sexual e vertical do vírus Zika, tema contemplado no Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2020. Embora no Brasil o vírus Zika seja predominantemente veiculado pelo Aedes aegypti, as vias vertical e sexual de transmissão apresentam expressiva importância para a saúde reprodutiva. A transmissão sexual demanda o uso de intervenções profiláticas específicas, incluindo o uso do preservativo masculino ou feminino, principalmente entre casais que planejam gravidez. A transmissão vertical é ligada a graves anormalidades estruturais do sistema nervoso central e ainda não há vacina e nem recursos farmacológicos conhecidos que possam preveni-la. Como a doença é predominantemente assintomática, o não cumprimento dos princípios básicos de cuidados e orientações relacionadas à dispersão da infecção transcende a gravidade dos sintomas da doença.


Abstract This article addresses vector, sexual and vertical transmission of Zika virus, a topic covered in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Although in Brazil Zika virus is transmitted most predominantly by Aedes aegypti, the vertical and sexual transmission routes are of significant importance for reproductive health. Sexual transmission demands the use of specific prophylactic interventions, including the use of male or female condoms, especially among couples planning pregnancy. Vertical transmission is linked to severe structural abnormalities of the central nervous system and there is still no vaccine or known pharmacological resources that can prevent it. As the disease is predominantly asymptomatic, failure to comply with basic principles of care and guidelines related to the spread of infection transcends the severity of the symptoms of the disease.


Resumen Este artículo aborda la transmisión vectorial, sexual y vertical del virus Zika, tema tratado en el Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para la Atención Integral a Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en 2020. Aunque en Brasil el virus Zika sea principalmente transmitido por Aedes aegypti, las vías vertical y sexual de transmisión son de gran importancia para la salud reproductiva. La transmisión sexual exige el uso de intervenciones profilácticas específicas, incluido el uso de preservativos masculinos o femeninos, especialmente entre las parejas que planean un embarazo. La transmisión vertical está ligada a graves anomalías estructurales del sistema nervioso central y todavía no existe una vacuna o recursos farmacológicos conocidos que puedan prevenirla. Como la enfermedad es predominantemente asintomática, el incumplimiento de los principios básicos de atención y las pautas relacionadas con la propagación de la infección trasciende la gravedad de los síntomas de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Brazil , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00145819, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153686

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender significados, percepção de risco e estratégias de prevenção da infecção pelo Zika vírus desenvolvidas por gestantes com diferentes condições socioeconômicas, atendidas em serviços de saúde público e privado da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, bem como a contribuição de seus parceiros para lidar com o risco de infecção após o surgimento desse vírus no país. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, a partir do desenvolvimento de 18 entrevistas semiestruturadas, sendo nove com gestantes atendidas pelo setor público de saúde e nove com gestantes atendidas pelo setor privado de saúde. Os dados produzidos demonstraram insuficiências no conhecimento das gestantes sobre aspectos importantes da infecção pelo Zika vírus. A situação socioambiental na qual as gestantes estão submetidas foi um fator importante para a percepção de risco e estratégias de prevenção. Gestantes entrevistadas no setor público de saúde demonstraram se sentir mais vulneráveis ao risco de infecção no ambiente em que vivem do que gestantes entrevistadas no setor privado de saúde, com grande impacto sobre o seu bem-estar psicossocial. Segundo as gestantes, os parceiros exerceram intensa cobrança para que elas adotassem ações preventivas sem, no entanto, realizarem os mesmos cuidados, desconsiderando o risco de transmissão do vírus por via sexual. Conclui-se que, após aproximadamente três anos da epidemia no país, o Zika vírus ainda possui um grande impacto sobre a vida das gestantes e é imprescindível fortalecer as ações de comunicação em saúde para assegurar a disponibilização de informações que respondam adequadamente às necessidades da população sobre a doença.


This study aimed to understand the meanings, risk perceptions, and strategies to prevent infection with the Zika virus developed by pregnant women with different socioeconomic conditions seen at public and private health services in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, as well the contribution by their male partners in dealing with the risk of infection since the emergence of this virus in Brazil. A qualitative study was performed with 18 semi-structured interviews, nine each with pregnant women seen in the public and private health systems, respectively. The resulting data revealed insufficient knowledge in pregnant women concerning important aspects of Zika virus infection. The pregnant women's socioenvironmental situation was an important factor for risk perception and preventive strategies. Women interviewed in the public health system felt more vulnerable to the risk of infection than women interviewed in the private health system, with a major impact on their psychosocial well-being. According to the women, their partners placed huge demands on them to adopt preventive measures, but the male partners themselves failed to take the same precautions, e.g., ignoring the risk of sexual transmission of the Zika virus. In conclusion, three years since the outbreak reached Brazil, the Zika virus still has a major impact on the lives of pregnant women. It is crucial to strengthen health communications activities to guarantee the availability of information on the disease that responds adequately to the population's needs.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender los significados, percepción de riesgo y estrategias de prevención frente a la infección por el virus Zika, desarrolladas por gestantes con diferentes condiciones socioeconómicas, atendidas en servicios de salud públicos y privados de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, así como la contribución de sus parejas para lidiar con el riesgo de infección tras el surgimiento de este virus en Brasil. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, a partir del desarrollo de 18 entrevistas semiestructuradas, siendo nueve con gestantes atendidas en el sector público de salud y nueve con gestantes atendidas en el sector privado de salud. Los datos producidos demostraron insuficiencias en el conocimiento de las gestantes sobre aspectos importantes de la infección por el virus Zika. La situación socioambiental en la que las gestantes están sometidas fue un factor importante para la percepción de riesgo y estrategias de prevención. Gestantes entrevistadas en el sector público de salud demostraron sentirse más vulnerables frente al riesgo de infección en el ambiente donde viven, que las gestantes entrevistadas en el sector privado de salud, con un gran impacto sobre su bienestar psicosocial. Según las gestantes, las parejas ejercieron una intensa presión para que adoptaran acciones preventivas sin que, sin embargo, tuvieran los mismos cuidados, desconsiderando el riesgo de transmisión del virus por vía sexual. Se concluye que, tras aproximadamente tres años de la epidemia en el país, el virus Zika todavía posee un gran impacto sobre la vida de las gestantes y es imprescindible fortalecer las acciones de comunicación en salud para asegurar la puesta a disposición de información que responda adecuadamente a las necesidades de la población sobre la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Perception , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pregnant Women
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(2): 665-672, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055817

ABSTRACT

Resumo A dengue ocorre no Timor-Leste desde 2005, porém não existe um programa de monitoramento e controle do "Aedes aegypti". O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar a armadilha ovitrampa iscada com atraente natural como uma possível ferramenta para monitorar o vetor das arboviroses: Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) e Zika (ZIKV). O estudo foi realizado na cidade de Dili, capital do Timor-Leste, entre as semanas epidemiológicas 32 (02/08) a 48 (02/12) de 2016. Foram instaladas 70 armadilhas Ovitrampa, em residências de 15 sucos (ruas), de quatro Postos Administrativos (bairros) da cidade. Para as analises dos dados utilizou-se os indicadores entomológicos: Índice de Positividade de Ovitrampa (IPO), Índice de Densidade Vetorial (IDV) e Índice de Densidade de Ovos (IDO). Durante o experimento foram coletados 158.904 ovos de Aedes spp.. O IPO demonstrou que todas as áreas tiveram 98% a 100% de armadilhas contendo ovos de Aedes spp.. Os indicadores IDO e IPO apresentaram correlações positivas e significativa com a temperatura. A defasagem de duas e três semanas para precipitação indicou correlação positiva significativa para IDV e IDO. Portanto, a armadilha ovitrampa é uma ferramenta que pode integrar as ações de um programa de monitoramento e controle de Aedes spp. no Timor-Leste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Oviposition , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Timor-Leste , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 142-148, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103091

ABSTRACT

The research of new substances capable of controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito is urgent due to the increase in the transmission of the diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus by the vector. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots, a native plant from Brazil, and of the isolated compound piperovatine against larvae of A. aegypti by the larval immersion test. The lethal concentration that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated high larvicidal activity on A. aegypti larvae for crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots with LC50 of 4.86 µg/mL and LC99 of 15.50 µg/mL and piperovatine with LC50 of 17.78 µg/mL and LC99 of 48.55 µg/mL. This work opens new perspectives to the development of future products with crude extract of Piper corcovadensis roots and piperovatine that can be applied to mosquito control.


La investigación de nuevas sustancias capaces de controlar el mosquito Aedes aegypti es urgente debido al aumento en la transmisión de enfermedades como el dengue, el chikungunya y el virus Zika por el vector. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad larvicida del extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis, una planta nativa de Brasil, y del compuesto aislado piperovatine contra larvas de A. aegypti mediante la prueba de inmersión larvaria. La concentración letal que mató al 50% (LC50) y al 99% (LC99) de larvas se determinó mediante análisis Probit. Los resultados indicaron una alta actividad larvicida en larvas de A. aegypti para extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis con LC50 de 4.86 µg/mL y LC99 de 15.50 µg/mL y piperovatine con LC50 de 17.78 µg/mL y LC99 de 48.55 µg/mL. Este trabajo abre nuevas perspectivas para el desarrollo de futuros productos con extracto crudo de las raíces de Piper corcovadensis y piperovatine que pueden aplicarse al control de mosquitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Piper/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sorbic Acid/isolation & purification , Sorbic Acid/pharmacology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Brazil , Plant Roots , Dengue/prevention & control , Larvicides , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Larva/drug effects , Methylene Chloride
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e22, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101760

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo. Verificar a existência de associação de indicadores de gestão de resíduos sólidos e socioeconômicos municipais com índices de incidência de dengue, Zika e Chikungunya nos municípios do estado brasileiro de Minas Gerais. Métodos. Este estudo de caráter exploratório, quantitativo e transversal abrangeu os 853 municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. Todos os dados utilizados foram secundários, coletados e agrupados por regionais de planejamento. Como variáveis independentes, foram consideradas a cobertura de coleta de resíduos sólidos urbanos, cobertura de coleta seletiva e massa de resíduos sólidos urbanos, além de um indicador da qualidade da destinação final de resídulos, índices de desenvolvimento humano municipal e de Gini, renda mensal per capita e porcentagem de vulneráveis à pobreza. Os fatores potencialmente associados aos desfechos - incidências municipais de dengue, Chikungunya e Zika - foram selecionados inicialmente através de análises univariadas. Posteriormente, os modelos de regressão linear para as incidências de dengue, Chikungunya ou Zika foram gerados considerando os preditores selecionados pela análise univariada. Resultados. Não foi observada associação entre gestão de resíduos sólidos e incidência de Chikungunya e Zika. Por sua vez, a incidência de dengue associou-se à gestão de resíduos sólidos e apresentou relação inversa significativa com o percentual de vulneráveis à pobreza. Houve também associação direta o índice de Gini, sugerindo que quanto maiores os registros de incidência de dengue de 2007 a 2016, maiores os valores de Gini dos municípios - ou seja, maior a desigualdade social. A cobertura da coleta seletiva apresentou relação inversa e significativa com os casos de dengue, sugerindo que quanto menor a cobertura da coleta de seletiva, maiores foram os casos registrados de dengue. Conclusões. A gestão de resíduos sólidos pode influenciar os casos de dengue e, por isso, deve ser considerada nas ações de saúde pública.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective. To investigate whether solid waste management and municipal socioeconomic indicators are associated with incidence rates of dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya in municipalities located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods. This exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study included all the 853 municipalities of Minas Gerais. Only secondary data were used, collected and grouped according to planning regions. Independent variables included regular urban solid waste collection, separated waste collection, and urban solid waste mass, in addition to a quality indicator of final waste disposal, municipal human development and Gini indices, monthly per capita income, and percentage of population vulnerable to poverty. The factors potentially associated with outcomes - municipal incidence of dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika - were initially selected by univariate analysis, followed by linear regression analysis for the incidence of dengue, Chikungunya, or Zika using the predictors selected through univariate analysis. Results. Solid waste management was not associated with incidence of Zika or Chikungunya. In turn, the incidence of dengue was associated with solid waste management and had a significant inverse association with percent population vulnerable to poverty. A direct association was also observed with Gini index, suggesting that the higher the incidence of dengue from 2007 to 2016, the higher the municipal Gini coefficient and thus social inequality. Selective waste collection was inversely and significantly correlated with dengue cases, suggesting that the lower the coverage by regular separated waste collection, the higher the number of dengue cases. Conclusions. Solid waste management may influence the occurrence of dengue cases, and therefore should be considered in the planning of public health actions.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo. Investigar si el manejo de los residuos sólidos y los indicadores socioeconómicos municipales están asociados con las tasas de incidencia de dengue, zika y chikunguña en los municipios del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos. Estudio exploratorio, cuantitativo y transversal que incluyó los 853 municipios de Minas Gerais. Sólo se utilizaron datos secundarios, recopilados y agrupados según las regiones de planificación. Las variables independientes incluyeron la recolección urbana regular de residuos sólidos, la recolección separada de residuos y la masa de residuos sólidos urbanos, además de un indicador de calidad de la eliminación final de desechos, el desarrollo humano municipal y los índices de Gini, el ingreso mensual per cápita y el porcentaje de población vulnerable a la pobreza. Los factores potencialmente asociados con los resultados -incidencia municipal de dengue, zika y chikunguña- se seleccionaron inicialmente mediante un análisis univariado, seguido de un análisis de regresión lineal para la incidencia del dengue, zika o chikunguña utilizando los predictores seleccionados mediante el análisis univariado. Resultados. El manejo de residuos sólidos no se asoció con la incidencia de zika o chikungunya. A su vez, la incidencia del dengue se asoció con un manejo sólido y tuvo una asociación inversa significativa con el porcentaje de población vulnerable a la pobreza. También se observó una asociación directa con el índice de Gini, lo que sugiere que cuanto mayor sea la incidencia del dengue entre 2007 y 2016, mayor será el coeficiente de Gini municipal y, por lo tanto, la desigualdad social. La recolección selectiva de residuos se correlacionó de manera significativa e inversa con los casos de dengue, lo que sugiere que cuanto menor sea la cobertura de la recolección regular selectiva de residuos, mayor será el número de casos de dengue. Conclusiones. La gestión de los residuos sólidos puede influir en la aparición de casos de dengue y, por lo tanto, debe considerarse en la planificación de las medidas de salud pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Waste Management/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(3): e1299, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1058438

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La organización Compasión Internacional ejecutó un proyecto en la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia; para prevenir la infección por el virus del Zika, en el que se implementaron medidas para su prevención y control. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto social del proyecto de Mitigación de la infección por virus del Zika, que ejecutó Compasión Internacional en las comunidades beneficiarias. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con enfoque cuantitativo, se seleccionó al azar una muestra de 237 familias a las que se aplicó dos instrumentos: una lista de verificación y una encuesta. Resultados: La mayoría de la población beneficiaria del proyecto estaba comprendida entre las edades de 40-49 años y el 57 por ciento solo había llegado hasta el bachillerato. En sentido general las familias conocen qué es el virus del Zika y las principales medidas que tienen que adoptar para su prevención y control, aunque no tienen conocimiento sobre el tratamiento una vez infectados. Conclusiones: El proyecto ejecutado por Compasión internacional tuvo un impacto positivo en la población beneficiaria y las medidas ejecutadas fueron efectivas para que las familias tengan una participación activa en la prevención y control de las enfermedades asociadas al virus del Zika(AU)


Introduction: The organization called Compasión Internacional implemented a project in the city of Cartagena, Colombia to prevent Zika virus infection in which activities were performed for its prevention and control. Objective: To assess the project Mitigation of Zika virus infection implemented by Compasión Internacional in the project's beneficiary communities. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out, with a quantitative approach, in which a sample of 237 families was selected randomly. Two instruments were applied: a checklist and a survey. Results: The majority of the beneficiary population in the project was in the ages from 40 to 49 years old and only 57 percent of them had just reached high school level. In general terms, families know what Zika virus is and the main measure they need to take for its prevention and control, although they don't have any knowledge on the treatment they need to follow once infected. Conclusions: The project implemented by Compasión Internacional had a positive impact in the beneficiary population and the measures conducted were effective for the families to have an active participation in the prevention and control of Zika virus related diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Health Promotion , Epidemiology, Descriptive
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(8): 2983-2992, ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011893

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Aedes aegypti é um importante agente transmissor de afecções na atualidade, sendo o responsável por enfermidades como Zika, Chikungunya e os quatro sorotipos do Dengue. Por ocasião da relevância desse mosquito para o corpo social atual, investigações em Ecossaúde se tornam prementes, já que essa abordagem visa articular diferentes campos teóricos para entender as conexões históricas entre a natureza, a sociedade e a saúde. Partindo de uma premissa etnográfica, este estudo considerou as condições de desigualdade e injustiça que tornam vulneráveis a saúde de mulheres em torno do dengue, analisando práticas e percepções destas acerca dos potencias criadouros existentes no espaço público. Para compor o estudo, utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada e a observação participante, com uso de diário de campo. A pesquisa contou com a participação de dez mulheres moradoras de um bairro periférico da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, tendo ocorrido no período de janeiro a agosto de 2014. Da Análise de Conteúdo emergiu a categoria "Iniquidade social, contexto e práticas no espaço público". A partir das narrativas, constatou-se que condições precárias de vida e evidente iniquidade social poderão influenciar em um contexto permeado por lixo, com grande potencial para a proliferação do mosquito causador da dengue.


Abstract Aedes aegypti is currently a critical disease agent and is responsible for viruses such as Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue's four serotypes. This mosquito's relevance to the current social body has come to the fore and triggered urgent EcoHealth investigations since this approach aims to articulate different theoretical fields to understand the historical linkages between nature, society and health. Based on an ethnographic premise, this study considered the unequal and unfair conditions that make women's health vulnerable to dengue, analyzing their practices and perceptions about the potential breeding grounds in the public space. A semi-structured interview and participant observation, as well as a field diary, were used to compose the study. The research included the participation of ten women living in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from January to August 2014. The category "Social inequality, context and practices in the public space" emerged from the content analysis. The narratives revealed that unstable living conditions and evident social inequality might influence in a context permeated by waste, with great potential for dengue's mosquito proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Interviews as Topic , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Middle Aged
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(5): 259-269, jun 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1024538

ABSTRACT

El virus Zika, es un arbovirus del género flavivirus (familia Flaviviridae), muy cercano filogenéticamente a virus como el dengue, fiebre amarilla, la encefalitis japonesa, o el virus del Nilo Occidental. El presente estudio es de tipo exploratorio con base en el registro de casos de recién nacidos y lactantes hijos de mujeres embarazadas con infección de virus Zika en la Unidad de Medicina Familiar Nº 60 de Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, dentro del período de diciembre del 2016 a julio del 2017. Se realizó un estudio polietápico que constó de revisión de casos por medio de uso de expediente clínico en la Consulta Externa en la Unidad Médico Familiar Nº 60 del IMSS de Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz. como primera aproximación epidemiológica en esta región en recién nacidos y lactantes hijos de madres con infección por virus Zika, que posteriormente fueron sometidos a estudios de valoración oftalmológica, neurológica y somatométrica; con ayuda del servicio de Salud Pública de dicha unidad (AU)


Zika virus is an arbovirus of the genusflavivirus (family Flaviviridae), very close phylogenetically to viruses such as denque, yellow fever, japanese encephalitis, or West Nile virus. The present study is exploratory based on the registry of cases of newborns and infants born to pregnant women with zika virus infection in the Family Medicine Unit Nº 60 of Coatzacalcos, Veracruz, within the period of December 2016 to July 2017. A multistage study was carried out that consisted of the review of cases through the use of a clinical file in the Outpatient Consultation in the Family Medical Unit Nº 60 of the IMSS. of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz. As a first epidemiological approach in this region in newborns and infants born to mothers with Zika virus infection, who were subsequently subjected to ophtalmological, neurological and somatometric assessment studies; with the help of the Public Health service of said unit (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Gestational Age , Validation Studies as Topic , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180341, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041576

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Areas at risk of transmission of arboviruses have been monitored using ovitraps. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses and assess the influence of climatic conditions on the infestation of these culicids. METHODS: Ovitraps were installed in Agrestina, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Overall, 44,936 eggs were collected, and the indexes of infestation varied. Relative humidity was significantly associated with the infestations. CONCLUSIONS: Using ovitraps, entomologic indexes and analysis of climatic factors might be good strategies for monitoring vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oviposition , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Flavivirus , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Rain , Seasons , Temperature , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Humidity
17.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020899

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adherence of pregnant women to personal protective measures against mosquito bites, recommended by the Ministry of Health, and to investigate the factors associated with the non-adoption of these measures. METHODS We interviewed 177 pregnant women between November 2016 and February 2017 in the 10 basic health units of the municipality of Propriá, state of Sergipe, two located in the rural area and eight in the urban area, during prenatal appointments, to raise information about the use of preventive measures against the vector transmission of Zika virus. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and the odds ratio was calculated. The independent variables were grouped by the analysis of principal components, and the dependents (the use of repellent, mosquito nets, garments, screens and insecticides) were analyzed using the logistic regression method. RESULTS Among the measures recommended by the Ministry of Health, mosquito nets were the most used by pregnant women living in rural areas and with low education level, while the repellents were more used by women in the urban area and with higher education level. Women in a vulnerable socio-economic situation presented a risk 2.4 times higher for not using screens in their homes, 1.9 times higher for not changing clothes and 2.5 times higher for not using repellent than pregnant women in better economic conditions. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic status of pregnant women, especially among the less privileged, influenced the use of protective measures against Zika virus, from the purchase of repellent, clothing, insecticides to other resources in the municipality of Propriá, SE.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a adesão de gestantes às medidas de proteção individual contra picadas de mosquitos, recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde e investigar os fatores associados à não adoção dessas medidas. MÉTODOS Foram entrevistadas 177 gestantes entre novembro de 2016 e fevereiro de 2017 nas 10 unidades básicas de saúde da cidade de Propriá, SE, duas localizadas na zona rural e oito na zona urbana, durante as consultas de pré-natal, para levantar informações sobre o uso de medidas preventivas contra a transmissão vetorial do zika vírus. Os dados foram analisados utilizando métodos de estatística descritiva, teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher, e foi calculado o odds ratio . As variáveis independentes foram agrupadas por meio da análise de componentes principais, e as dependentes (uso de repelentes, mosquiteiros, vestimentas, telas e inseticidas) foram analisadas pelo método de regressão logística. RESULTADOS Entre as medidas recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde, o uso de mosquiteiros foi a mais utilizada por gestantes residentes na zona rural e de baixa escolaridade, enquanto os repelentes foram mais utilizados por mulheres da zona urbana e com maior tempo de estudo. Mulheres com situação socioeconômica vulnerável apresentaram risco 2,4 vezes maior de não utilizar telas em suas residências, 1,9 vezes maior de não mudar o modo de se vestir e 2,5 vezes maior de não usar repelentes do que gestantes em melhores condições econômicas. CONCLUSÕES A condição socioeconômica das gestantes, especialmente entre as mulheres menos favorecidas, influenciou o uso das medidas de proteção contra o zika vírus, desde a compra de repelentes, vestimentas, inseticidas até outros recursos na cidade de Propriá, SE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Mosquito Control/methods , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women , Mosquito Nets/statistics & numerical data , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Insect Repellents/administration & dosage , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190098, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dengue virus (DENV) has circulated in Brazil for over 30 years. During this time, one serotype has cyclically replaced the other, until recently, when all four distinct serotypes began to circulate together. Persistent circulation of DENV for long time periods makes sequential infections throughout a person's life possible. After primary DENV infection, life-long immunity is developed for the infecting serotype. Since DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV) are antigenically similar, the possibility of cross-reactions has attracted attention and has been demonstrated in vitro. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate whether immune-sera from DENV and ZIKV infected patients would cross-react in vitro with other Flaviviridae family members. METHODS Cross-reaction of the studied samples with yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), Rocio virus (ROCV), Saint Louis virus (SLEV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) has been investigated by plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by flow-cytometry. FINDINGS Antibodies against ZIKV and DENV virus cross-reacted with other flaviviruses either neutralising or enhancing the infection. Thus, viral entrance into FcRFcɣRII-expressing cells were influenced by the cross-reactive antibodies. ZIKV or DENV immune sera enhanced cellular infection by WNV, ILHV, ROCV and SLEV. Finally, DENV immune sera presented higher neutralising activity for YFV and SLEV. While ZIKV immune sera neutralised WNV, ILHV and ROCV with high frequencies of positivity. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The co-circulation of those viruses in the same area represents a risk for the development of severe infections if they spread throughout the country. Successive flavivirus infections may have an impact on disease pathogenesis, as well as on the development of safe vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Flavivirus , Zika Virus , Culicidae
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001661

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue describir experiencias, barreras y facilitadores en la implementación de intervenciones de control del Aedes aegypti en América Latina y Caribe. Fue realizado un abordaje cualitativo con entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a expertos en implementación de programas (19 participantes de nueve países). Se utilizó un software para la codificar los datos y se confeccionaron matrices para su comparación. En base a los hallazgos desarrollamos una representación gráfica de dimensiones teóricas que agrupan las barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de intervenciones. A nivel global, el ambiente natural y construido contribuye a la reproducción del mosquito. En el sistema de salud, la falta de priorización del problema y la escasez de recursos materiales y humanos representan los obstáculos más importantes. Se necesita que otros sectores diferentes al de salud se responsabilicen de las acciones para mejorar los determinantes sociales de la salud. Existen barreras transversales relacionadas con la gobernanza, como la descoordinación entre los niveles centrales y locales, falta de continuidad de las intervenciones y de los grupos técnicos. La comunidad enfrenta problemas como la falta de información, pobreza o resistencias a recomendaciones. La opinión pública puede tener un impacto positivo o negativo, influyendo indirectamente en las decisiones políticas. Este estudio propone un marco de dimensiones de análisis construido desde los hallazgos; describe factores influyentes en la implementación de políticas que pueden orientar las acciones futuras desde un enfoque integrado.


This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.


O objetivo foi descrever experiências, barreiras e facilitadores na implementação de intervenções de controle do Aedes aegypti na América Latina e no Caribe. Uma abordagem qualitativa foi realizada com entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com especialistas na implementação do programa (19 participantes de nove países). Foi usado um software para codificar os dados e foram feitas matrizes para comparação. Com base nos resultados, desenvolvemos uma representação gráfica das dimensões teóricas que agruparam as barreiras e facilitadores para a implementação das intervenções. Em nível global, o ambiente natural e construído contribui para a reprodução do mosquito. No sistema de saúde, a falta de priorização do problema e a escassez de recursos materiais e humanos representam os obstáculos mais importantes. É necessário que outros setores, além do setor saúde, assumam ações de melhoria dos determinantes sociais da saúde. Existem barreiras transversais relacionadas à governança, como a falta de coordenação entre os níveis central e local e a falta de continuidade das intervenções e dos grupos técnicos. A comunidade enfrenta problemas como falta de informação, pobreza ou resistência a recomendações. A opinião pública pode ter um impacto positivo ou negativo, influenciando indiretamente as decisões políticas. Este estudo propõe um quadro de dimensões de análise construído a partir dos resultados; descreve fatores influentes na implementação de políticas que podem orientar ações futuras a partir de uma abordagem integrada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Public Opinion , Health Personnel , Caribbean Region , Community Participation , Qualitative Research , Latin America
20.
Guatemala; MSPAS, Departamento de Epidemiología; oct. 2018. 40 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025227

ABSTRACT

Estos protocolos están dirigido a personal médico, paramédico y otros profesionales que realizan acciones gerenciales y operativas de vigilancia epidemiológica en los servicios de salud del país, y están divididos en varios tomos para dar a conocer y actualizar la identificación y medidas de control para diversos padecimientos a fin de continuar con el mejoramiento de las capacidades técnicas de los trabajadores de salud, que permita planificar la prestación de servicios con decisiones partiendo de un enfoque epidemiológico comprobado, para responder a los cambios de tendencias epidemiológicas y con ello contribuir al fortalecimiento de prácticas asertivas de la salud pública de nuestro país. Las enfermedades causadas por arbovirus suelen presentarse en forma epidémica y son similares entre sí en su expresión clínica; constituyen un síndrome que puede ser febril leve y exantémico hasta formas incapacitantes, graves o muerte. Los arbovirus tienen una distribución mundial, la mayoría hacen prevalencia en zonas tropicales y subtropicales. La incidencia de la enfermedad depende de las condiciones climáticas. Son enfermedades endémicas de las zonas selváticas de lluvia tropical y las epidemias ocurren por lo general en zonas templadas después de las lluvias, particularmente proporcionales al aumento de la población de los mosquitos que los transmiten.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Health Surveillance/organization & administration , Health Surveillance System , Guatemala
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